CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

1.1

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The importance of using the right type and quality of aggregates cannot be
overemphasized. The aggregates used in a concrete may be fine and coarse aggregates.
They generally occupy the 60% to 75% of the concrete volume (70% to 85% by mass)
and strongly influence the concrete’s freshly mixed and hardened properties, mixture
proportions and economy. Coarse aggregates consist of one or a combination of gravels
or crushed stone with particles predominantly larger than 5mm (0.2in) and generally
between 9.5mm and 37.5mm (3/8in. and 1 1/2in). Natural gravels are usually dug or
dredged from a pit, river, lake, or sea bed. While crushed stone on the other hand is
produced by crushing quarry rock, boulders, cobbles or large size gravel.
Crushed stone is a construction aggregate created by mining a suitable rock
formation and then breaking down the rock to varying sizes using a crusher as said
earlier. Most construction in Luzon commonly uses natural gravels than crushed stone
due to economic and availability matter. Their natural resources in terms of stones
especially crushed one is not abundant as we have here in Mindanao. Here in Cotabato,
we’re abundant in the resources with both of these natural and crushed stones. Yet
despite of being profuse with these stones consumers prefers to use natural one than
crushed stone in concrete mixing.
This study is conducted to be able to identify if these several sources of stone
such as Simuay for River source stone and Libungan for crushed stone have pass to the

It also conducted to help the consumers to have knowledge if the stones of these sources are helpful in terms of efficiency.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM At present time. To determine also the properties of Cement and Sand limiting to Specific Gravity  of Cement and Sand. It is commonly used more than any other manmade material in the world making concrete one of the most in demand construction material. design mix of concretes) .3 SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY At the end of this study we expect to meet the following specific objectives:  To determine the individual properties (that limits to following Grading. The Simuay River’s river-source stone aggregate (rounded gravel) and Libungan’s crushed stone aggregate is assessed in this study. The most common sources of aggregates for Cotabato City are Simuay River and Libungan. Bulk Density. Concrete commonly consists 85% of aggregates (by mass) making the acceptability of aggregates essential to quality control of materials. To determine/choose the design mixture of our Samplings by Absolute Volume Design (conform to ACI Code. Fineness of Cement and Moisture Content of Sand. at what degree would the crushed stone of Libungan be more superior against the river-source stone of Simuay? 1. workability and economic wise in a concrete. usage of concrete is abundant in construction because of its superior resistance against fire and its low maintenance cost due to service longevity. Surface Texture and Moisture Content) of the Crushed stone from Libungan and River source stone from Simuay to the  Standard Specification of ASTM for Coarse Aggregates. Specific Gravity& Absorption.standards of the ASTM for coarse aggregates. Will these stones satisfy the standard specifications of ASTM? And comparing these two. 1.

1. To compare the result from our samplings to the standard specifications of ASTM.5 1.4 1. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK DEFINITION OF TERMS .6 1.7  To determine the vertical compressive strength of the Sampling to the Standard  Specification of ASTM.