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2/8/2015

Earth Science
or

Geology
February-2015

n.k.agarwal
ex-Director, GSI
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Geology
In its Most Simple Meaning :
Geology is the Study of Earth

Geology is the History of Earth


How earth was formed ?
How old is earth ?
What is earth made up of ?

Interdisciplinary
Science

Why earth is called a unique planet ?


What are the biotic and a-biotic components of earth ?
What are Natural Resources ?

What is its Environment ?

How to manage Natural Resources ?

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Main Branches of Geology


1.Physical Geology
2.Geomorphology & Environmental Geology
3.Petrology
4.Stratigraphy
5.Paleontology
6.Structural Geology
7.Geochronology
8.Economic Geology Minerals Oil & Gas etc.
9.Seismo-Tectonics
10.Engineering Geology
11.Geochemistry
12.Geophysics etc.

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The Big Bang


~15 billion years ago

ENERGY and MASS TRANSFORMATION

Ma= Million Anum = 10x6

Ga= Giga Anum = 10x9


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The Origin of the Earth


Making of Solar System

~15 billion years ago :


The Earth and the other 8 planets and the
Sun accreted at about the same time from a
vast cloud of dust and gas (nebula).

~5 billion years ago :


The nebula began to gravitationally contract,
began to rotate and flattened. Eventually, the
Sun ignited (fusion) and the newly formed
planets began to differentiate - heavier
elements and chemical components sank to
the center and rocky material formed the
crust. The newly formed planets and moons
released gas forming early atmospheres.

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Making of Solar System

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Solar System

Inner Planets

Asteroids

Outer Planets

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Earth From Outer Space

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Indian Sub-Continent from Outer Space

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Uttarakhand from Outer Space

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University of Petroleum and Energy Studies

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What's the first


thing that you
notice about
our planet
when you see
this image?

Unique Planet - Earth

The Earth is composed


of several integrated
parts (spheres) that
interact with one
another:

Atmosphere
Hydrosphere
Solid earth (lithosphere)
Biosphere

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Unique Planet - Earth


Atmosphere:
The swirling clouds of the
atmosphere represent the
very thin blanket of air that
covers our planet. It is not
only the air we breathe, but
protects us from harmful
radiation from the sun.

Hydrosphere:
The global ocean is the
most prominent feature of
our (blue) planet. The
oceans cover ~71% of our
planet and represent 97% of
all the water on our planet.

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The Earth
System

Unique Planet - Earth

Solid Earth:
Represents the majority of
the Earth system. Most of
the Earth lies at inaccessible
depths.

Biosphere:
Includes all life forms on
Earth - concentrated on land,
water and air- Plants and
Animals.

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Inside the Earth


Crust thickness varies
From 5-70 km

Crust

6357 km at Poles

3486 km
1216 km

Mantle

0
Liquid
Core
Solid
Core

Density (gm/cm3)
Earth

5.517

Continental Crust

2.80

Oceanic Crust

2.90

Mantle

4.53

Outer Core

9.71

Inner Core

16.0

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Earth's Internal Structure


The Earth's interior is
characterized by a gradual
increase in temperature,
pressure and density with
depth.
At only 100 km depth, the
temp is ~1300C.
At the Earth's center, the
temperature is >6700C.
The pressure in the crust
increases ~280 bars for
every kilometer depth.

Polar Radius
~6357 km
Equatorial Radius ~6378 km
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Earth's Internal Structure (contd.)


Depth wise the Earth
consists of 3 major
divisions marked by
differences in chemical
composition Crust,

Mantle and Core

Crust:

Outermost rigid
layer - 2 types:

1. oceanic - 3-15 km
thick and is composed
of basalt (igneous).
Young (<180 million
years old).

2. continental - up to
70 km thick comprising
of a wide variety of rock
types Ranges from
young to old (>3.8
billion years old).
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Earth's Internal Structure (contd.)


Mantle: comprises
~82% of the Earth by
volume (~2900 km).
The mantle is
characterized denser
rocks and is able to flow
(plastically) at very slow
rates.

Core: composed of
iron, nickel and other
minor elements.
The outer core is liquid
capable of flow and
source of the Earth's
magnetic field (~2270km).
The inner core is solid
Fe-Ni (~1216km).
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EARTH A UNIQUE PLANET


Only Planet known to have Life Supporting
Conditions
ATMOSPHERE

BIOSPHERE

HYDROSPHERE

SOLID EARTH

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Biotic and A-Biotic Constituents


All Life Forms
Plants
Animals

Terrestrial
Land
Fresh Water
Marine

Rocks and Minerals


Soil
Water

Most of Solid Biotic


Constituents are
Made up of Minerals
and Rocks

Gases
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What is Mineral ?
It is a Natural Inorganic Solid Substance with a
Definite Range of Chemical Composition,
Atomic Structure and Measurable Properties.

Loose Definition of Mineral

What about Coal, Oil, Water


Coral etc.

?
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How Many Minerals are known ?


> 3500 are Identified
About 100 are Commonly found

Abundance of elements
in earths crust (% Wt.)
1

Oxygen

46.71

About 30 are important


rock forming minerals.

Silicon

27.69

Aluminum

8.07

Iron

5.05

Rock forming minerals


are composed of the most
abundant elements found
in the earths crust

Calcium

3.65

Sodium

2.75

Potassium

2.58

Magnesium

2.08

Titanium

0.62

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Hydrogen

0.14

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Phosphorus

0.13

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Carbon

0.094

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Manganese

0.09

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Sulphur

0.002

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Barium

0.050

Rest

0.244

Total

100.0

15 elements constitute 99.75 %


of Earths crust

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Rocks and Minerals Raw Material


Life Revolves around Rocks & Minerals
Needle

Soil
Forest

Tooth paste
Talcum Powder
Utensils

Direct Useable
Minerals & Rocks

Electronics
Appliances

Indirect Useable
Minerals & Rocks

Fertilizers

Agriculture - Soil
Energy Fuels (Coal, Oil & Gas)
Energy Nuclear
Ornaments and Gem Stones

Gold, Silver
Clay
Sand
Gravel, boulder
Lime
Gem Stones
Glass
Copper, Zinc, Lead, Steel
Borax, Sulphur
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Important Mineral Compositions


S.No. Composition
1

Oxides

Silicates

Carbonates

Phosphates

Sulphides

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7
8
9
10

Nitrates
Borates
Hydrocarbon Compounds
Mixed
Native
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Common Rock Forming Minerals (simplified)


S.N.

Name

S.N.

Name

Quartz*

Montmorinillonite*

Orthoclase
Microcline
Albite etc.

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Chromite
Hematite*
Magnetite*
Pyrolusite*
Psilomelane*

Muscovite, Biotite, Chlorite

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Garnet

Calcite*
Dolomite*
Magnesite*

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Epidote
Sillimanite*
Kyanite*

Amphiboles

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Pyrite*
Chalcopyrite*
Pyrrhotite*

Pyroxenes

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Peat, Lignite, Coal,

Olivine

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Apatite*

Kaolin*

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Gold**, Silver** etc.


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* - Also forms mineral deposits ; ** - Occurs in small quantities in some rocks.

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Soils
Weathering and Erosion of Rocks

Generates Soils
Alluvium

Lateritic

Transported

Residual

Indo Gangetic Brahmaputra Plains


Terraces along valleys
Coastal Plains
Laterite, Bauxite, Clays etc.
Sand Rock, Silica Sand
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Natural Resources
Mineral Resources

Rocks & Minerals


Soil

Water Resources

Water Bodies
Ground Water

Plant & Animal Resources

Forest & Wild Life etc.

Renewable & Non-Renewable Resources


Finite Resources
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Environment
Total biotic & a-biotic components surrounding us

Mutual relation and interrelation


Sustainability
Man is Unique pest, parasite and predator

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Natural Resource Management


Quality of Life
Resilience
Over Exploitation
Conservation
New Resources & Replacement

Global Climate Change


Environment Protection
Sustainable Development
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Our Main Concern


To Understand Use of Geology in Oil &
Gas Exploration
or
To Understand What is Oil & Gas Exploration

All Oil & Gas Exploration and Exploitation


revolves around Geology
Understanding of Geology tells us where to
search for Oil & Gas and How to Exploit it

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What is Applied Geology

?
In most simple meaning : It is the
application of the knowledge of Geology
for the benefit of mankind Improving the
Quality of Life
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Summary :
This chapter helps you in understanding :
1)
What is Geology & Applied Geology?
2)
How Mineral Resources including Oil & Gas
related to the knowledge of Geology?
3)
Relation between Knowledge of Geology and
Sustainable Development

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