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Origin Of Earth
February-2015

n.k.agarwal
ex-Director, GSI

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Earth, Planets, Sun has a common heritage or origin
 Earth is part of Solar System and the Solar
System is part of The Milky Way Galaxy, which
is one of the Galaxies in the Universe.
 Scientists have been studying the creation of
universe for last many centuries.
 It is now thought that the Universe was
created through a “Big Bang” some 15 billion
years ago.

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Earth, Planets, Sun has a common heritage or origin

 The universe holds everything from the tiniest
particle to the clusters of galaxies (consisting
of stars, planets etc. in a medium of gas and
dust all held together by gravity.
 Our galaxy, the Milky Way, part of the universe
has hundreds of billions of stars, gas and
dust held together by gravity).

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2/8/2015 The Big Bang ~15 billion years ago ENERGY and MASS TRANSFORMATION B Ma= Million Anum = 10x6 Ga= Giga Anum = 10x9 4 4 .

 The universe has been expanding ever since.  This matter expanded and started to cool down. going through different transitional phases. 5 . At present there is no answer from where this energy came .2/8/2015 The Big Bang  The “Big Bang” theory states that the universe was formed about 15 billion years ago from a giant explosion when suddenly energy transformed into matter.

2/8/2015 V 6 6 .

disk shape. • Most of the material gravitationally swept to the center forming the protosun (Pre-Sun).2/8/2015 Big Bang to Formation of Solar System • Solar Nebula – Rotating cloud of dust and gases (Hydrogen and Helium) begins to contract (~5bya). due to gravitational effects. • Planets begin to accrete from the material in the flattened disk which is orbiting the sun. • Material assumes a flat. • In time. most of the material is swept into planets/moons or lost into space. 7 .

• The most refractory particles survived the hottest part of the contracting nebula. • Inner rocky planets are: – High density – Small in size – Composed of metallic and rocky substances (Fe. Ni. gravitational.2/8/2015 Big Bang to Formation of Solar System • Planetary segregation due to pressure. Ca. Si. Na) 8 . and temperature gradients (chemical differentiation).

• Outer gaseous planets are: – Low density – Large in size – Formed primarily from ices (H2O. and NH3-Ammonia) and gases (H2 and He) 9 . • These materials could only exist in the cooler outer regions of the nebula.2/8/2015 Big Bang to Formation of Solar System • The gases were vaporized or swept away by the solar wind. CO2. CH4.

forming a disk of gas and dust at its centre.  Eventually the hot centre of the nebula formed a star .  This nebula grew hotter and denser.2/8/2015 Making of Solar System  According to the Big Bang theory. leading to frequent collisions between dust grains.  As the nebula contracted.the sun. the solar system was formed from a cloud containing dust and gas i. Hydrogen. 10 . known as “Nebula”.e. helium etc. it spun rapidly.

 By studying these meteorites.y. eventually forming planets and their satellites. old. These particles are called meteorites.  Different planetary particles left over from this initial explosion can still be found flying around in space. scientists have found that our solar system is about 4600 m. 11 .2/8/2015 Making of Solar System  The particles of nebula dust started sticking together.

Eventually. The newly formed planets and moons released gas forming early atmospheres. began to rotate and flattened.2/8/2015 The Origin of the Earth Making of Solar System ~15 billion years ago : The Earth and the other 8 planets and the Sun accreted at about the same time from a vast cloud of dust and gas (nebula). ~5 billion years ago : The nebula began to gravitationally contract.heavier elements and chemical components sank to the center and rocky material formed the crust. 12 12 . the Sun ignited (fusion) and the newly formed planets began to differentiate .

2/8/2015 Making of Solar System 13 13 .

2/8/2015 Solar System Inner Planets Asteroids Outer Planets 14 14 .

2/8/2015 Earth From Outer Space 15 15 .

• Layered structure developed by chemical segregation early in the formation of the Solar System and the Earth.2/8/2015 Early Evolution of Earth • Origin of Planet Earth – Most researchers believe that Earth and the other planets formed at essentially the same time from the same primordial material as the Sun. 16 .

2/8/2015 The basic statistics of the earth The earth on which we are live is a Unique planet of the solar system. 2. Polar diam.km Mass : 5. : ~ 12. : ~ 12. 000km Surface Area : ~ 510 m.714 km Equatorial diam. 7. Volume : 1042 billion cu.756 km Circumference : 40. 5. From the sun : 150 million km Average surface temperature : 14C 17 .km.97 ×10 21 tonnes Dist. 6. 1.sq. 8. 3. 4.

18 .2/8/2015 Hypothesis for the Origin of Earth The cosmologists have developed 2 basic hypothesis for the origin of the earth or strictly speaking the origin of the Solar system…… 1. Single body hypothesis .Single Star Hypothesis.the planets were formed without intervention from forces outside the solar system (No object other than the Sun was involved).

It presumes that another star passed close to the sun (2 – star hypothesis) ………………From these basic two Hypotheses a number of Hypotheses have been generated.Assumes that the solar system originated as a result of forces created by the accidental interference of another celestial object. 19 .2/8/2015 Hypothesis for the Origin of Earth 2. Second body hypothesis .

2/8/2015 (1) The Nebular Hypothesis (Single Star Hypothesis)  Perhaps the oldest scientific explanation. 20 .  This hypothesis assumes the existence of a large globular mass of gas called “nebula”.  By Kant in 1775 & Laplace in 1796.  This nebula gradually became smaller due to its inherent gravitational pull. slowly rotating through the space.

2/8/2015 (1) The Nebular Hypothesis Single Star Hypothesis (contd. • Eventually the outermost part of the nebula rotated so rapidly that rings of gas got separated from the shrinking nebular body. the nebular mass started cooling and contracting simultaneously. 21 .) • During the rotation. its speed of rotation increased. • These rings slowly got condensed to form the planets and the central mass became the sun. • As it contracted.

2/8/2015 Globular Nebula Separation of Gaseous Rings Separation of Gaseous Rings Origin of Solar System from Nebula (Single Star Hypothesis) 22 .

2. the sun is having only 2% of the total angular momentum. because it is the most massive part of the solar system and it (sun) lies at the centre of the system. If this hypothesis worked and the origin of the solar system actually did take place. Such detached rings of gas should have been dissipated in space rather than getting condensed into solid particles. 23 .2/8/2015 Drawbacks of Nebula Hypothesis 1. But actually. the sun should have been having the greatest angular momentum.

4.Star Hypothesis 1. Proposed by Chamberlin & Moulton in 1904. it exerted a gravitational force on the sun & pulled masses of solar material. 24 . When the “intruder star” passed by the sun.2/8/2015 (2) The Planetesimal Hypothesis 2. Assumes the existence of two stars in space in the very beginning. 2. The sun was considered to be one of these two stars existing before the formation of the planets. 3.

8. This detached material was dragged along in the direction of movement of the passing star.) 5. 7. each moving in its own orbit around the sun. and later got cooled & condensed into solid particles called “planetesimals”.2/8/2015 (2) The Planetesimal Hypothesis 2. These planetesimals acted as nuclei that attracted other planetesimals. the planets eventually grew to their present sizes. the angular momentum of the planets was derived from the pull of the passing star. As per this hypothesis. Other smaller clusters of planetesimals.Star Hypothesis (contd. and by accretion. 25 . 6. formed the satellites.

2/8/2015 Drawbacks of The Planetesimal Hypothesis 1. The motion of the planetesimals could not possibly be produced by the passing star . Instead. It is highly unlikely that another star could have passed so close to the sun and the intruder star could have generated sufficient thrust to set the detached solar masses in motion in orbits. 2. it is more likely that such masses would simply diffuse into the space. 26 .

Star Hypothesis) (3) The Turbulent Hypothesis 27 .2/8/2015 Important Alternative to The Planetesimal Hypothesis (2)(i) The Tidal Hypothesis (2.

2/8/2015 (2)(i) The Tidal Hypothesis 2-Star Hypothesis  Hypothesis given by Jeans & Jeffrey. 28 . due to the force of attraction between the sun and a “passing star”.  Assumed that tides were created on the sun. two British Astronomer.

each of which condensed to form planets.  This separated filament was in the form of a spindle & was unstable.  It further broken down into a number of small fragments. 29 .  Some of these planets further broken down into pieces and formed satellites. a gaseous filament got separated from the sun. as soon as the passing star went away.2/8/2015 (2)(i) The Tidal Hypothesis 2-Star Hypothesis  Due to this tidal action.

2/8/2015 (2)(i) The Tidal Hypothesis 2-Star Hypothesis 30 .

31 . The passing star cannot possibly impart the proper angular momentum to the gaseous filament 2.2/8/2015 Drawbacks of The Tidal Hypothesis 2-Star Hypothesis 1. A hot filament pulled from the sun would not form solid planets but simply diffuse into the space.

an American scientist modified this hypothesis and proposed the same. Kuiper. 2. 4. Latest & widely accepted.2/8/2015 (3) The Turbulent Hypothesis or The Protoplanet Hypothesis 1. 32 . In the same year. In 1951. a Soviet mathematician. in 3. his views were supported (with some modification) by Schmit. First proposed by a German physicist 1944.

Because of its rotating nature. 33 . The hypothesis says that in the very beginning. 7. this nebular disc developed large whirlpool (eddies) at various places. This nebula. due to gravitational attraction. 6. rapidly rotating in space. formed a disc of cloud & dust. there was a hot gaseous nebular mass.2/8/2015 (3) The Turbulent Hypothesis or The Protoplanet Hypothesis 5.

called “protoplanets”. 9. thus forming swirls of dust and gas. These independent eddies also contained a whole system of smaller eddies. 10. These eddies might then have collected the surrounding dusty material by gravitational attraction. 34 .2/8/2015 (3) The Turbulent Hypothesis or The Protoplanet Hypothesis 8. Ultimately these eddies got separated from the nebular masses.

giving rise to spinning discs that became the satellites or moons of the planets. 12. It is believed that such protoplanets represent the present day planets. 35 . These original protoplanets were larger than the finished planets.2/8/2015 (3) The Turbulent Hypothesis or The Protoplanet Hypothesis 11. much 13. Smaller eddies got developed inside some of the larger eddies.

36 .  It is significant that some of these massive eddies of gas & dust are actually condensing to form new stars.  The observations (through telescopes) have revealed numerous nebulas between the stars.2/8/2015 Present Understanding  Many of the astronomers today support this hypothesis of the Protoplanet hypothesis.

2/8/2015 The origin of the earth still remains a subject of Study Still a BIG QUESTION -? 37 .

How Solar System was formed? 3. What is the relation between Earth. How earth was formed and what is the current hypothesis about the origin of Earth? 38 38 .2/8/2015 Summary : This chapter helps you in understanding : 1. Solar System and Universe? 2.

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