Submitted by:
Scholar no- 101110117
Guided by – prof. Jagdish Singh
Department of Architecture and Planning


9 Companies/ material suppliers 7 5.2 Gypsum board 4.2 Conclusion/ Recommendations 13 14 References 14 7 9 10 11 12 12 13 13 .1 Introduction to interior design 1.3 Purpose of false ceiling in commercial spaces 2.2 Aims 1.4 Plaster of Paris(POP) 4.4 Elements of a false ceiling 3 3 4 5 3.5 Plywood 4.5 Scope 1.1 Materials used for false ceiling in commercial spaces 4.3 Metal ceiling panels 4.6 Limitations 1.4 Concealed grid systems 5 5 6 6 4.7 Methodology 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 2.2 Introduction to false ceilings 2.3 Exposed grid systems 3.8 Fabric and cloth 4.7 Fiberboard and fiber/mineral reinforced tiles 4.1 Types of false ceiling systems 3.1 Disadvantages of false ceilings 5.6 PVC false ceiling 4.CONTENTS Topic Page No. 1.1 History 2.4 Need 1.3 Objectives 1.2 Aerodynamic in stadium design 3.

textures. retail design. false ceiling is one which adds a vocabulary in interior design. )t is multifarious profession in which creative and technical solutions are applied within a structure to achieve a built interior environment. ceilings and everything are used. which evolved from interior decoration. Domestically the profession of interior design encompasses those designers who may specialize in residential or commercial interior design. Not to be confused with interior decoration. Among these many elements of interior design. walls. Designs are created in response to and coordinated with code and regulatory requirements. Other interior designers may dwell in the commercial or contract realm of interior space design. In order to achieve the goals in interior design. and encourage the principles of environmental sustainability. analytical. involves a multitude of technical. whereby the needs and resources of the client are satisfied to produce an interior space that fulfills the project goals. universal design. multifamily housing amongst others. healthcare design. workspace design. hospitality design. In addition to the above commercial interior designers may specialize in furniture design. interior design. So through this following paper it will be restricted only to the documentation of false ceilings in interior design of commercial spaces and buildings.1 INTRODUCTION TO INTERIOR DESIGN Interior design is the discipline dealing with the principles of design and construction and ornamentation of fine buildings.1. enhance the quality of life and culture of the occupants. and understandings of architectural elements. including research. acoustics. analysis and integration of knowledge into the creative process. These solutions are functional. creative skills. elements like colors. . The interior design process follows a systematic and coordinated methodology. Within residential design one can specialize in kitchen and bathroom design. and are aesthetically attractive. design for the aged. light. and sustainability. "architecture and eloquence are mixed arts whose end is sometimes beauty and sometimes use . There is a wide range of disciplines within the career of interior design.

5 SCOPE The paper covers a brief history of false ceilings. 1. ambience. environmental factors. 1.1. lighting. More of a kind the construction details about the false ceiling will be less emphasized. and integration with the building's infrastructure hence there arrises a need for false ceilings for better acoustics. materials available. acoustics. activity and architecturally.3 OBJECTIVES  To study about the different types of false ceilings available from available data or literature. advantages and disadvantages. analysis of commercial false ceiling designs. The details and needs of false ceilings used in residential buildings are not been dealt in this paper .  To understand the characteristics of each type of ceiling materials  To explore different false ceiling materials which are used in offices and other commercial spaces  To analyse about the false ceilings used with respect to ambience. aesthetics.4 NEED Effective building design requires balancing multiple objectives: aesthetics. 1.6 LIMITATIONS The study of this topic will be fully based on literature studies and internet with pictorial presentations because of limited time for case studies practically. It also gives way to further documentation about it in future with more precise and details false ceiling in interior design. covering service lines and for better environmental impacts. The documentation of this paper would give me enough material and guide me in interior design for my day to day life whenever the project is been taken up.2 AIM To study about the role of false ceilings in interior design focusing on commercial buildings. 1.

and then removing the tiles one at a time until the desired place of access was reached.  Case studies: having a glance at the case studies available pertaining to the topic. built in 1596.2 HISTORY History of false ceiling started when Dropped ceilings were firstly used in Japan for the purpose of aesthetics in Muromachi period (1337 to 1573) later black friars theatre in London.  Analysis and inference : analyzing the complete data to make a sequential presentation of the content  Conclusion: conclusions from the above stage with recommendations and inferences are drawn. Brown of Westlake. This process was very time-consuming and expensive. had dropped ceilings to aid acoustics. Modern dropped ceilings were built using interlocking tiles and the only way to provide access for repair or inspection of the area above the tiles was by starting at the edge of the ceiling. But false ceiling is a name that has redefined the interior designing. England. On 24th October 1950 Remmen and Bibb designed first fully developed grid system concept.1 INTRODUCTION TO FALSE CEILINGS Concrete ceiling is a commonly known name to everybody. Due to versatile nature and other important features of false ceiling made it an indispensible feature for every commercial place. . 1958 Donald A. or commercial complex or IT companies or a restaurant or a theater or stadium one can witness false ceiling. Once the repair or inspection was completed. On September 8. 2.1. Ohio designed Accessible Suspended Ceiling Construction. or at a specifically designed "key tile". be it in a office.7 METHODOLOGY  Topic selection: selection and finalization of the topic is done  Literature survey: collection of materials and data about the topic. or business place. Various types of false ceilings have become part and parcel of all these places 2. the tiles had to be reinstalled. This invention helped suspended ceiling construction in which access is readily obtained at any desired location.

3 PURPOSE OF FALSE CEILING IN COMMERCIAL SPACES It improves aesthetical appearance ( form. Environments that are subject to a lot of dirt such as certain manufacturing buildings may need ceilings that can resist dirt and are easy to clean. which require a quit environment.  Acoustical improvement.  Provides insulation from heat.2. conference rooms. etc. .  Echoe reduction in cinema and concert halls  Sound absorbtion reduces noises and reduces reverberation with in the area covered by the ceiling.  To accommodate lighting systems. ceiling tiles made from mineral fibres or fire-rated wood panels can be used within the construction to meet acceptable standards and ratings. A ceiling with that reflects more light can reduce lighting and electricity costs.  As a design element to create various shapes and curves.  Fire safety is always a factor in several industrial buildings. The control of bio-contamination is essential in healthcare settings such as hospitals and large commercial kitchens  Light reflectance. etc that usually spoil the look of the room are concealed. Differing levels of fire protection are obtained from the various types of ceiling available.  Anti-microbial performance.  At some places to hide ugly trusses(commonly known as attic)  Sound proof rooms such as meeting rooms. treatment etc.) & proportions by managing room – heights basically and remaining are as follows:  Hides ducting & reduces the volume of room Ugly structural members like beams. to provide lighting effects such as hidden lighting etc  Soil resistance and cleanability. color.

C ducts etc.2 EXPOSED GRID SYTEMS A system where the grid is visible and into which panels are laid. Exposed Grid 2. cloth etc. Depending up on the appearance and visibility of the members false ceilings are classified in to two types. lighting fixtures. They are : 1. . acoustic boards.1 TYPES OF FALSE CEILING SYSTEMS Suspended ceilings are created using metal grid systems. are fixed. The diagram below depicts all the important parts of a false ceiling (suspended ceiling) system: 1)Main Runners 2)Secondary members 3)Perimeter section 4)hanging member 5)Tile 3. The grid is then filled in with ceiling tiles. which are suspended below the ceiling or roof deck using a series of wires. These primary and secondary members are called the structural members and form the framework on which the boards.g. 2. Concealed grid 3.4 ELEMENTS OF A FALSE CEILING A suspended ceiling system consists of 3 parts: • Primary Members • Secondary Members and • Main Ceiling Material or Tiles e. Reduces overall volume of the space which reduces air conditioning cost. A. which are primarily made from mineral fiber blends. The grid is finished in colours to harmonise or contrast with the panels is known as exposed grid type ceiling.

The system is rapid to install and can provide a high degree of access to the ceiling void. This creates a smooth. which slides over the mains and tees to cover them. This kind of false ceiling system is difficult for maintenance to access areas above the ceiling. the mains and tees form a grid system . called "mains. clean which is aesthetically pleasing. 3. Various metal and a few kinds of pop ceilings come under this categeory This type is more expensive than an exposed system. They consist of long metal strips. Exposed grid suspended ceiling systems can contribute to passive fire protection. Figures showing sections of the concealed grid ceilings .which are then filled with acoustical ceiling tiles.3 CONCEALED GRID SYSTEMS Concealed grid systems use the acoustical tiles to hide the grid system from view.Exposed grid varieties are the most common type of suspended ceiling." which are interconnected with shorter metal pieces known as "tees Together. The tile used has a small groove built into it's perimeter.

 Gypsum board is quite flexible.1 MATERIALS USED FOR FALSE CEILING IN COMMERCIAL SPACES: Depending on the place of usage.2 Metal ( alumunium. drop design. waterproof. Generally. A gypsum panel could have tapered or square edges. curved. etc. pelmet. coffered. gypsum is most commonly used for false ceiling. to give a smooth surface. . flexible and fire and moisture resistant. versatile and economical. Squareedges board can be used. or by fixing the panels in a metal grid (usually steel). Gypsum ceiling are popular because:  The dry construction eliminates the use of extra water while making the ceiling. The material is fire-resistant. and are fast replacing other ceiling materials such as POP. Where visibility of the joints is a requirement. Gypsum board can be used while constructing false ceiling. gypsum panels of 600 mm×600mm are used. Panels with tapered adage are used for ceiling since the gap between each edge can be filled. stepped. A suspended Gypsum board ceiling can be constructed by nailing Gypsum board panels to each other. Asbestos) Mineral wool board Poly vinyl chloride (PVC) UPVC Wood Polystyrene Glass Acrylic GYPSUM BOARD (Gypboard): Lightweight. which is why it is the most preferred material for false ceiling. as well as soundproof. ambience needed and economy available. It allows for various shapes and design-such as plain. Gypsum board panels are tough.4. as well as to renovate old ceilings. This also keeps the building clean. The most commoly used false ceiling materials are  Gypsum boards  Plaster of paris (POP) Other materials used are         4.

 The ceiling can be easily decorated with wallpaper or paint.  Glass fibre-reinforced gyp board makes excellent insulation material. Gypsum board has high impact-resistance and is very strong. which is converted to steam and helps combat the fire.  A Gyp board ceiling suspended on a metal grid forms a strong ceiling design. It is possible to suspend a load of up to 15 kg from the ceiling without any difficulty. Table showing properties . gypsum gives out water.  When exposed to fire.  Gypsum ceilings are non-resonant which makes then good soundproofing. This is what makes the ceiling fireproof. 24 hours after it is constructed.

The third method is to stretch the metal sheets to form various shapes. since they are easy to install and access.  Hidden services can be easily accessed since the panels are removable.  Gypsum board Silt Ceiling panel: 64/.per sft.3 METAL CEILING PANELS: Metals ceilings are suitable for a large Range of applications. without changing its soundproofing ability. the AHU. are generally used.per sft.  Gypsum board Fully Fissured Ceiling panel: 60/.per sft.per sft. The panels can be laid on a visible steel grid with T-sections or cross-sections that are suspended from the ceiling by rods.per sft.  Gypsum board poly Ceiling panel: 47/.Generally available in the tiles of 600mm X 600mm. The panels can also be clipped to each other or clipping into a suspension system having springs. which is easy to access. That method prevents the panel edges from being seen. This treatment is ideal for obtaining a variety of shapes in the metal. without glass-wood. 600mm×600mm in size. long-lasting surface. 4. etc.  Gypsum board Semi Perforated Ceiling panel: 48/.  Gypsum board Fully Perforated Ceiling panel: 60/. since they can be easily installed and maintained.  Gypsum board PVC laminated Ceiling panel: 70/. without glass-wood. Advantages of metal ceiling:  They reduce overall cost. which can be suspended from the ceiling.per sft. This result is strong. Aluminum or steel panels.per sft. Rates of some of the available Gypsum board false ceilings based on the survey and brouchers available are as follows:  Plain gypsum board ceiling panel: 40/. Which are coupled with insulating materials to make them soundproof? They are ideal for concealing ducts and wiring. The false ceiling is constructed with metal panels.  They are ideal for workspaces which require clean environments and services that require maintenance such as the machinery rooms. .

. Figs. POP hardens instantly when water is added to it.4 PLASTER OF PARIS (POP): Plaster of Paris (POP) is commonly used for constructing false ceilings. Gypsum.10-15 mm Rate: 30/. which is then suspended to form the false ceiling. It is applied to fibreboard or a wood base.  The surface can be recorded or painted. Advantages of POP:  A smooth.  They give the space a very modern look and blend well with glass. to soon depend upon the design & Pattern.  POP false ceiling are easy to construct and maintain. Thickness. They have a monolithic look. uniform finish. showing metal ceilings in an airport on the left and a hotel corridor on the right 4.  The ceilings are really light. gypsum softens and is then crushed to form a powder. which gives out water when heated. Post-heating.per sft. makes POP.

But ply ceiling are difficult to maintain. 4. The strips are held together and strengthened with ply supports at equal distances. The room has to be thermally controlled to reduce the humidity in the air. These ceilings are created with strips of ply glued or nailed together. with time. or painted to get the right look.Labor cost for the pop ceiling is high. non-porous. . being non-porous and non-absorbent. non-fibrous and non-absorbent ceiling. maintenance free. fire retardant. moisture resistant and reduces condensation and subsequent dripping from ceiling onto work surfaces. can incorporate flush fitting. unhygienic ceilings that are difficult. access hatches. durable and hygienic surface. 4. they are waterproof. Also. and expensive to clean by providing a bright. Advantage of ply ceilings:  They are strong and look appealing.5 PLYWOOD: Plywood ceiling are widely used for their visual appeal.  They can be treated to increase their lifespan.6 PVC FALSE CEILING: PVC ceiling system is light in weight. economical.  They can be given various finishes. PVC ceiling systems solves the problem of dirty. air vents and sprinklers easy to install & available in various colours shades & no hassles of painting & polishing. Ply ceiling are generally used in place with cold climates. which is easily maintained. since these are prone to termite attacks. This extremely practical ceiling system is suitable for any area requiring a fixed. lighting. non-absorbent surface is UV stable and will not discolour. The cleanable. the wood is prone to warping and other physical changes. termite proof.

7 FIBERBOARD AND FIBER/MINERAL REINFORCED TILES: False ceiling can be made with fiber or mineral reinforced tiles and fiberboard. This process increases the insulation capacity of the product. or fire-rated wood panels can be used within the construction to meet acceptable standards/ratings 4. wood.  The fiber increases the hardness and the toughness of the material. ceiling tiles made from mineral fibers. may be draped across ceilings. bitumen and tars.4. Mineral tiles are ceramics reinforced with natural stone. Fiber reinforced tiles are strengthened with wood vegetable fiber. reed paper and agricultural wastes.  If fire safety is a factor.  Water repellents and preservatives can be added to increase the life of the product. Advantages  They have high insulation against sound and fire. collect dust.8 FABRIC AND CLOTH: Fabric is an inexpensive material.  The material can be decorated with paint or other finishes improving the aesthetics of the room. . wood waste. vegetable fiber. these are used for temporary purposes in big churches and function halls.

commercial. the false ceiling would reduce the height of the ceiling considerably and hence do not install false ceiling unless you have a decent ceiling height. LEVOLOR  Fibreboard and mineral board panels. These systems allow easy access to the ceiling space for associated trade work such as electrical and air conditioning which will ensure you get the best price for your overall fit out. factory or shop. Vista.9 COMPANIES /MATERIAL SUPPLIERS:  Gypsum boards. They can get through into the space between and can start their own breeding which might lead to a lot of trouble. the light is diffused through the fabric providing a comfortable intensity This kind of false ceiling is not functional but greatly adds to the aesthetics of the place. Model Interiors . .Armstrong. 4.1 DISADVANTAGES OF FALSE CEILINGS:  The most worrying aspect of having a false ceiling would be pests.2 CONCLUSIONS / RECOMMEDATIONS: Exposed grid systems are a simple. These same tiles can provide the needed additional resistance to meet the "time rating" required for various fire code.Eternit Everest limited  PVC and UPVC. Make sure you know the strength and durability.  Lastly.Beasal Polytech India Pvt. ceiling tiles made from mineral fibers or fire-rated wood panels can be used within the construction to meet acceptable standards and ratings. quick and cost-effective way of installing a ceiling to your office. Poly Extrusions (India) Private Limited 5. Limited  Aluminium metal panels.India Gypsum PVT. ARK international. city ordinance.  Also be careful while putting up decorations or hangings while you have a false ceiling in place. or other similar building construction regulations. Modern Plasta Corporation  POP. INARCO limited.In some places.LUXALON. Ltd. Fire safety is always a factor. 5. do's and don'ts with regard to your ceiling.

down through the hollow stud walls.php?L=73&C=936  http://media. the suspended ceiling is often used with hollow steel studs to construct small office spaces out of a much larger the office spaces are easily dismantled and the overall space is reconfigured with a different floor  and to outlets in the work Wiring and other services are run through the open .PDF  http://en. Wires must either be fished through hollow spaces in the walls behind. If business needs change. or the ceiling must be demolished in order for wiring or piping changes to be made. REFERENCES: Books:  Architectural Ceiling Treatments witten by Neal Barrett  Walls and Ceilings published by "Time-Life Books" Brochures:  Neucon false ceiling sollutions  Armstrong Links:  onepage&q&f=false  http://continuingeducation.Wiring and piping installed behind traditional plaster or wallboard ceilings is extremely difficult to modify once the finished ceiling is in place. In