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Specifications

Section 03440 - Reinforced Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Panels
Section 04240 - Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Units

9. (UL).04 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION A. ** and roof ** panels. 12. AC4. Section 04210: Brick. designated as AC4. American Concrete Institute (ACI). SPEC EDITOR TO DELETE INAPPROPRIATE INFORMATION. Section 03300: Cast-in-Place Concrete. 2. Section 03541: Gypsum Underlayment. 1. 2. but is not limited to: Design. Section 07600: Flashing and Sheet Metal. Section 07840: Firestopping. 3. 1. Section 01630: Product Substitution Procedures. B. Section 07920: Joint Sealants. Terms: 1. Inc.02 REFERENCES A. fabrication. Basic reinforcement requirements: Reinforce for handling/transportation loads and design loads indicated in Contract Documents.01 SUMMARY A. DELETE OTHERS 1. Division 9: Finishes. .GENERAL SELECT APPROPRIATE SECTIONS FOR BELOW. 8. 6. 5. transportation. Design requirements: 1. 2. Section 08110: Steel Doors and Frames.Master Specifications AERCON Florida. 10. ASTM.GENERALLY SELECTIONS ARE PRECEDED BY **. Section 04240: Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Units. 4. and erection of reinforced Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC) structural ** floor. Section 03200: Concrete Reinforcement. ** wall.4 or AC6. Section includes. Underwriters Laboratories.03 DEFINITIONS A. Strength Class: Classification that defines the physical properties of the AAC. 3. Standards of the following as referenced: 1. 7. LLC 03440-1 Reinforced Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Panels SECTION 03440 REINFORCED AUTOCLAVED AERATED CONCRETE PANELS Date: 3-21-03 SECTION REQUIRES EDITOR TO MAKE SELECTIONS . Reinforced AAC panels: Reinforced Autoclaved Aerated Concrete panels. Section 04070: Masonry Grout. PART 1 . 1. 11. Related sections: 1.

1. Do not destroy mock-up until directed by Architect. SUBMITTALS A.05 03440-2 Reinforced Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Panels Maximum deflection: a. Pre-installation conferences: 1. Workmanship. floor. 3. 2. and wall panels: L/360 maximum total deflection.07 DELIVERY. 2. B. schedule and hold a pre-installation conference to review Scope of Work. Notify Architect at least seven days prior to meeting. Interior finishes. b. 3. Flashing. 1. Floor panels: 1) Live load: L/360. Maintain mock-up throughout work as standard of AAC unit work. Prior to installation of reinforced AAC panels. Wall panels. 2) Dead plus live load: L/180. Should mock-up be disapproved. Indicate loads used for the design of reinforced AAC panels.Master Specifications AERCON Florida. Packing and shipping: 1. 4. c. 4. Build a mock-up as directed by Architect. Include location of openings fabricated in panels. and erection details. Transport and handle reinforced AAC panels with equipment designed to protect panels from strain. prepare additional mock-ups until approved by Architect. cracking.06 QUALITY ASSURANCE A. Indicate Strength Class. Placing reinforced AAC panels in direct contact with earth is prohibited. LLC 2. 3. e. Prepare mock-up at least 14 days prior to beginning AAC unit work. C. Indicate dimensions of panels. Roof panels: 1) Live load: L/240. c. Exterior finishes. STORAGE. Identify reinforced AAC panels with mark used on shop drawings. chipping. warping. . Shop drawings: 1. Identifying marks shall be located on surfaces not visible in installed configuration. The following items are to be approved: a. arrangement of joints. Furnish reinforced AAC panels from single manufacturer. Mock-ups: 1. Design for structures supporting AAC roof. 2. or staining. if required. Attendees shall include a representative from each subcontractor involved with reinforced AAC panels and adjacent construction material installation. reinforcement. Control joint complete with joint sealant. d. AND HANDLING A. 2) Dead plus live load: L/240. f. g. wind load: L/240. 3. b. Reinforcement. Mortar joints. 2. 1.

and other items. Use heat sources to maintain temperatures above 32°F within enclosures. Concentrated loads: Three days. Uniform floor or roof loads: 12 hours.08 PROJECT CONDITIONS A. Store to protect from strain. c. Hot weather precautions for AAC panel work: a. Place so identification marks are easily discernible. 2) Installing AAC panel more than two minutes after spreading mortar is prohibited.09 SEQUENCING AND SCHEDULING A. . 3. warping. 2. Maintain mortar temperature above freezing until placed. 3) Between 25°F and 20°F: Completely cover completed AAC panels with insulating blankets or equal protection for a minimum of 24 hours after construction. B. Daily mean temperature requirements: 1) Between 40°F and 32°F: Protect completed AAC panels from rain or snow by covering with weather resistive membrane for a minimum of 24 hours after construction. 4. When temperature of AAC panel is below 20°F. cracking. Construction activities coordination specified in other Sections for work built into panels: 1. 2. e. minimum. smooth surface. include required depth. Store in same position as transported. 2) Below 20°F: Provide enclosure for AAC panels under construction. Loading AAC wall panels is prohibited prior to the following: 1. 4. 3. minimum. When erected in ambient air temperature of 100°F or ambient air temperature of 90°F with wind velocity in excess of 8 mph. As panel installation is completed. Cold and hot weather installation practices for panels installed utilizing thin bed mortar joints: 1. 2. 2. Request relevant construction activities to mark actual routing or chase locations. Cold weather precautions for AAC panel work: a. or other acceptable methods outlined to Architect. electric heating blankets. 1. 4) Below 20°F: Maintain AAC panel construction above 32°F for 24 hours after completion by enclosure with supplementary heat. infrared heat lamps. d. Heat mortar sand or mixing water to produce mortar temperatures between 40°F and 120°F at time of mixing. Storage and protection: 1. 2) Between 32°F and 25°F: Completely cover completed AAC panels with weather resistive membrane for a minimum of 24 hours after construction. Store on firm. LLC 03440-3 Reinforced Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Panels B. Filling in chases and routed areas specified in other Sections. b. Work required under this Section includes chase and routing coordination with construction activities specified in other Sections. Ambient temperature requirements: 1) Between 25°F and 20°F: Use heat sources on both sides of AAC panels under construction. plumbing. or staining. implement the following: 1) Spreading mortar beds more than 4'-0" ahead of AAC panels is prohibited. coordinate with work required in other Sections for chases or routing areas required in AAC panels for electrical. Remove vis ible ice on AAC panel prior to installation. level. Install wind breaks when wind velocity is in excess of 15 mph. chipping. do not install panels.Master Specifications AERCON Florida. 1.

Floor panels. TYPICALLY. actual sizes indicated on Contract Drawings. Reinforced AAC panels: 1. Manufacturers: 1. 2. Nominal dimensions: ** a. Non-Load Bearing Wall panels. Roof panels. Grade 60. Composition: Autoclaved aerated concrete mixture consisting of quartz sand. and performance are acceptable. D. ** AC6. 2.PRODUCTS 2. 544 East. Joint sealant: Elite Cement Products. ** B. deformed type for #3 and larger bars.02 Products of other manufacturers similar in type. Fasteners and Anchors: Compatible with AAC materials. SEVERAL DIFFERENT WALL THICKNESSES REQUIRE MULTIPLE SELECTION.R. Telephone: (863) 422-6360. reinforced: ** 6" (150mm) ** 8" (200mm) ** 10” (240mm) ** 12" (300mm) ** thickness by 24" (610mm) width. FL 33844. cement. 2.03 ACCESSORIES A. Key joint and bond beam reinforcement: ASTM A 615. water. ** b. Haines City.. Substitutions for products listed are prohibited. ** AC6. Headers at penetrations in floor and roof systems: Designed and detailed by AAC Panel Manufacturer. Acceptable manufacturer: AERCON Florida LLC. 3701 C. reinforced: ** 6" (150mm) ** 8" (200mm) ** 10” (240mm) ** 12" (300mm) ** thickness by 24" (610mm) width. Strength Class ** AC4. ** requirements and submission of required data indicated in Product Substitution Procedures section. Load Bearing Wall panels. ** AC6. ** d. Strength Class ** AC4. Fire ratings: In accordance with UL 263. UL 1479 and UL 2079. and reinforcement. Atlanta GA. reinforced: ** 6" (150mm) ** 8" (200mm) ** 10” (240mm) ** 12" (300mm) ** thickness by 24" (610mm) width. quality.. 3. Inc. ** AC4. ** c. USE THIS SUBPARAGRAPH FOR ALLOWING SUBSTITUTIONS WITHOUT NAMING OTHER MFRS. USE BELOW IF CLOSED SPEC 2. lime. proprietary additives. SELECT APPROPRIATE THICKNESS(ES) AND USE. Headers and frames: 1. MANUFACTURED PANELS A. reinforced: ** 6" (150mm) ** 8" (200mm) ** 10” (240mm) ** 12" (300mm) ** thickness by 24" (608mm) width.01 MANUFACTURERS A.4 ** AC6. Strength Class ** AC4. .Master Specifications AERCON Florida. LLC 03440-4 Reinforced Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Panels PART 2 . DELETE OTHERS. Strength Class ** AC4. Fax (863) 422-6361. C. Flex W or equivalent. B. SELECT STRENGTH CLASS(ES) REQUIRED. subject to compliance with specified ** ** requirements.

C. 2. PART 3 . END OF SECTION 03440 . Cleaning and patching: Patch spalls and chips in reinforced AAC panels in accordance with AAC panel manufacturer’s recommendations.Master Specifications AERCON Florida. as specified. D. include anchors. level. Mortar materials.02 APPLICATION A. Shop assembly: 1. MIXES A. 4. Fill in interior spaces around built-in items with fine grout or interior plaster. Building in other work: 1. 2. exercise care not to disturb other materials from position. 2. Space and align built-in parts. Provide temporary bracing as required to resist construction loads. 2. Fabricate reinforced AAC panels in accordance with approved shop drawings. 3. 3. 3. Follow approved shop drawings for installation of work. E. B.01 ERECTION A. Maximum variation from plumb: 1/4" in 10'-0". Mix and place grout in accordance with manufacturer's recommendations. Secure reinforced AAC panels in place as indicated on approved shop drawings. Set reinforced AAC panels plumb. 3. Feather-out grout at joint irregularities. 2. not exceeding 3/8" in 20'-0". AERCON Large Grain Mortar.05 FABRICATION A. not exceeding 1/2" in 40'-0" or more. Erection Tolerances: 1. Floor and roof panels: Fill joints between reinforced AAC panels using reinforcing bars and grout.EXECUTION 3. 2. Dimensional tolerances shall be non-cumulative. Maximum variation from level: 1/4" in 20'-0". Reinforced AAC panel work: 1. Slump: 8” to 11” measured in accordance with ASTM C 143. Grout proportions: 1.04 03440-5 Reinforced Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Panels Supplemental steel framing at openings in wall systems: Designed and detailed by Project Engineer of Record. Fine grout: proportion materials by volume in accordance with ASTM C 476. and true to line within specified erection tolerances. Install work of other sections required to be incorporated with reinforced AAC panels as work progresses. acceptable product: AERCON Thin Bed Mortar. including wind. Maximum variation in linear building line from location indicated: 1/4" at base of wall. and accessories. LLC 2. Fill in exterior spaces around built-in items with fine grout or stucco.

6. Division 9: Finishes 12. 2. Head joint: Vertical joint between two AAC units. Inc. AAC unit: Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Unit. Section 07840: Firestopping. B.Master Specifications AERCON Florida. 24” (608mm) by 8” (200mm). Section 04070: Masonry Grout. SPEC EDITOR TO DELETE INAPPROPRIATE INFORMATION. Division 15: Mechanical. Underwriters Laboratories. 4. Related sections: 1. Section 08110: Steel Doors and Frames. Section 07600: Flashing and Sheet Metal. Section 01630: Product Substitution Procedures. Division 16: Electrical. (UL). 6. 24” (608mm) by 24” (608mm). 2. 10. Strength Class: Classification that defines the physical properties of the AAC. PART 1 – GENERAL SELECT APPROPRIATE SECTIONS FOR BELOW. transportation. . Section 07650: Flexible Flashing. 1. 3. 5. 13. or AC6. Section 07920: Joint Sealants. and erection of Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC) units. 9.01 SUMMARY A. but is not limited to: Fabrication. American Concrete Institute (ACI). 3. 1. Section 03300: Cast-in-Place Concrete. ASTM. AAC block: Nominally rectangular face AAC unit. 4. 8. DELETE OTHERS 1.03 DEFINITIONS A. AC4.GENERALLY SELECTIONS ARE PRECEDED BY **. Terms: 1. AAC ValuBlock: Nominally rectangular face AAC unit. 3. LLC 04240-1 Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Units SECTION 04240 AUTOCLAVED AERATED CONCRETE UNITS Date: 03-20-03 SECTION REQUIRES EDITOR TO MAKE SELECTIONS . 11. 4. 7. Section 04210: Brick. Bed joint: Horizontal mortar joint between two AAC units. 2. Standards of the following as referenced: 1. Section includes. Section 03200: Concrete Reinforcement. designated as AC2. The Masonry Society (TMS). 5.02 REFERENCES A.

g. do not install. Prepare sample wall at least 14 days prior to beginning AAC unit work. b. B. Remove visible ice on AAC units prior to installation. Flashing. 1. STORAGE. Mortar joints. LLC 1. Workmanship. f. Certificate from the AAC manufacturer indicating AAC product is manufactured in accordance with ASTM C 1386. Storage and protection: 1. 1. e. e. Use heat sources to maintain temperatures above 32°F within enclosures. 4. Daily mean temperature requirements: 1) Between 40°F and 32°F: Protect completed AAC walls from rain or snow by covering with weather resistive membrane for a minimum of 24 hours after construction. 3) Between 25°F and 20°F: Completely cover completed AAC walls with insulating blankets or equal protection for a minimum of 24 hours after construction. b. Quality control submittals: 1. c. 1. Interior finishes. AND HANDLING A. Heat mortar sand or mixing water to produce mortar temperatures between 40°F and 120°F at time of mixing. 2. 2) Between 32°F and 25°F: Completely cover completed AAC walls with weather resistive membrane for a minimum of 24 hours after construction. 3. Furnish AAC units from single manufacturer.Master Specifications AERCON Florida.06 DELIVERY.04 04240-2 Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Units SUBMITTALS A.05 QUALITY ASSURANCE A. Cold and hot weather installation practices: 1. Maintain mortar temperature above freezing until placed. Cold weather precautions for AAC masonry work: a. c. Mock-ups: 1. 2) Below 20°F: Provide enclosure for AAC walls under construction. Exterior finishes. Protect AAC units from oil and chemical staining. . Control joint complete with joint sealant. Ambient temperature requirements: 1) Between 25°F and 20°F: Use heat sources on both sides of AAC walls under construction. Lay 6’-0” long by 4’-0” high sample wall with AAC units. Placing AAC units in direct contact with earth is prohibited. The following items are to be approved: a. d. Do not destroy wall until directed by Architect. Orient wall as directed by Architect. if required. Install wind breaks when wind velocity is in excess of 15 mph. When temperature of AAC units is below 20°F. 2. Maintain wall throughout work as standard of AAC unit work.07 PROJECT CONDITIONS A. d. Should wall be disapproved. prepare additional walls until approved by Architect. Offload AAC units and store using pallets resting on ground. Reinforcement.

Work required under this Section includes chase and routing coordination with construction activities specified in other Sections. AAC units: 1. lime. As walls are completed. Substitutions for products listed are prohibited. Composition: Autoclaved aerated concrete mixture consisting of quartz sand. Uniform floor or roof loads: 12 hours. and water. 2. 4. Concentrated loads: Three days. Manufacturers: 1.PRODUCTS 2. plumbing.02 MANUFACTURED UNITS A. SELECT APPROPRIATE THICKNESS(ES) AND USE. Filling in chases and routed areas specified in other Sections. 3) Setting AAC unit more than one minute after spreading mortar is prohibited. Acceptable manufacturer: AERCON Florida LLC. 2.08 04240-3 Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Units 4) Below 20°F: Maintain AAC wall construction above 32°F for 24 hours after completion by enclosure with supplementary heat. LLC 2.01 MANUFACTURERS A. SEVERAL DIFFERENT WALL THICKNESSES REQUIRE MULTIPLE SELECTION. Construction activities coordination specified in other Sections for work built into walls: 1. SEQUENCING AND SCHEDULING A.Master Specifications AERCON Florida. quality. TYPICALLY. electric heating blankets.R. 1. and performance are acceptable. FL 33844. Products of other manufacturers similar in type. include required depth. 3. B. When erected in ambient air temperature of 100°F or ambient air temperature of 90°F with wind velocity in excess of 8 mph. implement the following: 1) Protect AAC wall construction from direct exposure to wind and sun. infrared heat lamps. Loading AAC unit walls or columns is prohibited prior to the following: 1. USE THIS SUBPARAGRAPH FOR ALLOWING SUBSTITUTIONS WITHOUT NAMING OTHER MFRS. minimum. PART 2 . proprietary additives. 2) Spreading mortar beds more than 4’-0” ahead of AAC units is prohibited. 3. and other items. ** requirements and submission of required data indicated in Product Substitution Procedures section. Haines City. Fax (863) 422-6361. . cement. coordinate with work required in other Sections for chases or routing areas required in AAC walls for electrical. DELETE OTHERS. minimum. 544. USE BELOW IF CLOSED SPEC 2. 3701 C. 2. Hot weather precautions for AAC masonry work: a.. Request relevant construction activities to mark actual routing or chase locations. Telephone: (863) 422-6360. SELECT STRENGTH CLASS(ES) REQUIRED. subject to compliance with specified ** ** requirements. or other acceptable methods outlined to Architect.

acceptable manufacturer: Go-Bolt. AAC unit head joint and bed joint mortar. UL 1479 and UL 2079. hard. ** AAC ValuBlock: **4” (100mm) ** 6” (150mm) ** 8” (200mm) ** 10” (240mm) ** 12” (300mm) ** nominal widths by 24” (608mm) nominal height by 24” (608mm) nominal length. 3. DeLand. and organic materials. Type “M”. Flat face head joints: **4” (100mm) ** 6” (150mm) ** 8” (200mm) ** 10” (240mm) ** 12” (300mm) ** nominal widths by 8” (200mm) nominal height by 24” (608mm) nominal length. natural. acids. a. Tongue and Groove: **4” (100mm) ** 6” (150mm) ** 8” (200mm) ** 10” (240mm) ** 12” (300mm) ** nominal widths by 8” (200mm) nominal height by 24” (610mm) nominal length. potable. ** AC6. ** AC6. Strength Class ** AC2. c. Strength Class AC4. Tension tie-downs. Aggregate: a. 04240-4 Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Units Nominal dimensions: ** a. AAC Block. Leveling bed mortar: ASTM C 270. 89. e.. acceptable product: AERCON Thin Bed Mortar. G. B. Masonry grout: Fine aggregate: ASTM C 404. ** AC4. deformed type for #3 and larger bars. Fasteners and Anchors: Compatible with AAC materials. ** AC6. Solid lintel units. 1 Coarse aggregate: ASTM C 404. reinforced: Same width as walls by ** 8” (200mm) ** 12” (300mm) ** 16” (403mm) ** 24” (608mm) ** nominal height. LLC 2. DELETE SUBPARAGRAPH BELOW IF NO CEMENT GROUT IS REQUIRED. Inc. Strength Class AC4. 4. E. Reinforcement: ASTM A 615. washed sand in accordance with ASTM C 144. ** b.03 ACCESSORIES A. Water: Clean. Fire ratings: In accordance with UL 263. D. ** AC4. ** SELECT APPROPRIATE LINTEL TYPE – SOLID REINFORCED TYPE OF “U” TYPE d.Master Specifications AERCON Florida. Strength Class ** AC2. Strength Class ** AC2. ** AC4. C. Backer rods and sealants: Specified in Joint Sealants Section. B. 2. Mortar materials: 1. . Lintel “U-Block” units: Same width as walls by ** 8” (200mm) ** 10” (240mm) ** nominal height by 24” (608mm) nominal length. Fire-rated insulation for penetrations of rates walls: Specified in Firestopping Section. Flexible flashing: Specified in Flexible Flashing Section. Size No. AAC Block. Leveling bed mortar: Clean. F. Size No. Florida or equivalent. Grade 60. actual sizes indicated on Contract Drawings. free from deleterious amounts of alkalies. 2.

04 04240-5 Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Units MIXES A. LLC 2. 4. Brace walls during construction to protect from wind damage. Lay out units to minimize cutting. not less than 3/8 inch. Protection: 1. 6. ACC unit head joint and bed joint mortar: Mix in accordance with manufacturer’s mixing instructions. Fill in exterior spaces around built-in items with fine grout or stucco. Lay AAC units plumb. Covering: Overhang at least 2’-0” on each side of wall. and accessories. DELETE GROUT PROPORTIONS PARAGRAPH IF DELETED ABOVE. Workmanship: 1. PART 3 . Install work of other sections required to be incorporated with AAC units as work progresses. Coordinate with SEQUENCING AND SCHEDULING Article for required routing and chases. 3. . C. Protect finished exposed work from stains. exercise care not to disturb other materials from position. Head and bed joints: a. Lay units in running bond with 6” minimum head joints lap in alternate courses. Space and align built-in parts. 2. 2. Use AAC thin bed mortar for head and bed joints and other joints in AAC work.EXECUTION 3. 3. include anchors.01 PREPARATION A. Building in other work: 1. Cut AAC units with unit manufacturer recommended hand type saw or electric bandsaw specially designed for cutting AAC units. Grout proportions: 1. B. 4. Mortar joints: 1. 2. 3. level. Proportion materials by volume in accordance with ASTM C 270 for leveling course only. 5. 2. Slump: 8” to 11” measured in accordance with ASTM C 143. Lay first course in full bed of leveling bed mortar in thickness necessary to level AAC unit top. Mortar proportions: 1.02 INSTALLATION A. Fill in interior spaces around built-in items with fine grout or interior plaster. anchor on each side of wall. Protect partially completed walls not being worked on with non-staining waterproof membrane until construction activities specified in other sections completes protection of walls.Master Specifications AERCON Florida. Keep walls dry during erection by covering at end of each work period with non-staining waterproof membrane covering. Fill hollow metal frames in AAC unit walls with fine grout as wall is laid. 3. 2. Take particular care to keep AAC units clean. B. 5. and true to line for range. Rake back _” joint between hollow metal frame and adjacent AAC unit to receive sealant at butt type frames. Fine and Coarse Grout: Proportion materials by volume in accordance with ASTM C 476.

not exceeding 3/8” in 20’-0”. 2. Patch AAC units with excessive spalls or chips. 4. +/. unless otherwise indicated. Joint treatment: Remove excess extruded mortar immediately after laying AAC unit. Check each AAC unit as laid with mason’s level for level and plumb with wall below. not exceeding _” in 49’-0” or more. 2. Other vertical coursing and head joints: 1/16”. maintain free from projections capable of puncturing flashing material. Control joints: 1. Maximum variation in linear building line from location indicated: _” in 20’-0”. 2. Base course bed joint: _”. Make joint _” wide. Maximum variation from plumb: _” in 10’-0”. nominal. Make adjustment while mortar is still soft and plastic by tapping to plumb and bringing to alignment. Standard thickness for both horizontal and vertical mortar joints: a. 3. Remove and replace mortar with fresh mortar. Provide joints at 24’-0” O. F. at completion of work. tooling joints is not required. unless indicated otherwise. 5. rub AAC unit to remove excess mortar B. 7. 3. 2. 6. Take particular care to avoid spreading mortar on exposed face of AAC unit. D. Only normal mortar droppings will be accepted on face of AAC unit. 3. 3._”. E. END OF SECTION 04240 .03 CLEANING AND PATCHING A. Leave joint open and clean for caulking in accord with Joint Sealants Section. rake out control joints to depth of 3/4” while mortar is still plastic. Keep AAC unit work free of mortar droppings as work progresses and. remove only after mortar has dried enough not to smear. nominal. Flexible flashing: 1. where adjustment must be made after mortar has started to set. Clean AAC unit surfaces smooth. Apply AAC unit head joint and bed joint mortar on full face of AAC unit already laid.Master Specifications AERCON Florida. Maximum variation from level: _” in 20’-0”. Tolerances: 1. LLC 04240-6 Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Units b. b.C. Follow requirements indicated in Flexible Flashing Section. G. Keep bed and head joints uniform in width.