# EE 4343 Control System Design

Design of Phase-lead and Phase-lag compensators using Bode Plot Method
The University of Texas at Arlington, 1998

1. Phase-lead compensator design using Bode Plot Method
Goal: Design a phase-lead compensator for the system G  s  

1
, such that the steadys  s  1

state error is less than 0.1 for a unit ramp input and a % overshoot less than 25%.
KV  lim sG  s   lim s
s 0

ess 

s 0

K 1
K
s  s  1

1
1

 0.1  K  10
KV
K

% overshoot specification
Recall the relationship between % overshoot and damping ratio (  ) which is given by

% Overshoot  100e



1  2

and is shown in Figure 1.
100
90
80

% Overshoot

70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4
0.5
damping ratio 

0.6

Figure1. % Overshoot vs. Damping Ratio.

-1-

0.7

0.8

0.9

3 0.7 Figure2.Then.2 0. Damping Ratio. -2- 0.8 0.1 0. the relationship between phase margin (PM) and damping ratio (  ) for the special  n2 G  s   case of open-loop transfer function which is given by s s  2 n      2 PM  tan 1   1  4  2  2 2    maintains that the phase margin of the compensated system should be greater than obtain a percent overshoot less than 25% and is shown in Figure 2.9 1 45  to .6 damping ratio  0. 80 70 Phase Margin (PM) 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 0.5 0. Phase Margin vs.4 0.

T  0. gden = [1 1 0]. % Closed-loop sys [gnumc.cden). Thus. bode(cnum.gden). cden = [T*alpha 1].hden. hden = [1]. % Open-loop sys C(s)*G(s) numo = conv(cnum. % DC compensator gain % Phase-lead compensator C(s) cnum = K*[T 1].41s  1 C s  0.denc] = feedback(numo.gdenc] = feedback(K*gnum.deno.-1). wm = 4.C s  where T  1 s 1 T   s  1 T or C  j   j T  1 with   1 jT  1 1 . -4- .hnum.123s  1 Phase-lead compensator simulation results: Matlab Simulation clear all.41 sec . % phase-lead compensator time constant K = 10. [numc.3.hnum.hden. % gain-crossover frequency alpha = 0. % phase-lead compensator parameter T = 1/wm/sqrt(alpha).gden.-1). % Open-loop sys G(s) gnum = [1].3 .gnum). % Unity-Gain Feedback Loop H(s) hnum = [1].5. deno = conv(cden. for   0. This leads to a phase-lead m  compensator design of the following: 0.

-5- 2 10 . Magnitude (dB) 25 20 30 20 10 -1 10 0 10 1 10 Frequency (rad/sec) Figure 4. Bode plot of phase-lead compensator C  s  .Bode Diagrams 30 Phase (deg).

[mag1.logspace(-1. -6- .'r'.gden).'r'.ph1.'b'). 50 Bode Diagrams uncompensated compensated 0 -50 -100 -1 10 0 10 1 10 2 10 P h a s e (d e g ) -80 -100 uncompensated compensated compensated system -120 -140 uncompensated system -160 -180 -1 10 0 1 10 10 Frequency (rad/sec) 2 10 Figure 5.ph2.'b'). legend('uncompensated'.2. sys2 = tf(numo.M a g n itu d e (d B ) sys1 = tf(K*gnum. ylabel('Phase (deg)').20*log10(mag2).w]=bode(K*gnum.'compensated'. subplot(212). ylabel('Magnitude (dB)'). w.20*log10(mag1).logspace(-1. semilogx(w.ph2. w.500)). -1).ph1.'compensated'.gden. xlabel('Frequency (rad/sec)'). [mag2. legend('uncompensated'.deno.w]=bode(numo. subplot(211). Bode plots of uncompensated and compensated systems. title('Bode Diagrams').500)).2. -1). semilogx(w.deno).

'compensated'.figure. Step response of uncompensated and compensated system.-1).grid. sys2c = tf(numc.4 0. legend('uncompensated'.6 0. Step Response 1.4 uncompensated compensated A m p litu d e 1. step(sys1c. -7- .6 1.sys2c).) Figure 6.2 1 0. sys1c = tf(gnumc.denc).8 0.2 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Time (sec.gdenc).

[1 0]). 'desired'. legend('uncompensated'.5 0 0 1 2 3 Time (sec) 4 5 Figure 7.5 4 uncompensated compensated desired 3. [y1.x2]=step(numc.conv(denc.5 1 0.y2. [y4.t).grid.'g').t. Unit Ramp Input response 5 4.denc.y1. [y2. -8- . y = t. 'compensated'.t.t).[1 0]).-1).x3]=step(numc.gdenc.01:5.5 2 1.'r'.5 3 2.y.x4]=step(gnumc.conv(gdenc.'b'.t=0:0. Response of uncompensated and compensated systems due to unit ramp input. xlabel('Time (sec)'). plot(t. [y3.t).x1]=step(gnumc.t). title('Unit Ramp Input response').

2. Obtain the gain margin and phase margin plots of the uncompensated system along with the DC gain constant K found in (i. Steady-state error specification As computed in (1.) Choose the DC gain constant K such that the steady-state error specification is met. From Figure 8. Phase-lag compensator design using Bode Plot Method Goal: Design a phase-lag compensator for the system G  s   1 .). Bode plot of uncompensated system K  G  s  .1 for a unit ramp input and a percent overshoot less than 25%. Magnitude (dB) i. we know K must be greater than or equal to 10. Bode Diagrams Gm = Inf. PM comp  45 .). such that the steady-state s  s  1 error is less than 0.) 0 -20 -100 -120 -140 m -160 -180 -1 10 0 10 Frequency (rad/sec) Figure 8. Phase-lag design procedure: ii. let  m  0. K  10 .) to estimate the frequency at which the PM of 50  occurs. so let K  10 . Pm=17. Denote this frequency as the new gain-crossover frequency  m . -9- .84 rad sec . (at 3.964 deg. Percent overshoot specification As obtained in (1. From above.0842 rad/sec) 60 40 20 Phase (deg)..

119 s  1 Phase-lead compensator simulation results: Matlab Simulation clear all. % Open-loop sys C(s)*G(s) numo = conv(cnum.hden. This leads to a phase-lag compensator where T  design of the following: C s  11.iii.9 sec . deno = conv(cden. % DC compensator gain % Phase-lead compensator C(s) cnum = K*[T 1]. % phase-lag compensator parameter T = 10/wm. hden = [1].) Determine the magnitude of uncompensated system at  m  0.-1).gnum).. wm = 0. % Unity-Gain Feedback Loop H(s) hnum = [1].84 rad sec is 20 dB.gdenc] = feedback(K*gnum. cden = [T*alpha 1].gden).10 - . % Closed-loop sys [gnumc. The transfer function of a phase-lag compensator is given as C s  1 s 1 T   s  1 T or C  j   jT  1 with   1 jT  1 10 1  11.). % Open-loop sys G(s) gnum = [1]. From Figure 8.84.-1).deno. gden = [1 1 0]. % phase-lead compensator time constant K = 10.hnum.) thru (iii. To bring the magnitude curve down to 0 dB at  m .hden.84 rad sec .) Calculate the parameters of the phase-lag compensator based on the values obtained in steps (i. [numc. % gain-crossover frequency alpha = 10. iv.denc] = feedback(numo.9 s  1 . the phase-lag compensator must provide 20 log    20 dB or  20  10 20  10 .gden. This is to ensure that the frequency at   is one decade m T below the new gain-crossover frequency  m . the magnitude of the uncompensated system at  m  0.hnum. .

.bode(cnum.11 - 0 10 . Magnitude (dB) 10 5 0 -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 -3 10 -2 -1 10 10 Frequency (rad/sec) Figure 9.cden). Bode Diagrams 20 15 Phase (deg). Bode plot of phase-lag compensator C  s  .

legend('uncompensated'.20*log10(mag1).500)).deno).ph1. [mag1.12 - .ph1.'compensated'.500)).gden. semilogx(w.'b'). xlabel('Frequency (rad/sec)'). [mag2.2. ylabel('Phase (deg)'). subplot(211). legend('uncompensated'. Bode plots of uncompensated and compensated systems. ylabel('Magnitude (dB)').gden).'r'. w.w]=bode(K*gnum.ph2. subplot(212). title('Bode Diagrams').2.logspace(-1.ph2.'b').deno.w]=bode(numo. Bode Diagrams 50 uncompensated compensated 0 -50 P h a s e (d e g ) -100 -1 10 0 10 1 10 2 10 -80 compensated system -100 uncompensated compensated uncompensated system -120 -140 -160 -180 -1 10 0 1 10 10 Frequency (rad/sec) 2 10 Figure 10.'r'.20*log10(mag2).'compensated'. w. -1). -1). . semilogx(w. sys2 = tf(numo.M a g n itu d e (d B ) sys1 = tf(K*gnum.logspace(-1.

13 - .2 1 0.6 1.denc).6 0.4 uncompensated compensated A m p litu d e 1. legend('uncompensated'.grid.2 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Time (sec.-1). sys2c = tf(numc.) Figure 11.sys2c). Step Response 1.gdenc).4 0.8 0. 'compensated'. Step response of uncompensated and compensated system. . step(sys1c.sys1c = tf(gnumc.

x1]=step(gnumc. Unit Ramp Input response 5 4.14 - . y = t.x4]=step(gnumc.t.denc.[1 0]).conv(denc.grid. Response of uncompensated and compensated systems due to unit ramp input.t).t.t).t).'b'.01:5. 'compensated'. plot(t. [y3.y2.'g'). [y4.-1).[1 0]). .x3]=step(numc.t).gdenc.5 2 1.y1.5 1 0. [y1.x2]=step(numc. xlabel('Time (sec)').conv(gdenc.t=0:0. [y2. title('Unit Ramp Input response').'r'. 'desired'.y.5 0 0 1 2 3 Time (sec) 4 5 Figure 12.5 4 uncompensated compensated desired 3.5 3 2. legend('uncompensated'.