HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT # 1
Due: Wednesday, 18th February, 2015
1. (3 points) Verify that the set of all (
2. (3 points) Prove: If
3. (3 points) Let
specified by:
) matrices with real entries is a real vector space.
is a vector spce, then the zero vector, , is inuque.
be the vector space of all real (
{
Verify that
[
]
}
 defined by:
* ( )
is a subspace of ,
Verify that
5. (3 points) Let
specified by:
,
2

( )
( )+
.
be the vector space of all real (
Show that
be the subset of
is a subspace of .
be the subset of ,
4. (3 points) Let
) matrices, and let
0
) matrices, and let
be the subset of
1
3
is not a subspace of .
6. (5 points) Let
be the set of all (
) skewsymmetric matrices. Show that
the vector space of all (
) matrices, and exhibit a spanning set for .
7. (6 points) Let
by
*
0
be the vector space of all (
+, where
1,
Obtain a basis for
0
1,
) matrices, and let the subset
0
1
0
is a subset of
of
be definded
1
* +.
8. (4 points) In , consider the set of vectors
, ( )
, ( )
( )
. Is a basis for
?
*
,
+, where
( )
( )
, and
ELEG 593: Advanced Linear Algebra and Its Applications, Spring 2015, HW #1, Dr. Ahmed AlDurra
1
property ( ) is immediate from the definition of scalar multiplication [clearly 1A=A fir any ( )] matrix A. (4 points) Let the inner product on Starting with the natural basis * orthogonal basis for . 0 0 0 0 0 0 And clearly inverse for A because for any ( ( ) ) matrix A. ( ). Ahmed AlDurra 2 . and ( ). ELEG 593: Advanced Linear Algebra and Its Applications. For emphasis we recall that the zero element in this vector space is the matrix. A+B and aA are defined by a12 a13 b11 b12 b13 a A B 11 a21 a22 a23 b21 b22 b23 a12 b12 a13 b13 a b 11 11 a21 b21 a22 b22 a23 b23 a12 a13 aa11 aa12 aa13 a aA a 11 a21 a22 a23 aa21 aa22 aa23 From these definition it is obviously that both the sum A+B and the scalar multiple aA are again ( ) matrices.6. HW #1. ( ). ( ) and ( ) are proved in Theorem 8 and 9 of Section 1. use GramSchmidt orthogonalization to obtain an * + be the orthogonal basis for relative to . Dr. obtained in Problem 9. (5 points) Let coordniates of be defined as: ∫ ( ) ( ) +. so ( ) and ( ) of definition 1 hold. Find the Solutions Problem 1 Let A and B be any ( ) matrices. 10. (1)A is a matrix we can add to A to produce the zero element O.6. Spring 2015.] A supplication of these arguments shows that for any m and n the set of all ( ) matrices with real entries is real vector space. we further observe that (1) A is the additive [That is. Therefore. and ( ) follow from theorem 7 of section 1.9. Properties ( ).
we conclude that . Then setting . that is. we know that property ( ). 0 0 aA aa21 aa12 0 Therefore. (2). and 6 and leave the remaining properties as exercises.(1). Therefore. In particular.b] is the zero function. B a21 0 b21 0 Thus A+B and aA have the form 0 A B a21 b21 a12 b12 . Ahmed AlDurra 3 . and Eq. 0 a12 0 b12 A . 4. then A and B have the form. Problem 3 The zero vector for V is the ( ) zero matrix O is in W since it satisfies the defining relationships of W. ( ). If A and B are any two vectors in W. and we conclude that W is a subspace of the set of all real ( matrices. (3) Or .] We first prove property 1. Now let ( )and ( ) be any two functions that are in W. Problem 2 [We prove properties 1. HW #1. A+B and aA are in W. Suppose that is a vector in V such that for all v in V. we know also that (2) But from property ( ) of Definition 1. ( ) and ( ) . Dr.The next three examples show that certain sets of functions have a natural vector structures.b]. ( ) is in W. ELEG 593: Advanced Linear Algebra and Its Applications. Spring 2015. we have (1) By property ( ) of definition 1. so using Eq. defined by ( ) for all x in the interval ( ) since ( ) [a. ) Problem 4 The zero vector in C[a.
so O is in W.b]. then ( ) ( ) So cA is in W. Similarly. and is subset of . Problem 6 Let O denote the ( then and ) zero matrix. ) ( is skew symmetric.b]. ( ) ) is in W. For example. Again. If A and B are in W. HW #1. define A and B by 1 0 A and 0 0 0 0 B 0 1 Then A and B are in W. ( )( ) . Therefore. Theorem 2 now implies that W is a subspace of C[a. note that property (1) gives ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ). then it is immediate from property (1) that ( ) ( ) is in W. Dr. if c is a scalar. It follows that Problem 5 It is straightforward to show that W satisfies properties ( ) and ( ) of theorem 1. W is a subspace of V. as well as a vector space in its own right. can be considered as subspace of C[a. this assertion follows directly from Definition 2 since any polynomial is continuous on any interval [a. is a subspace of C[a. then is a subspace of . ( It follows that .( ) ( ) and ( ) ( ) The sum of ( ) and ( ) is the function ( ) defined by ( ) in W.b]. Likewise. we must show that ( ). We can verify this assertion directly from definition 2 since we have already shown that and are each real vector spaces. By theorem 2. the remarks preceding the example imply that W can be described by ELEG 593: Advanced Linear Algebra and Its Applications. To see that s(x) is ( ) Similarly. Thus to demonstrate that W is not a subspace of V. so If n .b]. Spring 2015. Moreover. if c is a scalar. Ahmed AlDurra 4 . for any n. Therefore. but A+B is not. Clearly . ( ). that is. since 1 0 A B 0 1 In particular.
and frequently Sp(Q) is defined as the set of all finite linear combinations of vector from Q. then 0 1 1 0 . for example. using the method demonstrated in Example 7 of section 2. Then.4. 0 a b W A : A a 0 c . This is not a required assumption. and . HW #1. c any real numbers From this description it is easily seen that a natural spanning set for W is the set * + 0 1 0 A1 1 0 0 . A2 B . where Q may be either an infinite set or a finite set. note that in Definition 3 we have implicitly assumed that spanning sets are finite. Spring 2015. b c 0 a.4 we form the matrix ELEG 593: Advanced Linear Algebra and Its Applications.3…A natural spanning set for P (in the generalized sense described earlier) is the infinite set) * + Problem 7 If B is the natural basis for V. for instance. A4 B Several techniques for obtaining a basis for Sp(T) were illustrated in section 2. 1 3 A2 B * +. 1 0 0 0 0 0 A3 0 0 1 0 1 0 and Finally. We do not need this full generality.2. A3 B . 0 0 0 0 0 1 A2 0 0 0 . A1 B 1 2 . n=1. is a subspace of P for each n. Dr. A3 B 1 1 4 10 A4 B 3 7 2 6 Let T A1 B . consisting of all polynomials (we place no upper limit on the degree). Ahmed AlDurra 5 . b. and we will explore this idea no further other than to note later that one contrast between the vector space and a general vector space V is that V might not possess a finite spanning set. An example of a vector space where the most natural spanning set is infinite is the vector space P.
respectively. Thus 1 2 W1 . 1 3 and * + is a basis for Sp(T). 1 0 1 3 2 1 0 7 C 1 1 1 2 3 4 10 6 The matrix can be reduced to the matrix 1 2 1 0 1 1 DT 0 0 2 0 0 0 3 4 1 0 1 0 2 1 D 1 1 3 4 0 0 0 0 Thus 0 0 2 1 And the nonzero columns of D constitute a basis for Sp(T). B2 B W2 then. and ELEG 593: Advanced Linear Algebra and Its Applications. Dr. it follows from theorem 5 that * are ( and ) matrices such that B3 B W3 + is a basis for Sp(S). HW #1. Ahmed AlDurra 6 . If B1 E11 2E12 E21 3E22 Then clearly B1 B W1 B and B are obtained in the same fashion. and B1 B W1. . If 0 0 1 0 W2 and W3 1 2 4 1 . Spring 2015. denote the nonzero columns of D by and .
1 0 p3 B 3 1 0 . Hence. the coordinate vectors in T are p1 B 4 2 0 . we can use theorem 5 to pass from a problem in to an analogous problem in . the columns of A are linearly independent.. we cannot use theorem 5. Problem 8 * . once we know that is a basis. we form the matrix A whose columns are the vectors in T and use Matlab function (rref(A)) to reduce A to echelon form. S is a *. Dr. Ahmed AlDurra 7 . For example. 0 1 p4 B 2 1 0 . . we have p1 x x p0 . By the corollary to theorem 5. Therefore. in .. x p0 . To check whether T is linearly independent. and B3 1 4 2 1 1 2 B1 . As can be seen from the results below. The next step of GramSchmitdt orthogonalization process is to form ELEG 593: Advanced Linear Algebra and Its Applications. . HW #1. 1 1 p5 B 0 0 1 0 1 Since has dimension 5 and T contains 5 vectors. p0 dx 1 0 . however. x xdx 0 so ( ) 1 and 2 1 p0 . S is a basis for rref(A)=Identity( ) Problem 9 If we let * + denote the orthogonal basis.. 3 1 p2 B 1 5 1 . T will be a basis for if T is a linearly independent set. In order to obtain the first basis B. T is a basis for .0 1 0 0 B2 . Spring 2015.. p0 ( ) and find ( ) from p0 x we calculate 1 p0 . 1 3 Although theorem 5 shows that questions regarding the span or the linear dependence/independence of a subset of V can be translated to an equivalent problem in . we do * + need one basis for V as a point of reference. . basis for if and only if T is a basis for +. .+ In particular. where Let B denote the standard basis for . .
x 2 p2 x x 2 p1 . x 2 / p2 . We can easily check that . p1 a2 p2 . x 2 x 2 dx 1 0 1 12 1 3 1 p0 . p2 x 2 x (1/ 6) x 2 dx 1/180 1 0 Thus .p1 . Ahmed AlDurra 8 . Problem 10 ( ) By theorem 10. Spring 2015. x 2 / p1 . HW #1. p0 dx 1 0 Therefore. p1 x 2 x 1/ 4 dx 1 0 p0 . p1 p0 x p0 . and . x 2 x3 (1/ 2) x 2 dx 1/12 1 0 p2 . ( ) ( ) ( ) . / ( ) ( ) ( ) ELEG 593: Advanced Linear Algebra and Its Applications. x 2 / p0 . and * + is an orthogonal basis for with respect to inner product. where a0 p0 . p0 dx 1 0 p1 . p0 a1 p1 . Dr. p1 x 2 x (1/ 4) dx 1/12 1 0 p2 . x 2 p1 x p1 . p0 The required constant are 1 p1 . p2 The necessary calculations are 1 p0 . x 2 x 2 dx 1/ 3 0 p1 . ( ) ( ). x 2 x 3 x 0 2 2 dx 121 p1 . x 2 x 4 x 3 (1/ 6) x 2 dx 1/180 1 0 1 p0 .