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EXPERIMENT 8

CONSTANT HEAD PERMEABILITY TEST

PUAN SITI MARLINNA CHU BINTI MOHD RIZAL CHU

NAME

IDA RAHAYU BINTI AMRAN

MOHD ADHAM BIN MOHD ARIF

NURUL ELYANIE SYAFIKA BINTI MOHAMED

ZURREEN ATIQA BINTI JAZULI

AYU KARLINA BINTI SHARIPUDIN

1 | Page

2.CC303 : Geotechnic Engineering OBJECTIVE 1. Solving problems involving yield of water bearing strata. Embankments of canal bank affected. APPARATUS 2 | Page . To determine the coefficient of permeability of a soil using constant head method. 4. 5. Seepage through earthen dams. 3. Stability of earthen dams.

CC303 : Geotechnic Engineering 1. BALANCE 4. STOP WATCH 3 | Page . CONSTANT HEAD PERMEAMETER 2. GRADUATED FLASK 3. ASSEMBLED CONSTANT HEAD PERMEAMETER 5.

the amount of water flowing through the soil column is measured for given time intervals. the soil sample is saturated. The permeability cell is also equipped with a loading piston that can be used to apply constant axial stress to the sample during the test. and the time interval ΔT.CC303 : Geotechnic Engineering THEORY The constant head permeability test involves flow of water through a column of cylindrical soil sample under the constant pressure difference. Before starting the flow measurements. the ratio of the cell diameter to the largest grain size diameter should be higher than 12 (Head 1982).Δh. The testing apparatus is equipped with a adjustable constant head reservoir and an outlet reservoir which allows maintaining a constant head during the test.Δt) 4 | Page . and the constant pressure difference Δh. the sample cross section A. During the test. Knowing the height of the soil sample column L. however. the volume of passing water Q. The test is carried out in the permeability cell. The usual size of the cell often used for testing common sands is 75 mm diamater and 260 mm height between perforated plates. or permeameter. As a rule of thumb. which can vary in size depending on the grain size of the tested material. Water used for testing is de-aired water at constant temperature. one can calculate the permeability of the sample as K=QL / (A. The soil sample has a cylindrical form with its diameter being large enough in order to be representative of the tested soil.

2) Remove the protective cover (paraffin wax) from the sampling tube. to provide 7) The sealing between the soil specimen and the mould against leakage from the sides. 8) The drainage cap shall then be fixed over the top of the mould. bore hole number and its depth at which the sample was taken. and push the plunger to get a cylindrical form 4) Sample not longer than 35 mm in diameter and having height equal to that of mould. 5) The specimen shall be placed centrally over the porous disc to the drainage base. 3) Place the sampling tube in the sample extraction frame.CC303 : Geotechnic Engineering PROCEDURE UNDISTURBED SOIL SAMPLE 1) Note down the sample number. 9) Now the specimen is ready for the test. 5 | Page . 6) The angular space shall be filled with an impervious material such as cement slurry or wax.

9) Find the weight of mould with sample. 6 | Page . 4) Mix the soil thoroughly. 2) The initial moisture content of the 2. clamp it between the compaction base plate and extension collar.5 kg sample shall be taken from a thoroughly mixed air dried or oven dried material. 8) After completion of a compaction the collar and excess soil are removed.5 kg sample shall be determined. with drainage base and cap having discs that are properly saturated. 7) Place the assembly on a solid base and fill it with sample and compact it. 6) After greasing the inside slightly. Then the soil shall be placed in the air tight container. 5) Weigh the empty permeametermould.CC303 : Geotechnic Engineering DISTURBED SOIL SAMPLE 1) A 2. 3) Add required quantity of water to get the desired moisture content. 10) Place the mould with sample in the permeameter.

5) Repeat three times for the same interval RESULT soil description : sand and gravel method of preparation : compaction Sample diameter : 75. 4) The quantity of flow for a convenient time interval may be collected.35mm 7 | Page Sample length : 93. the specimen shall be connected through the top inlet to theconstant head reservoir.6mm . 3) Establish steady flow of water.CC303 : Geotechnic Engineering TEST PROCEDURE 1) For the constant head arrangement. 2) Open the bottom outlet.

45 500 0.732 Time from start (min) Time interval.35 500 1.38 1000 2.38 2000 4.05 am 0. t (min) Measured flow.45 2000 3.30 am 0.39 1500 3.54 am 0.929 10. k = 8 | Page ¿^ VL ¿ .200 9.419 Second attempt CALCULATION Permeability.15 am 0. A : 4459.45 1000 1.933 9. t (min) Measured flow.210 9.45 am 0.CC303 : Geotechnic Engineering Sample area.43 1500 2.30 am 0. Q (ml) Remarks ¿^ k = VL ¿ 8.194mm2 Sample dry mass : 1230g Manometer a : 595mm Manometer b : 570mm READING First attempt Time from start (min) Time interval.00 am 0.866 9.44 am 0. Q (ml) Remarks ¿^ VL k= ¿ 8.230 10.

K= 1000(93.194)(0.732 Second attempt i.38) = 2.194)(0.6) / 25(4459.6) / 25(4459. K= 2000(93.419 9 | Page .38) = 4.933 ii.210 iii.6) / 25(4459.929 iv.45) = 1.43) = 2.194)(0. K= 500(93.6) / 25(4459.194)(0.CC303 : Geotechnic Engineering First attempt i.6) / 25(4459.6) / 25(4459.194)(0.35) = 1. K= 1000(93.194)(0.6) / 25(4459.200 ii.230 iv.194)(0. K= 500(93.194)(0.45) = 3. K= 2000(93. K= 1500(93.45) =0. K= 1500(93.866 iii.6) / 25(4459.39) =3.

732. 2. It can drain water easily but hardly can retain any water. 1.419.CC303 : Geotechnic Engineering DISCUSSION The value of the k (permeability) at the first attempt that we get is 0. 2.210. This value we get by using the formula. Before that. This is because the porosity of sand and gravelis high or moderate where by water can flows through the soil with less resistance. The greater pore size of soil is more permeability then the soil with smaller pore size.230 and 4.933. 10 | P a g e .866.200.929 and 3. we can classify the type of soil that we use is silty sands or silty clays and this types of soil is not suitable for drainage system. the permeability of this sample is moderate. So. From value of k. 3. For the second attempt we get 1. we find the value Ai first and after that we get the value of q.

effective void size and drain down. The time that we get is faster. the water diffusion rate is low. From the coefficient of permeability for the given sample of soil value. Therefore. we get the time to be constant at volume of water. This gravel soil has a large molecular space. This is because the permeability of the gravel soil absorbs the water is low. we can say that the rate of flow the sample has get the value is higher. It appears to be a function of three factors for a constant paste amount and character which is effective air void content. 11 | P a g e .CC303 : Geotechnic Engineering CONCLUSION As a conclusion.

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