Energy and Buildings, 15 - 16 (1990/91) 837 - 849

837

C l i m a t e a n d H o u s i n g F o r m - - a Case S t u d y of N e w D e l h i
ASHOK B. LALL, MADHU PANDIT,.NAVEEN KULSHRESHTA and PAUL APPASAMY

B-25 Chiragh Enclave, New Delhi 110048 (India)

ABSTRACT

New Delhi's climate is a difficult climate to
design for, being composite in nature: it experiences a d r y - h o t summer with temperatures up
to 45 °C and winters with temperatures down to
3 °C and an in-between h o t - h u m i d season. The
city of Delhi has a long continuous history and
each stage of its development, from medieval
times through the colonial period until the New
Delhi of today, is to be found intact as a standing record. Each period of the city's historical
development has been marked by a distinct
pattern of urban growth. It is interesting to
note that while climate has been an important
and constant factor, the overlaying of cultural,
socio-economic and technological changes resulted in widely different forms of urban structure being adopted.
The changes in housing form that occurred
through the three stages of the city's development were analysed systematically keeping climate as a constant factor with the variables of
construction, urban structure, social patterns
and symbolic language being seen as dynamic
counterpoints to understand the resultant built
form. This was used to identify principles of
housing design of the traditional and colonial
forms of housing which could be adopted to
serve present-day needs and to identify those
irreversible developments which make our
present situation significantly different from the
past.
The lessons learnt from the analysis commended: (a) from the traditional housing
form - - the value of a tightly knit urban structure that shelters both outdoor and indoor
spaces, and the street and court as socially
meaningful spatial configurations; (b) from the
colonial example - - the use of vegetation as a
microclimate modifier combined with a relaxation of built density to respond more favourably to humid and cold seasons. The
factors that distinguish the present situation
0378-7788/91/$3.50

from the traditional and colonial situations are
motorized vehicular access, relatively low mass
of building construction materials and techniques, and the pressure on land causing high
population densities and high-rise construction.
The lessons of this research are applied to
two housing design projects for the middleincome group category of housing. These architectural solutions, which aim at optimizing environmental qualities for housing along with
climatic comfort and energy utilization, suggest
some limits of density and land-utilization beyond which environmental quality and energy
efficiency would decline. It is recommended that
such design exercises be undertaken to establish both the lower and upper limits of density
and land-utilization for housing so as to
provide a more holistic basis for fixing town
planning norms.

BACKGROUND

New Delhi is a city undergoing rapid
growth and change. The increasing pressures
on urbanization are leading to progressive environmental degradation. Whether it is with
respect to natural ecology, energy efficiency,
societal integration, or meaningful community expression in built form, there is a growing sense of breakdown in the urban fabric of
the city. There is a pressing need to evolve
urban development parameters and principles
for the design of the urban environment that
are based on a holistic logic while recognizing
contemporary realities. This paper presents
some work towards evolving such parameters
and design principles in the area of housing
for the middle-income groups of the city's population. Though the work described here has
specific reference to New Delhi, it should be of
value for other urban centres located in the
same climatic region of North India.
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(e) symbolic l a n g u a g e .from medieval times through the colonial period until the New Delhi of today . the colonial capital of New Delhi.the ways in which the built environment interacts positively with climate through the cycle of seasons. they would necessarily have to evolve a symbiotic relationship with the contemporary 'way of life'. (b) irreversible developments which make for our present situation being significantly different from the past. systems of access and routing of services. the matrix was formed by arranging these determinants according to their headings and sub-headings vertically. Evidently. both in the home and at the community level. the urban forms that developed in the succeeding periods differed widely. work and leisure. climate by itself does not determine the form of the built environment. The designs serve as illustrations of the potential of the principles being proposed and also provide empirical information for defining quantitative parameters on town planning norms .the rationale for utilization of land. In our search for guiding principles applicable for our needs today.838 Our approach has been qualitative rather than quantitative. The horizontal sets gave some understanding of the directions of change and development that have been taking place. So our framework for analysis of the devel- opment of housing form through the three main historical periods -. Now it is interesting to note that while climate has always been an important and constant factor. They have to integrate social and cultural patterns and be economically and technologically feasible. continuous history and we are fortunate that complete built environments from each stage of its dev e l o p m e n t . Thus. in a chronological order. we recognized that the present-day technological and cultural context precludes housing solutions that simply imitate the past. (d) social patterns the relationship of buildings and spaces to the patterns of living. (b) c o n s t r u c t i o n . Each period of the city's historical development is marked by a distinct urban pattern. and organization of skills on the design of buildings. (c) urban structure . The vertical sets.. floor-area ratios and ground coverage. Climate was placed as a central constant whereas the variable factors of technology and socio-cultural change were seen as dynamic counterpoints. The observations entered in each coordinate of the matrix were then read as horizontal and vertical sets. We started by trying to understand the dynamics of housing design through an analysis of the development of housing form in the history of the city. construction techniques. on the . On the basis of this analysis we were able to define some guiding principles which have then been tested in two designs for contemporary housing in New Delhi that were prepared in response to housing design competitions. and arranging the examples of housing from the succeeding periods. The broad headings under which these determinants were organized were: (a) c l i m a t e . This provides an ideal opportunity for a comparative study of the architecture and planning of successive periods. We also recognized that although design strategies which must address today's critical issues of ecology and energy conservation do have to be designed around the locus of climate.specific forms of spatial and object design that embody social and cultural meanings.. We should then be better able to state principles of planning and design that take advantage of lessons learnt from our past while recognizing present realities..the traditional city of Shahjahanabad. and the post-independence new city was designed to help us identify: (a) principles of planning and design of the traditional and colonial forms of housing which could be adopted to serve present-day needs.the implications of materials. It is the inevitable march of cultural.such as density. horizontally (refer to Appendix 1). Each of these headings in turn yielded a cluster of sub-headings.are to be found intact as a standing record. We selected representative buildings and neighbourhoods from each historical period and analysed them through a matrix of determinants of building design. METHODOLOGY The city of Delhi has a long. socio-economic and technological change overriding the imperatives of climate that accounts for the differences.

I [ ~l I[ II II I PASSIVE STRATEGY FOR COMFORT Built Space Open Space FAIR Figure I Built Space FAIR GOOD GOOD POOR GOOD FAIR FAIR GOOD Open Space Figure 2 ( ~[llt'l)l])ttl 11[)t~[~%l Viii ~11"x.d r y is of a longer d ur atio n th an the h o t . colonial and contemporary housing forms. They are of four main kinds. gave an understanding of how an a r c h i t e c t u r e evolves towards solutions that satisfy a number of determinants simultaneously. The diurnal variation of temperature. CLIMATE PROFILE New Delhi's climate is a composite climate (see Fig. 1). Passive strategies to obtain comfort need to respond to h o t . which is substantial (20.e. The winter. This is succeeded by a longer h o t humid period. control of insolation and insulation against heat and cold. The climatic performance of the representative examples of housing from the three historical periods along with conclusions drawn from the analytical matrix are summarized below.d r y season is the hottest. Temperatures range from a maximum of ar o u n d 45 °C to a minimum of about 3 °C. TRADITIONAL CITY As representative of the traditional city we picked a small section of the city of . Third is the control of air movement. A two-month h o t . is dampened during the humid monsoon season. Summary of climatic performance of traditional. First is shading and protection from exposure to external environment.. And the fourth is the use of vegetation as a modifier of microclimate (Fig.d r y conditions.d r y season.839 Mar ADr May Jun Jul CLIMATE Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb COMFORT ZONE . Second is the use of thermal mass to dampen diurnal t e m p e r a t u r e variations.d r y . I II1"(' Space FAIR Open POOR Fig. A period of comfortable w eath er follows before winter sets in.25 °C) for most of the year. o t h er hand. 1). The weather turns pleasant once again before the beginning of summer.h u m i d as well as c o l d . i. h o t . which is mostly c o l d . 1.

840 ~o~ 2 4 6 (a) (b) / \. a n d a h e a v y b u i l d i n g m a s s w h i c h h a s the effect of d a m p e n i n g the v a r i a t i o n s in daily temperatures. it i n h i b i t s free a i r m o v e m e n t a n d p e n e t r a t i o n of sunshine. P e r h a p s the m o s t significant . w h i c h m i n i m i z e exp o s u r e to the e x t e r n a l e n v i r o n m e n t a n d provide well-shaded interior and outdoor spaces. T h i s d e n s e e n v i r o n m e n t p e r f o r m s well for the h o t . 2). (a) Typical haveli. Examples of traditional housing. h o w e v e r . (c) Cutaway axonometric view of a typical haveli. (b) Part plan of city showing dense contiguous construction with narrow streets and small courtyards. t (c) Fig. perf o r m as s a t i s f a c t o r i l y for the h u m i d a n d cold s e a s o n s since by the v e r y n a t u r e of its density.d r y season. S h a h j a h a n a b a d . T h e c h i e f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the b u i l t f o r m are c o n t i g u o u s b u i l d i n g s w i t h small courty a r d s a n d n a r r o w streets. a n d l o o k e d closely a t two h a v e l i s (Fig. It does not. 2.

The colonial city would appear to be a complete contradiction to the wisdom of the traditional city! But it must be remembered t hat for the British. and leisure. home. In addition. These characteristics of the built form can be said to have evolved in response to the climate. the garden setting becomes a means of modifying the microclimate of the estate. the colonial capital of New Delhi is expansive and spread out with buildings set amongst lawns and broad treelined avenues. For our analysis we selected a housing estate t hat was built for middle-level government employees (Fig. 3. comfort in the Indian climate was a major concern and t hat it was carefully provided for. Compactness of urban s tr u ctu r e is also a function of the limitations of traditional modes of transport. (b) Three-room flat. avenues of trees. (c) Part plan of housing estate showing arrangement of housing blocks to form garden courts and streets. the buildings are of a heavy mass. In contrast to the dense. tightly knit structure of Shahjahanabad. shrubs and lawns control dust and bring down temperatures appreciably. proximity was a necessity for city functions. Its validity lies in the fact t h a t it was a balanced synthesis t ha t served sociological and cultural needs as much as it dealt with a complex and variable climate to produce a fairly liveable environment. The meshing together of a variety of activities into a dense s tr u ctu r e is a result of the overlapping relationships between work. inner rooms are shaded by ample verandahs. The garden is seen as (a) (b) ff" -Tl a (c) i ~ . Here. D 1 = (d) Fig. 3). The continuity of buildings expresses a close-knit social structure and the mutual dependence within social groups for security. Colonial housing. This provides a fair measure of protection to the indoor spaces against climatic extremes. but they were equally the results of other important factors. (a) Two-room flat. nor can one say categorically t h a t climate was the primary factor in determining its form.841 COLONIAL CITY advantage of this built form is t h a t the outdoor spaces function as open rooms which are used for every kind of hum a n activity at all times. and windows are protected by projections. . It can n o t be said t ha t the traditional city of S h a h j a h a n a b a d provided an ideal solution for climatic comfort. (d) Typical elevation. Homes group around the gardens to form garden courts and the surrounding roads and paths are designed as tree-shaded avenues.

buildings now deal only moderately with the extremes of winter and summer (Fig. (apart from its inherent aesthetic appeal). it was now replaced by the garden court. The park and garden located next to the home are being eaten up by roads and parking. collective housing for the middle and lower ranks was modelled on the squares of English towns where the garden courts with their symmetrical arrangements of the enclosing housing blocks were formal symbols of a social group. • The privately owned vehicle is now occupying more of the open ground. This reduces the capability of the buildings to dampen the effect of t em perat ure variations. In terms of indoor comfort. and a function of motorized t r a n s p o r t on the other. emulated the villa surrounded by gardens. $ T h e new technologies of cement. incorporating vegetation integrally in the city fabric has certainly proven its merit as a means of modifying microclimate. For the planners and designers of the time it was an expression of a cultural predilection to celebrate nat ur e as an extension of the home. Motorized transport overcame the constraint of distance and encouraged horizontal dispersal of city functions.842 an integral component of the spatial s t r uct ure of the housing environment.. But the open spaces around the homes being more exposed to the weather are usable only as recreation spaces during mild weather. it is found t hat open spaces have lost much of their value. This value became embodied in much of the town planning legislation and designs of post-independent India. junctions and roundabouts as a r atio n ale for s t r uc t ur i ng space. • The economics of scarcity are beginning to create pressures on land which demand higher and higher densities of development. The garden became a signifier of civilized living and of status. The need for open or public . The colonial city structure therefore was an expression of a new set of cultural values on the one hand. CONTEMPORARY CITY Today's housing environment is conditioned by many recent developments: • The availability of electricity and electrically operated devices has meant both a rise in the acceptable standards of comfort and the ability to obtain comfort without relying on the building's st ruct ure and envelope as a sensitive foil against climate. irrespective of climate or culture. The imposition of these abstractions on city life brought about a complete change in the n a t u r e of public open space. the tree-shaded avenue and the park. At the same time it imposed a new discipline of roads. glass. It was a part of the utopian dream of the Garden City which sought a r e t u r n to a meaningful relationship with nature. But the garden was not merely a device to modify microclimate. This colonial legacy has influenced our values and life-styles significantly. as the openness of the environment allows easier access to winter sun and a freer passage for natural breeze. Our placing a high value on the garden and the park as an essential component of the housing environment has been one of its most significant aspects. The city plan imposed an order whereby functions were segregated into discrete elements as opposed to the organic continuity witnessed in the traditional city. By and large. 1). the colonial buildings perform better for the cold and humid seasons when compared with the traditional city. etc. Coupled with the idea of the garden was the arrival of the motor car. In the context of the climatic region typified by Delhi. While bungalows. Round-the-year climatic performance of the built spaces is perhaps more satisfactory than in Shahjahanabad. The space between buildings is being given over to the motor car. Where the extension of the home had once been the narrow lane and the bazaar. due to their lighter construction. have resulted in buildings whose mass is as little as 60% of the mass of traditional or colonial construction for the equivalent volume enclosed. steel. They cease to function as microclimate modifiers of the housing environment. But the extension of the garden idea toward an "openness" that results in the loss of a habitable public realm for the city is not appropriate. which were built for the top end of the social heirarchy. especially for new urbanization. The green areas tend to be provided as segregated entities or as undefined patches without meaningful or functional integration with the homes. Climatologically.

Homes within a setting of lawns.s o u t h displacement. • The third factor is the growing pressure on land. whereas the south sides had balconies and terraces with planters. which is employed in traditional as well as colonial examples. It is to be ensured that progressive increase in this pressure. Each and every dwelling unit in the entire development. the cluster and the neighbourhood). • The motor car needs to be given its appropriate place. This is a significant area for energy conservation. vegetation. Firstly. Poor microclimate control means that. Design experimentation would need to establish limits of densities of development within which optimal environmental conditions can be obtained. had an ideal orientation which ensured insolation into the homes during winter and protection from the sun during the summers. These courts were protected from the eastern and western sun by virtue of their n o r t h . (2) The colonial example suggests two further principles. for the extreme conditions of both summer and winter. • The legacy of the colonial experience which places a positive value on greenery requires integration into the urban structure. and recreational space with gardens and trees emerged from staggering identically oriented blocks to form court-like spaces of varying dimensions. and with the preference for a 'green' aspect as an extension of indoor spaces are equated with a wholesome environment for living. suggest themselves as spatial patterns t h a t provide a sense of community identity. LESSONS (1) The lessons offered by the traditional architecture suggest that a tightly knit built form is called for. or walk-up apartments. The north sides of the buildings which were constantly under shade took the function of paved access paths. The shallow depth plans in all buildings ensured good cross-ventilation. (3) From the social and cultural points of view. And the open spaces should also be contained and protected by the building forms. and the desirability of a useable outdoor environment are virtually forgotten. the following factors are to be accounted for in the design of housing environments. are presented here for discussion. but when densities are driven high by pressure on land (say above 120 dwelling units/hectare) it is found that the environmental optimum becomes irretrievable. Secondly. sufficient openness is still to be retained to enable insolation during the winter season and to promote adequate air movement during the h o t . does not attain levels beyond which a decline in environmental quality will be inevitable. pedestrian movement and recreational space needs a balanced resolution. The first design (Figs. circulation routes.843 space to give cohesion and continuity to the city fabric. there is a greater dependence on electrically operated devices to obtain comfort. while achieving a sense of protection to the open space. as argued below. these are factors that distinguish the contemporary situation from the past. The conflict between vehicular access. be they multi-storey flats. 4 and 5) gave primacy to the application of the science of climatology. to become an individual as well as social asset serving both environmental and aesthetic values. have a human scale.h u m i d season. and are functionally useful. flowers and trees. which is caused chiefly by the short supply of land. which can be integrated at every scale of the housing environment (the home. TWO DESIGN PROPOSALS Two designs for housing environments which draw upon the lessons learnt above. to reduce exposure to the external environment and to compensate for a relatively lighter mass of building fabrics/materials. (4) Looking at present-day realities. looking onto gardens . town houses. Continuity and mutual sheltering and shading must be achieved. the street and court character of the public spaces. This calls for a well-judged balance between closure and openness to optimize round-the-year performance. The spatial pattern that combined the homes. The above-mentioned weaknesses are amenable to a fair degree of correction by careful design. The performance of contemporary housing construction is generally less satisfactory than the traditional or colonial forms for indoor as well as outdoor spaces.

The north-south distance between buildings was determined by the angle of incidence of the midday sun in mid-winter. La11 and M. both for outdoor as well as for indoor spaces. DDA housing: part plan showing clusters forming courts and gardens. N. Joint competition 1 entry by Ashok B.844 Fig. 1987. Ashish Ganju for a competition for middle-income group housing called by the Delhi Development Authority. 6 and 7) for another housing project placed primary importance on creating socially and culturally meaningful forms. which would receive the winter sun. 4. The single orientation. It also made a deliberate . resulted in a regimented and repetitive urban form. although ideal from a climatological standpoint. The second design (Figs. The court spaces and the paths lack clear definition and symbolic significance.

DDA housing: typical cross section.OUSTS now .~ COURT " O U S E 5 ©OUmT C0URT . Lall. 1 Fig. Ashish G a n j u for a competition for middle-income group housing called by the Delhi Development Authority. 1989. 6. 1987. . 5. J o i n t competition entry by Ashok B. Competition entry by Ashok B. balconies and gardens receive the winter sun. All residents face southwards such t h a t main rooms.845 ~ V 7 ! i ¢ou. Lall and M. NTPC housing: site plan. Tight knit clustering of dwelling units to form community garden courts (9). Controlled vehicular access (shown shaded) along an internal street and a peripheral motorable road. N. The area adjacent to the n o r t h face of buildings is paved and used for circulation of pedestrians and vehicles.ouses Fig. near New Delhi. for NTPC Housing at NOIDA.

so as to complete the formation of streets and avenues to make well-defined neighbourhood elements. 8 and 9). The volumes should provide a sense of shade and shelter.is to be maintained. • a definite formation of streets. attempt to see the housing design as a complement to the surrounding urban developm e n t s . we sacrificed the theoretical ideal for the most advantageous orientation. • a h i e r a r c h y of green spaces. The houses need to remain close to the ground in order to benefit from the microclimate generated by . courts. Scale and intensity of development The vertical scale of the designs is worth discussing briefly (Figs. We assumed in this design t hat the treatment of wall surfaces and window openings would be varied according to the dictates of the orientation of each location. an intimate integration of these with the buildings provided h u man scale and a sense of protected and sheltered open space. If one looks at the relationship between the volumes of built and open spaces. NTPC housing: part plan showing clustering of houses around small garden plots and forming definite streets.846 6 L Fig. it will be seen t hat a scalar balance between horizontal and vertical dimensions of the protected open s p a c e s . devices such as screens and awnings would be used to control sunlight. Not having the design fix of identical orientation enabled a freer modulation of building mass to achieve: • contiguity of s t r uct ur e and mutual shading. Competition entry by Ashok B. from the small private garden to the shared c our t yar d and finally. 7. Lall. to the public park. entrances and enclosures to give a richly expressed h i e r a r c h y of socially significant and functional spaces. Drawing upon the analysis of both traditional and colonial examples. The closure of space should also permit a reasonable permeability for air movement. 1989. without completely cutting out the winter sun from the lower parts of buildings and the ground. near New Delhi. As was customary in traditional and colonial architecture. for NTPC Housing at NOIDA. where orientation as a principle to govern the planning is rarely followed.the streets and c o u r t s .

1987. people and goods. The designs do indicate certain limits of density and floor-area ratios if holistically optimized environments are to be planned. is to be ensured. This paper deals with urban housing for the middle-income groups with the average dwelling unit size approximately 80 m 2. The greater height of buildings distances the indoor spaces from the advantageous microclimate generated by vegetation. .D. At lower densities too. Prasad.to five-storey construction can be managed using load-bearing brickwork and stabilized mudblock construction. permitting an average construction height of four stories. Fig. costs of transportation and distribution of services become uneconomic. apart from losing the potential of a public realm that forms a meaningful city structure. Needless to say. we feel that beyond the limits of density indicated above. Here again. the impact on energy consumption is also negative. An increase in population density is accompanied by an increase in vehicular density. resulting in a higher dependence on electricity for comfort. vegetation. The consumption of energy embodied in building materials increases dramatically for tall structures. And. The indicated upper limits are around a density of 120 dwelling units per hectare. The limits so arrived at should be used to guide future urban development plans. which is a function of an intimacy of open spaces without an overpowering dominance of surrounding buildings. thereby redressing the balance in favour of a humane and ecologically sound environment for our homes. will require more expensive and energy-intensive solutions such as underground or multi-storey parking. We recommend that similar exercises in design need to be performed to determine the lower limits. very importantly.847 Fig. Microclimate control becomes less effective. The designs shown here concern themselves with the upper limits of the intensity of development for housing environments. Royal College of Art. Whereas four. First design. A study of courtyard houses in hot-dry and hot humid regions of Northern India. BIBLIOGRAPHY S. human scale. London. 8. the problems of protecting recreational and pedestrian areas from the intrusion of the motor car. They are more exposed to the elements. and that any further densification of development and increase in heights of structures would have a negative impact. Second design. 9. Operational limits defining the desirable intensity of housing development suitable for the urban expansion of Northern Indian towns of the composite climate belt can be arrived at by conducting prototypical design studies. taller constructions also become dependent on electricity for the transport of piped services. Thesis. We believe that the two projects illustrated here optimize this overall balance. Unpublished Ph. which are energy-intensive construction materials. taller structures become dependent on an extensive use of steel and cement. Apart from the loss in environmental quality that results when these limits are exceeded. with 70% of the ground kept open to the sky.

terraces Transitions along the hierarchy implied rather than physically marked Needs specific research • Air Movement • Modif3. Neighbourhood environment formed by accretion of individual building acts Centralization of design Household becomes passive consumer with no involvement in production process Design determines 'total' environment housing as employment benefit Centralization of design Household become passive consumer with no involvement in production process but user can exercise some choice Each household to be directly involved in building its own home Community-level design guided by architect Contractor-based construction organization C o m m o n pool of designer/ craftsmen to b e used by all members of neighbourhood Promoter Y Promoter ~ Contractor %.848 APPENDIX Climate • Shading 1 Shahjahanabad {Traditionall Lodi Estate ( G o v t staff quarters} (Colonial} Sheik Scrai {Group housing b~.~ User Each household directly involved in building its own home. few For the middle class. craftsmen • User's role Institution Community Promoter Engineer/architect MarkTeet [ User} "NArchitect User Crafts Common pool of crafts people used by all members of neighbourhood Contractor .ing microclimate Urban structure • Open space Public Private Comments terraces. User needs require rationalization into 'standard' profiles 4. Employer and promoterbuilt housing is now a real need arising from mobility of employment 2. occupation of land according to km No distinction between home and workplace Mix of activities was natural to traditional settlements Present-day attitude assumes a need to protect housing environment from interference by all other activities This attitude springs from those who may be well to do with means of transport and servants etc. Increasing alienation of user from processes of design and construction militate against (3) above being sensitive 5. Need to devise methods of interaction to return 'control' to user Anandgram model? . immediacy of playground and symbiotic relationship between house and garden seen as integral components of housing form For the poor citizens. J Designer Construction (labour) O Organization of labour Common pool of master masons and craftsmen used by all members of neighbourhood Contractor-based construction organization • Selection Masons/craftsmen selected on basis of reputation Selection on basis competitive rates of Selection on basis of tompetitive rates Increasing scale and complexity of construction organization I. Does that permit the luxury of seclusion? Construction (process) • Relationship Household 1 M~ister mason. palace Occupation of land according to social sets of varied functions although functions are distinguished by building type Single function Single function Salient social functions predetermined. work and play No 'parks' needed • Movement and transportation Tree-like hierarchic strutture of streets. Construction process involving centralized design and large-scale capital-intensive building methods are a consequence of ( I ) above 3. homemaking encompasses open rooms for living. and. Shaded access Trees 3-storey dense carpet of buildings dampens temperature variations within the urban fabric Greenery for shade and cool Garden grounds at "town" level Small "chowks' at neighbourhood level Narrow streets Housing blocks form garden court Broad planted avenues Housing blocks forming pedestrian streets. paved green or parking courts No parks within neighbourhood Hierarchy of spaces from 'family' to 'extended family' to outsiders Courtyards. gardens None? Roof terrace? Private front court. housing agencyl {Contemporar)) Anandgram (Advocacy for aided selfhelp community housing} Narrow access routes shaded by buildings and contiguous development Roadside trees for shade Partial mutual shading of units. balconies. cul-de-sacs Predominantly pedestrian with quiet vehicles Network hierarchy Primaryimportancegiven to authorized transport But with shaded pavements Segregation of service functions service lanes No conflict seen between vehicular movement and play area Broad network with culde-sac for vehicles but diffused network for pedestrian movement No service lanes Clear separation and expression of pedestrian movement and vehicular movement Pedestrianized environment accessible by emergency vehicles Motor car ownership and desire for direct access by vehicle enforces its own spatial order A pedestrian precinct at the community level connects to motor transport system at higher level The degree of motor intrusion permitted into a housing environment is a variable • Allocation of functions Only salient social functions pre-determined: city market. mosque.

etc. closure and proximity . though not always acknowledged by the planner • Community Caste identity = neighbourhood Uniform employee status andcommon employer = neighbourhood Social groupings not related to neighbourhood Disperate community Community = neighbourhood Nuclear identity within extended family grouping New urban housing tends to have only the one dimension of class for community The exception being employers and cooperative housing • Home and livelihood Close interweaving of residence and trade Residencesseparated from work/shops Residences separated from work/shops Home = work In present metropolitan society. e. football. require more grounds • Maintenance Private land by residents Public areas by state (dry latrines. Reading Two-in-one For the middle classes.g.. T. is a major group activity Individual leisure activity at home more common due to audio gadgetry and magazines • Play Within house Streets Open areas in city fabric? Planned children's playgrounds Open grounds Planned children's playgrounds Within houses Between houses Maidan Organized sport.g. back (dirty) Courts and streets clearly defined as symbols of community Collective palace Wants to be a villa Highly developed sense of boundaries.849 Skills Decorative crafts relied upon marginally Shared architectural language with individual expression Institutional image conveyed in architectural form Individual security = collective security Security not a concern for designers Security not a concem for designers Extended family security Caste group security Social conflict--fear of riots due to communal and class tensions and organized crime (drugs. work for majority is away from home • Leisure Leisure for men streets conversation shops conversation Evening walk Play in garden Radio Evening walk Play in garden Radio. sometimes with gates Garden as symbol of community Front (proper).) Maintenance by employer Social segregation of "menial' class/work provision of service lane Maintenance by resident's association and public service agencies Maintenance by residents Shift in sense of responsibility for maintenance of cornmon property toward an impersonal "authority' Collective status defined by the institution without room for individual expression Individual homes are subsumed under the institutional image of the 'block' Individual units are expressed but without distinction of status Sense of community expressed as court around green Sense of community expressed as streets and courts Social patterns • Security ( Social conflict) Symbolic language • Expression Individual status finds expression within a cohesive of status urban structure • Expression of community Signs • Entrance • Boundaries Icon[paradigm Sense of community expressed by: (1) Character of street (2) Integrating work and living quarters Construction systems more capital-intensive Decorative crafts not required Technology of decentralized low-capital crafts Decorative crafts sought to be provided Skills of applied decoration integral part of architecrural meaning Deliberately structured relationships and intense interaction ~Design' resulting from above process seen as articulation of aspirations and demands Extended family clustered around its own open space away from the street which is a place for exchange between different groups within Anandgram and between Anandgram and the city Important Significant Breakdown of language Strong signals.. cricket. etc.V. Windingness of streets --Width of streets ---Hierarchical access system Formation of mohallas.. burglary) exist today.V. T. e.