PH108

Lecture 05
Electrostatic field and potential

Pradeep Sarin
Department of Physics
Supplementary reading:
Div, Grad, Curl pages 82-86 for polar and cylindrical coordinates

Tutorial 1 was… ? B C A PH108 Spring 2015 Pradeep Sarin 2 .

Determine 𝐸 π‘Ÿ 𝜌 π›»βˆ™πΈ = πœ–0 is ONE differential equation in THREE unknowns Ex Ey Ez Need TWO more equations to solve for 𝐸 PH108 Spring 2015 Pradeep Sarin 3 .Given 𝜌 π‘Ÿ .

as the surface enclosed by the boundary shrinks to zero How does this turn into the operational expression: ? πœ•πΈπ‘¦ πœ•πΈπ‘₯ πœ•πΈπ‘§ πœ•πΈπ‘¦ πœ•πΈπ‘§ πœ•πΈπ‘₯ 𝛻×𝐸 =𝑖 βˆ’ +𝑗 βˆ’ + π‘˜( βˆ’ ) πœ•π‘¦ πœ•π‘§ πœ•π‘₯ πœ•π‘§ πœ•π‘₯ πœ•π‘¦ PH108 Spring 2015 Pradeep Sarin 4 .Curl : 𝛻 Γ— 𝐸 Our β€˜physical’. β€˜visual’ definition: 1 𝛻 Γ— 𝐸 = lim βˆ†π‘†β†’0 βˆ†π‘† 𝐸 βˆ™ 𝑑𝑙 Circulation around a boundary.

𝑦. 𝑦 βˆ’ βˆ†π‘¦ . 𝑦. 𝑧)βˆ†π‘₯ 2 βˆ†π‘₯ . 𝑧)βˆ†π‘₯ 2 x.y.Calculate how 𝐸 β€˜circulates’ around a boundary πœ•πΈπ‘¦ πœ•πΈπ‘₯ βˆ’ ) π‘˜ βˆ†π‘ π‘₯𝑦 ( πœ•π‘¦ πœ•π‘₯ z x y y βˆ’πΈπ‘¦ (π‘₯ βˆ’ 𝐸π‘₯ (π‘₯. 𝑦 + βˆ†π‘¦ . 𝑧)βˆ†π‘¦ 2 βˆ’πΈπ‘₯ (π‘₯. 𝑧)βˆ†π‘¦ 2 5 .z x 𝐸𝑦 (π‘₯ + PH108 Spring 2015 Pradeep Sarin βˆ†π‘₯ .

Calculate how 𝐸 β€˜circulates’ around a boundary z x y πœ•πΈπ‘₯ πœ•πΈπ‘§ βˆ’ ) 𝑗 βˆ†π‘ π‘₯𝑧 ( πœ•π‘₯ πœ•π‘§ PH108 Spring 2015 Pradeep Sarin 6 .

Calculate how 𝐸 β€˜circulates’ around a boundary z x y πœ•πΈπ‘¦ πœ•πΈπ‘₯ ( βˆ’ ) 𝑖 βˆ†π‘ π‘¦π‘§ πœ•π‘₯ πœ•π‘¦ PH108 Spring 2015 Pradeep Sarin 7 .

Calculate how 𝐸 β€˜circulates’ around a boundary z Our definition of Curl : 1 𝛻 Γ— 𝐸 = lim 𝐸 βˆ™ 𝑑𝑙 βˆ†π‘†β†’0 βˆ†π‘† x y πœ•πΈπ‘¦ πœ•πΈπ‘₯ πœ•πΈπ‘§ πœ•πΈπ‘¦ πœ•πΈπ‘§ πœ•πΈπ‘₯ 𝛻×𝐸 =𝑖 βˆ’ +𝑗 βˆ’ + π‘˜( βˆ’ ) πœ•π‘¦ πœ•π‘§ πœ•π‘₯ πœ•π‘§ πœ•π‘₯ πœ•π‘¦ Shape of the surface does not matter. Since we are taking βˆ†π‘† β†’ 0 PH108 Spring 2015 Pradeep Sarin 8 .

Circulation of 𝐸 is independent of path P1 z Consider a constant 𝐸 = 𝐢π‘₯ 𝑖 x 𝐸 βˆ™ 𝑑𝑙 = 𝐢π‘₯ y P1 P2 𝐸 βˆ™ 𝑑𝑙 = 𝐢π‘₯ P2 Evaluate this as the sum over many Ξ”Pi’s take E constant over each Ξ”Pi 1 π‘ž In general: 𝐸 = 4πœ‹πœ–0 π‘Ÿ 2 π‘Ÿπ‘ π‘Ÿπ‘Ž PH108 Spring 2015 Pradeep Sarin π‘ž 1 1 𝐸 βˆ™ 𝑑𝑙 = ( βˆ’ ) 4πœ‹πœ–0 π‘Ÿπ‘ π‘Ÿπ‘Ž 9 .

Circulation of 𝐸 on a closed path is ZERO 𝐸 βˆ™ 𝑑𝑙 = 0 From our definition of Curl: 1 𝛻 Γ— 𝐸 = lim 𝐸 βˆ™ 𝑑𝑙 βˆ†π‘†β†’0 βˆ†π‘† Stoke’s theorem: (𝛻 Γ— 𝐸) βˆ™ π‘‘πœŽ = PH108 Spring 2015 Pradeep Sarin 𝐸 βˆ™ 𝑑𝑙 𝛻×𝐸 =0 10 .

Question Which of the following could be a static E field in a small region? I II ? A) Only I B) Only II C) Both D) Neither E) Cannot answer without further info PH108 Spring 2015 Pradeep Sarin 11 .

𝐢 + Ξ¦(𝐢. 𝐡 = Ξ¦ 𝐴.Electric Potential (not potential energy!) B 𝐸 βˆ™ 𝑑𝑙 implies: Path independence of 𝐢 Ξ¦ 𝐴. 𝐡 = Ξ¦ 𝐴 βˆ’ Ξ¦(𝐡) 𝐴 Define electric potential at a point A: Ξ¦ 𝐴 = βˆ’ 𝐸 βˆ™ 𝑑𝑙 𝑅𝑒𝑓 PH108 Spring 2015 Pradeep Sarin 12 . 𝐡) Ξ¦ 𝐴. 𝐡 = 𝐡 𝐸 βˆ™ 𝑑𝑙 + 𝐴 𝐸 βˆ™ 𝑑𝑙 C 𝐢 A Ξ¦ 𝐴.

Question Why is 𝐸 βˆ™ 𝑑𝑙 = 0 in electrostatics? A) Because 𝛻 Γ— 𝐸 = 0 B) Because potential between two points is independent of the path between the points C) Both the above D) NONE of the above: its not true! PH108 Spring 2015 Pradeep Sarin 13 .

Summary so far IMPORTANT: we are working with static charges Given static 𝜌 π‘Ÿ . Determine 𝐸 π‘Ÿ Tools we have so far: 𝜌 π›»βˆ™πΈ = πœ–0 𝛻×𝐸 =0 𝐸 βˆ™ 𝑑𝑙 = 0 any path PH108 Spring 2015 Pradeep Sarin 14 .

why not? B) No way C) Not enough information to decide PH108 Spring 2015 Pradeep Sarin 15 .Question Could the following electrostatic field possibly exist in a finite region of space that contains no charges? (A. and c are constants with appropriate units) 𝑧2 𝐸 = 𝐴( 𝑖 βˆ’ 𝑐𝑦𝑗 + π‘₯π‘§π‘˜) 2 A) Sure.

D: Not enough info given PH108 Spring 2015 Pradeep Sarin 16 . (There are no other charges around) What is the field inside the box? A: E=0 everywhere inside B: E≠0 everywhere inside C: E=0 only at the very center.Question A cubical non-conducting shell has a uniform positive charge density on its surface. but non-zero elsewhere inside.