Higly efective extraction of oil from soybean by pretreatment of solidstate fermentation with fungi

Abstract
The solid-state prefermentation by aspergillus niger (CICC 2377) and aspergillus
flavus (CICC 40536) was employed to increase the oil extraction yield from
soybean. The influence of incubation time on oil yield was investigated. The
maximum oil yield extracted from the substrate prefermented by aspergillus
niger for 96 h was 23%, which increase by 47,4% compared with control (15,6%).
In the same fermentation conditions, the maximum oil yield extracted from
substrate prefermented by aspergillus flavus was 21,6%, wich increased by
38,5% compared with control (15,6%). The quality of soybean oil was not
changed obviously by pretreatment of fermentation with fungi.
Keyword : soybean, aspergillus niger, aspergillus flavus, solid-state
fermentation, extraction of oil.
Introduction
Biodiesel is an excellent subtitute for fossil fuels, because of its feature of
environmental protection and regeneration. Many researchers engaged in
exploiting biodiesel, such as using food residues, planting energy crops, applying
oleaginous microorganism to produce microbial oil, etc. However, these have not
been applied ever to produce biodiesel in industry. Oil crops, such as rapeseed,
soybean, and Jatropha curcas seeds are the main raw materials for the
productions of biodiesel. Improving the extraction of oil from oil crops has
important and actual significance. Moreover, the demand for oil crops could offer
a significant opportunity for agriculture in developing economies.
It was definite that oil bodies in oil seeds are trapped in the organelles calle lipid
and protein bodies. Oil from oil seeds is conventionally extracted by mechanical
pressing. However, mechanical pressing cannot break down thw cwll wall and the

This overnight grown culture was used as inoculum in further studies 3. It is woth to explore the use of soybean as substrate for solid-state fermentation. MgSO4 (0. and cellulose. followed by incubation at 280 C and 180 rpm. amylase. and 30% of protein. Material and methods 1. two protease producers. and cellulose. 20-30% of carbohydrate. were purchased from the Chna Centre of Industry Culture Collection (CICC). Solid-state fermentation has been employed to produce extracelluler enzymes like roteases. followed by incubation overnigth grown culture was used as inoculum in further studies. they need energy and enzymes. Flavus) fermentation pretreatment in extraction of oil from soybean. Inoculum a. Microorganisms Aspergillus niger (CICC 2377) and aspergillus flavus (CICC 40536). 2. xylanase. b.01 g/L).protein efficiently. And MgSO4 (1. Substrate reparation and solid-state fermentation . Soybean contains 20% of crude fat. Although the above methods can improve the oil yield extracted from plant seeds. NaNo3 (2 g/L). this composition is appropriate to support good microbial growth and enzyme production. A mother culture was repared by inoculating 2 loopful of stock culture of aspergillus niger in the medium containing glucose (20 g/L). And from Jatropha curcas seed kernels by combination of ultrasonication and aqueous enzymatic. Niger and asp. K2HPO4 (1 g/L) and FeSO4 (0. Some scholars have reported that enzyme-assisted extraction has been successfully employed to extract oil from soybean by using proteases. KCL (0. A mother culture was prepared by inoculation 2 loopful of stock culture of aspergillus flavus in the medium containing sucrose (30 g/L). from rice bran by using proteases.5 g/L). The present work demonstrate the effect of microorganism (asp.5 g/L).5 g/L). leading to low release oil. which will increase the extra cost. KH2PO4 (3 g/L).

Acid value and peroxide value were determined as described. while proteate activity was determined by folin-phenol method. 4. and autoclaved at 121 0C for 20min. five gram of fermented substrate was taken from the flask every 24 h. .Soybean was purchased from the lokal market of Guiyang. Reducing sugar content was determining using the method described by reference. The suspension was then centrifuged at 4000 rpm for 20 min. Formol titration method was use for thr detrmination of ammonia nitrogen content. After coolig. then 50 ml distilled water was added. and the supernatant used for assaying reducing sugar content. Soybean oil was extracted by soxhlet extraction. China. All chemicals and solvent used were of analytical grade. shaken. and the mixture was stirred in a magnetic blender at 200 rpm for 30 min. respectively. ammonia nitrogent content. Guizhou province . Analytical method To anlyze the change of composition in the substrate. Ten grams of well-ground dry substrate was taken into a 250 ml conical flask and 15 ml of tap water was added. and protease activity. sterile media was inoulated with 2 ml inoculum and then incubated for 6 d in an incubator at 28 0C. One unit of protease activity is defined as the amount of enzyme required to roduce one microgram of tyrosine per minute under the conditions described.