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ALTERNATOR RANGE
Brushless 5KVA To 1010KVA,1500rpm,3-Ph,415Volt
Brushless 5KVA To 50KVA,1500rpm,1-Ph,240Volt
Brushless 5KVA To 30KVA, 3000rpm,3-Ph,415Volt
Brushless 5KVA To 15KVA,3000rpm,1-Ph,240-Volt

AL. BODY ALTERNATOR ( 160 FR: 15 - 30KVA)

AL. BODYALTERNATOR(200 FR: 35 -90kVA)

AL.BODY ALTERNATOR(250 FR: 100-200kVA )

FAB. BODY ALTERNATOR(315/355&400FR:250-1010kVA)

WHAT IS ALTERNATOR..?
Alternator or AC Generator is a Electrical Rotating M/c,
which converts Mechanical INPUT power into Electrical
output Power.

TYPES OF ATERNATOR
1. Brush less Alternator :- As the name indicates
there is no slip ring & brushes for feeding the the
DC power to Field winding.
2. Slip-ring Alternator :- There is slip ring &
brushes for feeding the the DC power to Field
winding.
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SALIENT FEATURES OF
CGL ALTERNATORS


Al. alloy gravity die cast stator body - Pleasing look & light in weight.

2/3 rd pitch windings : Offers better suitability for Non-linear loads.

Efficiencies - Better/ at par with competitors.

Spacious Terminal box with provision of double side entry Flexibility &
Ease of Al. customer cables termination inside the box.

Out-board Diode board assembly (as against inboard in case of


competitors)- Ease of service.

Epoxy gel treatment on Winding overhangs : Offers better suitability for


tropical environment.

Life long lubricated sealed bearings.

DECODING OF MACHINES AND


EXCISE REF. NO.

STD./OPTIONAL TECHNICAL SPECN

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OPERATION PRINCIPLE OF
BRUSHLESS ALTERNATOR

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FEW COMPONENTS

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Exciter Rotor & Main Rectifier Assembly


Exciter Rotor 3 Phase
with Internal Star Point

SHAFT

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Exciter Rotor & Main Rectifier Assembly


Exciter Rotor
with Internal Star Point

Rectifier Assembly

To
Main Rotor

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Main Rectifier Assembly- Operation of a Diode


+VE
A.C Input to Rectifier Diodes
Rectifier Diode
Positive Heatsink
Cathode Stud

0
-VE
+VE
0
-VE

Rectifier Diode
Negative Heatsink
Anode Stud

+VE
0
-VE

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Main Rectifier Assembly- 3 Phase Rectification


A.C Input to Rectifier Diodes

D.C output to Main Rotor

Full wave 3 Phase rectification will produce a D.C output

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Metal Oxide Varistor (Surge Suppressor)

Diode Protection Device


For Transient Suppression

SHAFT

Main Rotor
Connections

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Main Rectifier Connections to Main Rotor

Main Rectifier
Aluminium
bus bar

SHAFT

Main Rotor

D.C

The Rectifier Output is a smooth D.C Supply across the Aluminium bus bars
This is fed to the Main Rotor windings

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What does BRUSHLESS


BRUSHLESS
BRUSHLESS Generator mean?
D.C. FIELD POLES

OUTPUT

CARBON
BRUSHES

A.C.ARMATURE

SHAFT

SLIPRINGS
BEARINGS

Long back CG Generators were designed with SLIPRINGS and CARBON BRUSHES, to
transfer power from the rotating component of the Generator.
These had a tendency to wear out, spark, burn, with vibration or high transient load
currents.
BRUSHLESS Generators are designed to allow output to be taken from the Generator
WITHOUT SLIP-RINGS AND BRUSHES.

NOW LETS LOOK AT A BRUSHLESS GENERATOR !!


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Double Bearing Main Rotor Assembly


Main Rotor
Exciter Rotor

Fan

Bearings

Rectifier

Bearings are sealed for life.


 Rotating rectifier assly is fitted to the non drive end of the Exciter rotor

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Single Bearing Main Rotor Assembly


Main Rotor
Exciter
Rotor

Fan

Bearing

Rectifier

Drive End of Generator Shaft is supported by the Engine Flywheel


Sealed bearing for life time

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Wound Main Stator Assembly

Core built from high grade Electrical Steel, to reduce Iron losses (heat).
Each lamination is electrically insulated to minimise Eddy Currents in the core.
12 Ends Out Re-connectable, 6 Ends out Star / Delta, or Dedicated Windings.
Class H Insulation as standard, 125 C Temperature rise in 40 Ambient.
2/3rds Pitch windings, Multiple of 3 ( 3rd, 6th, 9th ect.), Harmonics are eliminated.
VPI Impregnation with Class H resin as standard.

Laminated Steel core

Copper Windings

Output Leads

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Wound Main Rotor - Coil Group connections


ANTI CLOCK

D.C Input
From Main
Rectifier

S
CLOCK

CLOCK

S
ANTI CLOCK

The Rotor coils are connected in Series (4 Pole Rotor shown).


Each coil is reversed to the adjacent coil, producing the required polarity

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Wound Main Rotor - Poles & Frequency


Generator Frequency (HZ) = Speed (N) X Pairs of poles (P)
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2 Pole

4 Pole

SHAFT

N
N

SHAFT

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Main Rotor- Damper Windings

SHAFT

Damper Bars
Aluminium Damper Bars Welded to End Plates

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Main Rotor- Amortisseur (Damper) Windings

SHAFT

S
Helps dampen speed oscillations resulting from cyclic irregularities in
the engine, (cause of light flicker).
Stabilises the mechanical systems during large load changes.
Stabilises load sharing with other Generators in Parallel.
Improves Harmonic Distortion in the Generator waveform

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Excitation System - Exciter Stator


Exciter
Stator

Main Stator
Exciter
Rotor
& Stator
Bearing

Main Rotor

Shaft

Rectifier
Fan

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Excitation System - Wound Exciter Stator


X+ (F1)
XX- (F2)

To A.V.R Terminals

COIL CONNECTIONS

High-remanence steel core


Stores Residual Magnetism
High frequency Generator
FOR 132/160/200 FRAME = 6 POLES
FOR 250/280 FRAME = 6 POLES
FOR 315 / 355 FRAME = 12 POLES

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AL Series Double Bearing Alternator


Terminal
Block

Covers

AVR
Main Stator
Assembly

V1 W1
U1 V1

Main Rotor
Assembly
Exciter Rotor
Laminated Steel core
With RRA

Exciter Stator

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AL Series Single Bearing Alternator


Assembled Alternator with
Single Bearing Rotor

Coupling Disc
/ Flex Plate

Disc Tightening
Bolts

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EXCITATION SYSTEM

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AVR SR-7/3(5 TO 40KVA) &7/6 (45 TO 200 KVA) SPECIAL


FEATURES

SR-7/3

SR-7/6

SR-7/3-1-ph

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UVR7 (180 to 1010 KVA)


SPECIAL FEATURES

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UVR7 (180 to 1010 KVA)SPECIAL FEATURES

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AVR-SPECIFICATIONS

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DOs & DONTs

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DOS







ENSURE RATED VOLTAGE ON NO-LOAD AT 52 Hz (ENGINE SPEED


FOR 1560 RPM)
ENSURE THAT ENGINE SPEED IS NEVER BELOW 50 Hz.(1500 RPM)
FROM NO-LOAD TO FULL LOAD.
ENSURE THAT ALTERNATOR NEUTRAL IS EARTHED PROPERLY
ENSURE THAT ALL CONNECTIONS & FOOT FIXING HOLE ARE
TIGHTNED PROPERLY TO AVOID VIBRATIONS.
ENSURE PROPER AIR CIRCULATION INSIDE THE DG-SET ROOM SO
THAT AMBIENT TEMP. IS NOT MORE THAN 40 C .
ENSURE THAT MEGGER VALUE OF THE WINDING IS MORE THAN 2MEG-OHMS. (REMOVE ALL THE CONNECTIONS

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DONTS
 DONOT DISTURB AVR POTENTIOMETER SETTING EXCEPT
VOLT. POTENTIOMETER
 DONOT CHARGE THE ALTERNATOR WHEN AVR IS IN
CONNECTED CONDITION & ALTERNATOR IS RUNNING
 DO NOT OVER LOAD THE ALTERNATOR .
 DO NOT OPERATE THE ALTERNATOR ON LESS THAN 0.8 LAG
PF
 DO NOT OPERATE ON LEADING POWER FACTOR
(CAPACITOR LOAD)
 DO NOT MEGGER/HV TEST WINDINGS BEFORE REMOVING
THE CONNECTIONS TO AVR
 DO NOT OPERATE ON LESS THAN 1500 RPM. (50 Hz)

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1-BRG.SET.ASLY CHECK POINTS


 DO NOT APPLY ANY FORCE TO THE ALTERNATOR FAN.
 DO NOT REMOVE ANY COUPLING DISC FROM THE SET.
 ENSURE WA DIMN. AN ENGINE & ALTERNATOR (i.e The
dist. from coupling disc face to alternator Flange spigot
face. It should be within 0.5mm)
 USE ONLY 8.8 CL. SCREWS & HARDEDNED WASHERS
 DO NOT USE SPRING WASHERS ON COUPLING DISC
 DISC SCREWS TO BE TIGHTEND WITH SPECIFIED TORQUE
AS BELOW
M10-6 kg-m ,

M12 10 kg-m ,

M16- 24 kg-m , M20- 48 kg-m

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COMMISIONING & INSTALLATION CHECK POINTS


POINT OF OBSERVATION

CHECK POINTS

VISUAL OBSERVATION




ENSURE PROPER EARTHING

Check the voltage on No-load


volts

NO-LOAD ELECTRICAL
PARAMETERS

No-load freq
For brushless 51.5 to 52 hz
For capacitor type 50-51 hz
No-load voltage
For 1-phase 230 or 240 as per N/p
For 3-ph 415v
Voltage variation
Should be less than 1volt on digital voltmeter having 1digit accuracy

ON LOAD PARAMETERS

Voltage to be measured
Load current to be seen (it should be well within the n/p data)
Freq should not go down below 50hz

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS

Vibration normal or abnormal


If any abnormality in sound

Proper tightening of all screws including base frame


There should be no loose connection
b/w body and neutral-it should be less than 3

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TROUBLE SHOOTING

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VOLTAGE FAULTS
FAULT
No voltage built-up

CAUSE
1.Insufficient residual voltage
2. Improper connection
3. Low speed
4. Faulty Winding
5.Rotating rectifier failure
6. Faulty AVR

Low no-load
voltage

1. Low speed
2. Faulty Rotating rectifier
3. Faulty Winding

REPAIR
1.Excite the exc.stator using a battery
2. Correct the connection
3. Reset the speed to the nominal
4. Check the wdg. Resistance
Rewind if required
5. Replace the rotating rectifier
6. Replace the AVR
1. Reset the speed to the nominal
2. Replace the Rotating rectifier
3. Check the wdg. Resistance
Rewind if required

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FAULT

CAUSE

REPAIR

Voltage
Oscillations

1. In correct AVR setting


2. Thyristor load more
than specified limits

1. Set the AVR stability pot


2. Reduce the Tghyristor load

Unbalance
voltage

1. Unbalance Load
2. Loose connections
3. Stator winding faulty

1. Correct the load


2. Tightend the loose connections
3. Check the wdg. Resistance
Rewind if required

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FAULT
Low voltage on
load

CAUSE
1. Low speed at full load.
2. Faulty rotor Winding
3. Over load on Alternator

REPAIR
1. Set the rated speed of the Engine
2. Check the wdg. Resistance
Rewind if required
3. Operate on specified load.

High voltage on
load

1. Capacitor on the load side

1. Disconnect the PF improvement


capacitor

Too high
No-load voltage

1. Excessive speed

1. Adjust the speed

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HOW TO SELECT
ALTERNATOR RATING

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DERATING FACTORS
DERATION FOR AMB. TEMP.
DERATING FACTOR

1.05
1
0.95
0.9
0.85
0.8
0.75

D.Factor

40

45

50

55

60

0.96

0.92

0.88

0.84

AMB. TEMP

No deration upto Std. Amb : 40c .

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DERATING FACTORS

CONTD..

DERATION FOR ALTITUDE.


DERATING FACTOR

1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0

D.Factor

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

0.96

0.92

0.88

0.84

0.8

ALTITUDE

No deration upto Std. Altitude level : 1000 M .


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DERATING FACTORS

CONTD..

DERATION FOR POWER FACTOR( LAG)


DERATING FACTOR

1.05
1
0.95
0.9
0.85
0.8
0.75

D.Factor

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.95

0.91

0.88

0.86

0.85

0.84

0.84

0.84

POWER FACTOR

No deration for UPF to 0.8 Pf


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SELECTION OF ALT. FOR VARIOUS


LOADS

LINEAR LOAD


Includes Resistance,Inductance & Capacitance.

Estimate connected load in KW & operating power factor

Our alternators are suitable for 0.8 lag to Unity pf.

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SELECTION OF ALT. FOR VARIOUS


LOADSCONTD..
UNBALANCE LOAD


Maximum unbalance allowed is 25%


I.e.( ( I Max I Min ) / I Max ) * 100 = 25%

Any phase current should not exceed rated current

WELDING LOAD


3 phase welding load should be < 50% KVA rating

1 phase welding load should be < 33% KVA rating

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SELECTION OF ALT. FOR VARIOUS


LOADS
INDUCTION MOTOR LOAD


Capable of starting 1HP with 1 kVA (upto 10kVA)

Capable of delivering 3.5 times of rated current for 10 Sec.

THYRISTOR LOAD


Generates harmonics which is harmful to alternator,so


required derating.

Alternator KVA rating = 1.5 X + Y


Where X is thyristor load & Y is linear load.
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WHY ?
DERATING REQUIRED FOR NON-LINEAR
LOADS
Due to excess heating because of:

High Hysterisis loss.

High Eddy-Current loss.

Skin effect in armature winding.

NOTE:- NO STANDARD IS AVALIABLE FOR DERATING,

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GUIDELINES FOR
NON-LINEAR LOADS
LOAD

GUIDELINES

FLOURESCENT LIGHTING LOAD

No derating required.

UPS & TELECOM LOAD CONTROLLED BY A


TWELVE PULSE THYRISTOR BRIDGE PLUS
A FILTER

Non linear load should not exceed 90%


of the alternator rating

UPS & TELECOM LOAD CONTROLLED BY A


SIX PULSE THYRISTOR BRIDGE PLUS A
FILTER

Non linear load should not exceed 66%


of the alternator rating

UPS & TELECOM LOAD CONTROLLED BY A


THREE PULSE THYRISTOR BRIDGE PLUS A
FILTER

Non linear load should not exceed 35%


of the alternator rating

VARIABLE SPEED 6 PULSE THYRISTOR


BRIDGE CONTROL DRIVE.

Non linear load should not exceed 50%


of the alternator rating

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REMEDIES FOR
NON-LINEAR LOAD


Oversize of the neutral conductor (200% of the phase


conductor).

Location of isolation transformer close to the load.

Derating of Alternator & Transformer.

Use of true RMS sensing meters & relay.

Select power source with low o/p Impendence.

Provide line filters.

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REMEDIES FOR
NON-LINEAR LOAD


Oversize of the neutral conductor (200% of the phase


conductor).

Location of isolation transformer close to the load.

Derating of Alternator & Transformer.

Use of true RMS sensing meters & relay.

Select power source with low o/p Impendence.

Provide line filters.

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RELATION B/T STARTING METHOD &


STARTING CURRENT
METHOD OF STARTING

STARTING CURRENT

DIRECT ON-LINE STARTING (DOL)

6-7 times of the rated full load current


( If starting current is not given than starting
KVA is 7 times HP rating)

STAR/DELTA STARTING

2-2.5 times of the full load current

ROTOR RESISTANCE

1.5-2 times the full load current

AUTO TRANSFORMER STARTING


40% Tapping
60% Tapping
80% Tapping

1.2 times the full load current


4.0 times the full load current
4.5 times the full load current

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HOW TO SELECT AN ALTERNATOR?


STEPS

Estimate total KW say-X

Estimate total power factor say-Y

Provide 10-15% allowance


Alternator KVA rating = ( X/Y ) * 1.15
For Non-linear load contact manufacturer

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HOW TO SELECT ENGINE RATING..?

ENGINE HP IS GIVEN BY:-

(KVA * PF) /( 0.735 * Efficiency of alternator)

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Thank you

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