International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology

E-ISSN 0976-3945

Research Article

STUDY ON PERFORMANCE OF FLEXIBLE HIGHWAY
PAVEMENTS
Rokade S a*, Agarwal P K b and Shrivastava R c
Address for Correspondence
a

Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Maulana Azad National Institute of
Technology (MANIT), Bhopal MP INDIA
b
Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Maulana Azad National Institute of
Technology (MANIT), Bhopal MP INDIA
c
Director, National Institute of Technology Jamshedpur
Email: r_sid@rediffmail.com, pka9@yahoo.com, rajnishshrivastava@yahoo.com
ABSTRACT
The evaluation of riding quality of pavement involves a study of the functional behaviour of a stretch of
road pavement in its entirety. For a functional behaviour or performance analysis, information is needed on
the history of riding quality of the pavement stretch. In condition survey, pavement surface condition is
measured at a given time. The riding quality of a pavement can be measured by a Bump Integrator which
qualifies in to physical terms, the overall surface condition of the pavement. It is necessary for the
pavement maintenance engineer to evaluate functional condition of a pavement surface from time to time.
Unevenness is normally measured with response type measuring equipment, which is relatively fast and
inexpensive. The towed fifth wheel Bump Integrator is one such instrument. The unevenness measured by
these devices is generally expressed in terms of cumulative humps and depressions (mm/km) or slope
variance. In the structural evaluation of flexible pavement the pavement deflection is measured by the
Benkelman Beam. It is possible to measure the rebound and residual deflections of the pavement structure.
While the rebound deflection is one related to pavement performance, the residual deflection may be due to
non recoverable deflection of the pavement or because of the influence of the deflection bowl on the front
legs of the beam. Rebound deflection is used for overlay design.
The objective of the present study is to carry out the various studies to evaluate the performance (in service
behavior) of flexible National Highways and State Highway near Bhopal. A detailed pavement condition
survey is done on 4 National Highways and 1 State Highway and the road condition is evaluated both
functionally and structurally.

KEYWORDS: Functional evaluation, Structural evaluation, pavement performance, road
roughness
INTRODUCTION
Rapid industrialisation and urban growth has
led to increased traffic and excessive usage
of the roads. Due to heavy traffic wheel
loads of commercial vehicles, all the
components of the pavement structure get
disturbed and deteriorate. The deterioration
accumulates with the passage of time and

type if it does not give a smooth riding
surface, which in turn increases vehicle
operating costs and consequently overall
transportation costs. The existing road

network is under severe strain due to
traffic growth, overloading of vehicles
and the Government’s past negligence to

results in failure of pavement structure. The

provide the needed funds for road

failure is of structural type if the pavement

maintenance. A broad assessment shows

fails to carry design loads. It is of functional

that over 50 percent of state highway

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International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology

(SH) and major district road (MDR)
network has poor riding quality. Losses

• Pavement

E-ISSN 0976-3945

Deflection

(Structural

Adequacy)

due to poor condition of these roads

The objective of the present study is to carry

would be around Rs. 6000 crore per

out the various studies to evaluate the

annum besides their premature failure
resulting in huge rehabilitation and
reconstruction costs implying infusion of
avoidable plan funds at accelerated
intervals.

performance (in service behavior) of flexible
National Highway and State Highway near
Bhopal.

A detailed pavement condition

survey is done on 4 National Highways and
1 State Highway and the road condition was
evaluated both functionally and structurally.

Originally, a pavement’s relative ability to

The scope of the present study includes the

serve

evaluation of the following aspects:

traffic

subjectively

was

by

determined

visual

inspection

quite
and

Traffic

Volume

Survey

and

experience. However, experience is difficult

Analysis to assess the present traffic

to transfer from one person to another, and

on the road.

individual decisions made from similar data

are often inconsistent. In the late 1950s,
systems of objective measurement (such as

the basis of Visual Rating.

roughness meters, deflection and skid test
equipment) began to appear that could
quantify

a

pavement’s

condition

of a road can cover many aspects including
evaluation

of

road

surface

condition,

assessment of traffic safety on road surface,
rideability of the road surface and structural
adequacy of road pavement structure. Thus,
the following characteristics of road surface
are

generally

used

to

evaluate

the

performance of roads.
• Condition of the road surface (Surface
distresses)

Roughness

Measurements

with

Bump Integrator.

and

performance. The performance evaluation

Road Surface Condition Survey on

Structural

Evaluation

of

the

Pavement with Benkelman Beam.

Existing Pavement Crust and Sub
grade Characteristics.

MATERIALS AND METHODS
Pavement Evaluation
One of the most important functions of a
pavement engineer is the evaluation of inservice pavements. It is necessary for them
to know the condition of pavement surface
with reference to the riding quality and to fix
suitable

failure

criteria

to

establish

maintenance and priority programs. The

• Skid resistance (Traffic Safety)

evaluation of riding quality of pavement

• Rideability of the road surface.

involves a study of the functional behaviour

IJAET/Vol.I/ Issue III/Oct.-Dec.,2010/312-338

International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology

E-ISSN 0976-3945

of a stretch of road pavement in its entire

Roughness

reach.

For a functional behaviour or

characteristic because it affects not only ride

performance analysis, information is needed

quality but also vehicle delay costs, fuel

on the history of riding quality of the

consumption and maintenance costs. The

pavement stretch.

Until a measure of

World Bank found road roughness to be a

pavement serviceability was developed after

primary factor in the analyses and trade-offs

the AASHO road test, little attention was

involving

paid

pavement

(UMTRI, 1998). Roughness is also referred

performance and the pavement was either

to as "smoothness" although both terms refer

considered satisfactory or unsatisfactory.

to the same pavement qualities.

The idea of relative performance was not

Need for Evaluation of Riding Quality

adequately developed.

There are two

One of the most important functions of a

general types of pavement condition indices:

pavement engineer is the evaluation of in-

one type of index (type 1) represents raw

service pavements. It is necessary for them

data for only one pavement condition

to know the condition of pavement surface

parameter

with reference to the riding quality and to fix

to

the

evaluation

(e.g.

of

distress,

roughness,

is

road

an

important

quality

vs.

pavement

user

cost

deflection, skid resistance, etc.). The other

suitable

type of index represents a combination of

maintenance and priority programs.

more

evaluation of riding quality of pavement

than

parameter.

one

pavement

The

method

condition

criteria

to

establish
The

of

involves a study of the functional behaviour

combining all or some of the rating so as to

of a stretch of road pavement in its entirety.

constitute a global (or serviceability) index

For a functional behaviour or performance

representing the pavement condition.

analysis, information is needed on the

The AASHO Road Test, 1958-61, and

history of riding quality of the pavement

researchers associated with it, made an

stretch.

enormous contribution to the technology

serviceability was developed after the

base

AASHO road test, little attention was paid to

of

pavement

consists

failure

management

using

pavement evaluation.
Flexible

Pavement

Until a measure of pavement

the evaluation of pavement performance and
Riding

Quality

the

pavement

was

either

considered

Concepts

satisfactory or unsatisfactory. The idea of

Pavement roughness is generally defined as

relative performance was not adequately

an expression of irregularities in the

developed. In condition survey, pavement

pavement surface that adversely affect the

surface condition is measured at a given

ride quality of a vehicle (and thus the user).

time. The assessment of riding quality is

IJAET/Vol.I/ Issue III/Oct.-Dec.,2010/312-338

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E-ISSN 0976-3945

considered to be the most important

Unevenness/

component of pavement surface condition.

Pavements

This type of survey is not concerned with

The riding quality of a pavement can be

evaluating

of

measured by a Bump Integrator which

pavement and generally no attempt is made

qualifies in to physical terms, the overall

to determine the reason for the evenness or

surface condition of the pavement. It is thus

any other type of pavement condition. The

a very useful tool in the hands of a

major objectives of undulations/unevenness

maintenance engineer.It is necessary for the

measurements of road pavements are as

pavement maintenance engineer to evaluate

follows:

functional condition of a pavement surface

i)

To determine whether the pavement

from time to time.

surface is acceptable even from the point

requirements of a pavement surface from

of view of riding quality for motor

user’s point of view are to provide safe,

vehicles

comfortable and fast movement of the

the

structural

strength

Roughness

of

Flexible

The functional

ii) To measure the unevenness of various

vehicles at reasonably low vehicle operation

stretches of the road system periodically

cost. Unevenness is normally measured with

and to maintain the record to decide

response type measuring equipment, which

priority for improvement of road surface

is relatively fast and inexpensive.

conditions or riding quality from the

towed fifth wheel Bump Integrator is one

point of view of the road users.

such instrument. The unevenness measured

The

iii) To decide the type of pavement surface

by these devices is generally expressed in

treatment to improve the riding quality

terms of cumulative humps and depressions

to the desired level.

(mm/km) or slope variance.

The work

The responsibility of the highway Engineer

carried out as a part of the Road User Cost

is to provide road profile as free as possible

Study has revealed that, for every 100

from necessary undulations. However, as

mm/km increase in roughness, the speeds

Millard and Lister have pointed out, unless a

reduces by 1.5 to 2.5 km/hr.

cash value is put on riding comfort this leads

Predicting

to an open ended financial commitment.

progression over the life cycle of a road

Clearly the cost involved specifically in

pavement is undoubtedly the most critical of

obtaining a satisfactory surface profile must

the

be limited to a few percent of the cost of

predictions.

laying the pavement.

cost components for a road on a given

the

various

trends

pavement

of

unevenness

performance

Since, the vehicle operation

alignment depends to a large degree on

IJAET/Vol.I/ Issue III/Oct.-Dec.,2010/312-338

International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology

E-ISSN 0976-3945

unevenness, which has been proved in the

a routine maintenance management step

Kenya study on the cost of operation of

before the maximum permissible terminal

vehicles,

values of undulations are reached.

the

optimum

timing

of

maintenance interventions and economic

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

benefits accruing from them depend greatly

Description of the study area

on the prediction of unevenness progression.

In this Pavement Performance Study (PPS) 4

The study of pavement unevenness is

National Highways and 1 State Highway

important from the following aspects.

was chosen near Bhopal, the details about
each road section is as follows:

To judge the quality of construction

To assess the need for renewal of

Bombay Road

pavement surfacing

(1) National Highway (NH-3) Agra-

To create a healthy competition in road
construction industry to provide better

The salient features of the Road Section are:
1. Length of the Section of the Road: 5.0
Km

riding comfort

To create good public relations as the
road users will judge the quality of
construction mainly from the riding

To work out the economic losses in
terms of increased road user costs due
to poor road surface condition

3. No. of lanes: 2 lanes
4. Divided/Undivided: Undivided
5. Type of Shoulder: Hard Shoulder

qualities of a pavement

2. Type of Pavement: Bituminous

and to

6. Drainage System: Longitudinal Drain on
either side, Transverse drain
7. Surrounding Environment: Rural
8. Type of traffic: Mixed traffic (Mainly

convince the legislators about economic
justification

of

maintenance

and

Commercial Vehicles)
9. Present Traffic Intensity: 7,220 CVPD

rehabilitation measures and better types

(Seven Days 24 hour Traffic Volume

of highway surfacing

Count)

In view of the above discussions it is very

10. Average Speed: 100 Km/ hr.

essential to measure qualitatively the surface

11. Annual Rainfall: 110 cm

unevenness in the following two cases:

12. Details of Existing Crust

i) Soon after the construction of each of the

Granular Sub Base = 350 mm

new pavement layers, as one of the

WBM Base = 425 mm

essential quality control checks before

Dense Bituminous Macadam=120 mm

approving the work.

Bituminous Concrete = 40 mm

ii) At suitable intervals to evaluate the
surface condition of existing pavement as

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International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology
(2) National Highway (NH-12) Jaipur-

6. Drainage

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System:

Longitudinal

Jabalpur Road

Drain on either side, No Proper

The salient features of the Road Section are:

transverse drains

1. Length of the Section of the Road: 5.0

7. Surrounding Environment: Rural
8. Type of traffic:

Km

(Mainly Commercial Vehicles)

2. Type of Pavement: Bituminous
3. No. of lanes: 2 lanes

9. Present Traffic Intensity: 7,115
CVPD (Seven Days 24 hour Traffic

4. Divided/Undivided: Undivided

Volume Count)

5. Type of Shoulder: Hard Shoulder
6. Drainage System: Longitudinal Drain on
either side
7. Surrounding Environment: Rural

Mixed traffic

10. Average Speed: 100 Km/ hr.
11. Average Annual Rainfall: 110 cm
12. Details of Existing Crust

8. Type of traffic: Mixed traffic (Mainly
Commercial Vehicles)
9. Present Traffic Intensity: 6955 CVPD

Granular Sub Base = 250 mm

WBM Base = 425 mm

Dense Bituminous Macadam
=100 mm

(Seven Days 24 hour Traffic Volume

Count)

Bituminous Concrete = 40 mm

10. Average Speed: 100 Km/ hr.

(4) National Highway (NH-69) Bhopal

11. Average Annual Rainfall: 110 cm

(Obdullaganj) - Nagpur Road

12. Details of Existing Crust

The salient features of the Road Section

Granular Sub Base = 250 mm

are:

WBM Base = 400 mm

1. Length of the Section of the Road:

Dense Bituminous Macadam=110

5.0 Km

mm

2. Type of Pavement: Bituminous

Bituminous Concrete = 40 mm

3. No. of lanes: 2 lanes

(3) National Highway (NH-86) Bhopal-

4. Divided/Undivided: Undivided

Sagar Road

5. Type of Shoulder: Hard Shoulder

The salient features of the Road Section
are:

6. Drainage

System:

Longitudinal

Drain on either side

1. Length of the Section of the Road:
5.0 Km
2. Type of Pavement: Bituminous
3. No. of lanes: 4 lanes

7. Surrounding Environment: Rural
8. Type of traffic:

Mixed traffic

(Mainly Commercial Vehicles)
9. Present Traffic Intensity: 6,800

4. Divided/Undivided: Undivided

CVPD (Seven Days 24 hour Traffic

5. Type of Shoulder: Hard Shoulder

Volume Count)

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International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology

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10. Average Speed: 100 Km/ hr.

PAVEMENT PERFORMANCE DATA

11. Average Annual Rainfall: 110 cm

Structural Evaluation of Pavement by

12. Details of Existing Crust

Benkelman Beam

Granular Sub Base = 300 mm

Basic Principles of Deflection Method:

WBM Base = 425 mm

Dense Bituminous Macadam

closely related to the elastic deflection

=100 mm

of pavement under the wheel loads. The

Bituminous Concrete = 40 mm

deformation or elastic deflection under a

Performance of flexible pavements is

(5) State Highway (SH-23) Bhopal- Sironj

given load depends upon subgrade soil

Road

type,

its

moisture

content

and

The salient features of the Road Section

compaction, the thickness and quality of

are:

pavement courses, drainage conditions,

1. Length of the Section of the Road:

pavement surface temperature etc.

5.0 Km

Pavement deflection is measured by the

2. Type of Pavement: Bituminous

Benkelman Beam which consists of a

3. No. of lanes: 2 lanes

slender beam 3.66m long pivoted at a

4. Divided/Undivided: Undivided

distance of 2.44m from the tip. By

5. Type of Shoulder: Hard Shoulder

suitably placing the probe between the

6. Drainage

dual wheels of the loaded truck, it is

System:

No

proper

possible to measure the rebound and

Drainage system
7. Surrounding Environment: Rural

residual deflections of the pavement

8. Type of traffic:

structure. While the rebound deflection

Mixed traffic

(Mainly Commercial Vehicles)

is one related to pavement performance,

9. Present Traffic Intensity: 5,852

the residual deflection may be due to

CVPD (Seven Days 24 hour Traffic

non

recoverable

deflection

of

the

Volume Count)

pavement or because of the influence of

10. Average Speed: 80 Km/ hr.

the deflection bowl on the front legs of

11. Average Annual Rainfall: 110 cm

the beam. Rebound deflection is used

12. Details of Existing Crust

for overlay design.

Granular Sub Base = 230 mm

The Tables 1 to 10 shows the evaluation of

WBM Base = 325 mm

overlay thickness for existing flexible

Bituminous Macadam =75 mm

pavements by Benkelman Beam Deflection

Semi

technique for both the left and the right lanes

Dense

Bituminous

Concrete = 30 mm

for NH-3, NH-12, NH-86, NH-69 and SH23.

IJAET/Vol.I/ Issue III/Oct.-Dec.,2010/312-338

International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology

E-ISSN 0976-3945

Table 1: Structural Evaluation of Pavement by Benkelman Beam on (NH-3) on Left Lane
Evaluation of Overlay thickness for Existing Flexible Pavements by Benkelman Beam Deflection IRC:811997
Name of the road: National Highway (NH-3) Agra- Bombay Road
Average Rainfall:1160 mm
Lane: Left
Moisture Content of soil: 11.25 %
Air Temperature (Start): 28.5 oC
Air Temperature (End): 29 oC
Seasonal/ Moisture Correction Factor: 1.075
Sr. No.

Test
Point
Location

Dial Gauge Deflections

Rebound
Deflection
mm

Pavement
Temperature
o
C

Temperature
Correction
(mm)

Corrected
Deflection
(with Temp.
& MCF) mm

0.160
0.040
0.120
0.240
0.875
0.560
0.587
0.280
0.747
0.460
0.320
0.520
0.360
0.320
0.360
0.120
0.000
0.100
1.046
0.100

28
28
28
28
28
28
28
28
28
28
28
28
28
28
28
28
28
28
28
28

0.070
0.070
0.070
0.070
0.070
0.070
0.070
0.070
0.070
0.070
0.070
0.070
0.070
0.070
0.070
0.070
0.070
0.070
0.070
0.070

0.247
0.118
0.204
0.333
1.015
0.677
0.707
0.376
0.879
0.570
0.418
0.632
0.459
0.415
0.457
0.198
0.068
0.174
1.189
0.172

Chainage

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

250
500
750
1000
1250
1500
1750
2000
2250
2500
2750
3000
3250
3500
3750
4000
4250
4500
4750
5000

Initial

Interm
ediate

Final

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

8
2
6
10
29
28
22
12
30
23
15
24
18
15
18
5
0
4
40
5

8
2
6
12
35
28
25
14
33
23
16
26
18
16
18
6
0
5
45
5

IJAET/Vol.I/ Issue III/Oct.-Dec.,2010/312-338

International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology

E-ISSN 0976-3945

Table 2: Structural Evaluation of Pavement by Benkelman Beam on (NH-3) on Right Lane
Evaluation of Overlay thickness for Existing Flexible Pavements by Benkelman Beam Deflection IRC:811997
Name of the road: National Highway (NH-3) Agra- Bombay Road
Average Rainfall:1160 mm
Lane: Right
Moisture Content of soil: 11.25 %
Air Temperature (Start): 27 oC
Air Temperature (End): 28.5 oC
Seasonal/ Moisture Correction Factor: 1.075
Dial Gauge Deflections
Rebound
Pavement Temperature
Sr. No.
Test
Corrected
Deflection Temperatu
Point
Correction
Deflection
mm
re
Location
(mm)
(with Temp.
o
Chainage
& MCF) mm
C
Initial

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

250
500
750
1000
1250
1500
1750
2000
2250
2500
2750
3000
3250
3500
3750
4000
4250
4500
4750
5000

Interm
ediate

Final

0
4
4
0.080
0
5
9
0.296
0
3
7
0.256
0
17
21
0.536
0
21
22
0.440
0
28
29
0.580
0
23
28
0.706
0
25
25
0.500
0
24
25
0.500
0
24
28
0.676
0
20
25
0.646
0
18
18
0.360
0
19
24
0.626
0
12
12
0.240
0
12
12
0.240
0
10
12
0.240
0
5
8
0.247
0
16
22
0.615
0
14
18
0.476
0
13
15
0.300
Average Deflection (Right + left lane)
Standard Deviation
Characteristic Deflection
Overlay Thickness in mm

IJAET/Vol.I/ Issue III/Oct.-Dec.,2010/312-338

27
27
27
27
27
27
27
27
27
26
26
26
26
26
26
26
26
26
26
25

0.080
0.080
0.080
0.080
0.080
0.080
0.080
0.080
0.080
0.090
0.090
0.090
0.090
0.090
0.090
0.090
0.090
0.090
0.090
0.100

0.172
0.406
0.364
0.666
0.564
0.715
0.852
0.632
0.633
0.824
0.792
0.486
0.772
0.359
0.360
0.361
0.370
0.766
0.619
0.430
0.511
0.260
1.030
134.55

International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology

E-ISSN 0976-3945

Table 3: Structural Evaluation of Pavement by Benkelman Beam on (NH-12) on Left Lane
Evaluation of Overlay thickness for Existing Flexible Pavements by Benkelman Beam Deflection IRC:811997
Name of the road: National Highway (NH-12) Jaipur- Jabalpur Road
Average Rainfall:1110 mm
Lane: Left
Moisture Content of soil: 4.25 %
Air Temperature (Start): 29 oC
Air Temperature (End): 30.5 oC
Seasonal/ Moisture Correction Factor: 1.027
PaveRebound
Dial Gauge Deflections
Sr. No. Test Point
Corrected
Temperature
ment
Deflection
Location
Deflection
Correction
Temp(mm)
Chainage
(with Temp.
(mm)
erature
& MCF) mm
o
C
Initial

Interm
ediate

Final

1

250

0

26

31

0.766

32

0.03

0.869

2

500

0

19

29

0.871

32

0.03

0.979

3

750

0

20

25

0.646

32

0.03

0.750

4

1000

0

23

25

0.500

32

0.03

0.603

5

1250

0

27

30

0.687

32

0.03

0.797

6

1500

0

33

43

1.151

32

0.03

1.276

7

1750

0

40

44

0.996

32

0.03

1.120

8

2000

0

34

42

1.073

32

0.03

1.200

9

2250

0

21

31

0.911

32

0.03

1.036

10

2500

0

12

17

0.486

30

0.05

0.602

11

2750

0

9

18

0.622

30

0.05

0.742

12

3000

0

19

25

0.675

30

0.05

0.796

13

3250

0

10

15

0.446

30

0.05

0.560

14

3500

0

13

17

0.456

30

0.05

0.572

15

3750

0

19

22

0.527

30

0.05

0.644

16

4000

0

23

31

0.853

30

0.05

0.979

17

4250

0

18

20

0.400

30

0.05

0.514

18

4500

0

22

25

0.587

30

0.05

0.706

19

4750

0

16

26

0.811

30

0.05

0.936

20

5000

0

14

15

0.300

30

0.05

0.411

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International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology

E-ISSN 0976-3945

Table 4: Structural Evaluation of Pavement by Benkelman Beam on (NH-12) on Right Lane
Evaluation of Overlay thickness for Existing Flexible Pavements by Benkelman Beam Deflection IRC:811997
Name of the road: National Highway (NH-12) Jaipur- Jabalpur Road
Average Rainfall:1110 mm
Lane: Right
Moisture Content of soil: 4.25 %
Air Temperature (Start): 30 oC
Air Temperature (End): 30.5 oC
Seasonal/ Moisture Correction Factor: 1.027
Sr.
No.

Test Point
Location
Chainage

Dial Gauge Deflections

Rebound
Deflection
(mm)

Temperature
Correction
(mm)

Corrected
Deflection
(with Temp.
& MCF) mm

34
34
34
34
34
34
34
34
34
34.5
34.5
34.5
34.5
34.5
34.5
34.5
34.5
34.5
34.5
34.5

0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.015
0.015
0.015
0.015
0.015
0.015
0.015
0.015
0.015
0.015
0.015

0.849
0.727
0.717
0.842
0.881
0.458
1.491
0.988
0.616
0.670
0.665
0.362
0.452
0.532
0.447
0.797
0.346
1.057
0.561
0.411
0.749
0.263
1.275
167.53

Initial

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

250
500
750
1000
1250
1500
1750
2000
2250
2500
2750
3000
3250
3500
3750
4000
4250
4500
4750
5000

Inter
Final
mediat
e
0
28
32
0.756
0
30
32
0.640
0
12
20
0.633
0
28
32
0.756
0
30
34
0.796
0
12
15
0.387
0
55
61
1.395
0
38
41
0.907
0
20
23
0.547
0
8
17
0.602
0
20
24
0.596
0
14
15
0.300
0
12
15
0.387
0
6
13
0.464
0
18
19
0.380
0
34
36
0.720
0
12
14
0.280
0
24
34
0.971
0
17
20
0.487
0
16
17
0.340
Average Deflection (Right + left lane)
Standard Deviation
Characteristic Deflection
Overlay Thickness in terms of BM mm

Pavement
Tempe
rature
o
C

IJAET/Vol.I/ Issue III/Oct.-Dec.,2010/312-338

International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology

E-ISSN 0976-3945

Table 5: Structural Evaluation of Pavement by Benkelman Beam on (NH-86) on Left Lane
Evaluation of Overlay thickness for Existing Flexible Pavements by Benkelman Beam Deflection IRC:811997
Name of the road: National Highway (NH-86) Bhopal- Sagar Road
Average Rainfall:1140 mm
Lane: Left
Moisture Content of soil: 3.90 %
Air Temperature (Start): 30 oC
Air Temperature (End): 33 oC
Seasonal/ Moisture Correction Factor: 1.008
PaveRebound
Corrected
Dial Gauge Deflections
Temperature
Sr.
Test Point
Deflection
ment
Deflection
No.
Location
Correction
(with Temp.
Tempe
(mm)
(mm)
Chainage
& MCF) mm
rature
o
C
Initial

Interm
ediate

Final

1

250

0

9

9

0.180

35

0.0

0.242

2

500

0

15

16

0.320

35

0.0

0.388

3

750

0

25

25

0.500

35

0.0

0.573

4

1000

0

27

27

0.540

35

0.0

0.618

5

1250

0

20

20

0.400

35

0.0

0.482

6

1500

0

29

29

1.580

35

0.0

0.668

7

1750

0

31

39

1.013

35

0.0

1.108

8

2000

0

22

23

0.460

35

0.0

0.556

9

2250

0

20

20

0.400

35

0.0

0.500

10

2500

0

14

14

0.280

36

0.01

0.383

11

2750

0

23

23

0.460

36

0.01

0.562

12

3000

0

18

18

0.360

36

0.01

0.460

13

3250

0

31

32

0.640

36

0.01

0.740

14

3500

0

70

74

1.596

36

0.01

1.702

15

3750

0

16

16

0.320

36

0.01

0.413

16

4000

0

31

31

0.620

36

0.01

0.714

17

4250

0

27

30

0.687

36

0.01

0.779

18

4500

0

49

49

0.980

36

0.01

1.073

19

4750

0

28

30

0.600

36

0.01

0.687

20

5000

0

26

26

0.520

36

0.01

0.605

IJAET/Vol.I/ Issue III/Oct.-Dec.,2010/312-338

International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology

E-ISSN 0976-3945

Table 6: Structural Evaluation of Pavement by Benkelman Beam on (NH-86) on Right Lane
Evaluation of Overlay thickness for Existing Flexible Pavements by Benkelman Beam Deflection IRC:811997
Name of the road: National Highway (NH-86) Bhopal- Sagar Road
Average Rainfall:1110 mm
Lane: Right
Moisture Content of soil: 3.90 %
Air Temperature (Start): 32 oC
Air Temperature (End): 30.5 oC
Seasonal/ Moisture Correction Factor: 1.008
Rebound
PaveCorrected
Dial Gauge Deflections
Temperature
Sr.
Test Point
Deflection
Deflecment
No.
Location
Correction
(with Temp.
tion
Tempera
(mm)
Chainage
& MCF) mm
(mm)
ture
o
C
Initial

Interm
ediate

Final

1

250

0

17

20

0.487

34

0.01

0.572

2

500

0

21

27

0.715

34

0.01

0.796

3

750

0

23

27

0.656

34

0.01

0.733

4

1000

0

25

28

0.647

34

0.01

0.720

5

1250

0

27

33

0.835

34

0.01

0.904

6

1500

0

28

29

0.580

34

0.01

0.643

7

1750

0

24

28

1.676

34

0.01

0.736

8

2000

0

21

27

0.715

34

0.01

0.770

9

2250

0

23

23

0.460

34

0.01

0.508

10

2500

0

16

18

0.360

34

0.01

0.403

11

2750

0

14

17

0.427

34

0.01

0.472

12

3000

0

29

29

0.580

34

0.01

0.627

13

3250

0

35

39

0.896

34

0.01

0.947

14

3500

0

35

39

0.896

34

0.01

0.948

15

3750

0

43

45

0.900

34

0.01

0.953

16

4000

0

23

27

0.656

34

0.01

0.708

17

4250

0

37

43

1.035

34

0.01

1.090

18

4500

0

31

39

1.013

34

0.01

1.069

19

4750

0

32

34

0.680

34

0.01

0.735

20

5000

0

33

37

0.856

34

0.01

0.914

Average Deflection (Right + left lane)

0.712

Standard Deviation

0.268

Characteristic Deflection

1.249

Overlay Thickness in terms of BM mm

164.85

IJAET/Vol.I/ Issue III/Oct.-Dec.,2010/312-338

International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology

E-ISSN 0976-3945

Table 7: Structural Evaluation of Pavement by Benkelman Beam on (NH-69) on Left Lane
Evaluation of Overlay thickness for Existing Flexible Pavements by Benkelman Beam Deflection IRC:811997
Name of the road: National Highway (NH-69) Bhopal (Obdullaganj)- Nagpur Road
Average Rainfall:1140 mm
Lane: Left
Moisture Content of soil: 2.98 %
Air Temperature (Start): 32 oC
Air Temperature (End): 29 oC
Seasonal/ Moisture Correction Factor: 1.075
Rebound Pavemen Temperature
Corrected
Dial Gauge Deflections
Sr.
Test Point
Deflection
Deflectio
t
No.
Location
Correction
(with Temp.
n
Tempera
(mm)
Chainage
& MCF) mm
(mm)
ture
o
C
Initial

Interm
ediate

Final

1

250

0

8

8

0.160

34

0.01

0.247

2

500

0

2

2

0.040

34

0.01

0.118

3

750

0

6

6

0.120

34

0.01

0.204

4

1000

0

12

12

0.240

34

0.01

0.333

5

1250

0

29

35

0.875

34

0.01

1.015

6

1500

0

28

28

0.560

34

0.01

0.677

7

1750

0

22

25

0.587

34

0.01

0.707

8

2000

0

12

14

0.280

34

0.01

0.376

9

2250

0

30

33

0.747

34

0.01

0.879

10

2500

0

23

23

0.460

32

0.01

0.570

11

2750

0

15

26

0.320

32

0.03

0.418

12

3000

0

24

26

0.520

32

0.03

0.632

13

3250

0

18

18

0.360

32

0.03

0.459

14

3500

0

15

16

0.320

32

0.03

0.415

15

3750

0

18

18

0.360

32

0.03

0.457

16

4000

0

5

6

0.120

32

0.03

0.198

17

4250

0

0

0

0.0

32

0.03

0.068

18

4500

0

4

5

0.100

32

0.03

0.174

19

4750

0

40

45

1.046

32

0.03

1.189

20

5000

0

5

5

0.100

32

0.03

0.172

IJAET/Vol.I/ Issue III/Oct.-Dec.,2010/312-338

International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology

E-ISSN 0976-3945

Table 8: Structural Evaluation of Pavement by Benkelman Beam on (NH-69) on Right Lane
Evaluation of Overlay thickness for Existing Flexible Pavements by Benkelman Beam Deflection IRC:811997
Name of the road: National Highway (NH-69) Bhopal (Obdullaganj)- Nagpur Road
Average Rainfall:1140 mm
Lane: Right
Moisture Content of soil: 2.98 %
Air Temperature (Start): 28 oC
Air Temperature (End): 32 oC
Seasonal/ Moisture Correction Factor: 1.075
Rebound
PaveDial Gauge Deflections
TemperaCorrected
Sr.
Test Point
Deflecment
No.
Location
ture
Deflection (with
tion
TemperCorrection
Temp. & MCF)
Chainage
(mm)
ature
(mm)
mm
o
C
Initial

Interm
ediate

Final

1

250

0

4

4

0.080

35

0.0

0.172

2

500

0

5

9

0.296

35

0.0

0.406

3

750

0

3

7

0.256

35

0.0

0.364

4

1000

0

17

21

0.536

35

0.0

0.666

5

1250

0

21

22

0.440

35

0.0

0.564

6

1500

0

28

29

0.580

35

0.0

0.715

7

1750

0

23

28

1.706

35

0.0

0.852

8

2000

0

25

25

0.500

35

0.0

0.632

9

2250

0

24

25

0.500

35

0.0

0.633

10

2500

0

24

28

0.676

35

0.0

0.824

11

2750

0

20

25

0.646

36

0.01

0.792

12

3000

0

18

18

0.360

36

0.01

0.486

13

3250

0

19

24

0.626

36

0.01

0.772

14

3500

0

12

12

0.240

36

0.01

0.359

15

3750

0

12

12

0.240

36

0.01

0.360

16

4000

0

10

12

0.240

36

0.01

0.361

17

4250

0

5

8

0.247

36

0.01

0.370

18

4500

0

16

22

0.615

36

0.01

0.766

19

4750

0

14

18

0.476

36

0.01

0.619

20

5000

0

13

15

0.300

36

0.01

0.430

Average Deflection (Right + left lane)

0.511

Standard Deviation

0.260

Characteristic Deflection

1.030

Overlay Thickness in terms of BM mm

134.55

IJAET/Vol.I/ Issue III/Oct.-Dec.,2010/312-338

International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology

E-ISSN 0976-3945

Table 9: Structural Evaluation of Pavement by Benkelman Beam on (SH-23) on Left Lane
Evaluation of Overlay thickness for Existing Flexible Pavements by Benkelman Beam Deflection IRC:811997
Name of the road: State Highway (SH-23) Bhopal – Sironj Road
Average Rainfall:1110 mm
Lane: Left
Moisture Content of soil: 2.50 %
Air Temperature (Start): 32 oC
Air Temperature (End): 29 oC
Seasonal/ Moisture Correction Factor: 1.008
Rebound
PaveCorrected
Dial Gauge Deflections
Temperature
Sr.
Test Point
Deflection
Deflecment
No.
Location
Correction
(with Temp.
tion
Tempera
(mm)
Chainage
& MCF) mm
(mm)
ture
o
C
Initial

Interm
ediate

Final

1

250

0

37

39

0.780

36

0.01

0.877

2

500

0

27

40

0.687

36

0.01

0.782

3

750

0

41

42

0.840

36

0.01

0.935

4

1000

0

48

48

0.960

36

0.01

1.055

5

1250

0

40

41

0.820

36

0.01

0.913

6

1500

0

30

31

0.620

36

0.01

0.710

7

1750

0

45

45

0.900

36

0.01

0.991

8

2000

0

29

29

0.580

36

0.01

0.668

9

2250

0

40

41

0.820

36

0.01

0.908

10

2500

0

26

26

0.520

36

0.01

0.605

11

2750

0

46

46

0.920

34

0.01

1.010

12

3000

0

30

30

0.600

34

0.01

0.689

13

3250

0

40

40

0.800

34

0.01

0.893

14

3500

0

30

31

0.620

34

0.01

0.714

15

3750

0

39

40

0.800

34

0.01

0.897

16

4000

0

28

28

0.560

34

0.01

0.657

17

4250

0

35

35

0.700

34

0.01

0.800

18

4500

0

27

27

0.540

34

0.01

0.641

19

4750

0

35

36

0.720

34

0.01

0.825

20

5000

0

32

34

0.680

34

0.01

0.786

IJAET/Vol.I/ Issue III/Oct.-Dec.,2010/312-338

International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology

E-ISSN 0976-3945

Table 10: Structural Evaluation of Pavement by Benkelman Beam on (SH-23) on Right
Lane
Evaluation of Overlay thickness for Existing Flexible Pavements by Benkelman Beam Deflection IRC:811997
Name of the road: State Highway (SH-23) Bhopal – Sironj Road
Average Rainfall:1110 mm
Lane: Right
Moisture Content of soil: 2.50 %
Air Temperature (Start): 36 oC
Air Temperature (End): 31 oC
Seasonal/ Moisture Correction Factor: 1.008
Sr.
Test Point
Dial Gauge Deflections
Rebound
PaveTemperature
Corrected
No.
Location
Deflecment
Correction
Deflection
Chainage
tion
Tempera
(mm)
(with Temp.
(mm)
ture
& MCF) mm
o
C
Initial

Interm
ediate

Final

1

250

0

34

37

0.827

38

0.03

0.915

2

500

0

30

31

0.620

38

0.03

0.706

3

750

0

34

34

0.680

38

0.03

0.766

4

1000

0

46

49

1.067

38

0.03

1.156

5

1250

0

36

36

0.720

38

0.03

0.806

6

1500

0

35

36

0.720

38

0.03

0.806

7

1750

0

36

37

0.740

38

0.03

0.827

8

2000

0

40

43

0.947

38

0.03

1.036

9

2250

0

29

30

0.600

38

0.03

0.685

10

2500

0

39

42

0.927

38

0.03

1.015

11

2750

0

31

33

0.660

36

0.01

0.746

12

3000

0

44

45

0.900

36

0.01

0.988

13

3250

0

33

34

0.680

36

0.01

0.766

14

3500

0

38

39

0.780

36

0.01

0.867

15

3750

0

27

27

0.540

36

0.01

0.625

16

4000

0

30

33

0.747

36

0.01

0.834

17

4250

0

26

28

0.560

36

0.01

0.645

18

4500

0

34

34

0.680

36

0.01

0.766

19

4750

0

35

38

0.847

36

0.01

0.935

20

5000

0

31

31

0.620

36

0.01

0.706

Average Deflection (Right + left lane)

0.824

Standard Deviation

0.135

Characteristic Deflection

1.094

Overlay Thickness in terms of BM mm

144.16

IJAET/Vol.I/ Issue III/Oct.-Dec.,2010/312-338

International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology

E-ISSN 0976-3945

Determination of Riding Quality

conveniently be measured by a towed Bump

A newly constructed road gives a smooth

Integrator. A similar device can be attached

ride. As the pavement is subjected to traffic,

to the rear axle of a suitable vehicle. In order

damage occurs which is reflected in

to give reliable results, however this type of

deformation

and

equipment must be carefully calibrated and

consequently the riding quality of the road

must be operated at as uniform a speed as

deteriorates. Therefore the quality of the

possible.

ride, as measured by road roughness, is a

recommended by the Ministry of Road

measure of the roads deterioration with time.

Transport and Highways for roads with

Riding quality also affects vehicle operating

different types of surfaces are given in Table

cost. The levels of roughness which are

11. The Tables 12 to 16 shows the

taken to indicate the need for maintenance,

Roughness Index values for NH-3, NH-12,

interventions vary a great deal and are

NH-86, NH-69 and SH-23. The condition of

particularly influenced by the form of

the road section is ascertained accordingly

construction.

as good, average, poor and very poor.

of

The

the

pavement

riding

quality

may

The

values

in

(mm/Km)

Table 11: Recommended Roughness Values for Roads in India in (mm/Km)
Surface Type
Good
Average
Poor
Very
Poor
Bituminous Concrete/
2000-2500
2500-3500
3500-4000
Over 4000
SDBC
Premix Bituminous
2500-4500
4500-5500
5500-6500
Over 6500
Carpet/ MSS
Surface Dressing
4000-5000
5000-6500
6500-7500
Over 7500
Table 12: Roughness Index Values for National Highway (NH-3) Agra- Bombay Road
S. No.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Test Point
Location
Chainage
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000

Bumps (B)

96
101
100
105
105
108
111
108
100
101

Wheel
Revolution
Obtained W)
458
450
452
455
456
457
458
459
460
459

IJAET/Vol.I/ Issue III/Oct.-Dec.,2010/312-338

Wheel
Revolution
per Km
460
460
460
460
460
460
460
460
460
460

Roughness
Index (R.I.)
(mm/Km)
2410.5
2581.1
2544.2
2653.8
2648
2717
2787
2705
2500
2530

Condition of
Road
Good
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average

International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology

E-ISSN 0976-3945

Continue from previous page…………..

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139
141
142
144
148
144
147
155
154
150
149
98
97
95
96
87
79
73

IJAET/Vol.I/ Issue III/Oct.-Dec.,2010/312-338

455
458
459
458
450
452
455
456
462
458
455
452
453
450
452
453
455
458
450
452
454
451
453
452
451
455
456
459
457
455
453
455
457
456
450
453
458
420
451
449

460
460
460
460
460
460
460
460
460
460
460
460
460
460
460
460
460
460
460
460
460
460
460
460
460
460
460
460
460
460
460
460
460
460
460
460
460
460
460
460

2502
2385
2405
2410
2478
2060
2123
2471
2140
2460
2653
2773
2792
2913
2925
3020
3134
3239
3194
3103
3394
3467
3528
3587
3620
3639
3732
3607
3699
3917
3909
3791
3749
2471
2478
2411
2410
2382
2014
1869

Average
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Poor
Poor
Poor
Poor
Poor
Poor
Poor
Poor
Poor
Poor
Poor
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good

International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology

E-ISSN 0976-3945

Table 13: Roughness Index Values for National Highway (NH-12) Jaipur-Jabalpur Road
S. No.

Test Point
Location
Chainage

Bumps (B)

Wheel
Revolution
Obtained (W)

Wheel
Revolution
per Km

Roughness
Index (R.I.)
(mm/Km)

Condition of
Road

1

100

94

427

460

2531

Average

2

200

108

439

460

2829

Average

3

300

127

458

460

3188

Average

4

400

129

457

460

3246

Average

5

500

125

457

460

3145

Average

6

600

115

452

460

2925

Average

7

700

140

455

460

3538

Poor

8

800

145

451

460

3697

Poor

9

900

148

454

460

3748

Poor

10

1000

152

453

460

3858

Poor

11

1100

150

452

460

3816

Poor

12

1200

153

456

460

3858

Poor

13

1300

158

455

460

3993

Poor

14

1400

154

457

460

3875

Poor

15

1500

81

452

460

2060

Good

16

1600

97

450

460

2478

Good

17

1700

86

462

460

2140

Good

18

1800

98

456

460

2471

Good

19

1900

84

455

460

2123

Good

20

2000

98

458

460

2460

Good

21

2100

114

450

460

2913

Average

22

2200

109

452

460

2773

Average

23

2300

110

453

460

2792

Average

24

2400

105

455

460

2653

Average

25

2500

115

452

460

2925

Average

26

2600

119

453

460

3020

Average

27

2700

119

461

460

2968

Average

28

2800

114

453

460

2894

Average

29

2900

252

448

460

6468

Very Poor

30

3000

200

458

460

5021

Very Poor

31

3100

179

448

460

4594

Very Poor

32

3200

136

451

460

3467

Average

33

3300

127

458

460

3188

Average

IJAET/Vol.I/ Issue III/Oct.-Dec.,2010/312-338

International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology

E-ISSN 0976-3945

Continue from previous page…………..

34

3400

144

455

460

3639

Poor

35

3500

142

451

460

3620

Poor

36

3600

141

452

460

3587

Poor

37

3700

148

456

460

3732

Poor

38

3800

96

458

460

2410

Good

39

3900

97

460

460

2478

Good

40

4000

93

454

460

2355

Good

41

4100

95

453

460

2411

Good

42

4200

92

456

460

2320

Good

43

4300

87

420

460

2382

Good

44

4400

98

456

460

2471

Good

45

4500

97

450

460

2478

Good

46

4600

95

453

460

2411

Good

47

4700

79

451

460

2014

Good

48

4800

149

457

460

3749

Poor

49

4900

96

458

460

2410

Good

50

5000

81

452

460

2060

Good

Table 14: Roughness Index Values for National Highway (NH-86) Bhopal-Sagar Road
S. No.

Test Point

Bumps (B)

Wheel

Wheel

Roughness

Condition of

96

Revolution
Obtained (W)
458

Revolution
per Km
460

Index (R.I.)
(mm/Km)
2410.5

Road

1

Location
Chainage
100

2

200

101

450

460

2581.1

Average

3

300

100

452

460

2544.2

Average

4

400

105

455

460

2653.8

Average

5

500

105

456

460

2648

Average

6

600

108

457

460

2717

Average

7

700

111

458

460

2787

Average

8

800

108

459

460

2705

Average

9

900

100

460

460

2500

Average

10

1000

101

459

460

2530

Average

11

1100

99

455

460

2502

Average

12

1200

95

458

460

2385

Good

13

1300

96

459

460

2405

Good

14

1400

96

458

460

2410

Good

15

1500

97

450

460

2478

Good

IJAET/Vol.I/ Issue III/Oct.-Dec.,2010/312-338

Good

International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology

E-ISSN 0976-3945

Continue from previous page…………..

16

1600

81

452

460

2060

Good

17

1700

84

455

460

2123

Good

18

1800

98

456

460

2471

Good

19

1900

86

462

460

2140

Good

20

2000

98

458

460

2460

Good

21

2100

105

455

460

2653

Average

22

2200

109

452

460

2773

Average

23

2300

110

453

460

2792

Average

24

2400

114

450

460

2913

Average

25

2500

115

452

460

2925

Average

26

2600

119

453

460

3020

Average

27

2700

124

455

460

3134

Average

28

2800

129

458

460

3239

Average

29

2900

125

450

460

3194

Average

30

3000

122

452

460

3103

Average

31

3100

134

454

460

3394

Average

32

3200

136

451

460

3467

Average

33

3300

139

453

460

3528

Poor

34

3400

141

452

460

3587

Poor

35

3500

142

451

460

3620

Poor

36

3600

144

455

460

3639

Poor

37

3700

148

456

460

3732

Poor

38

3800

144

459

460

3607

Poor

39

3900

147

457

460

3699

Poor

40

4000

155

455

460

3917

Poor

41

4100

154

453

460

3909

Poor

42

4200

150

455

460

3791

Poor

43

4300

149

457

460

3749

Poor

44

4400

98

456

460

2471

Good

45

4500

97

450

460

2478

Good

46

4600

95

453

460

2411

Good

47

4700

96

458

460

2410

Good

48

4800

87

420

460

2382

Good

49

4900

79

451

460

2014

Good

50

5000

73

449

460

1869

Good

IJAET/Vol.I/ Issue III/Oct.-Dec.,2010/312-338

International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology

E-ISSN 0976-3945

Table 15: Roughness Index Values for National Highway (NH-69) Bhopal (Obdulaganj)Nagpur Road
S. No.

Bumps (B)

1

Test Point
Location
Chainage
100

2

Wheel
Revolution
per Km
460

Roughness
Index (R.I.)
(mm/Km)
2410.5

Condition of
Road

96

Wheel
Revolution
Obtained (W)
458

200

101

450

460

2581.1

Average

3

300

100

452

460

2544.2

Average

4

400

105

455

460

2653.8

Average

5

500

105

456

460

2648

Average

6

600

108

457

460

2717

Average

7

700

111

458

460

2787

Average

8

800

108

459

460

2705

Average

9

900

100

460

460

2500

Average

10

1000

101

459

460

2530

Average

11

1100

99

455

460

2502

Average

12

1200

95

458

460

2385

Good

13

1300

96

459

460

2405

Good

14

1400

96

458

460

2410

Good

15

1500

97

450

460

2478

Good

16

1600

81

452

460

2060

Good

17

1700

84

455

460

2123

Good

18

1800

98

456

460

2471

Good

19

1900

86

462

460

2140

Good

20

2000

98

458

460

2460

Good

21

2100

105

455

460

2653

Average

22

2200

109

452

460

2773

Average

23

2300

110

453

460

2792

Average

24

2400

114

450

460

2913

Average

25

2500

115

452

460

2925

Average

26

2600

119

453

460

3020

Average

27

2700

124

455

460

3134

Average

28

2800

129

458

460

3239

Average

29

2900

125

450

460

3194

Average

30

3000

122

452

460

3103

Average

31

3100

134

454

460

3394

Average

32

3200

136

451

460

3467

Average

33

3300

139

453

460

3528

Poor

IJAET/Vol.I/ Issue III/Oct.-Dec.,2010/312-338

Good

International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology

E-ISSN 0976-3945

Continue from previous page…………..

34

3400

141

452

460

3587

Poor

35

3500

142

451

460

3620

Poor

36

3600

144

455

460

3639

Poor

37

3700

148

456

460

3732

Poor

38

3800

144

459

460

3607

Poor

39

3900

147

457

460

3699

Poor

40

4000

155

455

460

3917

Poor

41

4100

154

453

460

3909

Poor

42

4200

150

455

460

3791

Poor

43

4300

149

457

460

3749

Poor

44

4400

98

456

460

2471

Good

45

4500

97

450

460

2478

Good

46

4600

95

453

460

2411

Good

47

4700

96

458

460

2410

Good

48

4800

87

420

460

2382

Good

49

4900

79

451

460

2014

Good

50

5000

73

449

460

1869

Good

Table 16: Roughness Index Values for State Highway (SH-23) Bhopal-Sironj Road
S. No.

Test Point

Bumps (B)

Wheel

Wheel

Roughness

Condition of

96

Revolution
Obtained (W)
458

Revolution
per Km
460

Index (R.I.)
(mm/Km)
2410.5

Road

1

Location
Chainage
100

2

200

101

450

460

2581.1

Average

3

300

100

452

460

2544.2

Average

4

400

105

455

460

2653.8

Average

5

500

105

456

460

2648

Average

6

600

108

457

460

2717

Average

7

700

111

458

460

2787

Average

8

800

108

459

460

2705

Average

9

900

100

460

460

2500

Average

10

1000

101

459

460

2530

Average

11

1100

99

455

460

2502

Average

12

1200

95

458

460

2385

Good

13

1300

96

459

460

2405

Good

14

1400

96

458

460

2410

Good

15

1500

97

450

460

2478

Good

IJAET/Vol.I/ Issue III/Oct.-Dec.,2010/312-338

Good

International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology

E-ISSN 0976-3945

Continue from previous page…………..

16

1600

81

452

460

2060

Good

17

1700

84

455

460

2123

Good

18

1800

98

456

460

2471

Good

19

1900

86

462

460

2140

Good

20

2000

98

458

460

2460

Good

21

2100

105

455

460

2653

Average

22

2200

109

452

460

2773

Average

23

2300

110

453

460

2792

Average

24

2400

114

450

460

2913

Average

25

2500

115

452

460

2925

Average

26

2600

119

453

460

3020

Average

27

2700

124

455

460

3134

Average

28

2800

129

458

460

3239

Average

29

2900

125

450

460

3194

Average

30

3000

122

452

460

3103

Average

31

3100

134

454

460

3394

Average

32

3200

136

451

460

3467

Average

33

3300

139

453

460

3528

Poor

34

3400

141

452

460

3587

Poor

35

3500

142

451

460

3620

Poor

36

3600

144

455

460

3639

Poor

37

3700

148

456

460

3732

Poor

38

3800

144

459

460

3607

Poor

39

3900

147

457

460

3699

Poor

40

4000

155

455

460

3917

Poor

41

4100

154

453

460

3909

Poor

42

4200

150

455

460

3791

Poor

43

4300

149

457

460

3749

Poor

44

4400

98

456

460

2471

Good

45

4500

97

450

460

2478

Good

46

4600

95

453

460

2411

Good

47

4700

96

458

460

2410

Good

48

4800

87

420

460

2382

Good

49

4900

79

451

460

2014

Good

50

5000

73

449

460

1869

Good

IJAET/Vol.I/ Issue III/Oct.-Dec.,2010/312-338

International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology

E-ISSN 0976-3945

Table 17: The Results of Benkelman Beam Study
Sr. No.
1
2
3
4
5

Name of the Road
NH 3
NH 12
NH 69
NH86
SH 23

Overlay Thickness in terms of Bituminous Macadam (mm)
134.55
167.53
134.55
164.85
144.16
6) The Roughness Index Values (RI) were

CONCLUSIONS
1) The Traffic volume study (7 days count)

found by Bump Integrator for all the

indicate that in case of NH 3, NH 12,

five stretches for each 100 m section and

NH 69,NH 86 and SH 23, the traffic is

the pavement surface condition was

of very high intensity and also heavy

rated as Very Poor, Poor, Average and

axle load vehicles (rear axle load more

Good.

than 10.2 t ) ply on the roads.

7) The present study is based on Pavement

2) The heavy axle loads on the road are

Condition Index (PCI) and involves a

leading to its premature failure and

set of performance variables, such as

distresses

Pavement Distresses and Pavement

like

rutting,

cracking,

localized depressions etc.

Condition Rating.

3) The drainage system both longitudinal

8) The results of subgrade analysis shows

and transverse are inefficient and is not

that in stretches where high PI value was

working

observed there is a need for a drainage

properly especially for NH 3

and NH 86

leading to failures

pertaining to improper drainage system,
namely Pot holes, Stripping etc
4) The

Benkelman

beam

study

or blanket layer to enhance the drainage
characteristics of the layered system.
9) The methodology and analytical tools

was

presented in this study are based on the

conducted on all the five stretches and

extensive field data base from in-service

structural inadequacy was found in the

heavily trafficked highway pavements,

sections of all the five stretches i.e.

hence can be adopted as reliable

NH3, NH12, NH69, NH86 and SH23.

techniques

5) There is a need to go for measures such

applications

to

study

of

the

flexible

various
pavement

as an overlay on all the five stretches.

deterioration models in the maintenance

The overlay thicknesses in terms of BM

management

were found for all the stretches and are

pavements in India.

shown in Table 17.

system

for

highway

10) The Pavement Performance Study will
help in arriving at the most appropriate

IJAET/Vol.I/ Issue III/Oct.-Dec.,2010/312-338

International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology
maintenance and rehabilitation activity
or remedial measures, suitable for a
particular section of the road.
REFERENCES
1.

AASHTO, “AASHTO guide for design
of pavement structures”, American
Association of State Highway and
Transportation Officials, Washington
D.C, 1986.
2. CRRI (Dec.2002), Evaluation of Delhi
Roads
for
Maintenance
and
Rehabilitation Strategies, Final Report.
3. Haas, Ralph and Hudson, (1978).
“Pavement Management System”,
McGraw Hill,New York.
4. M. Satya Kumar & V .N Viju Kumar
2004,
“Development
of
a
methodology for priority ranking of
highway pavements for maintenance
based on composite criteria”, Nov.
2004. Indian Highways.
5. Shahin M.Y., “Pavement Management
for Airports, Roads, and Parking lots”,
Chapman & Hall, New York, 1994
6. Haas, R., Hudson, W. R. and
Zaniewski, J, “Modern pavement
management,’’ Krieger Publishing
company, Malabar, Florida USA 1994.
7. Sood, V.K. “Highway maintenance
management system- An overview,
proceeding ICORT 1995, Department
of Civil Engineering, University of
Roorkee, 1995.”
8. MORT&H, IRC 2001, “Report of the
committee on norms for maintenance of
roads in India”,New Delhi.”
9. K. P. George and A. Raja Shekharan
(1995) “Future directions in pavement
management”, ICORT-95
10. The Report of the Working Group on
Roads (2007-2012) for 11th Five Year
Plan, Ministry of Shipping, Road
Transport and Highways, April 2007.
11. Rokade, S, Kishan D and M. Dohare,
“Evaluation of Pavement Based on
Pavement Condition Indices: An
Overview” National Conference at NIT
Raipur, 15-16 February, 2008.

IJAET/Vol.I/ Issue III/Oct.-Dec.,2010/312-338

E-ISSN 0976-3945