# Specific Gravity & Absorption

Specific gravity (relative density) of an aggregate is the ratio of its mass to
the mass of an equal absolute volume of water. It is determined not because it is a
measure on aggregate quality, but it is relevant in calculations related to mix
designs. Most normal-weight aggregates have specific gravity that ranges from 2.4
to 2.9. Test methods are as per ASTM C127 (AASHTO T85) and C128 (AASHTO T84)
for coarse aggregates and fine aggregates, respectively.
For absorption (moisture content) of aggregates, ASTM C70, C127, C128, and
C566 (AASHTO T255) are used. The purpose for determining water absorption of
aggregates is for control of total water content of concrete, thus, corrected batch
weights would be determine in the design mix. If water content is not kept constant,
the water-cement ratio is then affected, such that the compressive strength and
workability varies from batch to batch. Coarse aggregates will generally have
absorption levels that range from 0.2% to 4%.
As for test methods in this research, ASTM C127 is referred to. Specific
gravity and absorption for both course aggregates; crushed stone aggregates and
river-source stone aggregates, are then determined by the following laboratory
results and calculations.
Formulas:

S .G . ( Bulk SSD )=

Absorption , =

Wt . of SSD
Wt . of SSD −Buoyant Wt .

;

Wt . of SSD−Wt . of OD
×100
Wt . of OD

Where:
SSD - saturated surface dry condition of sample; neither absorbing water
from nor contributing water to the concrete mixture.
OD - oven-dry condition of sample; aggregates are fully absorbent.
Buoyant Wt. - is the weight of sample when completely submerged in water;
damp or wet condition, aggregates contain an excess of moisture on the surface.
For crushed stone:
Initial Weight
Weight of Bucket
Weight of Pan

Mass (Kilograms)
5.000
1.000
0.500
1.044

Saturated Surface-dry Condition + Bucket Sample in Water (Buoyant Weight) Oven-dry Condition of Sample + Pan 5.100 5. substituting values to the formula.500 kg=2.100 kg−0.36 with water absorption of 2.789 3.382 1.044 kg=4.789 kg Buoyant Wt .000 kg=4.000 0. specific gravity of crushed stone is 2.000 kg=4.681 kg Therefore.13%.300 kg−0.789 kg−1.065 5. For river-source stone: Initial Weight Weight of Bucket Weight of Wire Basket Weight of Pan Saturated Surface-dry Condition + Bucket Sample in Water (Buoyant Weight) Oven-dry Condition of Sample + Pan Mass (Kilograms) 5.800 kg Wt .40 with water absorption of 2.300 5.662 kg−1. Determination of Specific Gravity of Cement Formulas: . of OD=5. of SSD=5.=3.50%.785 Wt .725 kg−1. of SSD=5.718 kg Wt . substituting values to the formula.712 kg−1.712 kg Buoyant Wt .065 kg=4.000 1. specific gravity of crushed stone is 2.=3.662 Wt .712 3.597 kg Therefore. of OD=5.382 kg=2.

069 W4 Mass (kilograms) 0.299 W3 Weight of Flask + Kerosene + Cement Weight of Flask + Kerosene 1.97 as specific gravity of cement.Specific Gravity= W 2−W 1 ( W 2−W 1 )−( W 3−W 4 ) (0. we have 2.79) . Symbol W1 Description Weight of Flask W2 Weight of Flask + Cement 0. .249 1. The value 0.027 Substituting values on formula.79 is the specific gravity of kerosene.

the measured height of sample of crushed stone is 4.371 0. Determination of Bulk Density The bulk density or unit weight of the aggregate is the mass or weight of the aggregate required to fill a specified unit volume. A 30% to 40% of void content is observed for course aggregates and angularity increases void content while well-graded aggregates decreases it. the height and diameter of the cylindrical container will be measured.7 inch or 0. Determining the bulk density of aggregates and void content is given by the methods of ASTM C29 (AASHTO T19). While for fine aggregates. Then.435 0.6 inch or 0.Fineness of Cement Formulas: Fineness . of Original Sample Weight of Sample Weight of Pan Sample + Pan Weight of Passing on No.064 0. Volume referred to here is the volume of aggregates plus the volume of the void between the aggregate particles. Diameter of bucket is 7 ½ inch or 0. The normal-weight concrete commonly contains an approximate bulk density of aggregate that ranges from about 1200 to 1750 kg/m^3. .371 There are no residues left on the No. 200 sieve. while that of the river-source stone is 5. Formulas: ρ= Mass Volume . of Residue × 100 Wt .1905 meters.435 0. π 2 Volume= (diameter of bucket ) (height of sample) 4 The crushed stone and river-source stone’s bulk density was determined by putting the sample in a container where it is being tamp until it is almost compacted inside the container. 200 Sieve + Pan Weight of Residue + Pan Mass (Kilograms) 0.11684 meters. this result for fineness means that the cement type is type I.14478 meters. methods for determination of bulk density and void content is stated in ASTM C1252. meaning no special properties whatsoever is present in the cement (Normal Portland Cement). = Wt .

310 milliliters was the first reading.074 1812 8.015 1. 424 milliliters was noted after.126 ×10 −3 −3 Weight of Container ( kg ) Calculated Density kg ( m3 ) 7.55× 10−4 0.33 ×10 River-source Stone 4. an initial reading of 300 milliliters was taken.14 ×10−4 0.574 0.109 1.Results for both stones are as follows: Materials Volume ( m 3 Weight of Sample + Container ) ( kg ) Crushed Stone 3. then.730 0.386 1649 . and 455 milliliters was taken when the sand was poured in the water. For the sand.074 1682 The fine aggregate or the sand together with the cement’s density was determined by submerging them in a graduated cylinder with water. For the cement.387 2213 Cement 1. Results were as follows: Materials Volume ( m 3 ) Weight of Sample + Container ( kg ) Weight of Container Calculated Density ( kg ) kg ( m3 ) Fine Aggregates 1.

40 2.40(1000) bag 3 2 ( 0.92(1000) bag Crushed Stone Sand Water ¿ ¿ 4 ( 0.36 2.68 (as for 2500 psi compressive strength.028 2. and 0. (Conform to Code from American Concrete Institute) Design Mix Using Crushed Stone: ¿ Cement 1 ( 0. water content of 8 gallons per bag (30. class A design mix (1:2:4 design ratio).08456 2.50 11.11 - will be used as cement content for all design mix for a maximum slump of 6 inches.0158 2.028 ) (2213) m =0.05791 2.283 L m3 =0. non-air entrained concrete @ 28 days).Mix Design Data: Specific Gravity Mass Density kg Water Absorption.92 m3 of concrete bag of cement 1812 1682 2213 1649 2. % ( m3 ) Crushed Stone River-source Stone Sand Cement A value 0.14 2.028 ) (1649) m3 =0.0303 bag bag .13 2.14 (1000) bag ¿ 30. a water-cement ratio of 0.028 ) (1812) m3 =0.054 m3 for total volume of concrete per mix.283 Liters per bag).

4793 ×10−3 m3 ) ( 2.33 2+ 4  Fine Of sand by absolute volume Aggregates’ ¿ 33.59 ×10−3 m 3 In terms of Mass (kilograms): Cement Mass Water Mass ( ¿ ( 4.2835 ( 0.2835 ( 0.4793× 10 m Cement Volume ¿ 0.0158 )=4.59 kg m3 ) Applying correction to the quantity of water using water absorption of the Crushed Stone: Corrected Water Mass 8.08 kg 3 m ) kg =8.0213 )=8.00% multiplied to itself (assumed volume of air holes) m3 bag The total volume of concrete divided to the above result is equal to 0.2835 bag(s) of cement. we get 0.6706 ×100 =+1.333 +1.59 kg × ( 1+0.37 0.0303 )=8.3 Total of ¿ 0.37 =34.703 Percentage in the Total Volume of Aggregates .773 kg Dividing the corrected water mass to the cement mass.6707 as watercement ratio.6707 Proportion of the fine aggregate to the coarse aggregate: 2 ×100 =33.18857 m bag ± 1.68−0.59 ×10−3 m3 ) 1000 kg =13. −3 Water Volume 3 ¿ 0.92 ) 1000 ( ¿ ( 8. from standard water-cement ratio ¿ 0. Diff.19046 0.

59 ×10−3 ) ]=0.028 ) (1649) m3 =0.4793× 10−3 ) + ( 8. in mass ¿ 64.0142=0.0267307 m 3 ¿ 30.154 kg 30.388 kg .0158 2.054−[ ( 4.Volume of both fine and coarse aggregate: 0.14 (1000) bag ¿ 30.0798 2.283 L m3 =0.154 kg Summary: Materials Crushed stone Sand Cement Water Design Mix Using River-source Stone: ¿ Cement 1 ( 0.04093 m3 % of Aggregates against total volume of concrete: 0.0303 bag bag Quantity 64.92(1000) bag Crushed Stone Sand Water ¿ 3 4 ( 0. in mass Volume of crushed stone ¿ 0.0409307 ×100 =75.054 Are aggregates  Volume of sand ¿ 0.05791 2.34703 )=0.0409307−0.773 kg or 8.028 ) (1682) m ¿ =0.36(1000) bag 2 ( 0.388 kg 13.08 kg 8.0409307 ( 0.0142 m 3 .773 L .8 0.028 ) (2213) m3 =0.

68−0.18565 0.814 kg × ( 1+ 0.333 −1.68807 as watercement ratio.0158 )=4. Diff.68807 ×100 =−1.Total of ¿ 0.0796 kg m3 ) kg =8.92 ) 1000 ( ¿ ( 8.596 × 10−3 m 3 ) ( 2.68807 Proportion of the fine aggregate to the coarse aggregate: 2 ×100 =33.143 Percentage in the Total Volume of Aggregates .18381 m3 bag ± 1.814 kg m3 ) Applying correction to the quantity of water using water absorption of the Riversource Stone: Corrected Water Mass 8.33 2+ 4  Fine Of sand by absolute volume Aggregates’ ¿ 33.19 =32.0250 )=9 kg Dividing the corrected water mass to the cement mass.0303 )=8.2909 ( 0. ¿ 0.596× 10−3 m3 Cement Volume Water Volume ¿ 0.2909 ( 0.814 × 10−3 m3 In terms of Mass (kilograms): Cement Mass Water Mass ( ¿ ( 4.00% multiplied to itself (assumed volume of air holes) m3 bag The total volume of concrete divided to the above result is equal to 0. from standard water-cement ratio ¿ 0.19 0. we get 0.814 ×10−3 m3 ) 1000 kg =13.2909 bag(s) of cement.

01305 m 3 .814 × 10−3 ) ]=0.927 kg .01305=0.054−[ ( 4. in mass Volume of crushed stone ¿ 0.04059 ×100 =75.994 kg Summary: Materials River-source stone Sand Cement Water Quantity 64. in mass ¿ 64.927 kg 13.04059 ( 0.04059−0.Volume of both fine and coarse aggregate: 0.02754 m 3 ¿ 27.054 Are aggregates  Volume of sand ¿ 0.080 kg 9 kg or 9 L .17 0.994 kg 27.04059 m3 % of Aggregates against total volume of concrete: 0.596× 10−3 ) + ( 8.32143 )=0.