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REPRESENTATION

Frequency Domain

Classical Approach: Laplace Transform

**• This approach is based on converting a system's
**

differential equation to a transfer function.

• It generates a mathematical model of the system

that algebraically relates a representation of the

output to a representation of the input.

• The primary disadvantage: : It can be applied only

to linear, time-invariant systems or systems that

can be approximated as such.

**Why State-Space Model
**

Modern Approach: State Space Model

• State-space approach can be used to represent nonlinear systems

that have backlash, saturation, and dead zone.

• Also, it can handle, conveniently, systems with nonzero initial

conditions.

• Time-varying systems, (for example, missiles with varying fuel levels

or lift in an aircraft flying through a wide range of altitudes) can be

represented in state space.

• Multiple-input, multiple-output systems (such as a vehicle with

input direction and input velocity yielding an output direction and

an output velocity) can be compactly represented in state space.

Some Observations

1.

**We select a particular subset of all possible system variables and call the
**

variables in this subset state variables.

2.

**For an nth-order system, we write n simultaneous, first-order
**

differential equations in terms of the state variables. We call this system

of simultaneous differential equations state equations.

3.

**If we know the initial condition of all of the state variables at to as well
**

as the system input for t > to, we can solve the simultaneous differential

equations for the state variables for t > to.

4.

**We algebraically combine the state variables with the system's input
**

and find all of the other system variables for t > to. We call this algebraic

equation the output equation.

5.

**We consider the state equations and the output equations a viable
**

representation of the system. We call this representation of the system a

state-space representation.

We select the current. We write the loop equation. 2. for which we will write and solve a differential equation using Laplace transforms. . Consider the RL network shown in Figure with an initial current of i(0).Example Let us now follow these steps through an example. i(t). 1.

.

.

Example 2 .

.

.

• We can define more state variables than the minimal set. and we could even have trouble writing the simultaneous equations themselves. For example. a second-order system requires a minimum of two state variables to describe it. the minimum number of state variables required to describe a system equals the order of the differential equation. no state variable can be written as a linear combination of the other state variables. then i(t) cannot be chosen. • State variables must be linearly independent.Restrictions • Typically. that is. or else we would not have enough information to solve for all other system variables. Thus. however. if vR(t) is chosen as a state variable. within this minimal set the state variables must be linearly independent. because vR(t) can be written as a linear combination of i(t). . namely VR(t) = Ri(t).

two state variables and two state equations are required for the system. the capacitor and the inductor. .• Another way to determine the number of state variables is to count the number of independent energy-storage elements in the system. Hence. • In Figure below there are two energy-storage elements.

. will provide future state and output of a system. given the excitations inputs and the equations describing the dynamics. • The state variables describe the present configuration of a system and can be used to determine the future response. • The state of a system is a set of variables whose values.State Space Model Representation • A time varying control system is a system in which one or more of the parameters of the system may vary as a function of time. together with the input signals and the equations describing the dynamics.

Linearized state and output Eq.The state differential equation State Eq. Output Eq. .

General continuous-time linear dynamical system Linear Time-invariant (LTI) state dynamics .

. continuoustime control system represented in state space.Block diagram of the linear.

.

Example 1: Example .

.

Example 2: • Assume voltage v(t) is the output • Apply Kirchoff’s Voltage and Current Laws .

TF to state space .

TF to state space .

etc. the first derivative is designated as x2. x3 2 x3 3x2 5 x1 5u with x2 x3 and x1 x2 1 0 x1 0 x1 0 x 0 x 0 u 0 1 2 2 x3 5 3 2 x3 5 x1 y 1 0 0 x2 x3 .TF to state space Y ( s) 5 3 2 3 s 2 s 31 s 5 Y ( s) 5U ( s) 2 U ( s) s 2s 31 s 5 d3y d2y dy 2 2 3 5y u 3 dt dt dt If the second derivative of y is designated as x3.

TF to state space

.

State-Space Models to TF’s .

Example .

Basically this tells us that. at least within a region of an equilibrium point. within which the nonlinear system is also stable. Lyapunov proved that if a linearized model of a system is valid near an equilibrium point of the system and if this linearized model is stable.Linearization Linearization is the process of finding a linear model of a system that approximates a nonlinear one. then there is a region around this equilibrium point that contains the equilibrium. we can investigate the behavior of a nonlinear system by analyzing the behavior of a linearized model of that system. . This form of linearization is also called small-signal linearization. Over 100 years ago.

Linearization .

.

.

.

Equilibruim points .

Example • Consider nonlinear time-invariant system: • Assume that input u(t) fluctuates around u = 2 • Find an operating point with uQ = 2 and a linearized model around it y_nl(t): Nonlinear system output y_l(t): Linearized system output. for a square wave input u(t) .

.

.

.

Example .

.

Solution of state differential equation x ax bu sX ( s ) x(0) aX ( s ) bu x ( 0) b X (s) U ( s) sa sa t x(t ) e x(0) e a (t )bu ( )d at 0 e At A 2t 2 Ak t k exp At I At 2! k! Converges for all finite t and any A. The solution of state differential equation t x(t ) exp( At )x(0) exp At Bu( )d 0 .

x Ax Bu X( s) sI A 1 x(0) sI A1 BU( s) sI A1 (s) is the Laplace transform of (t ) exp( At ). t x(t ) (t )x(0) t Bu( )d 0 The solution to the unforced system (that İs. when u=0) is simply: . (t): Fundamental or state transition matrix.

Example .

Example .

Block Diagram Algebra .

Introduction • A graphical tool can help us to visualize the model of a system and evaluate the mathematical relationships between their elements. • In these cases. the system of equations can be written so that their components do not interact except by having the input of one part be the output of another part. . it is very easy to draw a block diagram that represents the mathematical relationships in similar manner to that used for the component block diagram. • In many control systems. using their transfer functions.

Reminder: Component Block Diagram .

and the input-output relationships between components are indicated by lines and arrows. U1 (s) G1 (s) Y1 (s) • The transfer function of each component is placed in box. .Block Diagram • It represents the mathematical relationships between the elements of the system.

even though the methods are in every way equivalent. . we can solve the equations by graphical simplification. • The interconnections of blocks include summing points. where any number of signals may be added together. which is often easier and more informative than algebraic manipulation.Block Diagram Algebra • Using block diagram. • It is convenient to think of each block as representing an electronic amplifier with the transfer function printed inside.

Block Diagram Representations for LTI Control Systems .

(b) Parallel system.(a) Cascaded system. (c) Feedback (closedloop) system. .

1st & 2nd Elementary Block Diagrams • Block in series: Y2 ( s ) G1G2 U1( s ) • Blocks in parallel with their outputs added: Y2 ( s ) G1 G2 U1( s ) .

3rd Elementary Block Diagram • Single-loop negative feedback • The overall transfer function is given by: Y( s ) G1 R( s ) 1 G1G2 Two blocks are connected in a feedback arrangement so that each feeds into the other: .

Feedback Rule Y( s ) G1 R( s ) 1 G1G2 The gain of a single-loop negative feedback system is given by the forward gain divided by the sum of 1 plus the loop gain .

Closed –Loop (Feedback) System E(s) Y(s) Y(s) = G1(s) G2 (s) E(s) = G1(s) G2 (s) [R(s) – H(s)Y(s)] Y(s) [1+ G1(s)G2(s)H(s)] = G1(s)G2(s)R(s) Y(s)/R(s) = G1(s)G2 (s)/[1+G1(s)G2(s)H(s)] IIII .

1st Elementary Principle of Block Diagram Algebra .

2nd Elementary Principle of Block Diagram Algebra .

3rd Elementary Principle of Block Diagram Algebra .

Example 1: Transfer function from a Simple Block Diagram Y( s ) T( s ) R( s ) 2s 4 2 s T( s ) 2s 4 1 2 s 2s 4 T( s ) 2 s 2s 4 .

• It characterizes the system by a network of directed branches and associated transfer functions. • The two ways of depicting signal are equivalent. .Block Diagram and its corresponding Signal Flow Graph • Compact alternative notation to the block diagram.

and the effect of the disturbance is suppressed. This is an advantage of the closed-loop system .Closed-Loop System Subjected to a Disturbance where lG1(s)H(s)l >> 1 and |G1(s)G2(s)H(s)l >> 1. the closed-loop transfer function CD(S)/D(S) becomes almost zero. In this case.

• Then take the Laplace transforms of these equations. • Assemble the elements into a complete block diagram. • Represent each Laplace-transformed equation individually in block form. • Write the equations that describe the dynamic behavior of each component. assuming zero initial conditions. .Procedures for Drawing a Block Diagram To draw a block diagram for a system.

Example .

.

.

Example 2: TF from the Block Diagram Block Diagram Reduction: .

Example 2: TF from the Block Diagram .

Example 2: TF from the Block Diagram .

Example 2: TF from the Block Diagram .

Example 2: TF from the Block Diagram .

Example 2: TF from the Block Diagram .

G1G2G5 G1G6 T( s ) 1 G1G3 G1G2G4 .

.

Example: Find the equivalent transfer function .

.

Basic Control Actions Industrial Controllers On-off Controllers Proportional Controllers Integral Controllers Proportional-plus-Integral Controllers Proportional-plus-Derivative Controllers Proportional-plus-Integral-plus-Derivative Controllers .

“too hot’ or ‘too cold’. Such an algorithm might be: – If the temperature is too high then turn the heater off. such as the power input to the water heater. • On the basis of error. e.g.Basic Operations of a Feedback Control Think of what goes on in domestic hot water thermostat: • The temperature of the water is measured. – If it is too low then turn the heater on • The adjustment chosen by the control algorithm is applied to some adjustable variable. . a control algorithm decides what to do. • Comparison of the measured and the required values provides an error.

so that • • where U1 and U2 are constants. Let the output signal from the controller be u(t) and the actuating error signal be e(t). depending on whether the actuating error signal is positive or negative. the signal u(t) remains at either a maximum or minimum value. in many cases. which are. In two-position control.Two-Position or On-Off Control Action In a two-position control system. simply on and off. and an electric solenoid-operated valve is widely used in such controllers . The minimum value U2 is usually either zero or –U1. Two-position controllers are generally electrical devices. the actuating element has only two fixed positions.

(a)Block diagram of an on-off controller. (b) (b) electromagnetic valve. . (a) Liquid-level control system. Level h(t) versus t curve for the system The range through which the actuating error signal must move before the switching occurs is called the differential gap. Such a differential gap causes the controller output u(t) to maintain its present value until the actuating error signal has moved slightly beyond the zero value. (b) block diagram of an on-off controller with differential gap.

Proportional Control Action • For a controller with proportional control action. the relationship between the output of the controller u(t) and the actuating error signal e(t) is e(t) u(t) Kp 1 t t .

the value of the controller output u(t) is changed at a rate proportional to the actuating error signal e(t). . That is.Integral Control Action • In a controller with integral control action.

Proportional-Plus-Integral Control Action The control action of a proportional plus-integral controller is defined by Ti: integral time .

Proportional-Plus-Derivative Control Action The control action of a proportional plus derivative controller is defined by .

Proportional-Plus-Integral-PlusDerivative Control Action The combination of proportional control action. This combined action has the advantages of each of the three individual control actions. and derivative control action is termed proportional-plus-integral-plusderivative control action. integral control action. The equation of a controller with this combined action is given by .

The PID Algorithm • The PID algorithm is the most popular feedback controller algorithm used. It is a robust easily understood algorithm that can provide excellent control performance despite the varied dynamic characteristics of processes. .

the PID controller K imay berepresented as: U ( s) K p K d s E ( s) s • In the time domain: de(t ) u (t ) K p e(t ) K i e(t )dt K d 0 dt t proportional gain integral gain derivative gain .PID Controller • In the s-domain.

Definitions • In the time domain: de(t ) u (t ) K p e(t ) K i e(t )dt K d 0 dt 1 t de(t ) K p e(t ) e(t )dt Td Ti 0 dt t integral time constant where Ti proportional gain derivative time constant Kp Ki . Kd Td Ki integral gain derivative gain .

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