# PH108

Lecture 05
Electrostatic field and potential

Department of Physics
Div, Grad, Curl pages 82-86 for polar and cylindrical coordinates

Tutorial 1 wasβ¦ ? B C A PH108 Spring 2015 Pradeep Sarin 2 .

Determine πΈ π π π»βπΈ = π0 is ONE differential equation in THREE unknowns Ex Ey Ez Need TWO more equations to solve for πΈ PH108 Spring 2015 Pradeep Sarin 3 .Given π π .

as the surface enclosed by the boundary shrinks to zero How does this turn into the operational expression: ? ππΈπ¦ ππΈπ₯ ππΈπ§ ππΈπ¦ ππΈπ§ ππΈπ₯ π»ΓπΈ =π β +π β + π( β ) ππ¦ ππ§ ππ₯ ππ§ ππ₯ ππ¦ PH108 Spring 2015 Pradeep Sarin 4 .Curl : π» Γ πΈ Our βphysicalβ. βvisualβ definition: 1 π» Γ πΈ = lim βπβ0 βπ πΈ β ππ Circulation around a boundary.

π¦. π¦ β βπ¦ . π¦. π§)βπ₯ 2 βπ₯ . π§)βπ₯ 2 x.y.Calculate how πΈ βcirculatesβ around a boundary ππΈπ¦ ππΈπ₯ β ) π βπ π₯π¦ ( ππ¦ ππ₯ z x y y βπΈπ¦ (π₯ β πΈπ₯ (π₯. π¦ + βπ¦ . π§)βπ¦ 2 βπΈπ₯ (π₯. π§)βπ¦ 2 5 .z x πΈπ¦ (π₯ + PH108 Spring 2015 Pradeep Sarin βπ₯ .

Calculate how πΈ βcirculatesβ around a boundary z x y ππΈπ₯ ππΈπ§ β ) π βπ π₯π§ ( ππ₯ ππ§ PH108 Spring 2015 Pradeep Sarin 6 .

Calculate how πΈ βcirculatesβ around a boundary z x y ππΈπ¦ ππΈπ₯ ( β ) π βπ π¦π§ ππ₯ ππ¦ PH108 Spring 2015 Pradeep Sarin 7 .

Calculate how πΈ βcirculatesβ around a boundary z Our definition of Curl : 1 π» Γ πΈ = lim πΈ β ππ βπβ0 βπ x y ππΈπ¦ ππΈπ₯ ππΈπ§ ππΈπ¦ ππΈπ§ ππΈπ₯ π»ΓπΈ =π β +π β + π( β ) ππ¦ ππ§ ππ₯ ππ§ ππ₯ ππ¦ Shape of the surface does not matter. Since we are taking βπ β 0 PH108 Spring 2015 Pradeep Sarin 8 .

Circulation of πΈ is independent of path P1 z Consider a constant πΈ = πΆπ₯ π x πΈ β ππ = πΆπ₯ y P1 P2 πΈ β ππ = πΆπ₯ P2 Evaluate this as the sum over many ΞPiβs take E constant over each ΞPi 1 π In general: πΈ = 4ππ0 π 2 ππ ππ PH108 Spring 2015 Pradeep Sarin π 1 1 πΈ β ππ = ( β ) 4ππ0 ππ ππ 9 .

Circulation of πΈ on a closed path is ZERO πΈ β ππ = 0 From our definition of Curl: 1 π» Γ πΈ = lim πΈ β ππ βπβ0 βπ Stokeβs theorem: (π» Γ πΈ) β ππ = PH108 Spring 2015 Pradeep Sarin πΈ β ππ π»ΓπΈ =0 10 .

Question Which of the following could be a static E field in a small region? I II ? A) Only I B) Only II C) Both D) Neither E) Cannot answer without further info PH108 Spring 2015 Pradeep Sarin 11 .

πΆ + Ξ¦(πΆ. π΅ = Ξ¦ π΄.Electric Potential (not potential energy!) B πΈ β ππ implies: Path independence of πΆ Ξ¦ π΄. π΅ = Ξ¦ π΄ β Ξ¦(π΅) π΄ Define electric potential at a point A: Ξ¦ π΄ = β πΈ β ππ πππ PH108 Spring 2015 Pradeep Sarin 12 . π΅) Ξ¦ π΄. π΅ = π΅ πΈ β ππ + π΄ πΈ β ππ C πΆ A Ξ¦ π΄.

Question Why is πΈ β ππ = 0 in electrostatics? A) Because π» Γ πΈ = 0 B) Because potential between two points is independent of the path between the points C) Both the above D) NONE of the above: its not true! PH108 Spring 2015 Pradeep Sarin 13 .

Summary so far IMPORTANT: we are working with static charges Given static π π . Determine πΈ π Tools we have so far: π π»βπΈ = π0 π»ΓπΈ =0 πΈ β ππ = 0 any path PH108 Spring 2015 Pradeep Sarin 14 .

why not? B) No way C) Not enough information to decide PH108 Spring 2015 Pradeep Sarin 15 .Question Could the following electrostatic field possibly exist in a finite region of space that contains no charges? (A. and c are constants with appropriate units) π§2 πΈ = π΄( π β ππ¦π + π₯π§π) 2 A) Sure.

D: Not enough info given PH108 Spring 2015 Pradeep Sarin 16 . (There are no other charges around) What is the field inside the box? A: E=0 everywhere inside B: Eβ 0 everywhere inside C: E=0 only at the very center.Question A cubical non-conducting shell has a uniform positive charge density on its surface. but non-zero elsewhere inside.