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Thomas F. X. Noble

n [he year 726 c. E., the BYLantine emperor


III issued an edict declaring images to be idols,

forbidde n by Exodus, and ordering all such images

in churches co be destroyed . Thus was set

011' the

first wave of Byzamim: ico noclasm, which ran its

"iolene course um J ;8;, when the underlying issues

were temporarily resolved at [he Second Counci l of

Nicaca. In 815, a seco nd great wave of iconoclasm
was set 0([, only


were rescored

[he churches of the East and the


end in 842, w hen (he icons

iconoclasts exco mmunicated.

The iconoclast concroversies have lo ng been
undcrsrood as marking majo r hssures between

the \Vcsrcrn and Eastern churches. In Images,

Iconoclasm. alId rill: Carolinglans, Thomas F. X.

Noble reveals (hat the lin es of di\~sion wc rc not
so dear.

It is t raditionally maintained that the

Caro lingians in the 790S did not understand the

basic issues involved in the Byzantine dispute.
Noble contends that th ere was, in fact., a signihcant
Carolingian controversy about visual an and, if its


Byzantine iconoclasm were tenuous, they

were also compl ex and deeply rooted in central

co ncerns of the Carolingian court. Furc.hc rmore,
he asserts that the Caro lingians made distinctive
and o riginal co ntribut ions


the whole debate over

rel igious an .

Imagr$. Iconoclasm, alld dll! ClirolillbrillllS is the first



provide a comprehensive study of the

\Vesrern response co Byzantine iconoclasm.


comparing art-texts with laws, leners, poems,

an d other sou rces, Noble reveals the power and
magnitude of the key discourses of the Carolingian
wo rld during its most dynamic and creative decades.

11w P' 'r ... _ of"'" " " - ..... ~

A... of do< U.. ......,.ofN..... D.....

All ~........J.. F......


Or' _

&- "" I...;.... ...


U.... .....,. of .............. .....

PhOloddplo ....... "".,. .... _

, S~ "



.. "'" I"'~

r.. b<;,t.......,.... """ ... """'"'" of .......... ~itO.OWIY W'- _

"'>01< ""T"' ~ io - , ..... t.,. -, ....... _




wm.. ~ _ '"' poIoIobn




An, Icons, and Their Critics and Defenders Before the Age of Iconoclasm

Byzantine Iconoclasm in the Eighth Century



An and An Tal k in the West in the First Age of Iconoclasm



The Franks and N icaea: Opus CaroN Rtgii




Tradition, Order, and Wo rship in the Age of Charlemagne


The Age of Second Iconoclasm



Art and Argument in the Age of Louis the Pious




37 '











n- shalt ...' ..... M"to ,iN- nJ 1'4"'" '-t'. ., ~"7Ii"""" of.""hi"f

,hot, it;~ th< liN.... aN'" rhd, It ,. tht M"h or m", it i~ Jo.

__ M...Mo Jo.-.urI..

-F.. od", '0 .

I. Jo. ~ of EM..,..U 4" ;, ~ "'Jfo.Jt to _ _ ""J ~nL fur


_ _ sha. Jo. ..1m""". ofm. C"'-' '-t''' 'N r.hriJti.Jn


- bn .. KjIli"5<" .. n.: Cult


GO"' "''' . ''1 1"0 1\1".... ,..j,h Ki"jng ' gI"" ... ke . s '" .ho kc." of . long.
"'mctim", hi"" , nd .1 ......)"> f.....,i!U.,i"ll- ~h.p1<' in ,he hi"".i", of
of Chri ...
,i. ni,y, .nd "f Wes,<'" ",1",,<. Th" b<><tl f"""o<> on o ne in>p"'n.n, hu, ne
g1c<>ed . nd mi,undc<s[ood ..-gm<m of too.. hi""rid. B<r","n 790 .nd 840. in
differing ,;r<;um ".,nca .nd ",""h differing .im, .nd inmion., C.mlinsi.n
... ritO'. p,oduo;cd hundrtd. of ~ of imdlig<m. 'm""ing. and n(\1 inf",.
quem ly polemicl wri, i,,!: .bo", Ch,i"i." "'. Thi, hook
.nd ino<,!"o"
. 00st t"'U. In .bout 79'>. ThroJ"lf uf
with the lid of $C>'"",I of hi'
",,,.. mpo,,,,i .., ,od 00 the
"" "",.,,,1 of O"rle"ug''''. h<vn '0 wri ..
, he 0"", c,....J;. Thi. "'.,
of ><v< ...1 h",.drtd P"g<S . h.. O>1<n.;bly
fotmed ,portl< to the dcci.iom of the Sccond Council o( N"" ... of 787
1IfC'" ....:mbJr
hlod pm. ["mpo"''r end [0 B)fZl!ntinc
Just .I1e,
li40 }om.. of Orlb.n>--<h" he .nd TheoJ" lf "'. ". hi""'"", of the .. one ... i.
purdy coi ocidcntal_l"'t .he fi"i>h;ng to""h", to hi> 0. ntln. i-inurn. Jon....
[fu,il<. origi ... lly Ix-g.. n >< , he 'I.""" of Loui, [h. I''''u. ,n 817 ,nd compkr""
un the ur<kr of Ch 1cs the fuM. <ponded , .hoc iconocl m of Bi.hop Clau_
di", ofTufi ~ ~nd to m""h <II< bai.dc..
W,i,ingJ .bo", Ch" " i,n m. or .hour ",hlo, ,;....1 ,n, Chri", .. , migh'






rI" "


ho.., .00 how ,hey migh' US< ,h.m, kp.n wi,h ,t..: t pologim in ,h ...:ond
,<n""y.' y", no, un,it 'he <igh'h o;cn,uty did ,h. llrun'i"" w<>dd
in 0
rin ... di"' .... io" of ,h. ""ptop'i"~. of Chri,,;'n ~gurol .n. Th. so.ealkd
'MY' ,Iu: ,.;rn,1'$ go< '0 IUI1IC ,h. 1:.. 1.
,t..: I,,,,,,.-Iw bn ailed "one of , .... gr<a"'" poli'ical .nd cultu ..1cri<cs of
lI,....n';um .""' Mo .... ,h..n .his. ;...... undouh.I1y .,n. of ..., m.;Or ""nR;':" ;n
,h. histoty of ,he CI,ri",." Ch"rch, ... AIII""d. of lif....", ffoal by ,t..:
of """cty w<l< ;""oIvcd in ,h uuggIe. The Gglu ...... ";oIon'.
biu" . nd <k:\J><"', ",
rpri.;nglr. ,hen, a majo< .u,ho,ity """ ..y , h.., tho
'conod.>,," ""n,rov<J'S)'
g,"hly . he ""';0' "",nif..,.,i"" of .oJ
",,",inuily in early mliC'r.llllynn,ium. n,
llyumine ironoct..m <:In """ coursn, Th. fi", u,,1 from 7'6 fO 787 .nd
.h. """"nJ from Sr) '0 84'_ As "",I ju" .Ixw<, Th..,dulf wr" .. ,he Opw c.",o
'" r"""",d ,,, ,Iu: cvuotcil ,h .. pur.n.nd '" ,h. firs, ph,"", oficnnocluon. DiJ
\"('" ,rn CQft'mv<:<>y ""i,,' If """, ~ i, 0 SK'" oi,isl Did i, ,hoke tho (W~n)
Chris,:"n Chu h '" it< foundori,,,,,1 Don i, ......a!<ignifican, for"" of rh. ngd
U, wli)' ,..., m,wers '0 ,1tQC q.,..'.,,,. ... . 11 in 'he "'V,i"". Th. \"('.. m di ......
n ... N'H.........M~~"S, ... *.ide .huw." to ,he Ilyun.
,in< n" in even'. It is u" ..1Iy .,Sued ,h" ,h. Carolinsi.n, in ,he 790' . . mply
did not undo ..",nd the ha<i< i...... invul..-d in 'ho B)"Un,in. dispul<. In
ho"h." ,ellinr,. , he Corol;ngi.", 01< .lIege<! .0 h.v, I. dt<d Gl<'<k 00.:.1<> and
b.mior,. "" wdl .. an undct-rutnding of ,h. phil_phial ,nd ,heoIogical ,...di
,ion. of ,he G.k Church. In the mild", 'ellinr,. 'he Corolingi. n. Iud poor
, ,,n.t.,;"n. of ,he t~ of II Ni""", pcm'P-' ind<l. m<r< ex'rac, from ."',... Iurni""u. docurnen,,_ Corol'ng;.n wri,;ngs W<t(. in .ny C1, w"hou, d;"' n_
ihl. inA""n "" ,he con,inuing COIl .... of II)""OIin< 'conoct.,m .nd, say wh"
"n ..... ill .1:>0<" ,he Nicen. dn4. ,h ub.eq,n. wri,ings of nin,h..".,ruty lIyun
,in. ing< ,hcolog'. n, _'" <"h~, unknown o. unrem .. ke<! in rh. \\'.. ,_ AI_
,Iooug. '~i"r )-.-u. >S" 1'".. It""," .. iJ
,he iam,,,,I ..,i, COotmv<:"y ......
"in the grip< of. " of u"",in'n!"""i". " "" On< coulJ ,h.n '" ""uld ""'"
.. ). ,h... me abou, the Wcs'.' T" 'his J . ). , ..i ... ""i,hcr. compr.hens;"'.
<be.,!"i.,n.,. "'-'pl.",uiQn of ,h. W"" ... n ''''f'O'''' fO lI,....n';n. icorwxlwn o
,horough .CCOUn. of C.rolingian rdi<'Ct,on' "n im. gcs. Th,. book c" ns,;,u,,,,




oft ..

N", ....

wo, "..

.,o "....



/i", ,uch '''''''P''

In.,,, wu. ,n f..... C.rolingi.n ."",m,.,,), . hou, ..;"ul 1M hill i".ies.o

1I,....,,';n. '0>"0<1..", ... nU<>\u ,00 comple>. Thus .10.", ;,.n 01'P"""n,1)'
h., ,h. Co"~i"!9.n di ........ i"" ",,,"!Iy i, linked t<>. I <It> not deny ,h..,
Th.,-,.!ulf tOOk it .. hi, fi", tool. to ''''I''md '0 ,h. <c>nd Nice"" """neil. ,,'"
1 do -....en ,h .. hi, reo""n .. is 'on,e<! &:q>ly ;n =r,,1 con.n, of ,h. C.mling.

'0"" ..



;n [hc )"""


,00...[ 780 ,nd 800. G oodnl b)' II N;ClCI ,he

0,,01;<>19'''' ""~ ,he",,,,I""';II di"i""i..., ""'Y'


l'''*'leo>, ,h" ~e
impon' nl [0 ,hom ,nd ,h., were fund, mem.lly dilf.rem from m.ny, but no<
.11. o( ,h. pfObkm. [h .. cx<,c;,.ro [he Byunrin... V, ...-..l in thi, "'.y. the
61",/1 becomes I"" , n i!>COmperent 'n unrompreh.ndin& re.pon", to Brun,jum ",.n cunning.Ibei, un6ni>h<il , nd unpo!iohed, . temen' o( basic
Fr.,n k'oJ, COncc,n,.
When the frank.< re,utt...J
the ,ubjt of im,&<" in the 8.0<. tht)' ...,,'"
p..,mp'cd ,,, do '" hr tht llrun"ne' ~n J. ao in
790'- ,=oJ ,Ji";ne<i,,
!",[h . EmpelOf MOdu<I II., mild ironol'hoi:><, w''l1< ''l Loui, ,he Pious 1(' . nlO ..
hi, ,id..,d 'Uppofl , nd I'l <lI1'!. io hi, "WO ""i'ln, in ,he r",,- t.o"i, ....,mhled
hi. ,t.rolotian" At
in 81\ 'ht)' produced. b'1\< d,... ., of m...",b ,h ..
seem to '<$pO<Id O1Ily p.n;'II)' to [hc b ., of Midw:1 II .nd [0 co""'pond only
in obl;que waY' with the ,u.s du" Iud "".cted tho ."cn,ion ofThrodulf .nd
e!u,km'gn.' ,,,h., k<:y .dvi",,,. Oncc win, h"we"."
COOtt fo, the
tle:ui><> writt.n .. P, ri, in 8,S io [0 Ix: sough[ . mid, prcoccup-:u;"ns of
Lou;"he Piou,..,d hi, kC)' ."""i.... ,0 the
fif,..,n 01..,
of Ch>rlcm'gn<', hci,.
A, jun .bou, ,IK ,ime when Loui.'. ,hrologi. n. werr g,.. hering in ,he
F,::mki,h wo,ld <!>COun,."", . Itorne-gro",," .11.."",ion . Chadiu, ofTulin, ,h.
Sop,;rn.,,"'" p,oI:>.>hly V"igOlhic. bishop, ,h~n, .".l.rch """0,,,,,;,1;51,
w<:m on ... mp>g< of i""'g< dCSII"qion , nd ironophobic plOp>g>nd . Loui.
dimoted -"mao of O,le, n. ...+'0 Iud p,,,,W;kd .. ,h. p,ri, delibe .. ,ion., '0 n:.pond '0 Cbadiu . He did", by begi nning hi' D< "''''' ;",ar;i~~'" byt under
.Iiglllly m),>'criouJ <1lO1m"",,ccs laid if ",id., unnni,hed . O[h<l w,;,.". how_
""", look up pens--o .... ,Im<< ,.id cudII"b---.>g:oin>< (;l. udi..,: 11""",kmil.
,he.bbo< of Psalmody and Du~!;>I . the chief .. hoolm,n in PaY;'. mo>1 promi.
n.mly. AgoIurd 0( 1.yon , m .. n...-hile, ,,~ighed in on his'l",n " 'i,h . ,<e>ti .. ,h ..
.. p~ f'CS<'".. ,ion, .bou, Ch,;"i,o .n m.u:h g.."Ct
,Ito", ,,,icul.,ed hy
,he Pari, throl"ll;'n" Throdimi,. 0' DunS'l, bm In< =klc.s [!un [ho", of
Cl.ydi .... S,ill ",h ",,;.--II.-.wnu. M,uru,> Eloban.l . anJ W.I.hfrid
S, .. '0 mcmion ,he ,h= mm< plOminen, on<>-,",'..". On ." ,,., bu, dOl
'"' i" ,e,nu o>ole .pp",.;ng ,ha" ,h.,.. I'...... d by A&>ba,d .tld CbuJiu . )'Ct
quite diffi:rcnt o n k<y po,n" from thooc of joR'" . nd DURpl . The con"" fo'
ohio Carolingian l"Il"ouchy io ,h. ,urhukm wOlld of ,hc 8)0> when ,he F... nt..
lOugh, ci"il "'.", <ndured foreign .I1"u, . nd "'eou.",d ,he buoy,n, '>p,;m"m
,h" h.d ch" ...... ri=! ,he ",;g" "rCh"Ie""ll'" ,nd ,t.. .,Iy yeo" of u>u;, ,h.
S"nd" d "'Oft.. un Catolinp.n .n hinory "rely discu .. the t:ot,l<$ . nd






ye'" ,h.





doo.,mcn" i"" ....... ,ionl. To. <kgret ,hi, negkc, is ju"i~,blc bca, ... nny
of ,h..., Caroling"," ,.... ,bot" a"is,iH an ..,.m '0 Iu", voy li,d o do wi[h
pet ... A.. I >-holl rtp::a.edly -'SI><. Mn''''''<r>ics ,Iu. wn. sp>ricJ by "'me
probl<m Iuving '" 00 wi.h an rurnod in[o ""';Or .""cmen .. of or <4< qu>.rd>
"""'.ml"'.. ...,. m.... [Iu[ did nO! Iu", Ch,i,,;'n.n .. ,hci. p,im ...,. .... bj<d m. uer. Perh.", ,his i. no. '" odd. Th roughoU[ his[ory. h..[cd deb ....
ou[ . ni .. ic oq>rd<nu.ilKl . nd .h. . .,u.l dc;.",,';"n of public . nd pri..
worlu of .n. Iu"" bttn b).prodoctt of o.her kind, of oocw. political. 0' ,di
giou, m(W<men, .. ' On. ,hinl<> imrndi1ld y of P""", .. n, imn<:><u.m in , he
,ix.=.h .oJ ...... nt<"cn.h a n.u.i..; of.he I"'li.i<>1 iconocl"m of.he Frtn<h
Rcvulu<ion; of.he idcologi..1 iconoclasm of bo.h F..a.. .nd Communi ...... es
.. ><I ,hei. """",",,'<; o. of """1<101"'"'<")' An><ri""," dispu,<o ""'" lUg bumin~
.oJ public .... b.idi..
"'1M """"""
b1uphemou. 0'
""""ne. The icon"clas.i<" moment in .hese ~m.n" ~rno" .1"",)"> prov;dcs.
,h .... rtful ~"'<r will,
view of .he "rnJ<> .oJ [.... in [he "",i.! f..btie
of. gi ... n place 0' "DIe. In >-hon. I ,h.1I ",~ .he .....0."0 look
problen .. ,n Camlingi, n hiSlory i" ""'Y' .Iu ......... 1<1 k<m 1",~l y n.... m.! to
hi""ri.n, ofmh ,imt>.oJ pU=. n..., i,
hmod view. In , he .... row vi .....
C.rul;"~;'" hi,,,,,;',,, "'"r di.ow.. ".,.. 'l, i,,~ h..... I ;nvi .. ,h.m ," rc/Irt.
"'j,h DI. on ncgI.'"o:J ,..... and prohlc"". And I hnp< '0 p<nu>d. '" h .. ,o,;,ns
m .hink in new "'"YO .bou. ,he . ubjec .. of,h", in ...,iga,i .... "
Thu. F.. [he I>r-gc il<"" to ,,h id. 'his book i, oddressl. The no[ f.y,. ~.
provide , h.pICl. by-<:lup. oric~ ... ion '0 how [he book KI""lIy ",0001 .
Clup,m 4 [0 7 fotm [he h",n of ,he book. Th. 6 .. , thrtt m.pce... r< no[
m'r<ly innoduc,<>I}.Iw......" . By looking ,n d... ,1 ., ,h. p<.iod from [h. founh
""nlUry '" [he .igluh. [h ... elup"" .... bl .. h [he I> m......nd ideas
,,hieh , h. Caroling,"ns
mod;~cd, ncgIcc=I. Th. <lup .... are long.
hu, <~ .dd,..... . I,ie .nd ""heren. huNlI. of problenu wi,h,n .pific



lOr '"'''' ,II..






""I",r.l .. wJ chrolIDl"gicol """,.. ,,.

n-.. 6", chopr .urn. u, the .nei.n oJ 1> . mi~ ... Mo:Jitcrran<1n hom._
Iarld boIh of Brun.ine . oJ Frankish .n and of Christi.., il}". I [fC>' <cvd>1 .......
')",><>p';" f.. hion. W}", ki .od, of d'>eul<io,,, .bou. on ,ook pi",.
in .he Mo:Jitc'Tanean _ .Id bcfo ... he "u.b .... k of>< iconoclasm! \1Vha.
<=tI~ Of. . . ned i",n<. and who, pw:. do 'hC)' occupy wi.hin the larger coma,
of~g<, raI an gtn .... lly. of "'ppon fo' nr oppos"ion '0 .",h . n . and of 'digi",,,
p..,.,ica in ,he r...., .OJ in ,he We,,! ,,",'Iu. kiNl. of di ..".,i"", of . n ,,,,",,,
pl.a in Ih. W.., bcfQ.. It." outb=k of icon...e!=" .nd ",I... , cull .. p""';"",
if .n)". an he :ouoc;"o:J w" h WO'ks of.n in.he "",'",,, W"h()tl, h.", . n,i.i"".
ing the diKu"ion ,Iu. will follow. fur [h. pU' p<<> of .hi. "udy I .drnowlo:Jgt


,hot .ny itrug< co~IJ I><.n iron. b", f'O'i, ,ha, icons . re not inugcs o f,
!"" icul .. . ryl< . i... or 1"<;::l1 ion bU! ins'.,.d inug<> th.u did. '" ,h., W<'f< <x.
pt.l to do. ",,,,uhing. Thf)'
im. g '0 which ~uh "'as paid . These a ..
hUg< ... bjecu wi,h el>bon ... comp l<. . nd conmiou> biblioglphi... Ou, . im
hore will mon:ly I>< to pid OUt ct,,.in k<y thtmcs.., .. 1><".. ,,, ",,,Io .. ,,n<l


p'''' , os""

bosic Carolingi. n "",i,ion>. In 'urn. ct ..

wh" l.n8""SO' ... , ..
.. >oJ p~n" ,...."" ..,i bblc '" I>< .cc<pt.l. r<j'.I. 0' mooi6.1 in ,ho oiginh



Ch.p<cr 1 Op<n> wi,h .n in'I"",ion of.

r.... 1,,10 ,i,,,,,

in ,he t~"",u,

o"e' lIy"n, i"e i<"""eI"", , E''''Y''ne 'g<=,h" ,I>< llrun'ine irooophi.

Ii. following ,he 6,,, phu. "f Byumine ;"on..>d..m """,i",,<:<1 ,he Op~, Glro/i,


'" i, i, imp<""i,,, '0 cxplot. wha, <I.. Throdulf.nd comp>ny "",U h.", f'"
'p<>nd.l '0. Thi. ch.p,., ..",nd, ,he discu .. ion begun in Ch ,p'" , of how F.... ,
. nd W... won: . Iih and dif!i:n:n' in' cult p.... 'io: .. .....ell as in theologicol
<\>o:o,b,i"". AM, h" im!",,,.n, objec,i,'. of rh i.
pte, is '" "'mind ",.de"
mOK familiar wi,h d.. W.., ,han ,II<, ,h" r=m "h...J. "bip bas d<Cid...Jly
m'gni,..dt of 'ho Brun,inc" oon"o"''')' , ,he . 1><",,, quo .. ,ion, from
Ladntt.fHl f lo,,,,,.ky no,...;,], ... fHling. Brun,i", ico,>od.,n, "-.. '''~ '' . opi.
lOdic .nd tIC\'cr as dcvos['lIing in hulllitlt or lllittcriol 'erml . 1 for me,j), bdinnl.
Proctdi ng tho Carulingi.>.n "",rlJ wi.h ,hi. n.... undemanding of Byun,ium
in mind will help ILl '0 i t t ,ha, we .n: not d",ling wi,h ,he bi.... no and inntp!ico.
bit as)'m mttl)" of . ,i";liu,ion') .bock at ono ond of ,he M",li,., ,hOI
pruduetxl only . ,ipplo" 'ho o,h .. ond. Fin.lly, ano<f,.,r imp<>".n' objec.i" of
tili, ch. p<<< will 1>< . dimming of 'ho in' <lke' .... I. p,im.,ily ,heological. a.<pU
of .igh,hmury ito""",b,m, E.S! ond W.." For 100 long ",hola", mo.dy
Brun,ini ... and ""'" prumin<n,ly 'he R""ion mong ,I><m. have goo,en ow.y
wi,h both protOpl;" ond """Iop'ic ".di ng> .,f ,ho eigh,h "'''''\try ,ha, ptrmi'
vi"""lIy , II undt .... ndings of w;rt<i io>n, !D h,ve h.:.n p,cscn, rh.n . If one
.....,,".. ,h" ,ho ..,.rin~ ,h""lugicaI ~jghu of ";,,,h"I\Iry w,i,. ... "",h ",k
Po"i.",h Nio:phoru, ond Abbot 1"k<>d<:,,,, "f S",d ion wen: .I,..dy p.... n' in
,he . .. Iy and m;,WI< d=Jo ~ f ,he . ;t;h.h <>:mury, 0' .... , .10. lofty o. <ly e;w"h.
n.ury 'hrology of John of D.m ........... p<,..,.,i", " ,he ,ime of II Ni<=>.
,h.n i, i, ""y '0 po" "'y Throdulf. 'hrology 0' on ugly. Aigiulao bird , W.
,hall 'I)"
imerp'" ,h. hi"ory ' liuk d""" '" rhe ",dt, in which i, ",,,,,lIy
Ch'p'e' J p""'ides .. ,1i>C\WKln o f rh. \I:'""",n h>d:SIOI,nd
,h. Op~ ,
Car<>li. T ho Angio.S;uon Ik<k (67)- 7)5). wh''''' w,i.ingo we .....<11 kno wn '0
tilo Carolingia ns, exprc<!<d him"l{ on an ....<...1 'im in. va,icty of Com",".
Wo .... 11 nd If.... of hi. inAU<1Kt. Tho p<>pc<. mo<tO,.-or. wi,h "'hom 'ho








h",1<.< .", ...,j 'HIO solemn .lIi."""

,he 71"'" _'. ,1"ply d,,,reskd by
B)'z.1n!in< iron<:>d>sm . nd ClIp licit!y objected '" it On num<r<mS occuion,. From
G"'8"ry 11 (7 16- )1 ) '0 H>d,t.n I (n1-<;l1) 1""1""' W"," frtqu<n,1y .bou, ,I><
inuge crisi, . nd ~cld ...
of council, ,~" odd........t 'm'geo--om""s 011..,
th 'np.. Begin ning in ,he 7)00 the ft.nlu .00 the popes .nt.toil",,,, inc ....... ngly
inl< .... r<b,;"", wi,h on< .no,h.,. ~ is ",me .. idonee ,Iu, ,he F... n l<.< beg>n


.. king noIice of B)'z.1n,''''' iconocwm in ,I>< 7\'" bue ,he ",,,';'inS ""''''..
convey li" l. ",n.. ,Iu, i.... go> 'q><tstnted Hgh, .w:ty . n impon. n. 0' im .....'
ing problem h>' ,he F... nl<.<. 0". ,>.4: of Clupl<' J. ,i>e<eIi>r<, is '0 ""pl.;n the
diff.";ng pe"p<C1iva or the pope> . nd of ,I>< Fr.mlu on B)'z.1min. ,digiou>
poli<y in go""..!, . nd on religiou n in fM,icul... in the c.n",,1 decade! of ,h.
cigl.. h <cnlUry. Problc1IIJI of rul."h'!' . nd church lI"'"mm.n, wac i,;cal 10
,h.,.., perSpec,ives. bu, 10 '00 we<c ""I< I"""', i> UIO<wed w;,h ... . How " ...
n .<lUlIlir used in ,I>< wo,ld. in Rom nd in Byun,ium! In ",h ..

..... yo d id ,h. F... nim.p"p"1 .lIi,,,,,,, oondi[;"n ,h. p""n.,' ''''00", '0 ''', <0
B,.... ntine iolnocbsm. ",d to One an<'!th ..1 By the end of Clupte. , the 'a' .... I.
poli<ic>l . nd dc.o[io ...1 K< O C willluvc bttn "'[ wi,h ,ullicicn,

~ "io"


d .. iry to",..u """ibic.n und ..... nd illg ofThrodulr. wo,k in his pt..ce . nd

Clupl<t .. 011<" my touling ofth. Opt.. G.,.i; .... i'hin ,he >jlCCilic rom ... t
of ,he Carolingi.on COItl! du,ing ,he moot deci,ive. c,... ,ive , f""'dn"';"" yn" of
the reign of Ch .. lom.gne. The d"pte, kgin' wi,h diocu .. ion of tl><
or 'he 0"... c..roG th.. depend. h<>vily On the"nial wotk of Ann Freeman
h,,' ,ho, .dds ,,, kr findi"S> ""nc pet1peaivd .nd in'<I"tc<.,;vn, ,lut "'....
wide. vi .... ""ing .. ken in .h i, bool. 111< eh.plc> con.;nua wi,h a
lengthy ... mm .. ion of the """text< or th e Op~, c"roG. a u ,i;c th., has .......
been tt ... <I..ed in,o. modo.n Iongu;lg< .~d t~ .. h", been Inore d"""..eel t1"",
foul. mOfC ol1.n clurxtizcJ .... n c...:fully studied. NcXl the ~er cn m n_
...... . dclin."ion of ,h.< ''8"_n,, .nd ,I><m.. [Iu. run ,h",,,gh ,h.


Afte. Chop t.. ~', ":COUnt of .he mojo< "gu men t< in the 0P"" Ch.p' \
,,,rn, [0 ,h. wide, Fr.mkish ""n .... by mcu,iog , I><m .. in .he 0, ... c"roJi
"Vin" , nlU!" cop'lUu,i. d;pLo ...... la,",' codes. I." .... poem ... nd """ k. or
Carolingion .rt .nd . .. hi ..H UI<. 8 y ....ding ,I>< Op'" c"roJi 'gai"" hOlh [I><
imn...Ji ... h.nk,,,, ""or ... ' .n,l . full unde .."nding of ,he ""n_F"nh .h """, .." . i, will become" possihl<. h>' ,he 6.., ,im<, .o ."pbi n ,he cent,..! conee,",
of Th<<l"lr, wo.inll'c Was he I<,Ur 0", of"ep with By..n.i,.. an ..Ik in
genenl? Did the 0".., r<>Uy aaord bully wit/, wha, ..... , 1nd don ... N i
eaea? Doc; the Op~' ev ince COn""''''" bc~n .h< Caro1insi .... and the vny

f"lpacy ,her had pIc.lged 10 kn'~ alld defrncl~ Wh .. ,riigiou. ",Iur did ,he CaIOIiogi.n . . .. ign ,,, the ,i ...J .",! Doc. the Op",.t.:d lisht on i",I"''''''' ""n,.on_
I"'r:uy il$UQ' Do th""" is>u<> hdp u, to undc" .. nd tl><
Ch.:tl"<r I> "pe .... wi,h . diOCt, .. io" of ,! o",h",.k of K:on""b ""
in Byz.>nlium... pIorcs ..,me of [h. inoohm.1 dim.",i"", of . nd ch.:tng<> in
s.o:.nd ko"",,!..,m, .nd go<> on [0 <kKrll>< how .... d in wh" form "Scmnd
kooocla<m "
it ;, oftrn ..... lIed_C"" . to tl>< .fI<nt;"n of tl>< Ff1n k. in 814.
n.. ,h.:tl"" rontinuC\. wi[h . p",>cn.. tion of ... h.:t[ the Fronh did in 814-l5 b)'
infprrting tl>< I<ngthy """ie, of m"e';. " p".,J"ccd in c"n"'~>n witll ,I><
81\ Pni. CoIk>qu)~fOr it W1> " ' " "",uncil, a< i. u. u.Jly .ined . n..
chopr ... mind the cent rol> in ,h.:t[ dos.ier on own rm. md [h ....
oomp''''' ,ho.< [he"...,. '0 .:o.",mpo"'<)1 Byz.>ntlne Idu. .nd pne'K'" .... d to



P'''''''''' F",,.,ki.h po.i,ion>.

Chapt 7 thon p:t$$Q in "",iew the, f"lni,ip. n" in tl>< nin,hntUfY
;m"l;< qu. rtd in the F,.,nk;,h ....."Id . nd toll< h..w th<)l b=m< inv.. lvcd . 11,e;,
w,;ting< are lUmm. ';zcd and maio< . rgum.nt> highligh,ed. The ""'pr
m"" .. 10 it> concl".io" by interp ..,jnS chose ,he",.. in light of ""noe of th<
m.;Or p'C<XCUp",iom ..,.ltm in . he
fOf the .. is'' of lo"i. the piou . A.
with ,h. OP~I in Ch. rl.m:agn.s tim . nOW ,h. P~ri! doosi.r . nd ,h. mnn.nts
of [h. Carolingi.n l"Il"m><hy ... """d .g>in" ", her hi,lOrial .nd .n;'.ie
"'''<=1 from ,he ign of IhO;, rho I';"u. l '1> i. eh.:tpt<l'... fin.ll y, [0
.h ..... th" . n "nJ<".,nding "f the F.. ~ k ;.h ""tld d",;ng s..c...nd ["''''....:I m
fru m wb.t ..... guing
clepcnds On Jio<ntongling tit< F.."h' t~()ugh ..... ><I ...
on .tou..J them.
Th. ""y J ~d the ani"! ta" rdcvam to <xh ph ... of ,he Carolingi.n
iffillg< di,,,,,,, ;"n permi .. m. to ,it"" ,h.m within .... i.. ofb=&. di>coUlS<>
that ...... prom in.", in the CarolinS'. n """tid. By "di<.:ouf><" [ mean no mo ..
,h.:tn ,he ",..ed Inform>1ion, ."irudes, .nd mo<k:s of Ol'fOSiM .mong ,h.
Carolingion eli. ! h.:t,.. in mind "",,..hing like Bri. n Stock'. " T....w Com



m""i,i ..: ,h., i., group, of propl. united by com",o" UI><I." .. nd ing> of.od
pc,hap> "", ian.< m<>bih=Ilty, ,,,,,, ...1 m.,.,i,l, ,k. , .... no, n""""""ily k"o>w"
dir<aly by . U m.mbe" of the group.' 1'1"t su<h. diSCOUf>< .. i"ed ",, [0
be dcroon" ... ed. I do not wish to impl)' th .. I . m <biming to identified
[he mnt,~/i'; of .h. G.rolingun wmld. The discourse of which 1 'p<1k "'"
hori1On .. l. noc ><ni""l, ,I.hough I I><lie.e .nd will [f)' [0 .how, , .... , I...... >Of)'
wid<. 1\[..,... S.ock de"",,,,,,,,.. , prople ,,hoo< ",,&,,!Ond'ng> we .. formed
by COm"",n tats .nd C'JIpi.n<c1 do not n<C<S$arily "1;' ",ith each ",h.. . 11 the
time. But ,hey do u..J.rsund each other. W. will di>c.m . h. rp diug<mrnrs
grounded in .....ed knowledg nd uoo ..... nding. If we I;".n ",fully.o fi f.y

,~,"o"u C T<O~

le' _ n h ofCarolingi.. di<rouon about . n . we <:an h<:a. them talkin8 .bout

m.ny of ,k ,hing> th .. "'....
,hom in ,he d."..,ic h,ll_
<entu!)' b,.tk<tl by Ct."km.!,;,," g=>t..,[ aploi ...nd the eivU "'.... . nd
".,.. in flu[ """,I up his ,mpi ...
T"ttt di"",,,,,,,,, tttu, in til< ."
,Id which ,hi. <ludy i. ,,!);Oni...!.
bhekd ,r.><!it"''':
,h. ""n,P' by the Ca,olins'.n. ,,, .i",at< tkln ..I,.". in historical ."J ><l>J...gial ,ime. Iu un. ' ;m< u. ,,,,,th., tk
Carolingian. [hought "f themlvc< '" hei" of the H<bmn. of the apo<>$<ks. .nd
01 [h. Ronun . Ikcm", Throdulf.nd hi, conmpon''''' 'hough[ i. imron.m
'0 okny ,Iu[ ,he llyu",in.., migh' h."" [he .. me inhe'ioan=. ,he
i> uridtndy . WIlik [h. [.:oJi[io",,1 dUcoun< i. ,h.
on. in ,he
c"roh. i, b<com... oofr V<)"'" in [he I'.ri, choru nd i, """..
'imes in.udihl, in ,he hmk of , .." .... in. ugura,od by Claudi ....
A .. cond <li...,u,,", gou , ..... bhcl "'moo."' When we Ii>ICn m ,hi> on. "'"
<:an hca....... C.roIingian< tolking .bou, h.... to ordct a ... t< 0.-. church. a.;k;ng
qu,""ion, .bou, . ud\On,y . nd l<gitimaq. Who, mak .. , good ,uk,! A good
bith"l'! How i> [h. bu,inc of go><rnmcn' [ighdr conduct"!! Throdulf w.o.
at k"'t '0 "'me dcgm:. cotlCefnoo to ref" .. ,he di,""", of, rout>Cil whost
1"II";mocr ,h< c.,,,,,,,g;a,,, d.,.,t"",l. He "'-. , oJ"" > .. "",,,1 '" .I~ ............ a>'<l


",.1> " .....






" 'hy Clurl.m'l;[lC "'.. , tI" ngln kind of rukt " 'hile Bru",ine 'm",,"''' rouId
no, 1><. and why C:irolir>gian bi,hops "',:re 1""1"" chuh"",n ",'k"". T..... i".,
, ..... p",;, h of C.""'.ntinopl,. was nOl, Ordt, waJ a nujot th ....... fa. The<>Julf. """'nd (01). '0 ,.-..lition, hut it became ,I><, ,hom t Pali, in 8'j .
Rd .. ion. wi,h Bp.ln';um and with the P"I""'J' we discu,..,J .. I.ngth, . Ioog
wi[h ,h. kgi[inucy 01 roneil;., acoion and I""blem. of """",n.", . nd di_m,
Oo-d .. <limi"i"'", ,Iighdy U .n ;"'w: in [he writing! of [h. nimh_a;mury ",[holS
proV<)kcd by Chud;" . [, i, commonp laa; in [h. """"La"hi!, on [he C.rolingi_
.." ,Iu, ,hey p",,,,oood " ..roron: Among <>th .. [hing>. .iou '0 ..",cd)'
di...,.-Jc" Th. C.",I;ngi.n ;m'~ t""" i<lentif)- .....t d'leW.< di",,'dercd thought
Oo-k, ", .-cc< du ,ho "me ,hinSTh, third diswu ... ! ""U "'"",.. hip." I .my undc. ,hi. Ioeading ",0., of
wlut , ..... """fa"> .<I... I1)"y about an_ Thi. diswurS< i, ,ith wi,h ironi ... At
lI)"",n,;"m ,he r.I, of im>gc< waJ in di.pme. P""umablr ,hi> cub ...... Iu[ n..o.
d"lf ",od..!. V... ., we.tull -""" ,h.,~ "'.... in ... t;,y. "" cui, of i""g<> in ,he
~b, . Altho"gh Throdulf Ius >ome in<c, ... ing .nd imp<lrtant [hing! ro .. ).
bom worship. >om<: f.",i",,[ing ,hi"", ro -t bou, Ch,i>[ion .n. and. numhe.
of ..-Il<c,;,,,,, on ........ "', ,he ..,.ttnsibly f'",,,,",, .. ,,,.1 'o pia of hi.
bli_ ,h"", [ouchi"8 [he ",b of """"Ur I... promin.n, [h. n ,h.
u..di,i011 .nd o.-d di"",u"", [0 which ..... con'ributed . In ,h. I'..i> do<si.



""...hip pt..)~ rn .. igoo", mi . Th<: .mp<ro< ",d hi, thrologi;on, .....:r~ attracted
much mOfC
,he matt o( who to' to d",i,;"'n' ,h." 'hoy w<f<: tu ,h.
p;'lf(iool .. disi"", Ii,.. "ct. m><k. Order becomes :mr.d h<,. In .10. ni".h
:ntu'Y logomoch)' "",,,hip. (.i,h, belief. nd .h. <digio~1 edUCI,;"'n o( ordi""'Y
propl f<: ,h. ba.ic concern . fo. ,h~ ~'" .im . ,be cult of images ive>
..,,;'m nd focused;"'n in its own .igh,. Tooit;"'n .nd o,det w.:f<: the
d""""'''' of lho <>p[imi.ic in lho b .. eigi'llh century. """",,hip"~ ,he difCoUrt<
of .ht Clut;"" . perhap. of ,be pcsoimi;cic. in ,ho: ,"iddle of the n in,h cenmry.
During the great Carolingian century, from ,he <I""'tio" of Pippin to d..
Trcoty (jf Ve[dun 171'- 14)1. the Cuoling;.n elite continu.II) .. ked. \X'ho . r<
wd W1"'[ .... w.: '0 dn' How". W< '(j do i[' The . n ' .." ,ha[ undergi,d ,hi,
.. udy permit'" ,., Ii>t.n ro >ome m.mber; of the CaroJingion elite pr<>p<><ing
.""""" [0 [h"", qu .. [i(jn~ By romp>'ing ,he m
with b,.... 1<11,,,, p<><m .



nd other I<>u<= prod""'" by .nd (Ot the elite. w< em iudge ,he """.." lOd
m.gnitud. of tI .. key di"",u""," "f ,i>< Caroling.. n """tid during th.t ""'tid.
moot dynamic . nd c,co,i,." d<Ode>


Art, icons, and Thei r Critics and Defenders

Before Ihe Age of Iconoclasm

s.,..- "Gm> _ ..... _ ....... dok_1

lk w .. ..... .0. _ _ . _ .. _ ,. .. ,....


.,J/...., . .

toIJ."" ____ ?i ' 'Ii,....".,.,

..... tho- , _, A~.ou ~ _


&.,., if .. ..... 1fW""""


~"" /,/"",/0< Ji,,-. """'"" "" to.,."", ,... _"... " ~ i~dJ.
/0< . """to,. .. . ,w"..,.,J tho- ""'" ofII. "

T.m C tl~.T U lOOKS .. 'h~ long JI<.iod bnwcon 'k tim< wkn
g>ir>l kpI ..... <u> in tIw: Ro_n Empi .... and tIw: .... of 1I),..",i"" iconocLosm:
_ghl)'1 .he )'C"'" )00 ,,, ]00. 0.... f<.cuo "';U he on ...t..r ""tK" in doi> peri<Jd
lip",l." , On tIw: ""'" lund ..... ...;0 i00i:", the- porn" tlut
"";.m modt fO. <)r >pi ... , the: pooonsion and ,he ..... of the- ~ am. On theodr... tw.d, .... win k>oIc cloJdy r." momm ................ ......, only k
... i,m ...:....tI)' .........t '" ~npgt ..... .....,. ....... 111;' dupi<1 ...i lllq ,he """nd,
.....k fO. ... undcn.undins of tIw: l\rnou. .'8".............. rdipou> ut ..... btoko
ou n.1It n gh'h a"II'ury.


An l;"lk in



tn o.der f.,. dd'nukn 0< cri,ia ofa,i"i' n .n '" h... ",n..,hing .0 .. lk abou
Jillin",".!)' Clrri"i .... .,' h.J '0 .,i.e""! .p....J in ,h. Mii!<,,,,nnn ....,..IJ.



Th...i".""" of ,h. ,ul"',b." "'orl<> ,h.,.", ,h. glory of churches . nd m"scmru the wodd <>vcr m un no< temp< u. to think thot .uch . rt
Inbtd, "",.raI fo,ctS mili",ed ,gain" ,he emergtnox ofeh,i"i." Iigu",1 'rl.
Moraw<'. word.. .nd ron<cp" had to Ix di""".. m:! and di<stmin>ted .nd had
'0 en,., in,,, com,non di"",,, ... , fo' di",u ..~>n' of.n '0 <ok< plxe_ beh clup.. ' of mi> book ,,ill h,,-. ...,,;"n d""",,,,,
" a" <olk," mod." ph"' ..
imended.o I"0vidc oppon uniti<>.o s->.he. "'!loth" . nd ." r<A. upon th,...
word.. and conp"', In .hi, chap<e,. w<: will b<gin C(~I1ing tho.!< wo,d. and
con<cpto SO . hat th.,.. can k used rou.indy and eko .ly I, .. , "n , I" ,hi,
"",.ion . we will p",""" chronologi"-Ily fTOm . bout )00 to 700, noting w,i .. "
who -=r",d or "'je<:,ed reli&'ou, m, ,Ioei' '<fminol<>g)o' nd ,hei' .rgumen..




Ahhough ,he (;,..,1<> .nd ,he ({oman, p><l'0<Cd m""h.n of high qu>liry .nd
gr<Ot kmt), their "",i<li", .Iw-')~ h><l eri,'" of ,i",.1 "p,""n,.,io". Among
,h. G~k . fo .... mple, He"",li,us cri,i<;...J ,he "ulf our of which im.s .. ,
presum. bly ... tun in p. nicuu" wcr. mad . X.nophan'" ,idi,ulnll11c id.. thai
beings such as god, could som,,,,,,,, "" d'P;C1ed Of
in figu ..... tl ...
looked . J.'mingly like oruinry mort.b.' H<l lready we m1 ,heme< that will
recur in b, Chri,,;, n discussion~ Greek cri,ies add......,.l tl>< O"tulogy of ;m_
'ges. tl><i' ba,i. moo. of ""inS- ,h un. .. nc<> of which ."..,. .r< , S.. tu<>,
11, rot .nd 'un; i"""", i", them : mOe<: '''''' in ",."', t,;,d, roul ,!rem ,
Soch d,o" m. tt" i....I.olly unsuited to . he depiction of ",blim . pc,h.p. ineffa
ble.... Ii.ies, In addi.ion, m.ny Greek' th inke" ... Iutd tho in tdl, over the
I<n"",. nu, is. "'M' could I:>< pc",i~ by .he
of ,nl<mrh,io" .....
"'pcriOi to . ny.ning tn" <"'eltd coruciousnei> b~ nl<'''' of nlOry npcri,nCt: ,
l'u, in sligildy diff<r<m ,erm., rnlighntd G,I<> co'med ,he spiri ....1 mOl<
highJ~ ' Mn the m,I<,i.l . ,h "'trK' morr , hm ,I>< p:micul>r, ,I>< men .. 1 mOf<
,han ,h;'u.l. md ,he un; .....1 m()", tI,." ,he fi"i ..
Somr Rom.n, f..m:! ,h" l:><.uty"'" softening. that be.utiful thing< wuuld
"rip R""... n m'" of ,heir m.,,;'1 >nd " "''''y '>".1 ..... "10'<0"<" Rom,,,, f..,td,
0' ",m< inAu.mi.1 Rom.,.. .1fTed '0 feu, """ide id ..... . nd ,Iw>)'$ ... umed
' Mt 3ft would import tl- ''''Y notion h.,.. ... ished '0 ,<pd'
By ,h. b,er ~es or ,he SDnd Ct:"!Ury, ,",'hon n..,.. Ch,i"",.. rej'ctl
the (;"""ic.,wI M'""'i,. templ'"i,," ro ",.j"", the H,brew Xrir'''rcs. the
n.... f.ith h><l inherited <I .. app>n: ntly "rict p,ohibi,io n of im.gery ap.-..!<d
"plicid~ in bod", '0.4.nd implici.I) ,h.... h,r<. Th, Old Test ..... "t Pfohibi.




,;"n. could be U!xk",.,.,d ,n "",<rOIl W>.),>, T<> ,h. ",.. n, ,Iu. 'hq focu,..! <>n
the m." .. of " 'hieh im.1;<" ,,~,. mado, ,imil.. to G,..,k .nd R<>man
rdaYOIt;"n . But ",,,,, now thoOld .nteted the di"",..;"n too. tlu,
.he foi,h of b nd drp:nd<d on """'<4. OCI. on i""'S", n. ... ohs<",:u;"ns Op"ni
.. kmg debo" ""cr ,he ... 1.1,;..., ".1". of seeing.nd of hcaring. of looking alld of
mlding. Otbe .. <aid d"" in miling im.gcs . n;' .. woo ... ...... i
r< .Iu, belongs '" Coo .1"",'
In view of thC\<: " ... itU ofho$oili<y to .,.t, 10d in thc ab$cn"" <)fimp'($\i,..
phJ"icaJ .... idcoc<. o.d>oIa" long m.innined ,Iu..... Iy Ch,i";',,i<y W1i .ni_
ronic.' I" fa" hioty uf Chri'.n im. . CoIn be ....:cd from . bout A.D.
100.' />.Io",," .. r. i. ;; n(}W clear frum th< ff<1lctJeS in the S)"nagugucs .r 0.. ...
Eu<UpU>. Ain ed [h,k. .00 lleth Alph . ......11 .. fro m the V".. Torlo.,i. in
Rum< nd abo from .ni!tic m<>Iif; M:cn <>vet br Ch.;;t;'" book J>Ointc .. fro m
}ewi>h book>. th .. Chr'";'n'tr'. Jewi.h en""'","e"t ..... "'" ,,';tl<""t vill<al
'<J'><n .. ,;"n.7 Span< . nd >Cau..ed li, . ... <y , ... imon ,Iu ,Iy Ch"o<ians wr .. po5',bly ic<lnophobic bu. ceminl)' no. 'conocl...ic. Chr'''''ns \vc ...
lik. Jew> in w<>ny;ng m<l ... . bou. idob.t<y th.., about ~gu ... l.n p'''.I<:. O'igcn
(C.nlra Cth ... ).IS) said th .. in instruct,ng the young, ." .. ..oooid t<><h th.m
'" ~ . ;..101...><1 im.I!">' In. ,...<lJ ... t.., .. '''''1'1..." d in..g< . ........n""s ,be
mo>! b m ili .. and impon.nt f..m .... of ,h. ",hu ...1 b..,d>(::lpc. it ;; Q>Y '" ""'
why ..rI) Chris,;'n ",ri,." would Iu .. bn coDmi '0 condemn ,doL...y.'
Justin M.ltyr too W1i co<>c<m l .bou, the . n,hropomo<phi,m of "",u" .nd
.bou be,ng ..
(o,+'VXia) ~~" "<bd" (v~l!{l<i).' A.,h"ltSh ..." ...
1""""kaJ Cfi,ici.v"" , ....... is .'" .. ,Ii<l""" fot <Ii,.,....;., ... of I" And it
is impo<t.n. to .mp!...iR ,),... h. ""r1iest C),,;,,;'n comments on .m. . (JC.
curt<'d i~
wri.ings of .pologiru ,,1.0 we,.. of,en .ngogcd in ,ryi~~ to penwdc
;nAu.",i.1 1"'&'''; .1.., Orist;." _"hip ""'. ""m;",toI. bo:aU.l<: it "'~
.pirittul . Iu.;. aniCOflic. ApoIogi"" " ..... no' ....Ily ulki<>g .bout an per ",,,0




}06. cltu ... h """neil E.... i ... , in Spoin. in co""n , I. .. W1i n",'cr
"V,n ci .,J by ehurclt ""un.iI .. f.. '" I Iu", bn .bl<: '" d ..,n'n, ...,d,
"th .... ought no. to be piau , .. ;n cltuhc>; for " .1... ;, WON.;ped ..d .tIu<<<i
ought no. to I:w:: pointed Ofl "",1".-" In the .. <iy fount. "'nto<y Eu.!<:bim of
c..c...rn (Col. ,(,o-C1, }40) .. id ,h. , .... knew of people wh" claim! to I""""
'm.S'" of""'h Chri .. ,..d ,h. '1'0"<1 ... nude ,""h,l. ,hey "' .... .Ii",. " An 'poe<y_
ph.>.11," "f ,he <v:>ng<li" John .i.h.. Wliff.n or ~,hd ,n ,h. ,hird ccnfU<y

,db of .n im:og< of him , h., he hod .",u.II)' >n . nd rejew:d a$ in.pp<opri.te. "
But Eu><bill> w;u no p. "ivc OMc:rvcT of ,ni"k rcplc<cn .. tion =n if hi. " ".ies.
lik< the Elvi".. canon. toll tIS cuincidcn .. lly th.t . ",h ",pr=nt""''''' t..J'ppar<:<l.nd ,h" "'m< p"ople beli<! ,h " ,n II, I"",,, been ,,,,,,,.,j rUI. IQ"g 'im .
F,.a~y in,he fourth ce",ury F. .... hi" ... member of ,h. imp<,i.:tl.ntou,.....
..... .. ko:J by
"f COII ....
..,nd he, ,n im'g' of C h,i".
E\IS<biu. ,efused '0 comply. H. ,<,lid he did no< know which im.g< ofChri" h.
h.d been . sked '0 pffflide: ",h. "ue and un,it.".. hl. 0"" wh i<:h b<:or-. Hi..... n
. i.1 eh.=:tcri"iq. '" ,he one which H. ,ook up for our .. k< when He ..mmcd
, he fo<m of ...""n, ," He :odded ,h" ',j..d colo" ,n<! in.nim ... deli"""ion,"
could "'" aptu",
gI ...." i"lI> n.. hi"g radi,,>cc of "",h glory." "id h. "'.
minded eo...... nti. ,hat cY<'n Ch,i,,', 0"'0 Ji>cipl'" h.d t.xo "n,bk t<t ".od
Hi. 'i&h' at , he ,ime of the Tr.n'~gu"tion. E.... biU! .ddal that the I,w furb><k
,uch lik<"""", . .,td
im.g<> were ">hcd.nd ",eluded from ChUM'" ,II
' the _Id." and ",iled" p>g>n. ", ho wonhiped im,,!!" uf their god. .nJ
philo""'he ... .. This secm. cl..., .""ugh. Sr'rim,1 reoli, ... ctn he n.i,her &<C"

"i". '"

c""",.","" , ,;"..



!>Or rep,cs<n,ed hy h um"" nd, "'Y""'Y, dead nuncr ""nnot be used '" .. pre
>cn' living ~Ii'y. H e;' nuking the poi nt ,!.at no can be "luivakn' wi, h
,.h~, i, Ktlu to p,mr.y. ["",billS', p<ition wa> not c;ump~dy ironophobic.
In hi! Lift t{Q"",mliM he mentioned. with no nptc$.<Cd or imp lied criti<:itm,
",m .. an><> ,h., ,be
Chri .. ",n ertlp<ro, h.:td pm up in Co' ''''''''nopk:
0". was of. G<><I<l Sh.p h.,d .od nn. d"pie,e.i I).nid in ,be I""" du."
EU>cI>iu. "'... evid.ntly P"p'r<:<l '0 w:<p< im.>gef ,h were mcrd y ,ymbol. ,h.,
pointed to ,"Ii,;"" hcy\",d rncm,dvco. Ch,;" """Id ,,'" be Jep;cloo 1" " .. om<
o f Gud', my>letKs ruuIJ be rtvcakd by .tti.. ie .. nderingo.
Ewcbiu! '. observa,ion! ykld >om<: pcttinem fact bout emerging Gti"i",
utitudes 1O"".,d an. Fi"" .. Ie.., >om. art i. p<tmitted. p.nni"ibl" att m.y be
.ymoolic, nr i, m.y ... nd ... memori~l , In di><ussing ..... ue of ,he wom.n
" ,;th hemorrh.ap: (Mark j.1j- J-oI). Eubill> call. it a "wondCTfu l memori. 1 of
,h. bene~, the S,vior co"f;: ... cd Ul'On ~.,. "" Se.:.:md , w!oik "'" aacdy 'PI''''''
;ng "f pic,,"'" "f Ch,;". 1'.<. oJ 1' .,,1 .lIoy-dly I"';",.,.l ;n< !;k,;mQ,
EU>cI>ill> .",ibut.. ruch "",,u,a to ,be ".ncien" h.bitually following thei, <>Wn
Gcn tile autum."" The poin' kern'
be that somc peoplc m.k. ;m,,!>'" inn<>untly .nout;!> while "''''''' ough, '0 know be"c" Pcrn.p>, '00, he .. ulking
.oou, ,h.c
The C"n",,,,i . i _~d <""ked ",h e,i,ic;, ,,,, of II", ncw Ch';" "",."
.nJ its U><>, Uc.. n tiu, (ca. 1jO-<O, ;lj). whom Constantine .ppoint"! "" tutu,
to hi. >on Cri 'l'U!, .,ked wh)' "")'<lne would ""nhip imag.. of the dead when
' hcycould tum ,heir .)... '" h.. ven. 1m'S.. only commcmo" ..
who h1Ve







dil ""d.",
,her"~ "'I""fI"",,,, A, "", .. ,;.,1 ,Io;,,~.
,ky l>de
,u ~n>< ,nd unde ..tanding." AmQbiu, oI'Si= (fl. t..'e ,loin! =,uryl. L.", n,i.


""k....! wi,h grim humot ""'10... if ,)"',.,. war no "'.. gco. 'I><~'
would HO[ know 'hey wm: bring won hipcd. A< 'he wotk of . tti ... n... ,nd ..
,,~.,ioo, from .ile: ma" ... im"S"" a nn", ba, ,oy <rt..,ion.hip to ""' .. ,hq
pu<p<>n '0 "'p[_n" Thu. ,ru:,e i. ,bool u[dy n" r<ason '0 h".c [hem. "
In the )=11 ."",nd the: Con.tan, in ;"n pco of 'he mutch, ",hen Chn.
,;"n,n W1IIx>th emerging ,nd d..wi ng ,ritirum f"'m 'he impcri.1 COurt 'igh'
on down, ,h.", "owl~ 'roo< m),h of C h,i,,;"n . nicon""' , D"iJ Fmedborg i.
cen.inly",,'=' '0 ,",plus;,,, ,h", from b[e .n'iquity '" [h. Reform.,i,," .nd
beyond ,her<: .... bc.:n pc"",en' "m),h of . nironi""," n..: point of thi' myth
is '" .bim ro' it> ..110.","" ",.,...1 ."oJ ..,i,i,u.1 >up<riu.ri,y <.." ,10".., ... 10"
pos.s<SIl 0' u" im>ga. 1':Ipl. who wo"hip' GOO who i,
from mm ..
n1 ..dl ,.,/;"" '0 "'P'='" ' hei' ('~iJ by m.,ns n"!tot .nd "1
[hose who do so. P"""m, who emb",,,,, the myth impu'" ,hoi, po,ition [0,]1
">o"><:"ts of ,100 hi ..,,')' of ,heir pwpl nd f.i,h .nd. 'OIXO,dingly. cri, ic'" ,10"",
who> . ", ironic. '" [0 opak.., O<IoI.."ou. ,od mpc:t>,i,iQill. "
Condi,ion. m.y h... ba:n unpmmising for ,h. <:m<fgone<: of o. ri"i.n
fig""" .". )"<' ,he ~)u"h . nd nf,\> '''''''lfi wi,.......,j "",i,.hl. o.p!o>i.on of
.n in m.ny 1'"""", ""Ip'u ... p>in,iog, ",,,,,,ie, "' ..... and m<l.lwo<1.. Rom.n
.... idonC<' ,10" du" .... . ",und A_D, !OO ...".... ,h><. i~ a,orornb>. Ch,'"i.n,
10..1 Ixgun [0 m< """",I .10"", ... I)mhol;'; rq>fQ<nta'ions l och :u ,he Good
Shrphml ,nd "",iou, ''l'[ bibli<.J >e<n<>. " N.,r 01>< 'l'ruolMl"" at Du",
Emopo< w.., Christi. n building "'i,h. piclUr<: of Ad.:om .Dd Ev< hel.,,,,.
and .!",. GooJ Shepherd. M"" Chn" i.n ."
"',i .... f,,,m l><:fflr<: Joo ..
fu,,,,,,'Y . nJ p,i"", .. Ch'''''r W1I,
11, il~L Af,., JOO, ~~"
Ch ri,tian ,nim bq;an gu1.rI~ to trptd<1" >ubj""" from Scri ... u.~ il><!uding
Chri Hirn,df. <V<D ,houglt i, took "10" ,h.n. crntury 1'0" b.Ji.7 nV<I<"i ...
of ",pe<><:n",;"n.1 Kru:m<> '0 be WOfW out . Afw Ch,Loti. nity become lici" i,
,i<:h p."on. ><cmcoml '0 d<g>mly dcro",,1 '1"=. 1nd buil, '"
,ook " ... 1.'1;< bui!Jing> .... , p.... idl 'pac< .nd so:>p< fOr .ni.. ,,1<0<: .... 11,ings. nlo .. ict. . nd I!"U" .pp<>1'<d ....'}'Wh<"'_ F"u .. h. ,,,J fi(,h-cemu,}'
discuss;on. of.1'I ,ook pl>ec in .n ..... ' m"ft richly ",n.m.n,....! <n"imnmcn"
",him hat! no, bc.:" ,,,'" in ,ho P'<,-Co"".n,ini'n p<riod "
M.ny .. pun"ion. h.v. bc.:n "",,nod fOr " 'hy ,his Iupp<r>I_ Som . "iling
in [h. " ..... of Adolf ,'on Hmud:., '''8&'''' [Iu, I"'pul.., ''If'<,.,i,w,,,, coo,binl
w"h ,100 ","i<tonC<' of pap,n p,,,,,icrs in .n unholy ,""m moda ,i09 of ,h
.<o<t<d ," ,100 p'"f.nt'." A I<>ng.,tanding i"!pma,ion hoW.
Ch[i"i, n'
'1'1""pri.,I '"
"wn u>< ,h.n"" .."I ",,,,if, of imp,:<i,1 ." . .I'hough ,h"




,I", ....
.ro ..







.. plon.,;"n i, hc"Cf., "='ibing wI,.. h.ppcn! ,h.n it i, .. apbini<>g ..... r....

A .ecen' "i"", 5ugl;cm ,ho, Clu;"i.", ernbra=l . ..... man, of "prmoid;ng
.pirit ....1 r<mings"f,heOId TCi .. ment and . hence. 10, 'endcring'pi'i' ....I.~
;i, =il>l<.
Pi<t um rould r<ndCf 'he J<w;'h ..ory in'.e, . nd ... ,f..
<>nl< ,im . """.1 its hidden sign ;"""n",.'" Pu, ;imply, Chri"i,n, r<ndcrtd Old
T",unl<n! won!, in pi<mm of .hei, own m. king. " SUr<ly. ,h. depiction of"
k.., <orne Old Tcst.uncn, .ubi"<> i.! "'ith enl<rging modes of ryp<>logical e>gc<i~ the Old Toume", finc<lr..,u,.. !
N"",. T his i'''e'1'", ..,i"n
of pia,,,,,, ""'1!<"ic;1'001, ...... "Id ,,-"~ inlr .. ""me Old I""men, r<pr<lnu,ion btu no, ,h. full r<peno;r< of N<w T.."mcn, ",,"es, no< depiction.
of". The cui, of ,he e....... nd ,he e"l, of r<lie Ie... b..-n ide",ifoal ..
p<miblc ,.,UlUS." In the COl< of ,I>< cross .nd of relic>. how.v.,. it i. <2SLa '"
di",,", com,ibution to p"cti= """",i.,ed with
v<""",;on mo" promi.
nently. than to thc =Cf-g<'nc< of ,I>< '" i"elf. I..., n.i<jut ",,,,,,,,I po",.i".
w.h u .h"", know" from F~l'" m. y h.... bn in ~uemi.1 in tl>< 'pillc
J ...dopment of sac""'- icono, by, thei, conn ... tion with Ch,;"i." '" in gen.",1
;. h.der '" f.,h"rn ," Likcv.'il<. ,h. ,remenJoul popul.rity of ,he coIumn.sitting
Styli,.. may have given a !pu, ' rq>.odUCfiono of 'hei' pinu"" . nd thuo '"
ieoo;, but i, ..,.nlS ,hat ,raditio", of Ch,;,,;on on were well under W'f I>cfure
,he ~.>t pillar .... ' dimbed, " An clf"n to 'W"'P'''t< ho.h ,he I<]''',.en,.,io"
. nd ,I>< poICIKJ" of the h I("(". ,he wi"" man nd ,I>< m.gician could h"e pla~
role." Munifincr: b)' membe .. of the "ppe,.lu.rcs who """t< ";,,,.-,,omal .0
richly ..!curt.,'" cn.i"""",,,,, '''''y h e heen , f>c,o,." I mp"',i,1 .h..
'p".. k;ng in ..,rn. of m.gni"'=", '" . nd " abundancc:' ""')' oom. docoratcd eovilOl1",eo"." Simibrly. ,he f"'t ,hoc Ch,;sti.", 'PPr<>JI,i"", m."y
gen"" of cI ..."'al litCT.ture m.y ptuvid~ due .. '" why ,hey .... ntwlly <kc;J!
to .pprop""e as ,,ell ,hc '1.08,,,,ge of ,,, ,, No 'ingle ..,;"" ",ill .... ,
"""" 11 tl>< ....;doncc '" p""u.dc.1I ,he ",hoi.". Ir ,uffioo to .. y tha, "'r<>ioI
,he fu.., .. h ce nt",.,. di"" ... Christi," .',. ...... ",d I'rolif("(" .. 1 rapi,Uy . T h.. . "
adopted moch from i" p>gan <nvironment in ICno. of "yl . motif. nd ,cch
o i~u< o{ p".lu<. i" ... "




During ,he fOunh nm,.,. ,h. hui. Ch,i"i.n dek""", of im.g<> hcg>n '0 uk< ' gainst 'he boek(>1OunJ of ."i"ie p""h",,,,o on the
h.nJ .nd ,mbiv
. Ieno: o. honility On the ",her, T he f... ""h .nd forth """i.. wo"l,t . Iso wi.
n"",, mUle cohe"'"' ' rgytnenl:S "I>"i"".ft tI .. " the
w< 1.... encount,red '"





far. Among the defenses of art, one that grew in prominence in each succeeding
generation maintained that worship was n ansm itted from an image to [he person whom that image represented. This argument is associated with St. Basil
(329-79). In a homily on the H oly Spirit, Basil was trying to explai n how the
Son and the Father could be twO in person without being two gods. To make
his point he used the analogy of the imperial images. If a person looks at an
image of the emperor he will say, "That is the emperor," but there do nor
thereby appear two emperors since "the honor shown to the image is transferred
to irs model."JcO At roughly the same lime a similar argument was presented by
Athanasius (ca. 296-373) in his Third Dircouru Against fhr Arians. lS
A second line of defense emphasized the capacity of images to evoke emotional responses that greatly enhanced piety. Gregory of Nyssa (ca. 335-ca 39S),
speaking about the sacrifice of Isaac, said, " I have often secn this tragic event
depicted in painting and could not walk by the sight of it without shedding
tears.".16 Basil, again, spoke of the way images call deeds to memory " jUSt like
writing. For feats of war done bravely are sometimes expressed by orators and
sometimes by painters, these adorning those deeds with words. those painting
them on tablets, and each one incites nor a few to courage. For whatever of
history language communicates thro ugh hearing. silent pictures put those images before the eye for imitation."37 At about the same time John Chrysostom
(347- 407) mentions a tendency in Antioch to make images of SL Meletius. a
former bishop: "For you [the Antiochenes) were not only touched by his name
but also by the figure (tUl"tov) of his body. And what you did with respect to
his name yo u did also with respect to his image (dxova) . Indeed, on rings,
seals. vials, on the walls of dwellings, and everywhere many put up that holy
image that they might not only hear his holy name but also see the figure of his
body and take some consolation for his do uble exile.".18 John's account differs
from those of Gregory and Basil in speaking of a proliferation of images intended to bring "consolation." Right down to the thirteenth century many
writers maintained that words did nOt have the same capacity to arouse the
mind and the heart as picmres.3'!
Third. images were seen to be useful for instruction. G regory of Nyssa,
again, said that "painting, even if it is silent, is capable of speaking ftom the
wall and being of the greatest benefit . . . . When scenes of marty rdom arc
painted on the walls of a church ... this is of the greatest benefit and is like
writing."'" G regory was the first to draw a parallel between verbal eloquence
and the visual arts. T he word graphr could mean painting or writing, and historiai could mean a picture or a Story. Gregory compared pictures to "a book
endowed with speech ." Eventually this became a topOS in Christian discourse

An.l..- 'i
.., _" A. oo.h Ihoil ,ru;I G...gory .. ;,J. ,he I"'in, of g.uing" Chris,im m
indu"" em"b,i,,~. Emul""'n. i,ni,.,;"". mi,,,,,,;,, ""',. wot,,1 ,heme of
Ch. i"i.n "-";'ing. from [he GQSl'<b [0 .. im , Ii,.... An md ,h>iogy we", b<gin_
ning .h'1< p<"p<Cti ~ .ntl ~[[. ,., <kgr. <i=t;p';'" .ucabul.tI)", I, ....
qui[, n1m",l. [he. dQ .., .Iu, ',.h.i,,;'n an W<)lOld he ..... P[ into , he gene ...1 flow
of Chri" i,n di"".",.. '
Seve",1 f" of ,hc .. rly J il<uion< of .n 'Iuire .mp!m; . Fir<t ... <h
wh[e sorn<Ihing '00u[ .n while :ocn.. lly u.lking '00u[ ",mdhing d><
en,i,dy. Second. ,hc.c ... , ir< .... nei,he< odJ'minJ; one .no,he.
Jrknding [hem,d"" ",d ,hei, p<i'ion. from .ny known ..... ibn[. Third. 'heir d<reno<> of "" in plOI)' in"rumen ..I .."",: :>n[h;": ron,id.""ioru
:0'" en,itd) .boen' , They talk
,he, cflttt. ,ho, . n <:on h.v<, The,e is no
ques,ion he", of . ",I. """,;,[ed wi[h ... . h i, .1", in .., ..[ing ,ho, none of
,hesc ,,'ri,... fd, ailed upon '0 rtbu" <horg. of idob,ry.
Lot< in ,he fuunh ",emu,)" Epipluni ... of S.lomi. (a . )'1- 40)) 'l"'ke 0""
.goi"" im.go> in. ",. iOl" .nd comp<ohen.i"" .... y." T h."" f~n" fmm hi,
writing>'1< f<m nd .mo,,!; ,he wo.b of Potri..h Niccphoru. (7\8- 8,8). whom
we: ",.11 m"", >go in," John of O.m"",,,. (a. 660----0. 7501. ,h. S""" <kfcndc,
of imogcs. ~ O" irr of EpiJ>honiw, E"", mindful of cccklimicaJ ".dillon!.
)<>hn ...,m, .o h,,,,, fd, ,h .. Epipluniu.
vi.IU.,lly . L,n, in "I'I""ing im>gc<
.nd could he ccily ignorro: '"one .""lIow d<><o "ot mde :0" I. ""'.
~"l' 10, I.... w.ire"
,[fike Eu...biu. f'om ,h~ o:Ios.i., bea .... hi.
A,i",wn " ' n,ro .11 hi.< ""i,inS". Epiph.niu. "-.. l'<'fcc,lr ,,"h"""" bi'hop.
~ ..... hi. idc:o. could h".. bc.:n mOf< [f""blinK '0 ,urro"e" of Iigio",

""'. '0






In hi.


r"",-.., Epipltonim ..yo [It"

whe=.. ,he F"h", (he mcon. Old

T.... mcn, ngu,.,,) "'.OOmi n..<:<1 ,he idol, of ,he gen. ile>. . " .. ro.k. images of
,he .. in ..... memo,i. 1 ", them and wohip ,hc in 'heir oono . He g<><>"n
men,;"n propl. ,,ho ho"e<:<l pi.",:. of " ..... John. ,nd 1'...1 on .he
" .. lis of ,h.;, ho ..... and ")~. "'I., tho ",h" helic..'. ,hot by 1<' Joing ,hq'f<
hon ", in~ ,he " I"",Ieo, b", , .... , ,hey .,~ ""h.. Ji",o""ri"~ '''"m. Epirh.niu,
""" ,h. fim w,i .. r to .. remp' 'Y,.." tatic J iffen,;,,;on bctwccn idol.
{(t.'><t .uj . nd im.g<> (~",6v.S>. IIr keeping the . p<[{)li. <x>mmmJmen' " Epiphoni ... "'Y', "" cr'"'' ,he G...., inugn of [he ."",. Ies. Epipltonio. ,1", <oj",,,
[he idc:o ,h .. br looking .. pic",,,,, of [he
1""''"< or" .heb)' remindc<i
of ,he"'_ He Cti,ici..,. ''''' ,he is'''''''''''' .nJ I" ..... "'I"~'" of I"'iol<" anJ .1><
lifd ... nunc. of ,hei' pier",."." h' a l.n," tl> rJx "'1'< .... 1J,..,J,n;~, Epiphonio. comploin<:<l ,h., nU "Fothct" (h< I>< 'rk" to both Old .nd New T"m_
me", hgurnl ""'ct I"'in,ed an im"l;< ofCh,i .nd pu, i. ,n . church Of ' 100,,


. od th .. no On< b.d <VCT m.dc a pinu,., of Ab .. h. m. lsue. J.cob. Moon. o. of

prop/l .... p.. .';.rchs, 0< ."",da. He odd. ,h.. pain" d'pic< ,uch propl. according to tbei. OWn ,,-hi..... and produce mukcdJ~ diffeo, l'Oprc<cnl:r..ioo ..
He condud..! by .. king tI.c cmpero' to remove paint..! curuin. from church.
b.:or"i>f<ries.. h"""",, .nd m ..'Y'u; '" whi'ewh "",II>g>: .."I !O ,.mo,'.
mosaics wh """,bl . ' Fin.lly. in a Lntn kI ,Mm, Bi>Ip ofAdi.. (Adi. Capi.
rolin. i, jeru.<>km), I::pipluni u, "'pl. ined ,ha, h. Iu.d dioeov<r..! in , viUag<<! AI,,",h ch"rd> ""ith. doo, CI""in on ,,-hich ,he,. " ... an imag< ,I.",
tlx loa!. bdicv..! 10 be ofeh.i .. 0 ' of one of the .. inu. Epiphanius pulled it
i, be ..=I ... hu.;'1 do,h fu, a POO' man. Epiphaniu.
down .nd in.i"..!
cuncl.><kd by """,,;ng ,he bUh"" uf J.....,lem th.t he had scnt 'eplace" .. ,,,



Another teStimony . urvive> ""Iy .nlOng the doCl"".nu prc<c,"..! at ,h.

5ond Council ofNican in 787: """ Int ... On imag<" .1I<glly wli"cn by St.
1>:ilu. of Sinai (d. "'. 4;10), " Leo,"..! """ltn'u' h .. rcsardcd thClt I........
"'hen,i, ...... ,ino: ,668. when 1.> Alb,iu" ,heir Ii", wi,o., includW ,hem
.lonB wi,h ,he n... fly une thou<and lell"" ,hat m.l . up Nil".'. colkctcJ cu'to-,pondence. Rean,ly, hO~I, i, Ius bc-cn dw')wn that wherw the Nicen.
r.,h~" >"",,1 .n ""'""Phobic o.,undl "f 714 ,.f "' ...'''';ng , ....... 1. "<,, in "'r
h"'tilc to i..... go. it w'-l in fa SO<nlnc conntM ,..ith II Ni<=l who turn"!
Nil",', cam io"., mildly hostile- """i,ion in ,h. "ppo.if< dil<'<1ion."
I" ,he fi", k" .. Nih .. '''pposcJly ,.Ihof. m.n ""'" was .. ve.l by S,. PI.,,,
.nd who 10.... iu" who h>d .. ved him """'u.. he had "f,cn ><tn I'b,o',
Th. -'''''Y ;, not ""'''pk<dy imr"'o,ibl. Io"t Ii" I... ""n>fo ... bl~ in ." "",Iy
The """,nd I."er .. ~ .. ,he
fif,h ,h.n in .....~n,h. '" cigh,h-ocn,,,'Y
Ii,n" of. ""P'''''' '" ,he F...... rch OlyonpK,do .... wh" was 'hinking .,rd<co,ra,ing
chu,ch wi,h c,.,.... . nim.b. ,nd h""'ing _ ..... I n ,h. in"rpob,cJ ~ .. i()ll,
Njl,,> -.II<glly wW Olyn'piodo>\IJ t" ,,.. """" . I"ng ,,i,., OIJ ."d N....
T", ... mem >ccn<> bocau .. ,hc nafU"lilti" imagn ,,"Oul<l b< diltra(1ir>g, The gen
lIin, ..,.;on of ,h" 1,"'<1 p,oh.bly in,i " ..! "n, cm".nd r,.,,.., ".. II, bocau .. in
church d..!ic:r,et! ' .h. ".,ny" ,be n,.,n,,'Y .J"" .,r ,Il.,.., wh" had diet!
.hould ",Ai to ... ,,,in tbc fait hful N il", m.y ha~ sDl tha, the ind ... ion of
<fo\'s alone would be the mark of. "linn and mao l)' mind. " In OIh<l WOld>.
whil. Nil", , ,,,,,Iy Jjd no' <ndo ... ,h. inIfO'r.""jon ,,f imaS'" in." chu",h ...
h, .... m. '0 od<no,,-lcJgc wi,h ""me di!fidene ,hoi, fneq ...... p.... nce. Unlik
Epipluniu., .. for as ,"," ~'''''''. h. do.! """ mo ... n y,
b,...- Drun,in ..-li.." "'pon 'hat nca, the .nd of the fifth .:m.ury Phil"x.
n". " f M,l>bug /",. -4-40---1'))' bi,hup of H il"rapoli. in Syti., d.imcd ,h .. it ....
nbwf,,1 ro .ndow .ng"''' with bodi .. hca. ... they ""',. in<orpo .... l H 1so


...... I""",



..;d ,h., d", only of o,ri ....... wo"hip in spiri, .nO 'Mh Uoho
. ,')- .... ). W,ong too. in rt.ilo ...
,~. "'C'" 1",,, ..
r>( ,he Hr>ly Sp"" ..
dov<:, Philo",n", .1>0 "to<)k dow" . nd obli[.r:otl of .ngel. ,n Jmlny
pl.ces, " ,I,il. tl>"'" "'ptcnting Chri" hc ...., .... N in ,n>C<'t:S>,ble . pots."" I'hi
lox<o~, ..... m.inly mnmN [0 romh'I! p'g>ni,m. nowcv<'. '" hi> .ct"'nl
'Pi n>! im"l\<> m. y n=l t<, be .i.",tl in tn. t COn'e~t onol< ,h,n " 'i,hin . r>
evol.i"g Chri,,;.n di"""t"" on ,n." Phil,}>.",,, .. mind, u, ,Iu, ,h. pokmic:ll
... nee uf the p!<'-Con ... n,ini. n pe'~..J "-,,, ",...
Th, Aow<ring orChri"'.n li" ... ,u,,", ,n ,he fo<",h . nd !i(,h een,m;e, .1,,,1
Ch,i"i." "'ri"" '0 d", difficulti .. o( ,.lk'''g
God. The intcn,it)' of ,ho.<c
diffic"I,;"" i. ",A"",ed in the qu".. t~>n ('<0", At>b.r 5<,1""'''' (("",,10 ee"""y)
wi,h which ,hi> clul"C! hogi" . Sop'''''' ..... 0<)[ "",dly .. Iking .ho", .";,,ic
r<t'fQCm.,uion . Ro,her. he w::t. ",(<<ring [0 the "O,ig<oi., co",rove"; th. t
u,\<I!I .. ptoblem "f .nth""",morphi!t'"
Th, Origeni". comphined ,h., p",)..r w" impedl '0 ,he .I"!I'" ,h" ,he
mind amid 001 ffCC i"",lf of ude im.g.... Sueh . < in 'he mind
b;:. ..... of.n ;n ...,i .. blc hum,n .""","n",n, '0 m.,.ri.1 ,e.lifjl. Th",. O,iseni,,,
h,ld h'" .pirim, li..,d . 119!",i..,j ,mc'p",,,,i,,n 0(.11 bihlicol pusogn ",I"ing
lQ man ib w:atcd in the and liktnm of G.xl, .... <1
the Son ib ,he
,m' g< of ,he F"h. Wh,,,,,,, O'ig<"i,,~ ""'''' in;,jolly <0<)1 '" 'm.geo " '0010 o(
Imguage. ,>t <v<n'" ~ kind ofl"'gu'g<, ,hey cvcn'""Uy beame ....... to im'S'"
... in,[fument> of. kind of viswl p<.ption which [h<)l '<go,dcd ... crude ",d
Th. Ari.ns ,Or) W<ft ""'''siy o~ '0 boch 1'''g''"I\' . "d.n ,h" MOVed
J..og<""uI)' <to..: '" J.:n)ing ,he ,hwlll tr' l\lCtndencc (Of God. Semi-A,;.n .
lik, E"IC'bi .... had fQCrvatio", ~I>o"t depicting Ch,i.\, ,,h il. O[herS argued th ..
Ch,;,, ', hum.nity could i,\<Im! bt depictl ... n...... " of di<pl''';ltg ,he g~lf
,lut scp>f:I[I Him (10m Hi> F.,hct. A, h.n"iu. coun,.rro [hi, vicw <kci.ivd y.
The C.pp.;tdoci.n h,!.." (lI .. il. Gf<1!.ory of I"l=.nd Gtcgoty N>Zi.n,u,)
worked ou' the t,.,i< Iong""ge lOr .. Iking .hom ('..,d. As W< luvo ...,n. n"il
.nJ C'<gO'l' .,( NY>'"'. in I'. n;cul .. , f"u"J in"'!!", bo,h I;.", .".1 Ir<lpful '"
prumo'ing .piritu.! ~".."'n"" .nd .fltttivc piety, "
HOSlile COmmen"' orS ",ioed .........1 poi .... ,h.t we h... . heady met OS
co"'I""" " " of ,he ,,,,,ien, iconopl,obi~ trod;,i"" ."d ,h .. w< will n\C<:' 'g>;n
in ,he'S" of i<XlOocwm, f i"" of all. th<)l .......1 to "" d.. .",,'" 'u which
i"",go> had .p,.. d and ,he wide .my o( hoi)' propk who "",. heing <kpictl.
Epiph. n'''''
p'''''d .. ,he ~"" on.mhis""", .."imony ,h .. im,S<' W<1'C
",,,,,,how heing .." ..... iped . Nci,t..;, " .. hiu, nOf ~ny ,,( ,he .. rl~ i,;,:""'ph'l ..
Iud soid thi,. The theme of the superiority "f <pi,it to m.tte, i. >"odl her<.




"",<I .....



1>h ,ul things u. not rui ..bI. chmncl, fo, ....... hip. in p.n brom'" of th<
""'".. of which ,hey ,re mad nd in 1" '"
of ,he f.llihilicy of ,he
hUl"'u .... ho m.k. ,hem. Pictu'!so A co,!",rcal .ngel i~
"""fu.i~g. fO. i..... n~ . nd in Aruu.1u p>pl< " ..,," u.... u wh_ im>g< "" ..
on the cu .... i. an"'" .gtcc on how .0 Jcpia .he: .. h.1OcO of
Chris.i..,ity. Sym~ic .epmcn ... ion_.he do .... fut in"'m'<-~ ""
opreading .nd ~ $ern to be <lr.ngol'OU.i. Thio io int<ldting in light of EUlCbi u"
'pp>renr .... illi0Y' .... o ",I.",...y rnl;.oli~ "'I"'""""orio_,h. Good Shepherd,
in p>n icul... AnthroJ>Ornorphic "'p.elCn.. lio", W'<TC held to be cn"le.nd di>rr.cling ""d fJOSi. ivdy w.m>ging to 'he ineff..,k ... Iily of. pUf'<I~ .pi ritwl
being. Fin.lly. ju" '" ,he iconophilco ,pok< -.bou, practice>. so roo the ico"",
phobc> :odd,~ o,di",ry ronduct which diSrurbr:d ,hem. They did no< expli,.
itly uldf<$i ,h. rupporn: .. of i ....g<> .od , do !>Ot 'ppa' '0 Iu.", br:or>
clull<ngN" ,h. 'im . 1"" """" lonel y yo",,"- Ru, "" I... Iondy ,lun ,hO$<
" .. ieh r.voml .rt.
l'hc ..... h <:emury ...... ren~ ,",en,.n.. in 1'''''1< of im'ge>. 1". chureh
hi.."ti.>n Engtiu. (a. 136 - 600) tell. of a freeo at Ap......a depicting. rni",ek
The im'gr ........... tip in.he ~ilins of ,he church ro m.k< kno"", ,he!< "",nrs
by m..", Qf p>;m;ng '" , .... ,.. w .... , W<''''' ;!no",n, of ,h<m ."" A, ~,,)~nrl
$arne .ime the: hioton .. Agi"h~ (a. I) t-G. 1110) .. id. coocccning an image of
tire "eb.ngol Michac:1. " nre "",",I "lim .... h" behold< the i.... go di"",. hio
mind '0 ' hiv.e, oonlOmpb,ion. Hi. ""n .... ,ion io no longr. d'""",I, "ngr>v
ins .... i,h.n him,df ,h. I"d.. ogrl'.] ,ni, .. h. ,remble>,. ifh. """e in ,he buer'.
I"=n . n..."..,. <"",~".ge Jeep th,~,~" . nd.It i, .ble by ..... n' ,,{ 0:10"
to bry "vet (," in ""i.1 thoc pla)",< "f the mind."" Thc:sc f"'grnenrs .re
f<v. . lin~ b~t other writ. of the tiln< .pok< ~t J1<'Oter kngrh . nd more ')'Stern



" K"lIy.
One of ,hem. Hyparim. who ...... aKhbiohop of Epheow from Ij' to. pe'_
h,p" 1)8. addressor! "'In< MiJ"u,,_. 1"'1~irin to Ri$hop Julu .. of Atrym;
.;urn. Julun had t.I.rrnerl t.I>o~t p... ct""" in his dio<<<c and
to hio mer"'I"'''t ... 1<.. cur'Md. lul"n ~ o:..",,,n.c<i tlut "thOk who
"" up in the "nctu"i.. wh .. i. r<Vered.nd worshiped . in the fomr of paimings
.nd ""rvingo .Iik. 'f'<" on >gOin disturbing divine ...di,ion ." Julun "l'P>',,"Iy
biblieol p",hibi.ion, .~i" .... >Ch 'cpn:scnt>t;"n, bo,u .,td...t tlu, he
permitted the "",.. hip of p>mtings but not of statun. Hypatiu. goes through.
"".dUl cumina,ion of ",hy the Sctiprur<> ...y IIttmingly mn, .. diaory things
.oou. images . nd he ~ th" "",ml wri,ings. implicitly both Sctiprutcs.nd
.. in Ii,..... " " ,ul"" "". "We u l e n<) pl<uu,"" ,II in ",,,I,,,,,,",, Of p. inting."
Hyp.. iu, "')'S. "hll< W< I"',mi, .impl.. people,,, ,Ioey'''' bo pe.fccr . to lea ...



Art, 1"""




by",,)' of inili'lion
,oct. 'hings by Ilhc .. n.. of]
which i, mo ..
>PpIOP';"C <0 [hnr ",uu,,1 dc-.'dopment, cspcci>lly .. w< find [ho" ,,"en and
in m,ny respecu. ev~n old,nd"<w divi no comm,"dm~" 10 "", ,hcm .. lvcs '0
Ih ~ lowl of wtal<er p>p1e .nd ,I><i, SQuis fo, [h< .. kc of ,hei, ..:Iv.. ion: Un,a,.
iu. ,hen ~ in ,evi"", ,;eve,,1 Old .. ><I Ncw Tc ....m~m p=agcs '0 ,!>ow
preci .. ly!>ow (".. ><l used im"ll'" <0 moe, p>p1e wi.h bm ili>r rtru of f<<<nee.
,11ow own m, to';'l aclornmcn, in ,h
H< cominllO:!. " F", ,hest ......,n, "'.,.
.. ,>Cu... ,i .... 00' bccaus< we bdiC'VC ,h .. Goo ",mide ... gultl and ,ilve, and "I ~ cn
VCSlOlCnn and ~m " lUdded -=0<1... n."hlc , nd .. crro bu[ becamc w< p<,mi,
each order of the f.. i,hful <0 b<: guided and kd up
' he di"inc being ,n
nun"", . ppmpri> '0 i[ [,I>< ord.r[ bOC1U1< ...... ,hink ,h .. ",me ~k arc
guided c"cn by
19u1d . ih"" etC.) ,u , he tn,dligiblc .nd .mmateri. lligh,."
Aft "ring
Goo i. distinct f,om hi. c",.. ion and W<>!thy of 'piri,u ..1 ",Jr'
.hip alonc. H ypatiu. conclud ........ [ " We do n(}t. ,hen. disturb ,hc di,'inc fcum.





nundme",,) wilh 'egard ,,, ,ho ""U"'es 00' we ",etch 0"' our hand in
mOlc ",i,,1>1< w>y to [hOI< who , rc "ill ",her imptrfct:<. yet we do no[ I".ve
,I><m U""ugh, .. t" ,h. rno .. ptrfoc, Ikn",,'Iit:"'1 bu, we "''''' ,h.m to know
.h.. [he divine lxing is no[" >II idem;",1 or ,he
0' .imiLa, <0 .n) of ,h.
<ljj,;,,!; ,,"'"


In ,he ca<ly "'.n,h cen'"1}" Bishop Lron, i", of Nca""li, (c.. 190-610) in
Cyprus ddiV<Tro a <cries of .. rmon.>t ,h. ,..,... tl>< fifth of which i.
"Id,.....d espe<i.lly .0 ;""8"". I..,.,",;",. optn ing i.
co"v~n,ion.l , H<
d~fen'" inl"l\es beaus< GoJ cumm."d i ,\1""", , 1'<" cl>c",bin> "" ,he .,k,
beause H e comnunded Ezhicl [0 dcco...,e ,!.c Temple; becam. Solomon pm
imag<'> in [hc Tomple. Lromiu. challengn [hc Jew> to r<:pr<:l><nd Goo Himself
fur con,m.n,l ins ,ho:so: irn>g'" to be m ...k A Jew """,Id ' <>p<J "d---m"ch "f ,I><
""mon is os, .. . J i.logu<-<ha, the inugn w<rc only fo, mcmol)"
""d nOl for worship_ Th. C)ui"i>n would .n>w<, , h.......... harJly regard ,he><
lil<cn...... b:u(>UKt~;) and imag... (dxove;) ,nd fo.m. (t,;JI'o!) of ....
if ' hey " ..". goo,." likcn"""" .,c hooo",d for wha[ they "p,<><n', not fu, ",ho,
,hoy . ... I' ... ... mpl . "wh<" " .. ,. pOcco< of w<><>d, pu, '''!;'II .. , ", m. 1.c a
cross, I v~n."". (JtQO<J;(tvWI ,he fig.... on KCOun, "f Clui who ~ crucified
0" i"
if ,I>< pi<cc> of ~ ...... re >q>.r.,od win. J wuuld tltrow
,hem in,o ,I>< fi ... A"d "". wh~" SQ"\O)n< CCi,.... " o,J fron t ,I>< <"'I"'''''
and I>< .. I...... ,h....1, h. do.. "'" honor (h 4.l)tJf,v ) ,hc d,y. ,h. P'pe', or ,he
Ic..!. bUl I>< <.nd. his ,'one", ion ("QOO",;v'l'JIv) and fap1 (o[fIu,) to [!.c
empelO'." lromi", [hen u JIu of boy. who. wben .hei, f.. I><, goc. 'W"l.y . ..,. hi.
" ..If, cloak, 0 ' chair and emblU< ,hem wi,h [<a . . and ki ..... AI 'he bo)~ honoc
things bcca .. oc of ,hei, f"hcr. so C h ri"i>", honor objcc bcc:o.uoc ,hey





ell .. " " '"''

<I .. m of Chtist. ehti",,,,, 1'''' "I' im,*" ",-o'Y""'o", "10 'hat i" ilKCS'
.... n<ly looking at ,he", WI: migh, rom ..
.nd no"Of IU~. os)'UU ho,-. fOfgo.... ", ,h. Lord yo", (;;,d." "J"" 1.1 )""." he ","'inues. '"i" adoring ,hoc book
of the law, do,.." odo tI .. hido and inl "ilia.. in i, b", ,he wo,d, "fGod
which Ii< ,h. .., i"dc<d I.;" honoring a" ;mag< ofCh';I<. do"", ado ,he
wood .nd cnIo" boo". in hoWing ,hi, in,ni",,,, like"~.' of Chri", I
l,oW Ch';'1 'hruugh iL" Ib,",i,,, .W ",j,y. if nothing m...te " to he adQ~.
l:troh kiU<"d joKph', dual or revcnccd hi' ... ff. If Q", im>g<S
t<">.lIy idols.
why do "'0 wo<>hip in t<mpln dediatl to tho< martyn who ddtroyal idols? If
Chri";,,,, honor wood ., gOO. wh)' do they hono' nunyfl who des,roytd
woodrn ,inluben' Jow> . ""hbo<n. blind. nd impio.... They r.... '" S<:<
,h .. imag<> PU' domons to Right. They ",ill_ ""kn~ how ,rumy vi"",
tio" ... in,i"ti"" ... ,,><I eff,,,io", of hi"",! ",me fto'" in'"'W"'. They do not "'"
how "",oy wiek<d. impiou. men. idoL"e .... m"rdo". forni"""O, .nd robb<"
Iu"" <orne", ,he lttOS"i,,,,,, of If",h 'hfOUgh i"",8"'_ I.<:o",i ... condudd by
mind inS tho Jew> llut they ko:p ""ny ",.n"f;lC1Utcd ,hi ng> fot ,ho,- glof)"'..J
memory of God: 'ho ".ff of M""". ,he ",bIcs of ,he uw. the bum ;ng huw. ,he
nunn . b<:oring urn. the ,It. he p""e with (;;,d', !Ume. 'ho cphod. ,he T.her_
n.<1<. Ch,i><''"'' no diffi,n, .nd do n", &,..,,< ,h< e1",s< of 'dol",1'."
Th....... nth " tul)'
1 ",he. an';-Jrwi<h di.logurs.. f'<'>'ibly
by H.,ocli .. ,', ' n, kgi,l"ion. " ... mong thex.
S' erh." of lIos'n """ p>ni<ul>rly iml"'n' ~, booh I>ea".. i, was i~R"e~,i.II., ..
0" "" d l>eau .. he ...,. ,he fi", G .... k w,i,~, ,n ."empo. <:aJdU1 .. pIa""io" of
tho diA;"."". bcrwt:<:n .,lo,.,otm .nd ""n.... ion. His t<>t ","-;v.,. in ~f)"<"t1f)"
It .pp<ar> th .. St<phen Ukd only the mo<t "'n""ntion.1
'<gIt."."". H~ .lay>. fo, ="'ple. 'h>t e--''Y'hing mad. i" (;;,d', !\an.. i, sood
.. ,.J ,h .. Chti.i. ns !lo"C' ..-,,<>hip m."f."",,-.d thinS' fur the", .. I~.. but fo,
,h. I"'""n. Ihey ~n' _ Mo,..,..". ,inu
o"e,)-,hinl\ is ",.n"r"".
t"""t i, ",.de by hum,,, h.,Ids. If "0 =p<et i, tu k """.-do.! ,,, ",."uf"",umi
[hing>. wh~ 00 Jew> """""'.. 1M wood~n aI ..,. the urn wi,h mon"". the ",hie
ond light> in,id<: .nd oul>i<k ,h< T' lnug<> a """ ,hing. idolt .n
oth.., Si"". God tn.d. A<Um in Hi. im>g<. art ""'. "",,.ho... idols?"
... Ithough tho .rgum<n.. "''''''ined in the d;,logu<> of !..ronu"" and Sr<
" hen"", >,,,,. ,,,i,,,,>1 ."d. fOr the n..... I"rt. fa",;!;" tu '" by nvw. ,hm:'f<"
impliei, in ,heir wtitings. We", the", 'o::ally dialoguc,; Qn ,h< 'p<:'
cifi, .uhirtt of ;rn.g I;.m.'~ 1"";'''1., Ch""i.o>-----wh.cther !.romiu. 5,<phen. ,)f an)""e d!C>-.nd ""'".] Jew>? No the t<."" t/u., ",,,,i .. mor<: Ii['f)"
inn,io".' \l;1\y '''S'''' ",ilh Jow>" all, let al""< in ""nn"""io" ..-ith ;"'>gd?
[ ,-.n ,hough .... know c<>mp, ... tivdy 10,,1 0 .bout ,h< Jew> on tho ,i"h ."d
", ~,i.w




.,"i .........






Art, Irons


seventh cemuries,!.o scholars have in rent years devoted considerable attention

to a substantial corpus of ami-Jewish literature that arose in this period.M This
is not the place for a derailed assessment of that literature, but one aspect of its
appearance deserves mention because it hdps to place the writings of Lrontius
and S((:phen into sharper focus. Byz.antium was subjected to severe military
pressu re and frequent defeat by Slavs, Persians, and then, most disastrously,
Arabs. The Arabs of coursc represemed not only a military threat of immense
proportions but also a profound religious challenge. In ways tha t are still a little
hard to fatho m, one dement of Byz.antium's response to this ongoing crisis was
a series of literary polemics against the defenseless and unthreatening Jews. For
David 0ls[er the polemics " used (he Jew as a rhetorical device to personify the
doublS of their own community with a recognizable, evil, and most important,
eminent ly defearable. opponent."6l Muslims were, on the other hand, triumphant and they were iconophobic, albeit less militantly so [han has usually been
assumed. 6J T he dialogues of Leontius and Stephen may not represent actual
Jewish-Christian dialogue so much as an imaginary way of addressing the legitimacy of the rising prominence of images. Once again. in other words. the very
texts that seem at first to reveal an intense discussion of the legitimacy of sacred
art may actually bear lillIe connection to any such discussions and may not even
have much rdevance to the topic of an .
Along the Greek world's frontier . in seventh-cemury Armenia, there was
some discussion of images. Apparently Vrt'am:s K'er['ogh, an influential churchman, was combating Christian iconoclasts in Armenia. One of his writings on
images, or an extract from onc of them , has survived. Vn'anes begins by rejecting the heretics' contention that no paintings or images (statues?) should be in
churches. Their charge is idolatry and it is based on the Old Testantent. The
immediate response is to cite Old Testament passages where God commanded
images to be made. Vn'anes then memions Paul and the altar of the unknown
God at Athens (Acts 17.23) and says that church fathers mention and approve
of images. H e adds tha t the cross is veneratcd because Christ died on it and
then says, " what is astonishing is {hat you accept the commandments and you
persccUie the Lord; you prostrate yourselves before the symbol [the cross] but
you 5tone the ki ng [presumably a corpus on a crucifix]; you hono r the cross and
yo u outrage the cruci fied . For this is how the Manichaeans and the Marcionites
behave who consider the Lord, who reall y took a body, an apparition, and when
Ihey $tt images of him they grow angry, become furious, and insult them."
Vrt'anes Ihen mentions the Story in Eusebius (Hist. 7. 18) of the woman at Paneas
whose hemorrhage was cured by a smue of ChriSI. He then talks of all the
pictu res of Mary, marryrs, and sainls that e:list in the churches of the C hristians


,nd ")"I
,U ,hot .... rwk 0/ 0.";" "'" <I<pormI. J.... aI ,n ,hot Scripw=
MEvnyohi,,& ......... thot Holy Sui!,,""'" rd.t. is p.ointtd in tho: <hurcha. AK
not boob wri" ......,,11 pigmcnt?n.. _'f< p.oin,cd wllh 1"&"'""" In
<hun:"" Indo.:d ,ho: eo .. heu ,ho ocrip<W<'O. bu, ,hot I...... On< .... """" wid!
,1M: .,.. .nd ..... I>nn ,htm with ,ho """. nd 0", undtrnando ,htm ,hot
IM:." . nd .,... b<l"'n: H....;a "r tn., lmosa on: , ,1< btao .... ,hoy .'" llkbo
bu, ..'IM:n aui ........ """' .... ,he ..... "'.,. I>.fo... htoutofully dcn,I Gospel
book. ,hey do not
,h. preciow ,...
bu, ,he won! of Cod. If



p.ol." .....iI . ho. 0<> ''''' >I. ,h. ,'tr' ol. s->II. and Kun, whkh m.I ,ht ink
with "hieh tht Scrip,ur.. ar. ,,~ill.n , lIu. M;tlUlir raint i. m>do from milk.
CW. ",<nie:. nd ",he. [hing>. 10m< 0/ ",hieh ' r< rood and ",ht" mrdicom<nu.
v,,',neo roncl..,.J.n [.... , __ can m.".. 1M In.i>ibk wo.Ld [hrougll. vioibk
thinJP." On ,hot ,,'1>01<. Vn..,... poo,,;"n .. 'lui .. modcr.t .... I~" wonIs do
"&nol . ~ . , ... , ....... drawins
"';,IIin ,hr: .m<~ns llyun,i ...
Empi - ....... familia< 011..;0. ;.,. boo.tndoria. ani!
OM ............ by



au....." tal> one!".......... rncountm..

At .00'"

,hr:..,... tim<. """'..... prominmt Armm"n dtric. jobn M.j"I'>'

"tI,;.", opi .... ''''''W'' by "''" mo<IU " '100 Iud urged

.......... hnrd 0/ ........

prupk ..., ", ..."h i ...... 011" .hul'<h ..."'Is. .nd hr: .... n....,....d ,""n. '0 ~
10 ht ..ked them .....Y they oppoonI imaga :and
,hey .. id . >imply, , .... , ,bt Bible ... i,bt. rom ....nd..! n<H pc.mitttd ,hc:m. john

bd'un- him. Who .. ,hey did

rapondtd ,""i.h bibli",I'rgumtn" of "i, Own . H <aI< ,h. d<.>r>,ion, on

Mo.... [tn' .nd ,h """,me"t of m. Ttmpl . Th ...... "Y' nothi"S .bout [h
.. n...,;"n "rin ... ~ .nd dot> no< ..... .1 , hi&h~" ,Ji,hoologial.p<CUuno..
on ti.h ... ide of ,hi> iiIuc."
M."y of ch.t >Ufcmc:nU by ,hot w,i ........ by ""'" .. , to .... B", ," ....
_ ""'.. h.l"" .nund ,hot music. Fint. Ag>.h~ .. Iks ..,I>t< <'YI"ieally. of
'mas<> dlm:,i"5 [he Yicwcr It> a !Up """empLltion. Hyp.ui .... n,h ... mDr<
dear1y. ~ of , ........" brins SUidcd up It> ,I>. dm ...
n... oounds .~
mudo lik I puur;< ntal oJ.. b<ginllins 0/ TN CtW.M H_"i.y by Diony>im
the: I.......x..A~ ... .,. euIy Jix'h..omnuy ,a'
d..... dtq> d..m from
,he ..-&O of Ntopl.a,,,,,ie tl.""gI". Poeu<k>-I)en)'l ooid. " 1)1'. l i t ltd up . .. f....
posoible . hrouglt ....'hi. imagco to tIM: ro'"empb,,,,,,, of ,hot Ji........... For I<WI'IC
J><Ur1<. pcriup. ""'''Y propI<. ~ i~ btaom<. hi""ly chars! poin' ",1KTt
.ougosy met 'htovh:an~. 'The ",iritu. l"""rgy of.he.~ ..... <ham><W UI"
word j,.., II h.., .. nly gr> and i",c~ion "'.r< eh.nn.1td oo,..'nwa.d, A pictUl' 'hu. benm< apabl< no, m<.dy.,r """.... nting hu. in fur of mtdiaring '0
,hot obot ...... the ,hing 010 ..,,-.<1. This i........, K.t! Mo.';"'" h.. alltd. "al"",
1.,1. yli....! mi"'ndc: .. ,.nding. ...' n. .... an I>. '''' doubt ,h.. NropI.,,,,,jc



An. I"""


thought c..'entu. i!y CQnuibutw to. b=kdo",n " f the barrier ,lut "l".... tcd ,he
im,S" from ,he 1'<""" ",hom i, rep....,n",d . JlU!, jotdging from Ag:.. hi:u .00
Hyp:uiu., P<rudo-Oionr-iu. ",>.S, in the .;'th c<n'ul)'. uooers,ood .. p"",iding
1 w.y of 'hinking ,bou, IOf.",n,i.1 mye' .nd dn",ion. 11>< "Ie> ,Iu,
I"'rticip:o.ed (ItWr;t.;) in. ur .h.f<'<! ill tho bcillg uf d.. pcno" it'<"S<"'cd
h.d nut )'t. been ,,,",,,1,,1. Thi, .,,,,,Id h,pp"O> "nly in ,he nin.h ""'>!"I)'.
Scrond, Lron.i", .nd. bs explicitly. V,t.nes reft, to mi t:ld ><sociatcd with Thi, 'opic ,",'ililt,,,m brge nd b'l; in br di>ruinm o( im.. gc>. Fo.
nOW. it i. worth noting tlu, twO cry difft.ent ",ri.... rould p> ovrt !hi
ubject ... ith complc tuonimity. Thi,d, Hyp.. iu. in f" do<> no. '"
mn.1> dd<"d im"ll" in goo ..... I ..1d on princ;ple .. .... gge<, .Iu, ,hOl-' nul'l>< of
v.. l"" '0 the ,impl., Im>&", ""'''' .Iw.y> "",n by ,hei, .uwort." .. " .. ful in
'C'OChing b". here w< bm who ~ to be .. ught by them- flO' .he whole
communi!)- bu, only it> humN mcml:>en. Th. impli"""", i, ,bat ,I:>e beTt ..
50" of 1>>1'1, ........ ble ,,, rik .. oo.e "'c'"
of ,ho fif,h .... ion of II Nicu-:z. but not o,helWi..
Eml:>etldcd ;n <he
1',...",<1 . '" ..... ments fron, tWO bt. :l<VCm h-<en",,), Bruntine chICh ",e"
who .....1 i'''cteSting ,hing:. tu ... y io> ,lefcnk "f i.. ,,8<" lIi, h"p John ofTh""",.
kin;';' i, qUilled, in Ihe
plm:... ba,-ing ~id. f"" quire ,,,di,ion,1 thin!:).
He <kf.n<kJ im>g<:s heco"k thO}' <xi unly fe" ","", ,,,b.ting ,,,d h"""'ing
,ho .. dcpicf<'<! , 11>< im.SC" ,ho",..k .., ; not hollof<'<!. bu< inst.-.d ,he
.."',"" ."d f""oo, of God who in".cede fo" 1""'1'1. lIu, ,hen -"'hn :uld" .. W
.. u kc i"uSC" "rGod, , I,. , is of 0'" 1",,<1 .",1 S.-iQr J..... Chris<, i",.., r.,., h<
""-' ..... upon tI .. earth ... d ,.lW with men. We thi' no, th .. i. 1.1."
im.!;< 1 h< ""dc:"tood "" GOO by ....
we <kpict tI .. hum.,,;,y, no. ,I:>e
inCOfpor<>1 d;.in;,y," John e,,,,dotd<>l by dcwlopinS ,ho .. me ..sumem w;,h
"'PCC' '0 ,"1;<10. Of co,,'" .h<y'''' inco'pore;o1['m ,h<)' .ppeaf<'<! m,n)' ,imes
'0 men .. if rorpor<>l . nd.., ,bat;. how , <kpictcd," At .bout ,he ... me
ti"", Dexon Con"' n,inc. th< ClunophyJn (. ",hi,';". we might .. ~) of H.g;'
Soph;" dcf.oocd im.gc> of Chris, (0' eucrly ,ho ........ rnson ,ba, Joh n di&
Ch,,,, h.J 'I'pc'"cd.,. m.n ,nd.., ;"" 8< "fhim ",."ifc>tcd ,I,., , Iity
F... front the I>c:o" of Dyun,iunt. Atu$'>liu$ of S;n .. ttArocd on im .. gcs In
the 1,,< I<V<nth .:emu'}' in wcoy:l ,h .. h.rl<cncd to ok! phil<>lOphical .lobo,..
00.." the ",I"i,.. excdl""cc of sctinK .nd I>c:o'ing or re.. ding ,h.. """'''''',I w;,h
com.mpor,,)' co""'" .1>0<" ,h. ,u'h<"'ici1)' of ' .....00 ,ba, u!<lt<:>Sl ,-.,,)'
CU ffe,,' concem,- in tI.. world of Mon",hcl i.i.m .nd.1>< .i"h roun.i1 of 6!k>,
.boot Chri .., fuli hum.:znity. Ho .. id. defeooing dcp"'ion. of ,ho crucifixion,
,ba, ",ho tx., ruk: of ,h. wi ..., mon ;, ch'" nu,e,i.1 refut:Hion, ."d "'pr...,n,,
,iom .. ", ",,,ngt' .nd "''''e heliev.. hle ,,><I migh,;', by f>r .h,,, both spokrn





,,,r< ..


CH TOO o~.

WOld. 1M b . nl quo=. fOf ,he m,, ,e'''1 "'p,=o",ion ",ono. I>< gJ,....,d OJ
rorgd. wh.rea< ,h. ,pok.n .."",;,;on. "fbook.< on." sufl'cr .ddi,;""" .od omis.,i"". 1t ' he h.nw of cvil"p<iling me o." " No< until the ninth ccnmf)" did
<m""pha. ""i " .. p...... h. full ""'l"""I.nce I:>e-rwe<:n piau"'" .nJ ",,,,,<Is.. bu,
An ..'.'ius ..... oo.;"uslr on th .. ""th. In hi' OWn .ime. h~ . 11< ...... rer., I"" """,ccmcJ "i,h . n it>elf .ho" wi.h .d'u,ing ,he Theop.Khi"'" who
hdicvl ,ho, God h.J ",ffi:.1 on
Fo. A""" ..;u <!<piet",n of .he
cnocir..i"" " .... n ..e;'" in .poiog<fiao It demOR''''''e<1 ,h., i, ..... onJ~ 'he
hum:tn. 'he fullr huo=Jl . ./<>u. who rufferOO 10d dil!'
Th. Lu, p~ia)flod,,'i~ ,,~i.inll' on ;m>.g<> _;n >om< .~ ,hoe
impo''''''_ In 692 .1>< c<>uncil '"in Trullo" (oft<-n ",111 ,h. " Quini"",,'" 'If
" hf.hSi ..h ") >ddl kng. h~ .... of di.<ciplin' f)" <,, ,,,,n, '" ,I>< d<>gnU,ic <leci
.ion. of ,II< Fifth (IJP .nd Sinh (<180) Ecumenical Cou ncil>. Th..,. .imes .h.
Chu,",;1 >ddtes><d iudf,o ,he Uk of.n ;n Cillo. In "'oon 7) ,he council f.. hoe"
~ 'he i..... g< of ,h. em '0 t.. put Of! 'he floor. prau ..... bly in . m<>l;'c. n
Thi, ",nOlI "",u.. lJ y did '10 mo ,!u.n "'p<>,.n lie, ofTh><ku.i". II of ~ '7
,Iu. h,d bttn ..ken up in J",,;no.n', code:- It metn' tim s><rOO i we",
'0 be 1CC<).dcd
.od. ,h u no, '0 be ,rompll ""d.m",, _Canon ''''' ..".
,h" .i><," ,h""ld be n" ,"",,,<co ,h. , " co,~h ,he <y< .. " d ",nup' , i>< minJ.oo
ncit< I:>.s< plca$urQ:'" Thi. CtnOn ~ r~.dy no,iced 1- h~'on.n> of the inugr.
I.. mconing i mbig""u, in ,h. a'",me': If could ",Lot< [0 ><rubr Of QCrOO ~n.
If m.)' bor >om~ connection to ,h~ kind of 'hinking .h., b'er ",,,,.. ionl ,~c
imerpob. i"", in . ho loner of S, _Nil .... of Sin.i (_ >bov< p_ ,8) who,..,. .1I<gl
to t.. <:<>ncc",1 ,h .. ." ,n churc"," ",;gh. t.. Ji..."";ng and nO' ;n"'u",;,- .
Churches "'<'" pt.a.. of """,hip. no. of ""t<".inmen'. ~nd no or' ..... j ~"ifi
.bk ,ha, did no' .nh .. n ,II< pi.ty of wonhirrn. Fin. lly. in ito mas, famow
i.... g< aOOn, number 8>. ,hoe Trulbn Council de<:roed:

m. ....._



]" ",m. depiCtion. of ,h. ""n.,.,!>I. irn.geo, ,h. h"e",nn<t i> po",.,rod
poin,inS wi.h hi' /inge " .1>mb, ~nd .hi.~ .. been .><e<ptl ...
"'I',...,n,.. i,,,, of sro. p",~g,"ing fu< u' 'hrougto
tow ,,", "ue
Lomb. Ch.i>, our God.,ing. ,hen. ,h .... 'ncien' "l'<...,n...;o""
.n<! fOrdh.Jowinp ... ymboh . n<! pr<6gur.t.iOfu of ,rutin handl
<I., ..-n by ,h. chu",h. n""""hol ...,,,,, I',o:fc. g< ..... nd ,ru,h, ...hich w<
h.... 'reei.....! .. fulfillm.n. of ,ho !:ow. T h<refor<. in ord.. ,h.. wha, i,
perf . <wn in p.>in,ingo. nuy be p<>",")-oo!:><fur< ,h. oyeo of >II.
dec,.. ,ha, I><nccfonh .h. liS"", of ,h. Lomb of God wOO ,okos .way
,h. ";ru "r ,he wotld. eh,i" ",,, (".<><I, .h,~,k! be ><t r""h in in
hum." fo.m, in,,~.. J "r ,ho . ncien. lo mb: fur in ,I.i. w>y """ 'l'V",h.nd



"n. ]"""


thot d.pth <)f d,e Immilit) of d,e Word of God. atod . tc kd to thot
",memb",ncc <>fhi< IiI< in the firsh. hi. p' ;o" anJ hi. "" 'ing dc.,h .
nd the rndemptitKI .... hOch therd,y arne to the _tid."
It i. <omctimrs <.oid tlu.t thi< a non forhoJ. the depicti"" ofChti ... . umb,
II don not have to I>< ,c.d in thi' W', T,ken "'gct~ w;th ,~c """<.10 ofJ"~"
of n.c.s:.lonicl ,00 Con, ..",in. Ch ....ophyl . ,rKl vi ..... cd in ,he
the oont;nuing Chri"olog;al battlc< that d;urkd the O"OOdox Church. this
anon can he: t.ken ,0 m"" n th.,.;n ,,,dot til ""'rt ,hc d.,c,rin. of ,h. ;n",m,_
tion. Chri!t an ,nd ,hould he: dcpied a' , man . S"ued dilkntly. th i< Trulb n
".. >on on be in'p'oted ... an ,n;'''''''''n ,hot . the \\'",,1 h,v;ng betn maJ.
R..... ,here W>.< ,w) n<l ,n pro.-;J ~nlholOc rep"""" ..,;"n nf ,he S"'cc to
oome,'" With fQpt to ima~ ,hemsdV<S. we h.v<. in "xing' I"',h f'Qm
Emtbi u. to the Trull. n H,II. =crscd cours< . Euscbiu. could nIH im.gine m.k_
ing.n ofChri .. 1m, w:.. It>PrY .... i,h .1>"",. ,)'mool;c <q>rc><m",ion.
n.c Trull... f.,hm ,,"<'" a liul< dubio,," ,oou, 'Ymooh and romen' wi,h 'r<cilie ngu...J ndc, ings. In any Cll<. the TrulLm Council m"ked ,he ~"t tim< .
, let. ,he fi ... ,;m< ,inee ,he obl<u", fJ.",.n emnn qumed '00"'. ,It>, ,he
chutch prooounced offic o..lly On <.oIT<d .ft. It <annot he: <mph .., too strongly
,b... ,he fdic,
docidlly affi,mative.
In the ,ge hcfu", Oro"""b,m . ,h.",fo,<. f!.;n N,;C 1"""'0'" hul hcrn
ou, by I:>o<h the ."",hlS ,nd the dcfcrKl.1S of im>g<s. The (ormer
thot Cod ..... purdy <pi", ...1 bring ... "0 rould nu' be depic,ed , [)q>iC!;"nl.
in . ny ,,"<n,. wetc mode Q( .;1. m.ttO' w~;,:~ ...... n, nite<! ,,, tlo. <li.;,"'.....,ncc
,nd ;tl;o enroulOlgC<! <I", wo'ihip of ma",;"1 c",.,ion. C n:o'Oon " .. If. "'''''''''''<t.
.... Gud, ",ork . Ione. Prople ""ould not. in <<<>ting imag<>o p,c\ume to .It>"
in God , "wk. lm.:lg<> we'" ;Jol . 0< '" ,'cry mu<h lih ,h.m .. '0 m.k. no
diffe",,,,,, , Fin>lIy. God hod m'etkd him,dfin word"~ no' in piau"".
The d~nJ<,. Qf i m.~ used did.k a'1)u men", Art w .. good for ,I><
,,,,,,,ue';,,n "f d", ;s<>or." . " " " ;muh,e<! .h. em",;,.,,, in ""')'> ,h..
<>0(. Aft encouf"J.g<d p.ople ,,, (hink deepc' (hough" .bou( higher 'hingo. An
,cm;rKlcd people Qf ,he ..:,ipm ...1 , M ccciaias,ic>1 h<roc> wltox example .
m.ined , continu ing P'ClCnC< .nd >mfOf!. An helped to!O.;U\ ,nd to r<:fc, ,he
p"'y"" of ,he bel..,..". An .... mad. of ,.;). n"t"t. pc,h,p, . bo' til< ""net
W>S 'nc ,& ~ ..1 to ,h. pU'l""'" of , n . M",,,,,,,,,,. GO<! It>d cr.",,l . 11 ,h 'ng< .nd
haJ pronounced ,hem good. M~,, C(>uld I>< ,bwcd. c<'t>'nl y. bUl it,,~ nO!
'n(f';"' '''lIy 1<1. In some .,.... :ICc;ng ...." prcfc"bl. ,,, he";"g Or n:W;"S'
Im.s<' """ked mi,><I.. in m>ny ploco. SUlci)' ,hi, helped '0 ",,,,hlilh ,heir

OOn'' '



_ rd,

k$irim>q . fifully, im'geI of eh,;,r h~lp<tl ro pro>d.>i'" rft< docrr;n. "f ,he
inc:IIn... ion,"
Ernst Ki!l!ing<' onco .. HI th .. ,he", .... s no ,ime brtwt-rn the fou,," ""ntuty
.nd rhe nimh when rl><", wu no di",,-';on of ;m:ogcs. " 'I'h" i, '''' .
i, is
" Iso true ,h,,, the dilCU...on, ,.'<'" ""~ in comparison wi.h, fOl tumple. tt..
f.e"", <kb>,es . " "oundi"! .1><: I"',..,n ,nd n""r, of Jesu, ChriS!. Th. moo.
commo n ch'rg< ~n".rr WU idoL"ty and the mOO' rommon dekn'" WU ,h.
in circumst. nce, GOO him!<lf had rom"",nded im' geI to I>< mule. In.
""y. rl><: inug< q ......d. wert 1'<>11)' hurl .. """. bibl",,1 ""<gW>. Thi, ""'Y I><:lp
.0 ""phin ,I>< cme<g<n of ,he di!boi" dekn .. of im>g<s. If. for .",mple,.n
im.g< rouJd be "",0<1"
,uPP"" an in",,,,,,ioni,, r ding of the New T.....
ment, then ouch , n inug< WU i... lf m ncgrtio;::r.l "gument .Vi.... ,h.cnr: who
im <'1',1 ,be Seri!,, " "" diffi:nrly.
M,yIx- ... rS"" ........ ;s ,I><: .... vng ""'n!. Few of ,he ....;.... whom " 'e I..""
to h.v< bo:-n ,,,,,,,,ring . ny uf ,I>c othel writn>.)N-~ . nd
I><.er'" m.) h.", p'omp,I ..,n", dd'< ..... of inug<s. or ,hey ""y h"""




prompted no mo", th.n lit ....1}' in""ntions "''' in d",I<>g"" f"rm. P"puhl "".
CC'S><:Sk<m to h.. "'-"CaSiur>! >Orne .ttack>. Sut it W()UIJ be WTOOg to ,hin k of
n'o,-;",IQn8 dei>->tc . T I><<< "':re in. r o;I, ~ufins ,!teo< dyn.mi<ally ~","iv<
nru.i .. in ,h. his,,,1}' of Ch,;,,;. nil}'. """,ioo.l .nd ;sol" ed vo;e ... Killinger
.Iso .. m k<-d 'h" bcf(,,,, tl>< "lie of <ronod. m th ......-as no ' )'S'em"'" ."em!"
hli,h . Chri,,".n ,hool}' of im. ses.'" h is """".h ...wing ,h", .h... wu no
,)'S mar'" .hooty on ,i,h" ,ide of rhe ,...... No.h'ns i, I... p.edicrabk .lun
th .. , bitt<' im>g< q"",d ,hould h,,-. ~,i"'n in ,I>< eighth ntul}'.

,0 ....

T he Rise and


ofS.cred Icon"

Be(o", I could wri .. th ... word. I 'ook in lund . mou"".nd clicked on ",ric>

of ico .... These iro.... of o;ou .... arc me", ')'10001. dc>igned ro wnvry ". me
... iou. ""Ii, i<l md p<>S>,bilitics hidden dcq> in tl>< dc-cuonOa of my comput<,.
In I. ... nti'luity, mo'" . od mO f'C"!'le dicker! on "'ligi<>u< irons in otd .. to
",i,'''" ,he ",ligiQUS (01'0$ of .I><;,.S"
",,;'v ,impl)' met ... im>g<. pictu ... The WOfd etn refe. '0 .n) im:rgo ..
11. H;'tor;'n, of.. n u"" it. 00wcvc to rd'c. to >p:ihc ~p<> o( rdigio~, images.
Reservins ,he wo,-J "ici"," fu, 'd ig;ou. pietu.-el . "'ne i, """.lIy Ru.. i. n
~"g<> ""d. f",ly 1'<C<1\t one." N<Vtrthd ..... rt histori.n, wtfully di;ngui.<lr
b<t..-.." IUIT" ;'" piu ..... hu.o,;.",.t>d ieo n" nJro",,- ... hid> tend '0 r-q>'dcn'
one 0' f~ ~g,,"'" f""" . lly .",1 ,,,,,lly Out of t<m!"'.,.]. hi,,,,,;,,1 ""n'eJr'."

Such argumentl'~ b.utd pardy On Itylislic cuns.idmtiun. and in view of tlK

' mall number of . urviving, prc-iconod""t or. mplcs-kwc, than tw<:nl}~i. i.' danS<fou, to a .. ontpt to diffi:tcn,i. te fO() ""'rpl~ .m''''g the work! <If
. n .t our d;'~_ In Bd'ing', "",ni;. ,ho icon
nmhing bm. b" d"",iClI
p. nd pidu .. ,hOI inhi,I .he di.ine im' g<, ,he irn1'<.;.1 imag<, .nd ,II< po'_
""i, of ,II< de..!, TInl> ,he ienn ..!01"1 a muhiplici,}' of fomul d",i=. ew:J,
coming from a diAi:,.n. ,ndi'lon md from diAi:rtn. gon..,.. h hod no. )'C'
evul ...J ,tyle '" >.hetic of it> own, h embfKI ,hc coo"ict betwun ,hc
doi .. fO, comrn.mor... ing an indi.idu.r. like""", .nd ,ho ",ish fe" obt.ining
.n im"".", .. bk ide,I:'" Thi. i, II<lplUl, but the point can be eJrt.ndl by "ring
thot WOIk of an may be rel\...lI .. ironic when i, make:. no ref<rene.< 10
w",d, .t . U. It docs n(>l iIIUl .... tc biblical tar 0' .. jn.', li(. docs no. ,dl
""'Y. i. ,~" <. pectl.o d w ,ho
mind ,,"ck t..."mnhing that he '"
, hoe h.. rcod 01 h<nd .... FUl1h mo"" .. G.I}' Vil." h ,*",,,...J, insof~ ...
"icon" 'impl)' mean, "'nt'ge," 'he te.m ,huuld nut be rc<.ricti ", On .b...:oct
rdigioUl pon",i. pain!I in <gg cernJ><"'- on ~;<>Id-",,I w<><><kn b.:>ard. WIt ..
delincd on icon in 1I)' . nd .Iready in I.t< .ntiquity. " ... it> we .nd
wh. .. prople hoelicvcd i, '0 Ix_ An icon i d<"",ion.1 im.g< ,ho< m ....1s
rcv<rcnCC and rnp<Ct: it i, hoi" in ,he !.Cn",
if ,h.res in , h... nai'l" of ,he
figu", who'" lih n... i, burs . ..... palmin& an icon at the momcnt ..hen
it bopn 1(, func, i"" .. m icon." "
B .....



In .. king .bou, .be rio< . nd function of icon>. 11"d"." rum ......y (mm wiu.,
,lKy look lih . nd to i<>quire about how ,hey were uS<"<! .nd wi", , hoy did (or
.... r<" beli ..-cd, '" <">""".1, to dol. The OfC r",my problem. in ,hi, 'P!'~
tOO, "". the Ie..t of wh"h i h" ,holi,."')'so",,,,,,.tId ,ho ." .... iying.n
annot ... rule be b,,,...W" i",,,direct co"n<Clion wi,h cuh mhcr , for in,un.
,hc i, no ;n"',"'"""nihle ""iden"" f", ,he ~><e .,{ m, ouf;oc(u,,,, ",igin.1 pi",.
,,( displ.y, . od rul, p"'-Cti<. if anr. >w><i ...c\ with the fam(>lU p'c-iconoclaSf"
ieom ptarvcd in ,h. mo""",), ofS, . Cuh"ine in Sin,i" A. , II< " me ,ime,
. ;nu. II, . 1I .... nt lir:t')' allu,;"n, to icon. ",I>" ." paiming> .h" h... long
.i,\Cc ... ni,hl,
On one poin' moOt amho.i,i .. or. "II'o:eJ, An iron i", ,...,.l of . n bef<,,,,
..... ich ",,".;n >peeihc cult "'u wo", I"',fnrml." M"ic-f .. n ...... >Cpr oar> that
"i, is bcc. ...'"
nJ .., <kYotion.o it " tat.n beroma an icon, that i,
tu .. y. pIa "f rommun ication Ix......-..:o a dcvo.<': .nd ,he I"'""n who i.





" r ~n",d:' "

H.n,' (;>tg Thummd :uIJ, <Iu< . n iu>n eme"F' when, pit<" ..

tlul "." honored .nd tlut " ... !n >$ cffi<aci<m' ,..... di<tinguilbcd from oth
ud> obi<> 0. from gene,,1 church <k<:ontion. g Tht fin. unombigUQtJ> rdc.
.no: to .uch "'" i< provided by S" AuSU',ine. woo .. id, "[ knuw , .........
"",ny wh" ado.. pi<ru .... of the'''' Epipluni u., .. we uw, aptrt<cd lOme
enn"""" . 00UI how in,>go> we .. heing ,ued, bm his WOfd n: I...... pli,i h.>n
Han, Ikl'in~ ,hink. ,lut ,he 6...
from > memo,i.1 image.o. cult of
<he inuge ...... he p"""i ... ofligh' ing cmdl.. ..,d uying gorl.nd. heft"e po
".i" .. ,~. g....... of the d.><I. s.,.,,,, tI,. po" ... i" cno,ld he "'I,I;.".,..! .,..1 ,hus
<he cuI! ..... n<> longe. ,ied to ,hI p~ wh ... ,h. pc...,n dcpicm:l ..... 1CC""lIy
bu.ied. In ",m< i", .. nUll' p'flirur.. pc""n 0' enmmunity< so", of
imp ...... io of , cuk" The 6fth.."n,ul)' wri. Thtodor "'l""n , of S,. Syrnm
SCj-li,ts ,h.. he "bcc.cme '"
in ,he gt<O' [.i,y " I] Rome ,h" i" , he
po,ch", of.1I .he "'o,bhol" ,her'" up link im,S'" of him", as ,n obui.
p'",ecrion and ,,",,"il)'.". ' Nor onl)' port ... i" wer< pon.ble. lbe lift 4Spuon
(c. ')')
to "''''tW. n ironi<:tlly 'Dmp! ... rtt..n token. Symron ,db.
(.. he, who hrough[ his ",n fOf. cur< to uke .he image . nywh<r< md '" 1001<
>t i, ,o .c< him .nJ hi, fX>""<'r. s"m< ."'" hundred of <hr>c ,oken. """,i.. in
... ,i<>lu rolke,i"",. Th. "'Jo;r.o "",keJ t!.c ptc\en: and dliGC)" (,f 'he pint
... n)'Whe", . We
I, ... i(:"",
could ...",d uff ",il .nd ict,1l$ .h..
muld <A't cu ..... G.fJo ibn .htch.. . typ1og)' of the!< po[ent ico"" in thn<
""': "While the (~ icon wo .. ld h.v< been made in [pO"" to ,he
... i .. of mir><ulou. powe' (.nd migh" .f.c. [he f.ccr, x, mi"cul"u,ly). md
<he "'Mp> iu>n would luve been ""d< to hdp p<ipi<> mj<>clc. ,he "",liK,.
""''' iron, by d<hni[ion, W()uld luv< boecn <<c:<<cd [0 he ,he ",ure( of it: '" If
by ,he fifth =tul)' pcopk .ooroJ images .nd <>p<C1N cu ..... nd pm,ecrion
from ,hem, then in " leas..... mc
spilic wo ...... of Chti"",n ." had
"'luir..! (u<><"lion, qui bcyooo [h"", of .. imula<ing. dCl.. ting. commemo,,'
in);, ."d ,,,,d,i.S- Such wo,k, of.II "'"y usefully bo:: aHN icon.<. AI I >lull lO ..
[he W()rd i<on her< and throughout thi . book. I mean to br-..:k<t pie,urn th ..
_r< holy. [h.>, "it! .hing>. bving "idr .11 ",he, picm .... which wer<. b)' defini
tion. ict,n. '00, At the <arne tim<", I .m oot con<"<rncd .,.j,h m.. of stylc, In
my .n.lysi,. it doco nm m>lW wlut. piccur< looked like. \X'h:ot roum$ i$ wh.>t
i, did. or wh.>. i, " CIIp<C1ed co do. M)' ddin;c;on i ihc;.,1 . nd "'" .gain
,!.c g<>in of ~"I hi".i",1 .. adition nJ di .. iplin.1}' und. ... "n.ding<, Wh ..
,hi. definition ho< going for it i:c cr.tit~ . nd ron' ;'I"Iq. Morttlv. when we
come '0 ,he C.rolingi'' '' we will > .hac ,My haJ mmy hut no ;ron,.
A wid" con,ick .. ,;o>n of ordin,1}' ohi<o. ,nd inug... ev<n of oi:>jecrs ",j[h






,,", k.,.., I'



"" th.n>, will

os ,.m;nJ., ,hi! icon,. pl nd p.inting>, "'10(;";.
,he ""I, of
d",,3, .nd ,h. ' p",mp. ic powers of ..,m. pK1ur", an.1I ,h<m_
.d va be: Ioatod wi,hin wi<k,
To oft.n ,h." 01 ioon, i,
oonlin! m ,,,nsid.r.. ion of ei.h.r rm, f. m""" bc:. u,iful . nd "'!<m.. i,,~.I)
p"blic .m "f b., n,iqui,)"', dou",), .., <>r 01 ,ho plimi"~ ,h..... Clilod
"iO:1I". " m.inly "" "11;"ic groo,nd. Rur rh ... wos. whole ...'2Im of dom,i,
.rt, or .rt . 'hot wt .ho,,~ "(It I.,... ,ish' of. Syn>bvlic rcprese""'ion. of koo",
eyes, 6",1<.. .... nto. k<y>, '" "'""S')O' w.ft ,h""Sh' '0 w"J "If <:v'1. Chri"i.n
jrucripti"'" ,we' duo",,,),, cuu~ d" ,ho .. m. ,hin!;. OS rould lomb<. """"".
1<11e", .,,,rd,. " holy N"" ."." .od ,
y , ' <mOS. Hou"" .1.., Jud bmp .
bo,.1 . pitche .., md dish wi,h aplicitly Chri"i,,, im'g",.
.ymboli, .nd
dearly repm.en" 'ion.1I." John C hry;o<tom p,ovi<ie:< re-.-caling ,"""n'
of ,k p""'.I"e< of [k or.,.., in."".ingly ,he C h,i"i ., .ymbvl pl' ",cdknce:







Wlu, once honifi<J ",e'1"o"e, 'f> ligure i, no,," IOUgh[ b)' .Il. nd i,
discovcud <verywhere, .mong prince:> and .ub;":... ,mong m.n . nd
women, .mong vi ' gin. and m.rried, .mong .Ia"'" and Ire<:. E.... ')"On.
now pr..... ,h" , ign '''' ,h. ""hl p:tMS of ,hei, boJ,e ~ .. '11>< , r" ..
\Ctm. '0 be cdro,:ued ...erywhcr . in houses. in ,he fOrum. in des<rtcd in " ... d....,.... in nlOU" .. i" ... in .,Iley>. in hill .. in ,h.... . in
. hip>, in ;'bod . in bod on dmhing, on ~I"'ns, in rooms ... I:>on
qu.", SOld ,,,d,il"" """,,"I. , in 1"',<1., i", ins., on
boJ;" of pKk_.nim.k on [h. boJi", of [h,,>< . fIlieted~ demorn. in
.... r .nd io p<><'. in [h. "')~im,' . nJ .. nig/>" among '"'p' of .un"".
in communi,;., of ,h. '>fie. >-el),,"e >e<k. it> m. rvdou, gift, i..
in.xpraoibk g"ce . . .. No one . lfccu ,h. m. or hlu.hco wkn he ...1
i... ,h" ,hi. iymJ,.)1 of . damn~hl. de"h : ,"<ked, "'.'1"00>, ,..lorn,
him .. lf even mOl< wi,h it"




Ch,i"",,, .11 ov<' . k Mcdi ..",n.. n world were hecoming . cClmorncd '0 being
"mounded by a profu'ion of pi.<turao and imago [t. .. """"im<........:I
",f""h ,heir memor'" ,,,d !lu, we .. IOme"m [hough, 10 pro,[ or k.1
[hem, If moo[ .n<mion i, """"rdcd [0 Kon,. ,hen ,h"", icon, ,hoolJ
noo be,., off in ,,,,.. ,,,is'' d ..."," f",m I"',e." Im_gcs


A )n,.n,". '" bro:>d [Ju, i, '<qui"" no .bho",'"'' hold. [h .. icon' . prud

,rcmendou.1y in ,h i"h ,nd ...... n'h "" "u,i... Ab.."dan, ,es,imo,,;", ... m.



o~ .

of them . Iready "",mio"ro ,n [ho ".",iou. """on, .11 Ui of 'C<>II' (0< ''''"5''')
in ,hurch.., hou""" roo ..... e, i.., .nd ;hops. We <v<n hal of m.n who ",,,rial
an ,m'g< of Sf>. Cosm... nd D.m"' '' in. de undc. I,;" .mo." Su. dy he .....
""' un"lu"
cemury saw rompreh~rui.., refiguring o( imptri.1 ",remoRial
d",igal'o >ehi""" . .... yI. of Il""""rning which '[)."S.-. [o:d .he ' ", pe,,,,J g<wommen' wi,h ron.ompor:>ry <2>[e" '" n.." W'e w>s religiou. And i, w>s cuhiv"o:d
in world ,h" w;u being '"Ii,urgifial. '" :>mid p.""""", "whereby 'he <old cl ...ial
. u"';""h los< ground [0 ' unifo[mly KJigi"", 'Wl'OXh > lif".
whob)' [h.
omptrot gndu.ll y i/lals .h radi.iorul Roman .[[rihl"",.o emug< full y :u ,he
A.< en,I'<'.'" wo:n: in,<w"ing
nffiC<" . nd 'he ,itu.l.
>",,=1 wi.h ;. ,",,, ,he .. Iigiou, lif.:: " f th"t proplc. they ;dcntifil 'pee",1
",I<s for im.8""'oo ico",." r h y in tf... pmceoo
I" ,heir ",.mp" to ... ton: 1''-'1',,1., ".mfitlrnc.: in ' he gene,.. i"n' .fte' Iw,
,ini, n, eml"'''''' in,,<.ingi)' made M,ry the .....on ...d p[ot=o. ofCon", n, i
nopk." A. corly :u [I>. rcign of llorudooiu< II the
wif" Eudocia .sm.
from je..... lem '0 hil Me, Pukheria an i~ of M.ry .1I<gedly I"in[ro hy S. ,
wk." Just,nian w" p>rt;cuI..I)' Jevo,I M,ry"'" During the Avar ' Kg< of
6.6. ico n. of .ho Vi'S,n W<K arrit..l . round eo[)".ntinople ... ' 1=", ,of a. ...,
wcrt ,Iso C1trial.round the ory in 6'6.nd ><C</m... niro imptTial'rmi", inm
b, uk >g>in" [he POOO", . nd La .. r 'go'"" .h, Ar. .... ju"ifti>ft II pl>eal in",8""
"f Christ on his coin . n :oct of Chri.tomimcoi. <ksigo<d fO ,h .. h,
..... [h. ",10 kg;.;n .... ""nhly "'I"""'m~.i .... "r [h. hc:t .. nly l ing. 'n c.,., ... ",;.
norle. the empire. , nd ,he . m ptrot ....d . 1I come under the >pi>1 prOlOClion
of ,he Vitgin .nd of Christ. By ","n,io n. ,hen. cvnyune in the tmpi.. roiorJ
,he .. me p>["""ll" , nd pro ..." i"". The rdigiou. ~I ...[io n of .h. impe.i>1
oRi", .nd regime "..... n in'"gr."i .... force in ... Iy BY',,"t;n. society, On, k<y
,,,,,\.nod m.n;f<s< .. i<on of <lu. 10= ..... , he leon.
In ,world I<> dtq>ly Ch, ;"'. ni,I, .. leal. at ,he offici.! Icvd. in . world
"'h"c Jes ... , nd M.ry. nor ,he geniu. of the emperor or , .....",ngth of ,he
legion>- pruttetl the empire and it< pc<>f>k. iwn, p><m on< ekmen. in [he
",p1.cement of the "''''''ining YC>'iges of d ...ial cui",,,, by . <odili",[i"n of
knowledge bued on ",Iigiou. [n" h." '" If Ieol\' p..,,=o:d ,b.: ,mpi", .nd the
cml"'rut, , nd did", in very public di.pI.yo of p<>w<: then .... ",Iy ico", could
P''''w. heal . nd comfort ordirutry propk [00. Gnd Iud ..,.....11 him;elf by
mem. of m,n)' .ign. ,n ,foe p' '': ' he burninG bush. the tabletS of the Law. ,h.
Ark of [he c"...en,nt, ,he ........ the Sctip'utt:S, """'. m.n ..... i""n<c. ,nd an
db. K"""iodg<. lik< gr-oct. com ... .long 'pp",.,.,J ehol\n<Lr. 'h,,,ugh , .......
,ion, nOl [hrough ...:ul" l<aming. The ri", of'" m[hro[;', ico", .nd of mi",l.






An. loo."


"ori coonected wi,!. rrumy iCOll' ..,,,,,.. ,!.ow j~" hnw .ppwcJ ,hc ch. oneh o. "",d"ion "'cre ,h .. joinl ,io-.',cf>'o [h< obj" of [heir gou.
t<;. .urciy no' coinciden ..1 ,h...<ul.uly . u,hen,i< kind nfim.g< . ,hc
It(hino~;",OI. ,h< im.gc not mad. by hum." h,od.: begon '0 goin i~ '=&"i.
,ion ,nd """ub. i'!' io .he ,i"h .nd o<v<mh ""nruric>. H,,,, ....... kind of
im>g<-'hr: C.m~I"'n. ,ha' .. ri.I in Con". n,innplc f,om Syria in 17. ,h.
E.dcos.> im>g< '" ,hOI prot.ed if> <i,!, from .h, Peni.n> in j.4. o,.he do,h in
Mcmplri, wi,h ponr.i, nfCh,;" \of, wh." Hc h.d .....,hcd Hi, f"",'''' ~whooe
,""urCC .nd Imtc,i.!, could no, be <:oiled in,,, qu,ion . Ho .. o>~ld God oPI'<>'<
iron. if He lI im.df made [h<m for
p>pl<~ Uo... ro~ld ,1.< "",,,ri.1. in
icon. be l:wc if ,hey ""me ",.,ig, from h"""en' Th~ .o<H:>11cd Luc>n Mory fi ..
into ,hi. COIl'''''' '00. A I",,,,.,i ..,. onc of ,he <"o."S<l..... h)' one of(,>O<I. o... n
.pol<am<n . could nor be ill<W[im.l[~. And if Lul<c I"'in.ed Mary from lifo. ,1.<0
,bere could be 00 qU<>llnn of ,hc ... him, of ,he l"'iN or ladiog him '0 Imko .... y
>on nf pict ~r< hc wi.bed . LikC"'';sc. ,he G.lli. bi>hop Arculf. rq><>rling On hi.
O<V<II,h..:cIl'u,!, in tho Holy Land. told Adomo;m of ~ doth """",,n by
Mary .nd bc:oring imoge> of Jesu. ond the _po"les. ,... ThC$C pictures "",e PO""
<rtul pm:istly bccaUI< they were 50 powcrtully "'. uthrnti<:'"
The >ix,h and S("IICmh Ct"murio no, only IlW [he prolifcr.ulon of lrorits
.t,..,.... iwh' "hOt by h,,,~,,, h.~d" bu, .1", wi,~C>Scd. ,,,,,,h,,,,,,,,i"8 of
><xounu of .... nf 1<V<Or<0~ J><,formcd bcIOr< icoru.nd Of mirxlt> J><rtormcd
b~ ,hem . 1n< m<[ rommon folnU of ""'cren ",<re p""lrynni> . od 41/<''''''''
The httcr me ..". on"" .imply . ki",i " S hu, a" .1,0 ,"o.~ tu\\.h ins VI ~",h"",.
ihg. The fotmet <:on hav~. widc "'oS" of mc,ming>. Wri,c" U!<d it int~r<<
:rblr wi,h oth """d< (e>p;'U) for m! of "1'utiJ) but amid u<c it in On<
<cote""" o. I"'''S'''ph '0 refe, ." ,he wonhip. honor. ad,,!">.[ioo . or ""'o",n,,, both to God and tt Il i'on. And ",ri ..... did this >=von", ,hey wet< "y;ng
h}" .h< fom: of .heir ''I\"m<"" ,0 diff<ren.i ... crisply ber",.,.n ,he kind< of
f"n"cr<nct due to God .nd ", icon, th .. wet. only mcmori.I,. Irons wct< 'evcr
~oced"" g<nu! or kn!iog before .hem:..,. .pprooching [h<m wi,h ao
dlc. ~,><l in",,,,,, ; ," by ~rcm"u;'lIy N. hi"g .hem.''" N" cloubt [he mOil
frcq""'" form of .....,.. n"" W>< ,he q ui p ..ycr. The key poit\! is th.r whil.
>om< wri,cr> ron. inucd '0 rumio'l< 00 [h< B.. ili. n ide:. of thr: rd. tiooship
~n ,h~ iougc .nd if> pro''''YI'''. ,he ,i .. h .0<1 !<V<n,h :nnni .. hcgio [0
. t.ow <vidcnce of p,...i.. nd nf ,o/ition, On tho>< p,...i.. thot !..ound
",m< im>g<>. icon. nd [heir "icwc" in ps].. ""ologian~.nd spi'i'u.>lIy romple.


w.)~. '"

Irons ""n: ,"""'" ' 0 f'<',,"id.: p''''ei"" . " d <c<mi,y. 'lney ..."dl "If ill,
.nd h""led , . lroody .fRied. n ..-y dfc.cted thc "'turn of run ...... y ,1,,<:<.


Icons stOod sponsor to children at baptism and brought them blessings later.
Demons were dri ven out by icons. Dreams were authenticated when the
dreamer looked at an icon and recogn ized the very person(s) who had visited
him in his sleep. Scrapi ngs from an icon could heal a sick person, as could the
water with which an icon was washed. Ico ns were suspended from the walls and
gates of (Owns to drive away enemies and icons were carried into battle.
Such, at any rate, is what Leslie Brubaker calls the "canon ical" interpretation of the dramatic increase in th e prominence of icons after about the 55os.
Her use of the word "canonical" refe rs directly (0 the evidence collected and
interpreted by Kininger. But Brubaker carefully collates two generations of
scholarship on Kininger's evidence and calls almost every piece of it into quesrion.110 She makes three fu ndamental points. Fi rst, while it is Hue that ftom the
seventh-note, not mid-sixth-century stories about images become increasingly common in texts of various kinds, and especially in saint's lives or collections of thei r m iracles, it is very rare for any miraculous power to be assigned to
the images in the stories. She looks closely at Tht Miracks of St. Arumios, Tht
Miracks ofCosmm and Damian, and Th f Lift ofSymfon rht Young" to make
this point. In other words, even if images arc becoming more and more evident,
they are not yet becoming more and more powerful. They are not necessarily,
in this interpretation, becoming icons. Literary testimonies about images are not
at all the same thing as evidence for an increasingly prominent cult of icons.
Second, viHually every story about a miraculous seventh-century image is embedded in a texl at a point that gives rise to some suspicions of later tampering.
A good example dating from around 600 is Thf Spiritual Mtadow of John
Moschos upon which Kininge r and others have drawn heavily. In his collection
of 243 edifYing tales (in a recent version) only four concern images at all. 1I1
Three image stories are quite possibly later interpolations. T hi rd, ahhough the
late sixth-century Piacenu Pilgrim is the first writer after Augustine to use the
term "adorare" (tl nos tam adoravimus) unambiguously in connection with an
image, lIl only in the time of Arculf and Stephen of Bostra- that is, late in
the seventh century--did proskynfsis begin to become routine. 11J By my count,
Stephen uses "llQooxuvw" in one fOfm or another nine limes in a text whose
surviving version runs to a mere forty-eight lines. 114 Practices that, as we shall
see in mo re detail in the next chapter, had become commonplace by the 73os,
when John of Damascus was writi ng, were fairly rent and not the inheritance
of many centuries of steady development. I II By 700 there were countless images
in all kinds of media in many different places. There were also icons in the sense
in which I am using the term. It is important nOT to conflate [he two, and it is
difficult [0 say what proportion of images were icons.

An, Icons


An Talk in the Latin West Before Iconoclasm

Positive or negative refe rences to pictures or to cult practices associated with
them were as rare in the Latin West as they were in the Gr~k East. Once again,
it is difficult to trace direct connections betw~n one autho r and another. The
range of opinio ns that we have already met on the positive side appears in the
West, albeit with some new twists, T here is no writer so negative as, say, Epiphanius but many Western authors were quite reserved where figural art is concerned.

Thr Trrmr of Discussion

Paulinus of Nola (}S}/4-4}1) was among the first Western authors to express
himself on images. He did so in a poem in which he says that the houses of
Felix (of Nola) were adorned with picrures on sacred themes in the hope that
they "would excite the interest of {he rustics by their attr.lctive appearance." In
particular, it seems thaT the peasants around Nola were especially given to feasting and drin king and so, by means of pictures of "the feast of fas ting," the
hunger of peasants would be "beguiled" and they wo uld turn to better pr.lctices.
Some at least of these pictures were given titu/j, explanatory inscriptions, tha t
the more literate could r('ad to the 1('55 to enhance their instruction. II I, Paulinus
may strike us as naiv(', but there was by his time a fairly Strong tradition holding
that art could move its viewers.
John Cassian (}60- 435), in his te nth Conformer, said that the gentiles (he
means pagans) dressed in human forms the demons which they worshiped (loxcO/fbant). "Now they think they can ado re the incomprehensible and ineffable
majesty of the Hue God under the form of some sort of image (imflginis), believing themselves to have or to hold nothing at all if they shall nOT have put up
some sort of image." H e goes on to say thaI man was created in the image and
likeness of God but that to make images of God is to fall into the heresy of
anthropomorphism. 1ll John does not speak of idolatry. He reserves his objecrion
to anthropomorphism . As a discipl(' of Evagrius and the refore as an Origenist,
John may well be tal king more about the anthropomorphic controversies raging
in Egypt, which he visited, than about images per se. And he appears to be
concerned about recent pagan convens and their habit of bringing thei r old
pracrices with them into thei r new church. Be tha t as it may, Cassian's Conformers were widely read in the West, especially in monastic circles, but they do
nor seem to have deterrro the production of art works, including depictions of


the deity. It m.~ be that hi

W<fe K.d primarily in tbe Contat of :mCK....
Th.- prolific A"sunin. Iud linle 'o"Y ,too,,, .n . nd he was ... ,inly indif.
(efem [0 it. F... him. WOld. ,""fe . iw1ys ,upcfior to pictures. W< nota! .bQvc
Aup"ine', dispat>ging m .. k
"adOfm" of pietures of the de.d. In 01><
of hi. tm.i ... on the Setiptu,,:. Augu.stine a p rcs.sal COncctn .bout the t=
dency of .nil.. t<, engog< in<"Jnisnu tlut di'I<, .. the mconing of the Bible.
For in".nce. hc compl.ina!.l>o" t the tendenq of p> to po""y ehri",
PCICf . nd hul t"l!ethcr .. if thq Iud bKn contern"" .. ri .... ' " Aug,mi[\( dc>rly
Iud J""b .. ,bout ,he >bili.y of pic<u,.. ", [.>do ...Iu[ ..... '" [he
SeriJKU"'. The """'nd book of AUgu.!,i,,". O~ ChriJli4n LJ...-trin<'.lpdl, Out the
... im , ide .. fl>out .igtt~ Asti"i, r<p<ocnt>,iotU an be .igo<: can convey
infum .. tion . bou. ""nCIhing other th.n [hemsdVd. Bu. bcc:oUII< pietur .. were
infer;'" .0 word . nod bcc:ou>< i[ "':Ii ......... ry fur pc""n to h.- well p"'p>.a!
in order [0 look". pi<"'''' ,tid Ie< wh" ir ,il!!'ifil. Augu"i .... rcg>rda! p>i o[.
ings . nd "",Iptu","", "<Up". Auow em ..,n .... ,,
A"gustin. w;o$. wordsmith . It il P<:[lurs nOl surprising th .. he I"iyj~
.h.- ... rinen . nd <polen ........d "vcr visual furm. of ",,,,,"unOat;"". In hil
,bt 7-"~i'Y (8' ~ -1) Augu"i"" lOy>, p<rlups thinking about che .mh"'pomorphi"
conrrovcl'S)', ,h.. 110 0"" can Iovc God befO", he know> Him. "'And ""h." i. i
" know Goo, c:<ccpt ." II: Him mcn .tly .od to pc","i"" him d <1y." In
"ring this. Auguine m"'.... bcrond w<>td. '" ",ntempJ.tion. He did not .hink
i. w" p""ibl< fOr .n inugo co tatmbk ilf ,ubjc bc=us< imap "'..,'" [he
ptodu, .. oH uman inugi"".i"n .nd every hcl~r or arci" im.gin .. God in hil
own w.y. '" Hi. qu..alm toou. pICKn .."""" Ole dc:orly expr....-d in . nmb ..
p>U>g< in On,~ 1,;~"'",




WIoo Ito,ing ond or beard 0<1 o. hc:o.d wh.[ che 'po<[k 1'..<1 wrotc.
O[ "'.... t "'...... ti"'n .bout him. will 001 r"hion in hi.< mind . hce fut
.h, .posde. nd lOr every",,< cis<;' menuonal in [he>< texIS. And
,ince c>ch member .m""g ,he ... " ",uici,,,d. of .h"", to whom rh ...
t<"><".re I n''''," will dcink uf ,he I,,,cs .nJ ,h. p< of their bodi .. diffi,,<ndy. i[ is completely who thinlu mo" do.ell' . nd ,c<",,,,,tcly.
Our hich i. 'w" COflrna! ""i[h w ..... ph)"i",,1 bee ,h.OS< men hoJ. but
... ,'" how ch")' Ii,a! .hrough .he gnoce of God . rod ",'h" [h")' did.
which thing>.re ...; ......-d in''''''' "'fiting:t. [11
In one ofhi. >ermon . Auguscine.rguo [h., Chrisc', .eM;.,n ..... rons>.ry.
>od ch .. i[ Iud [0 .... pp<n in [he .iglu of.he 'pos[\cs. bc=us< o[he<will< [hey

An. I""" P


would h..... ",

on hi, hum." IOtm.nd WOllld Iu"e boxn
'0 """'empl". hi, invi,ihlo di,illi,). w lIy ""m.mpb,ion. ,h.",fol<. Augm,in.
m ..", <ing [h. ;"vi.ihk. nd I>< .pok< "",,"cndy on [hi. kind of .igh, in hi'
lisn../ Co",,,...,,'Q'l ~~ (""""if:

wl.... i, set" K[u.lly. no, .. in.n im'SO . nd nm ,hrough ,he eyes of

,b. body. i. On by d.., vi.ion ,,hieh ,u[P"'<'.1I ",1><,.. In.., fat ..
,he Lord will I><lr me. I wiU Ir)' '0 pbin , I>< [ll"" of "i'KIO .nd ho,,'
'hey Jifl"<t, !khold ,,;,tll ,hi. "m PKC<J" i, "",d---"You "h,1I1nve Y"'''
neighbo':u )"tI""df"'_, h~ kinds of vi,io. >ri"" one [h,ouSh ,h. eye<
hy whi<h we $U ,he kn.,. ,hcm",lvu: .norhc, [h"'"gh ,I>< ,pi,i[ by
wl,ich ,h. ,.. ighh" , i, "".""pl" ..1",'tn ,h,,"gh he i, ' .... n<: .nd.
,hinl ,h",,,gh. pcl<.p,ion ...f ,he milld "'he,,,by ,hi, ""'Y love i, ...."
'" be u"rk"" . ><l . A""",S ,h..... ki nd. <:>fyi,i" . ,he fi", is c1.., '0
C>'e'JUl>C fu, in ' hi' w.)' h"" 'en .nd .. nh.", "",n .nd <v<ry,hin~ in
'I><m i, pc"",i,""" 1:' ,,<II ty<$- N<), i,
o,hc-r Onc. by which .h$cn'
b.,Jits.r< 0\"""'1'1.,..1>'I'.",lIy diffi,I, '0 '-"'pl. in_ Indeal, we con
,hink ahm' hcovcn md canh md ~II ,Iu, we COm I<t 10 ,hem C>'cn
when " ...1< ".nding in ,he da,k .nd .... ing nod'ing wi,h ou' bodily
C)'" . nd y<'[ ronrcmpl>[ing bodily inugn in ou, ..,ul. Thn< migh[ b<
,n 'nuge<. in.., f.... we h..,. _n ,h<e bodi... nd lrep' [hem;n
memory. 0' imogin.ry im.g.. in '" f.... ou, 'hinking has f.. hion""
,hem. s.:. i, is <lne 'hing think C.nh;rgc. ,,'hieh we know . nd
'M,hct 'bing '" ,hink of Ah.nJ,i . which " .. do "'" k,,,,,,_-n,< ,hi.-.j
kind <:>f vi,i"n. by ,,hich 10'"" is setn '0 b< "nders'ood. rollC<,n, ,hose
,hings ,.-hich Iu" no in,-,gc> '" lik~ ....... ,""hich'r< nOf ,",'h .. ,hey
,ho",,,,I= >c, u,lIy 'r<_ Fo, 0 m.n. 0"
0' ,h< ... n .nd wh .. <v<o,
",he. bodi .. thel< ' 1< in heaven o. on eanh . ", ICcn when p,...,n, ,n
[hei, own fo,m nd.1< con.empl.. 1 wl><n . bxnr in im.go> im
pr=<d on ,he mind. Th<)' gcnc."c ",,'0 kind. <:>f .i,ion: one ,h"",gh
,he pc',p,ion of ,he body ,n<! ."mh 'h,oogh ,h pi'i' in whi<h
,ho .. in'-'g<>.", ",n,.inl . I,love. ho"""c'. ICcn in one .... y when i,
i, I'.....", ;n ,he mm"ct '" which i, <>i" "J in ",,,,10<, "'r when i,
i, ,bscm in som<.om' of.n im.>g< 1,Ire ;[",If? No. Bu, in 50 fo, .. i,;"
prnsihl< [0 pcn:ci,'< wi[h ,I>< mind ,hi, lOY< i, $Un mofe dearl)' b)' OI>C
.0.1 kso <b,I)' by .n<><h, Bu[ if I(K\>< hodily im.>so;" mn[cmrb[I.
,hen i,;, nor lOY< ,h .. is ICCn ''''





Aug" "i,,". yi";"n.ry ifrulgi",,, ion" m. y b< clo'''('lcrizi <m" ,.oinS "corp<>=1. picwgr.phic . nd ooncq>[wl" .igh, .,,,,),1 in 0 p'ce; hic",,,,hic.! o,rk,

whe.~.k CO'f"O ."J ... h. I~ ...""II.n. >tI,I. k ""neep"". ,f.c m"".'" Au

gm,in ....,.nded ,hi, lin. o( , houglll in hi, SI'ggcs<i.dy .n,i,led wwk 0.. h,;,/}
;h T/,i"t' U"'''~:

Th.cre.u ",m. who ,hio k .ho ChrU.i.>" religion ou~' '" be rid iculod
.. ,ho ho" uphold. lnel"QSOn for fh .. i, ,ho. in i" nor dl<' ,h inS which
.... ). be _n i. "" I'",h. bu, (ai.h in 'hingf which ar< n,,' _ " ;.
inlpod upon m<n. F" he ... k of mu,ing ,hose " h,,. pruJ<n, in
"",n opinion. !<em to be o~ hdiC"o"mg wh., ,hey <:On"'"
_. we .u,dy ho" no. tho p<>W<' ' 0 1"<>-<"' ro .he cya <i mco ,he
di,ine Ifurh, which....., heli<v< . V... w< do ,how , ho min,!, of men ,ho,
<v,n ,h""" 'hing> wbich ..< 1\0( . . . 0 <>u~. ro h< bdi<>=!. Now ...
,cpro.. .n".. whom foU)" .... made SO ",,,,iI"I}'1t.. <)... o(.ho body
,h., .h"l' do no, ,hinl,h.,. ",,~, '" btli",... nY'hin~ wb",h ,h.,. d...
''''' ptlUi", ,hrough ,ho <yeS. 'hey ... uglu. in ,ho Ii", plac<. 1(' be
"'min.d<d of ho... ,hing> ,he.., .re which c:t.l\nm be ... n wi.h
,uch cya----,hi"ll' which ,h.,. no< ""Iy bdi .... bu1so Irnow.
Th .... hing>.t< inoum,rabl. in our mind i... lf. WMoe n""re i,
in,i,ilk-I<' "'y "mhinS ,,( oti, .. ,h i.,&" Ii~ ,h<...,'Y f. i,h by which
.... beli..... "r ,!.c 'hough' proccs:< b)" which"", know ci,h.r d... , w<
beli<v< soo,nhing 0, ,h.. ,..~ do "," bdi= "~ .!though i, migh' be
<n,i,<lyou .. ide the realm o(,ho.c ~ WIt., i .he.. >0 ba ... 10 d<a
wha, 10 <e""in 10 ,he im <rio. p'''''''I''iQns o( Oll. minds' How. , he ...
fot<:. mus'....., no. bdi",.., wha, "" do no. 5 wi.h OUt bodily <yeS.
whon W< 1"lUi", beyo,,J . ny d.o.. t.l .i,r.o, ,ho, "'.., bdiC< '" do "'"
beli...., who .. "'" <:Onno, <mploy the <)TS of the body''''



Aug,,!tinc, ",I. ,i,.., ind iff<.<<><< '0 wo.b o(.rt .... ed on . 6rm I"in,i"k, 11/11.,.
d .. body. cya o:>ulJ _ on 'he "",rid is "'OIly inkt;"r to,...J ul,im"ciy leu
irnporrAIl' ,h.n ... h., ,he mi",fo ~ could so:. And ,il< mind i""l( co uld be
plo",dy i""rued only by wo,d.. k "" .h,1I sc< in Ch. pt.< 1. Augu"in",
ide.. wet< profoundly ;nfl "'n,i.>l in ' he Carolingi.>n "",rid.
In ,h. fif,h nmry. in ,h. ",,,,h ofG.ul. Ca""riu, of Aries (C>. 470-H')
npt<SSCd hin, .. lf on.n in. passage of hi. R..b for nu"~ He ..)'1 00 no, 1""
up p,in,ed .. blet>, no, .hould 'hn< be any piutTS on the ..... 111 '" in ,he room .
('" in. mon.",ry
should only be . hing> ,h.. 1'1..... ,he 'piriuw. no. ,he
h "",,~ . ..,.... There should be "" pi ... ,,,,, at ,.11 <:J<Cq" Of( h.nJ ke",hi,.(,. nd
(""".,,,,,..,1, when ,I.e . bbe>. ,.., >0 o r<kred: '" lni, ..... "'" iO much 1 rom_
men' On .11 a< i, """ pi""" of .umptuary legi,t .. ion fo, < o:>mmuni<r


i, 'I in'~I't$, ing '0 ..,.. ,h., c.e..rius "",m. !O h..

kit tlu, I"',n,inp """W bo di",.ocung.
l""'-of Scvilk (160- 6)6), in hi, widt ","V"I! EIJ~.1ud only. f.....
mingo '" ay
iJtuga. On ont lXCUion M dnnon ....,.. . conctm.t.ou,
OdoUuy. H...Y' ,............. .....,. """IU,n bn"".-n.,M ft,~ndo .. of cirics. iO< 010.. ,hey h.d diN. ''''I''''1'~ ...ho Io....d.n.m P'" up hk<neo>co (p""J.
_ l d... tMy m'ght h.>w >Om< comfo" f""" ClIft...."pb.ioo of ,... inugn
(;~u"'l. Bu, a li"k h, ... ""
" 'sing of,xm<IfU. "'.. ro, ..... fOu..,J
. mong m. ptopIr: no- .......... om:ogcs ,hoy Iud honored :ooIdy iO< tho ho_

of ,digiow

won .. n. 11m




of t'" ........ ,heir _"""'"

ro ... sud> and wohhip<d th<m.~ l.idoK don
not"y .nY"'... ~ ,h ,his ~.. ro"' "", 1(1 bo found.mong Ch,;";'".. He r;ocs
on '" ulk of dnnon .. and :ilio of like< ........ imulK ... im""", and 10 on.
n ...""ghoUl.....mptw;>:n
God . Ion. i. bo """.... ip!.on h<,.i><ft ho
""')~ 'N' "an icon (;,...,) is an """S< ("......) ..-flich ,ric. ro <ltpSl ,"'ligwe of
..,.,..,hing d .. by moan. of _ ... hing ,;n,ilo, '" On ."",1... occasion he- ""')"0
"poin'ing l,JWtu,,,) i. an ;""g< Ii....,.) n:p, ... ing ,be .PJIt> r.l""" of ,.".,..
thing .1.. which. whik i, io hoing ,~. b,ing> i. bock to ,he memo')". I\. howc..... i. oJkd .",1. fot it i f"hion<d inug<. no< ,he



,Iu, "

,,,,,h.' '" In hi. nm", IW" If O!in~",. Isi.lo .. ,ook lightly diff... nt linc.


He .. Y' ""l1ny imi, ... ,h.lif.... f <l", ..

and they u k... p.n im>gc (rfJipnJ
of vi""" fro n> ,h. w>y of lift of ' n",h., >I,d, Ih. , if any im.g< (i""'fl' qlNUli/Kt)
is bei ng ~rdl i.. n<ly ,hen f,on. i, lik ..... (,i",i/irMdllU") ..,n "f 1"',,,,1
inu!l" COli ho f"tln!. Thu. ,h. on< w .... Ii ... in ,II. likc" ... of , h~ ;", .~

ba:on,.. likc .h e im,ogt." '''' hido .. , ,h ....




of idobtry bu ,

he. p<,lup< Ijk johll Co"',n , "';11"" hip,<f tlcgrc<o "r ,i,k to ~n, ,h.n to
Chriit;.n . As fo,. imag<> ,he""",I,'eO(, hidOfc i, coolly analytical. a. a1w.yo. Hc
ClIpkwa """,dnd ,hc;, ...... ning<. In Joing .0, h. d;IO>" ." ,h.. i ..... g<> .rc
not real, , hey . ", no' .n~,hing in . hcm",l,a '" in Auguotin<', , im
0g<I .~ Ugn" lIu, like 01 .... ~It"' ,hinkn.. ).000.. ,hinla
images can
rcfrcoh ,he rn<'mOI}'. While ho duo no, .... fa, .. """" writen in lUggClting
",", i"'1'" eu> , .... 1>, "'" .. tympo,he," ' 0 ,be i<l<a rlut "'or an ~
.mula,;"" . can:ltOUl< .irtu<.
~ ... iti ng> ofG"'FP')' ofT"",. (d. 19-4) Of'<'" IxfOt.. us the.....nd ofla,e
.n'iq<>< a.nd ... rly ~tlJIkioh G.w. G""S"'l' dncribco lIWIy churm.... ..,J hi
...Jumonom " ',i,ing>.
<>f h.. con'eml"""''''''' a.nd ~ .......
rncn,ion n~m<rou< orhtn. M.ny, pethapo ....... of ,,..,.. ch .. rchc:s ""'~ richly
dccora,i. GK!"'Y 'tlJI.mlt> an in,...,..i", . n..:dote concerning the ..ifc <>f
BUhop N......,,"" ... of
wi,h oo..k in ho. Lap dieming ,,>tho


pl." ,......

A.,"""" ..........,

I"'in,en "'110 ""'.. dcro< .. ing tilt -lit of So. St.phon '. Noilica ",j,h ~"orio:s of

&n<ic .. , dccd.. n, .. 11w:.. ","""'on (,om ,I-.: po: .. ofVrn.n,i ... Fonu",,,w a I"""'m
, ... , deKribeo cydt of
I"in.inp on II-.: lik ofS,. Mon,n th .. GgOfY
Iud i", ..lkd in hi. .<buil. "".hod..!. ," Th. church of L.o D.u...dc i.. T~
h:.d rich In of m<>$aiQ,.'" I..i<.my ,.. ",,,onies ",.m .housands of pictura.. 'n
C~. world my ......., bet .. ~ with p;..:U101
G"'S"')" oponoot<d WOIIu of .n. dacribc.l or rd\"md .0 nuny, and """"
spoke of people wIM:> hod 0",,', b.. ,n ,loci. hcam bu, " 00 It:od p;m.... of
hI< 'm<1"i,o';"... <kn!oMin , .... , 00 ..... and churcho. ,I-.: b.Hcr to ~OO
"'-deNa.. uo T..., is. comtnl)O'l~, MOft 'n 'nm'n' .... nrroom.... dnncn ..
ofG'cpy',.n ,a1k. I lcrbcn Kcsokr.tpI<S I"f""I,Wivdy , ..., G~ ...... tole:
10. at[ in mK.ioru.y..., On 'M .. ,II ,papn ~ ofG.u1. '" If 1-.: .. 0>tI"<"CI.
, brn G~ ..... y ....., bn)'t1 onoth... ' u'hor who beli<ved ....., on h:.d ,I-.:
I""""'" ,,, .-..: it> oboc.w....


Rob<n M"k ... d~ .. in C'rsory' ....riunp. rul' of Kotu in "'",h-,,,ury

G.uJ. '" G,"S"ry ,<lb.,r. ctu<ifi. in :"'lort-, .... h.t ...... SCt>l<n by. Jrw ...d
bled '" ........1 'he ,heft.'" He '00 'pnlu of, n,kN im>g<: of Chn.,



" kN '0 be cloohtJ. '" To M.,k,,,', slim doosk, mor be..tdcd two """" I-.:
ove.look<tl . In hi.l.rft .[5,. Mani. C~ry ,.1.... ,"", in
the ... was
on image of "'b"in wi,h ." oil b"tninS h<n .. th "~. Oil , .... , bmp
w ""p>ble of ioc;,lillK ,lit tid:.'" In ,he d 'Y'ch of St. Man i,. in Tours 'h .... ..-as
an ilUCri!"i"" ." ,ibu,<tl '0 I'",lino" of I'etigll(u . This in><ripriun .tUrdS<"<! a
pc ................ pro.......
h< p"yi"IlI:>ef'o.... n im.~ of Monin in hova of
ob .. ining , ru.'. ,..
It i, ~bk
,n. rut. prx. ku ."J ""....1 io.>n. UJOC;"tcd with lo""em
och<tl and di ....n<tl 'hrough C.W. n...-. we ... m.ny ..."em.... in
Gout. no[ bo, nyme...,... Sy'''n OCHt, munitico.'" And S1"""'" d... Sryli,.,
imnxnao f'OP"un f)' i. judged by """'" ",hoUr> to lie .. the ~ of [he
riM: oficon .. W2S 0 Synon. Yet .M ...identt lOt 0 rul,of"",," in Cow is
and if..., fCft1c"mbcr .hat 1Hu~ Iuo dam......:l up Kinin",,'. Hood of >ixth
and ......"h-an,,,ry iconl in 'M ...... m Medim~. then i, ..... y be mo,
........ _100 inH...n ..." iiobk.o.he""", , .... n .... bn tlt.ou&h' um~ now.
ttIO<11 (0. In""" dout.. aboo,tl ~ wit of icon. in Go..I.








.M rrucifi. ,h bkd "'" "'" ' .....,,", .. ked ro bo< clotlt.ed ~ ...;
.J.:.n.:., of, .... cuI, p...o<:f ...... docwhc .. UOOCI.Otcd wi,h ..:on... n... ...... cue mq bo<
abou, an<if><mi .iom .nd .M ",loa
P""""'r 0< MCc1"'''m '" >Ocial comp-


An. I"""


sion. In .odi,ion, ,be- N.rbonn~;nugt odd~ iu.:lf.o. I"iesl "';th. G"",k

""",.. 00 did ... ~..<tly oou. Thi. ""'1 ho: no ....polo .dI~ion of
rurrm. cane.. n. in d..'" MOfCOYn he..: OfC _ mirxulou, i..... in
,ho ...... 01 ,,- in "'" F.... ,
indco:d ,ha, ........ bd~
to. pRWidc mindn fo, ,'.mou. pcopI. on ,"",la, ....... The..: imag<> """Ud
ooIr ono. with ,J.. ...... <bk oaprion "',J.. onn in R...rn"" ~ T"" ..... fOf
.. _ .......... G~ on
Ifom tilt Holy UnJ.
~dioctwo:d~. bu, J..
lhom .. i,1> Mico. .. yinSo " f.i,1> bdie-'os
WI <VCI)'Ihi"B ,..., _""" body
hoIy.~" G~ry ~ WOfb of..,
YCf)' much fo, yanttd. bu, .. i,h """ poutbk ou ........ IT"",,) ..., don _
one< ponr.y ...yon. """,,"!inK h,mldf bcfon, an im., ~ n'<1\ thm ...,
mordy ci,.. on imoipoion ... i",n by ........,... ..... V.. lit doo ..y .lut p<opI<
Wd """.,. bcfon, romboo.oo ,t.. c ...... ,~ 1'ho Lunp.OO imag< from 1Uv<1>""
.....nd ....-1..., tho E..o .. n ('2>0$ ,NI .I< SO .... Bu. Ro'n1fU wn. fur all
pncticaIl"''J'O''''>.... F....
eiry. It wa. tho .... t of tt.. GHdI ..... Byun,;nc
con'm.nO.. of ...... ,ioan <InIl n ...1 .f,c'
~ It would bo i"'pruden<
~nc ... lil< obou, d .. \1:'.. , r"'n> "n~ R...rnnno: c:u<. no., oil, ~'.
"'" ,lie ric''''.' " Uli~n.,.t " .,.ti, (Of Venan.;u" cur . .lthough i. doc._m
that tho oil >lui"" iu po .. nC)' (ron> .1>< pie, u"" lieonl). In i,ion . G,"lI<It)'.
tbe '1>CC<'Uof to St. M."in. had ....ry inl" i,.. to .. po .. mything mlrvtlous Of
m;rocu\,,", I<la,i ng 'o the !QunJ "fhi, ..... Bu, ,h... "Ofi . .. the onlr ona
that G"'II"'Y could, 01 did. :woei.... with . n im"ll" of M." in. 11, it".,i". of
the Styl it Of. /0, Ih .. m",." . 1>< war "'hn Chry....tom dcocnbco ,he pl'><;';ees
1WOcl...,.t wi.1> St. MdCfiw in An,ioch rould no< bc.:n moIC differen,
f inally. 'be"ion in Tou .. may "dl ... eal .." of w<mhip coOOuacd
hd'orc ... image t,,,, i, ...,m, ,ha,
culo of t-bnin i, more impon>m h~
thOJ[ .... cult ofi m"ll"" n.. im>g<;' n>c.", to .. m ind tt.. p<'Ii,ione. of who hi.


,n., _ ..


""""ion. ,......


"'m,- ....




1"'''''' i .

A oomph""i .. , foc",.. in ,t.. \1:'.., '" G~. Vcn.ntiu . 00 ow ... h.u

bc.:n limnrd by I'.. ricia
Mill. Gildk ok N;' .00 joaquin Mmi"" Pi,
0&fJu. Attunf,nr; .o Milkr . hI< ''''''I''''Y w . . .
aI ....... <V<'f)1bi"B
in 'co .... of illUF" I""'fp. ha..~. could bo undc ....ood,
""""It otho. pr;oooibk ..... yo, .. a11cpial. ""';nc. 0< ";'''''''''l'. pcopk
world ...... ~ on ,.w.:.r;- OJ[ " i",i"'nlly ilp.. l .... r of vioowi"B d.. lIUciol.
pl)'(hir;:. mrpou.. and prulaoophral dirror:nsiom ofhr.. "u, In dr 1>1;", opinion.
uu...,puic ......,i.. ion. II< "'" ~mi,I by d;,."., ....... pnncipleo .... h .. con,....!;.:.
lion ~ inconvui'l' ~ ouch , ha, "OJ[ ' .... could p><n. mulrilcYd..t. d)""'mic
1JU.h> in , .....r ,har .hA.........."""'.. could _. M, .. The poin. will he f.",iI ..,
to ...y<>nc who h.u r...J much in Cr"I"'Y 01 Tou ...... "erunt;'" Formn..,w_


.... ulKkn",oo

,j,.,. .......


CM . . ' . . ,,~.

n.q balh hod .....nning "'f<"Y ' ... I"';n, .....,..,j-pic1u","


we .. ob-iouslr
C">'Okt inugco-no ma" .. ""'" <>n< "";ml> to ...Itt ,ha, VI'ORl_in tho
mind, nf
ttodttt. n...~ is ........, ,han ...tuff t..", nf Augu'; ..... wri[;ng
obou, "'" "mind', ~," flu, ,his ........... Pin"" rnm> th< d~ with "'"
... u ",*""""",
CttgotY wcd. lint nf .11. 'Cltu.ol ......po: " Ruhcr dun
"Y r/u., Cr<J!l>l'TofT...... 'housl" ,n i,,"'P 1""",1<1 prdU to say th .. t.. "TO
in inufp. ..... Wh., ~ ,...... imago "'iJh' ho ... "..--.I, .. hrtbn [boy
..1 Of 'Cl' .... , .nd how ..... io '" i"''''pm
inup..ic .... yof think_
;"1\0 i> hord to ,oll. lIu, <>n< an CO<\/idm,Iy., ,ho, p>pIr did no< k .... wuh.
pb<% in doopo, or "'f'Y in'" ba,d........ . 1piau"," Of ,atu.oi fratm<nu.
Along wi,h Auguoti .... ,hr ....... inll ..... ,;.! of all !.t[C "'["1"" oom~ ..'"",
Of! " " ..... Pcp. GttgotY I h90-~), Ilis commenl> <am< _
in the fum, of
.,....<m.,ic ,,.,.,JSoO bu, ad ......dy ,n """,In'rn t.. di'f"td>cd 10 8ioh<>p~_
nUl or U,r.rsrill", in July or I" .nd 0n0bcT of 600 ........ t.. Inm! .... ,
his opi~ collngut had bo:m of.n . nd ......wiring [t..
I"'P"b,;"", C"'S"'Y _ di,,,,,,",,,, '0 Iro'n ,ho, So .... UI " ... ing ccn,in pcopI<
><loring (Mi.""..",) ;mogo, broke ,hem up .nd .htm oy. of ,h.,
<>es," G~ p .. o..d So",n", for hi. '&Cal in p~<nting nunufxmmd
[hinp (_ u ! _) {""" hcinS ... k>.0<1 bill ,.11. hi", . ... , he ,hould on no accoun, d.. uoy pinu .... brot,r.s< "pic,yttS u..d in <hu.d... 10 ,hat.hooc wOO
do no' know lett<" m.y or It... rnd by .... i"1\ .." ,h .....11. ,,'h... hey a .. _
r<:..J in boob," G'T'1 <o"dud..! hi. Ii", 1... <. hy .. i,., ,ho. p;"'u","
iliauld t.. pm up 1'0. [he ;"",ruction of.""", woo t.ok lette .. . nd by ..""ph..;,.ing ,hOI pic,,,,....~ nn'Ct '0 t.. ..Jom!. ,.. 10.10 .. tI",n a Y"'" I"e. G[<gO<Y ""01,
.goin hc-cou .. "" had .... rd ,h., So .. n~. f'<",j"cd in hi. ironod.. .m, 'ppa",mly
I><1 ..... ing .h., G"",'Y" Ii", k"., '" hin. WlIi ""sc'1. G"'W'Y U>Ufc:r SO"'n .....
of ,h u.hrn'ici<y of hi, Ii... k'm and ,htn , ono: >gOin, in';ill m>< Sc.. n",
CClI< from b.~ng ;"lOp. 'Tdl me mo,I.",.' GttpJ'1"y>. .... hen ...... )'OU
...... ....,d of .ny ptieoc rloin, ,,'ha,1"" did~" CK!"'Y"Y' opin [... , it ;. wrong
'0 ~ pier"","),u, ,ho, in piau"'" ...... can..,. ..... ,;, to be odomd. Crq;o<y
.. minds> no< ' 0 ..,... nd.:tli"" ,he ".. ntile." wt.o ho ..< " _ . m;nd..
Gtct"<Y l"O on 10 rcnll"" Strett ..... ,hal, .. . paotOI', hi< K"""rco. r:ono:nt ohould
be tIt.r If>innul halth '" ,t..1Iodo. ...., J.... bono en"""N '" his CO"'- Pia",..
can be htlpful ' " ~nu. in a"yi"B .... ' hi, ~,""" ""P"""ibili,ico. Ii... hy
~ ,be .. ntd"C"N :and oottd by dicK;ng toml"'lKtion.'"
Mr.och ,IIa, Gf'I"tO'Y so)'l <KI .n, "" <KI .........r ... bj<octo. io ~ui", CO<\VftI
,iono/. Pitt",,," a n .ndo, I'ioclOfft Cln .. it ,ht """"ions:and induoo: bcn be
IIa ...... l'ieI ..... "'" _ '" be odored. Jt.c,o,n, ochoI.o,oh;P Iw..~, ~'
some new 1"'......... ' ... 10 nn G~ '........... KoooIe<, opin. O<d in ,.....,
",..It, 10



,,= ......


ktrcn mor<: C'o,Hj.ncc fo, t~ . ""Iu. of ~n .mong p1pn Or o nly p1ni.lly 0..;,.
,i.oi,-I I"'rub,ioo . I 'g'cc. Coli. Ch. ulk, in findy n""nd "OOy of ooth
Cr<:g<>ry .nd hil prOO<CC>OO", ....blimo <I... G,<y>ry dult more fully .nd
ClIpliody than thor with t~. Od", tft.t in ot</.:, fo, an unl .. t.rOO p<""'n to .. mod ..
ptr>Ol\ h,d <0 1>0: "",.fully p"'porOO. I'ie,u, .. ""'tid no, rruly h<
"),,,,, "'" " ng" for oomeoo. who did no. k""", wh" ,h. w,;,ing ",'d. Should
onyon. W>nt'n o;""pl o ill"" ... ,. ,he I"'ior , Ie, hin> Of h., in"ginc.n oNi
rulry Cn';""n ,unding h<for<: rho "iumplul ".h of s.m. M .;. Masgior<: in
Rom. or the proc<>Oiorul fra.rod of S. n" Apollin.r<: Nu., ., in R,,,,:nll>. Su,d~
th.. "icw<:r would ft.", been b.Akd. Ag.iin , I . gre<. And I ",'o uld oJJ .... ,
furthe, proof for Chaz.dJe'. rh .. il i. ro h< found pri,dy in Gregol)'" ~dmoni
.ion> ro Serenu, to ptcaCh. teach. ~r>d .. , .n =mple for hi. Hod. llri. i b",i.
Gr<y>ry. I'tea<hing. 'e.ching, .nd -,<,ring. g"' oJ ",'''pie .rc ce", ..1 '" hi,
greatly inHu.n'''1 r~,,,,"" R"Ir. ~nd they .r<: them .. th.t rom. up .gain ~nd
"Vin in Gr<:g<>rJo" lone,.. G.<y>ry i. ,her<:for<:, ju" like mony of the other ute
. ",ique figure> whom w< haY<: di .... i. I Ie rurned <0 ,he subject of." only
when prompted to do so by som.thing cl ent irely. Even th.n , h. rn'cgr..ed
his comm<n .. ott.n """Iy inro hi, wid .., his long.nd con,i"en,I)' hdd. ,';.w.
on ,hc <pi""'l"'l offic<:
It migh' h< ,-,ked wh .. h.. o. no< Seftnui, hos,ili.y '" JICOPI. who .. 'd"'.....
pi."".. """Id be ".c" as
weigh, ('" Motl,,,', Od .. ,OOur on im.S" .,,1,
in G.ul. T hi' "iew i. not iml"' .. ibl . Rut J nO ,h.t Serenu;' .:a i. ~b.olutcly
i"'bt .... Tho, vel)' i",l ..ion i, intriguing, howcv<t'. Se'~nu ...... .,;andaliu:d by
oont<lhing. Bu, ... lur? Sine< it il in ~II probabiliry w>JI p1intinp, 0' I"'"ibl)'
m .... ia. ,lut Ser<:nu,
d"'roying. we or" H, wondering .OOut ,he pr-.<ticrs
that .vol<tll,i, ;ro. \I:'.ro l>rop'" kii"g ,b.-,< i" .. ges, '" ""pi"~ hi" of p;oin,
off d.. m, 0' p..,.,,.,;ng th<m.dYe< bd'o ,1>0:",. 0' ..e"" .. t in~ ,fw:-,I> with """.
die< and ;n:n? W. 00 no' know, And. <v.n gr-.nt<tl.U ,he dangerS inheren'
in ~rgum<n" (.om .iknce, w. n.ith.. h r of """h p.-..:ti<c> d:wh<r<: in ,h.
We no,.", we io(o."'1 ,,( ."",h d ""d,m ... wt..-:. h<1u..eJ ., s. ..."u, JOJ.
C~I)' himlf .. ked Ser<:nus if h. h.d n .. he"d "f .ny""" <be doing ...h"
he hod 00"". LikcwU.< "" do no< know ifSer<nu ...... agi,,,ed by G.ul> Of by
for<ign.tJ. M.""ill .. i I"'n eil)' on ,h o",h co,-" of G,ul, Ev<n if ,h<r<: .....
widc'p,,,,d image cult , her<:. i, il likely ,h .. ir hod ...... i.. ion' wi,h th ..
'ity', .uttn''"t''l u ,tern popubtion. Finally. '-' G '<g<>I)' ...a> con:rn'" with
"g<n,;Ie<:' th .. il with POS'"" i, m.)' be ,h.. in thi. <a we: h.." evidence fot
,h. lind "f I'<t'l'k: wh" C'o,,,ked concern r,um John Cu.;," . nd hid"", of Sc.ill<,
", ...-1)' or p1ni.lly con .. ned Ch,i"i, n, m.y h..,c hod .,.mc difficult;" in ,elin




qui,~i n g.1I

tht v<>tig of thc;r f",mo prKtic<'S .~J in ""'ing ,hc dil'k",,,,,,,

bmo."t<:n Chrin;m im,gcs ,,,cll"'g.~ itloh,
T ht.< \1!'Cjtern write .. m. kc moo, of ,h. . .m. J>Oin" ,ft., <hci' ""'tern
00"'"1''''' ~"I .1",.Jy ..... <k, lool,,,'!' .....,, . t:...:.!"t<. "nf~.I>I II",
... God hinuclf ft.d Qn ,,,,,,,,in """,i"n, wmnund<d inug<> '0 be nude, ,h<y
"""Id irwJ~ bc f.lo,i""".! '" l"'in,1 lOt ,ho: right ...,.,., ... , . ThOk ouson, we'"
'" <tJ"catc ,he ",I<'<i"aooJ. ro revr.1
holy my>l<rits, '" .. n... mhe" ,nJ '"
i,..pit< ''''''pun<1ion, In plaa:> in rlx ."',h-crm"ry \1;,<>, there ........ ill, linge'.
ing C<>nCrtfl wi,h idob,ry. John C-i.n .nd I.ioo.-. of s.-.ilk give ... >dcn"" of
,nd .., doc:s G'<g<>ry of Tou" in ,n inru,ing 1"!Sig< OInig.ting the
KIob'rr of ,he Funks bc{"", their ronvcnion.' '' A desit< ro .void ,nr hint of
lu. "ry Impdl<tJ Co=riu. '" r."bi,J poi""ng:< t" hi' ny"" The grc->< A..g,,,,in.
,<S" a.
Cl<'gOty of T"""
I..,.. ",k<n it very m..d.
fot gr<Imod. New in ,he Wes, . at leas, coml",ed '0 ,h. 1'........... heighteDcd
"'''S< of ,he implic"ion. of P"'P'.... tion fot v....,llif.ncy. A PC""" oould no,
"r=d:' ",,,,Id "01 <ee>ll I" ""'''''''y. ". ~" he '" ,he h><l nor boen """,f"lIy
,0 .-.:cogni", ,00 "oo.",."d, ljk><-is<. '" w., ... n '0 ft.,.. J>Ossibilitia
fu, mi"io,,'ry worl..




""'!n' ,,,


IXIb.n..., ,,,rn in ,he nex, <hap'" <0 ,he ou,b",.k o( 8y<anfine Knnod"m.....J
in ,he on f'er ,ft., '" ,he ini,i.:tl W.. 'ern aerio,," 'Q <COnoclum,..., ,hall d"
.., on til<, u! . r..... tn.i<' puint>, Fi"", Ji";",,,; I)-' Ch,i"i,n ~S" ....I .It
hod "ikn .nd 'PoJ "'pidly ,. ",1 ,,;'Idy in the _rid or 1,,< ''''Oque Ch,i .. , .... _
i<y. No pan ,,( , he Chri<ti.m "'''rid .... dcmon"",bly inugck:ss. anironic. Sec
""d. ;n oo.h Eas, a,,J West. voka h>d been ",<.<cd in dcf.:" .. or at( and abo
>gOin" i" O.,(onJ.,. ..... 'Y",he'" "'ikd pre"y m""h ,he , i....... in ,hei,
apology. An rould ,=;h. remioo. dd;glu. and ',..pit<. AuacitcrJ go ... ",U)"
J>O"""! tI, 'doL:.'ry. 'lr'rd. Ihet< .imply .... n<.> ""h ....... "
I"n~ d.:bol~
abou, OKted art, In"cad. p.. ticub, autho", d",, "". un.lI. COmmon "ock
of "adition. 1 ide.. and ,at>. ""ot< in 'pific ci,eum'unccs. Oft<" ,"".. cif_
eu"" .. n".. at< unkn(>Wn '0 us. $om; ",.. an go, fuIJcd in,o ,heological de_
ha,es .""h .. ,hu .. l>bel..l ..... ,hmp""'"rph;,m .. ')f ,h.,.. ",hieb ",,""" on ,h.
fi,II" ... ofCl,ri",-, h",,,.ni,y. Somet;mes
turned "1"" .", .
J""';,h pule". ... which .'" "nlikely '" h.-we been """,i"noJ ~ :.:tI disp,,'"
.1,,,,,, p;';;n" "". F">lnh. in ,he Eo" ,hom: d<x:. k<m t<> bn.n i"cipien'
cult of iron . Even if <><>. mInt :tdmit ,har ,Ii ",hola.. cogg<r.ued <he .,.'ent


">I'"'''''''' "" 11,

....... Iroru .J

.nd imcnsity of {he ~t~m cull. 01>< mu" >!i!! .. k ,..h..,h ... {I>. icon. o:k/il>l
nO! .. . picture evincing 1 crt... in ,~ic bu, ., .n obi"< or locus of cui ........
<W,. Ugni~c,", k.uuro of.1>. .pi.i.u.1 bndK""" of _ 10 in ,ho 'X'",.
In '" fot .. icunod" m ,,~ m ."uk on K<>n'. we h.YO rfiS<>n to "..,ndo,
wh<thor ,ho Eas nd .ho \IIi,"" rould reodily h,,o un<k".ood o""h ",ho" ron


Byzantine Iconoclasm


the Eighth Century

n. G~ M4 in """~ I,.",!om. ,m." of"" .~ ofG.J

.O/Nd, "'" M"-I .. ""'" h<w poin"" J;r

51. l..u./w <hi. f"I.'';'' "",;J

~ i".",...,1 ""', ,I,. 'P'''' of"" .It.... """.... Ii..,J

,n th< ,....t":

-1f'"JJ .1..",...,1 J;r hp< /""",,,,, III. fv

.J/ f " " - """ ....... ..., 10.....-;...,1 bJ ..k.o of"" fo,,'+1 _>It., ,...,
.4,;d, ",""",,;aJ .,;.;...

,om'""" hmI .. - " i""'t"'.'

-L..wv>:o An,"n", Mum"';

TH. lEAR"." AN" g."rulous M~"'tot, (167)-171"0) in.rodoccs. '1"'" fwm hi'
p<atli.. tnkni,,,, uf Im,."",n, III 1";>Ii- 11I6t ",hot migh' "ill """ fu,
book ",rnm..}, of ,he iu.... in eigh.h.."n,ury B)"Untine i"""""turn . In ,he
",...1 tdl ing. Emptrot U:o I II (717- . ' ) u"""f"'<tedl~ took . profound di,like .0
Dy7~n'ium', ut.iqui,o ... and mira<ul ..... ,.di&,"'" imaga .nd ~t '0 dimi
..,,, ,hem. Hi> >(In . nd ,u<'W:>r. Con . .. minc V 17.'-71). aprcf.l<d hi> OW'll
"pp<><i,,,," '0 . di&,,,,,' imas<" by dcv<:k>ping ><>phi ..
'hrologicol a'Su
"",nn >gain" ,h.m. by des'roying' grco[ 'l,-"n. iry of ''' . ."d by pet><CUling
""'''''Phib, <:>pi.II)' ,he monk> '"",ng ,hem. In d", 780>, ImI. , ruling ..
'<gen' fu, her 50" Con ... ntin. VI (780-97), workJ to mtOf'< imag<> ' o ,hei,
. ccu",o med pbcc of r...... nee .nd finally did on by m.. n, of an ecu,,...,nial
rou"",1 which .he ...<mbled. Ibei, <>nly with &=ot difficult}". in 787 in tht
hi.lOrially <VOCati. . .ioy of Niaca, At ,hat rouocil ,he ,'K-IOriou. iroooduia
decl ...! officially ,hat ,he ..,...,ro.ion of images ....... n ."ide of f.i,h, Gi .. ~
,hll ".. ~ .;de in ,he Ji,p0l< I. ;d cL>;m '0 .",hen,", ,...Jirion, i, Ius. in
"I<w of ,he ironophik triumph ,Iw W1I only fcmPOr::lfily in'errupred by. rc--


"",ro ouromok of iwnod .. m be[wo:cn So, .nd 841, betn "'-'}' to . S>ume th"
""'"oph;li. 'ep"""''''' ,he wI< .0"';""'" ,r>oli,ion ofd,", Eo".,n Chur<h. Th.
i>n<>::bsm of L:o III . nd hi< drn .. ty 'WC>". on the ront .... ty. to be. punling
. I><... ,ion.
Thi' ch. pter "''''<yO 'he '''iWn . co" .... "d ","0'< of llru",in< ia::modum. (On,ide" ,he , t<:iin' ofi(Onophili. th .. e'icnt""lIy triun,phed at
II Ni<aco. The .:Iup'. J.nt-hke. looks f" ....~,J . nd b;od<".,,J. Th" i.. i, .. kco
><COunt of the kind, of.rt ", [k th .. I h." alrculy diK'U....d fur ,he preico"o
d .. tic pe,i""..,d , bo 10010. lOr new "gumentl II", "os< in the eigh'h "nturr
.nd th.. ""<rc " .. it.bk the 0.wlingi.n, when ,hey t~ Mte <>f the """to<>, .... y. brieAy in the 7S'" .nd 7600 nd .' g'''' leng'h in ,he 7?O> In ",he,
wonk wh" acou,lIy h,ppened i" ,h. .,." and wh" imp"'" did ,h .. E.. " hove
011 ,he Wes'> I ..... 11 aplot-e , .. ,i o'" plusa of ,he eigh,h<enlU'Y <on"o"ny-no one den ... [hot ,he", ,,'", ' w"''''.'ny: di .. grcemen, .u,round. it>
inten.ity >.r><l .ignifi",n~to .. y liu l..
wh .. h.ppe'oed ."d '"""r i, h.p'
pened. Fin.!ly. I ",.11 wernpl' di<ccrn. amid a n", fractiow body of
...';Jon". ,hc :>Ctwl "gumen" used on .11 ,;J ...
in r=n' dccadct fu ndamentaUy .I toted our .i...... of tI,e so<;;illcd iron",I.. wn!<9"mY." The ~'r l' n"QIJ
~ ken <WQ forml.
In ,he li"'t pW:<. , he ""gnilUde of 'he ironod. <ti< (Ono,'. "!' itself Iu, been
d",m.. i""lly reJuced in proportio" OO ,he ,;[(,><ioo of i(Onocb "" wi,hin the
,oul rontat of eighth.ccntmy Brun.i~m h" been .h.",ly rdoc:o,ed. At the
beginning of ,hi; book I qUOted th..., ""hoi.... on the m.. "ing of io>nocwm.
II it impo"~nt to note that where .. Gco'K" FlolO'o'.ky . nd Ge,h. rt Ladner-"w
""nocwm in ,irtu,II)' '1"OC"Ip),ic ,ern-u. Avc,il 0."..,'00. > kade, in ,he mod
<1n ,..,hin king of ..rly llruntin. hi"o.,.. subtly ,hif" [he lOcus, FOf hor, icon".
c1 ..rn "", Is oche, clung<>. h w'"' no, i,,,,lf ,he ""jo' clung<. nor .vcn ,h.< cri,i . Tho sevcn,h "n,u<]l ..... CI.t>.OtJi",rily Jiflicuit lOt lIy,,,",iu,,,.'
p"""",ed bu, fi",II)' s"ccessful ""1"\ . gainSt Pel"\;' .rrorded not wcll ...arned
~ri1< 0 0> ,h. M""I~".mi>" f"""i bu, ",,,o>d a new ."d ... "'" d,n~."'o,
,,",l.ugh' h-om ,he fe<vcn' adhere"" .of ,he ,.rw f.i,h <>f IoLo ... , Tlo. !bIb"
rrontier w,", menaced b)' A,..... , 1I "lga", .nd SI . 110, l"e .n,ique """norny
waS .Iowly ni'hing ,oJ th .. CV<"ntwl ,h.pc of i", .l>CCcMo.Or "-... only Jimly
vi,;ble , 1he ,dmi"i<",,,,,,, >rr::ongcmenl, of J",,;n,m "'e'" evol,ing into new
lO,m., O"hodo. Ch,;"i. nit), was Iooillg fo ..,.r its con, rol of I.nd, ,,,-,, m>y
Iu,'c fomoed, "lIruntine c.:.mmonw=!th:' but whose J.cubite . nd No<to,ian
Chri" i.", h.J 1""8 looked " Con".nti nopl. with ,u'pici"n.' .. tho "rri,.,.
rico ,lut r<",. ined m ,he <mpi'" poli . i",II)' .nd cccb;",K"lIy. wr<nching
pm<:es> of redolini,;"n ,,'., "ru:le"",y. lco"""""", m" ... ,h.odOr<, he..,.,n .. no








"""~ t1un one Link in ,he ma ...... ,h ....... d.-acPng R,...n,ium from the
1,,, n,iq .... "'odd ,nlO ,he fuUy ~ql<'d mid S,...",i ... pc,iod. WhcreuQl'
Ii... ..:tw.L..... w jc""""Lum .. 1Und.un ... uJly d;,n,pM. Gilbon Dagroo I'I<I'W
..)1 ,ha, ""'" 'I .... "'" "'~
did 1>01 .. pon .he .... p;rc. II ocromp>nio<d
it< ......tonn..ion... lconoclaun ..... """ cnW. but pcnod of lUi>iJiry =d


roruoJid..ion aft .... en.;",

plaa. "'...........\ICc aI .... )" known ..... .m-. .u .... ~

lOr iconodaom. and .,....o.ny lOr If. nrliea .......... .... =d ........... N,,nthc
..... i...... long rd. t1u. if.n. _rca ............ pIoyN ... ,th d...
rouId be nudr ." yidd .d ..bk infot_ion. II i:t i~, ~, ,....
sourca _u ... in <ht nin,h unfUf)' f< v........ pnmanly lOr indicao'ng ,ho
o....look ~Iing in.he dtodeo ....... n ,hey ..........."".... ~bnT _ f a > . , C>"Cf1
,he ...... of II Nico<-a ,~ ... riddk.l ..ith i.....poIo.iont. .m.n.""r"" no< ,he
ptodllCf of ....... ;n ..",i(II'> ..... 'heir ...... lw:irdow in ,he ..
In .bon.
_ can now be- """" conl>dtn'
know ""'" Lo ico-nodul<o ... n,.,.{ "'"
.rory of "'->dum 10 be .<>Itt ,...... bou, ..... , OCIwlly lIappcn<d 0' how ,he

.h~ occond



'N' "'"

ioono<l.1$" migh....... p"""n'N ,h.i, 0"" .... W. mus, be >kept;"'1 of

..h ,h. SOUrU> Ny
<he ;.;o".,.J . ... and
,he ou,h"",k ,,{ ~
d m.



I n,oge< or O... h.,.do~y

To ... ,~. ,he _~ ~ ofO"hud",y .oday. 0' lOr mOl' of ,h ...... thou .. nd
J"I"". " .(} ... ("'" in calm of <:0:>10 Iigh., ."d ;""'8<' 'N' i. 01""". ind...:oil>.bly danling. D=ru,i(; mosala ~11 'p>CS. S,irring mouia .",1 frc:.cocs
<locu.. , ri umplW . r< ..... nd , ide
A m-i .. bk wall of pic."..... ,he >CO""".
wi" >q"'IC' 1M """"'Y from ,he
Whc" .lM- <ya of.he head and of
the _11u"", adju .. od '0 II,. .",,,,,,ndinro. ,hey """ tho. the im..,. .", arilcinslY
.like in dftign o.nd pc'haro non in o.en>.ion. 1"..,.. ". wmlOn'ng .. n........
" IK" look .... m. ....... he", 'her ~ Of ....... 'her ~ ........
8... ;, .......... .rIO")" 00. lIdOtc- ,Ioc OF of iconoclum ,be utiotic p rop2ftl>
of La,c. annu;'.. had noc 1ft ;oppeucd. 'The """-w;'" for i..........., did no<
achirw in ""1<OfIUf)' 1Orm. hd""", .he fuunc....,h an.u'l'.' M=r !pOCO tho.
"'"" richly .kcon.od in Io ,imo ...... vin...u,. ."iconic., ..... dno" of the
.igluh Uft""Y" Surpril.inslr . .... lup> he ""'" fa"""", d urd. of 8yuntium.
H";' Sophia. _ wi . ....... b,II""""1o pKl'U .... bcfon: 1M 1600. n.. icono<l"';'council of I~ icm.o--abou ..... ich [<or m""h """" ~


rna. m=


no pIl)'a'
,ho coruor< .... ioo of an icon.' Tht 'tIII/'a-rUnl}' &ft.[o.._""' ~nd> no ~ 10. iaKn.. The ~,..rpc.I proml_ <>f icoru i> b,c.'


p""""'" duptn ...., .herr

minlT i...... in. lOr

enmplo:, Armn" 00 AUymi,ium. li renry .nd :ut~ m:ntds 1"[h. "" .. ".,,"" of in ouch piKe> ,.. HOIim D.vid. So. ~ nJ St.
Dcm<uiu. in S. lonia; i~ ,h. Chu",h "f,hc Dorn",""''' Nicon;."d in Con
... nr;Ml'k', (hur.h .. of Sr. lI."ry" RUch<rn~.n<! St. F.. ..,,,.,., Th", w< ..,
I<f, 10 "",nde-r. h.ow rom"",n W<f< imag<> in ,hurch",~ H ow rommon "".e
pri ..... 'lid p"""naJ i.ugo Ilk< ,h. one of s. ~ CoIn.... nJ I).mi.n .I,.,
fdlow ",nitd "",uno! in . .. ek under h .... m~ G< ... r..Ji,ing fmm """ry <Vi.
don<t or ..suing fmm tht .iknee. of.he .ourea .. d..""'rntI~ Bu. ,hcr< mu!!
be 1<...... , queo.rion h<>u. oJ.. ""fl.' ." which """,,,,<ria) .n<! I"'blic ",wi"",
"""'" w< ... d.ron,td wim ,J,. kind> " f i"""" , ... , bamt '" funi!", in b.",
Wbile i, ;., 'rue .lu[ ""T pi<lu... ""2!-, is. p"' ... ,UlIy .n """. ;. ;., no In. UU<
.M not :aU pinu ... bca .... 01 bca .... 'ecosni>,n! .. icon,. Som< of ~ "h.o,
~n d.. fou .. 11 anrul}' ond .he: x-...... h iwJ thc:j. --.-. ......, picwri.>J
""""",,n... ion. ..... y not
bren oO;errin~." icon. per 1< .. ..." .nr
~!l'lalltpmnl{J,ion ,hll ~.o .;ob ,h. E.wdus prolub;.ion. And SOOW'
of ,...... ",1>0 """,icd about "'p"D.i,iow I'l3l'Io.:c-mOl' <>f which ""<re 'P'
""",cd . n<! ",,,n IO ....,im.. "",,,m.... udal in C(n!tllio-h.d f\() qu..lm
I>om ..p.... n"'ion, ...uch. Th. <vid<nce. in 0.1. "'0..1<. nuke. i,!_
ingly difficult
fOr m cleor impr ... ion 01,1. nriqui,y . ..:al . inn.iry. or
m ning or ,he: ico""phili. '" "hich .he iconoph<>l>c. or.he: <igh,h ",n,ury (and
,h.ote of,he: nin.h cen,ury'o ... born I "",II [urn in Chop,er 6) ,001< acrption.
Ili'< n"'$1 .h."""" "",bark on ,he ptea<n. diocu",,", wi.h dear undorowrdlnK
.dipouo ",.....".. noo ....... in .he elgh'h <n>.ury. J
....., .......-n.Iuot ...... .,I,jooaiono had no.- bren 'Y"em .. iclJlylO.muJ.,td in ur
lin " nfU'..". P-u.ay in ,hcage <>f ,he: qu.><td ...... icon. cudUJ onJ in.ello:cfU:oily <11"'"
>pi"" tdigiow an..- ~ ... ' .......... n in dcr:o~.nd with
rip;<. It ...... :do<> du""S ,hio ... me period thaI arzumrn .. in f."", of .tlipouo
... , .....".. ... .n .... yo [tw ..,.. mu;:h of d.. O .. world. boeamt
norma.;""'. In (OCI .. "" sh.Il ....
00 bdWf of tdipous ...
fW", on beh.!f of ;ro.... unde"""", 10"'" i"'pot"n. dcY.:lopmcnl> aero<>
We ..w in .ho








" .n.!


";sh.h .nd nin'" <cn.una.. No one councilor ,hinker ." in 1 .ing!<

mo men t of blinJing in.ish' o[ .h. do""in. of im. go ,I... ".b><qu<n,ly htld
..... y in O"hOOu' Cln;"""i.y.
And yn .he:re aJ. po,cO! or...,m. in O"hod",
doctrine [h ..
ake.n ... mpanl. unh"'Ofic:d yr... The twcl>' ,nniyenvy of tht


Strond Cotmeil ofNiClC>

S""",..,ed. 'P'"

of ,dlmion, on

,h., >uncil .nd

<>n im"l;. F,. Mich.d A'koul i. typical " ,hen h< ... ~ ,h.t irons "in the P[('J><.f

",n"," <xis,ed from ,he Ixginning, H <g1><O ,I"" i... WfQ"g for >chol>" ",
inm- from. Ixk of pc,.;,i"" <:Videnc.o ,h"
d.).;tnn .. of ,he im>ge ....... nOf
both wide.p<e><l .nd widdy h<ld Itum tho b<Wnoin~ " Archbishop Mhod""
"Y' wi,nou, h.. i... ,ion ,h .. [h. icon;1 met.:lpn)'lic:<I; t"'" i[ i. holy. kon, beo.
gift. tlu, belong to tho .upemalU",] """ld. An icon i, fundamenully [hrologi.
e>1 ...... nl(m. 1I="'e teo", ~-al ,he """,,,,,,ed,,...nee of tho f,ith. tho p.i<;ntff
"f iron. mu in thc n"t pi"" be gifted in spi.itu. lity." If these: .iew> migl"
... m
Iu ........ n .,... in , his p.i<"icul.. fo,m by mcn of ,he doth. ""mpare
.hem .o ,h. WOl ds of an .bl<: ..:cut.. sc.hola<, I).nid S.h"", "Tho icon i. "Of,
fOrm of ,i ....1 and ><>,ixtic an .., weh ; it is, p,im.rily. an exp<asion of ,he
'h""logic>1 pe,ion<:< and f.i. h of ,h. Chuh, and ........... no of i,. Thi, is
~ i, "'" been ,,,,,,,ed fomI ,I" o>,/irt' of ,IN CJn.T'(b (.m~i' mind."
Fina lJ~> kt ill h ,h. g<'" ,hrologi.n Lronid Oillpen,ky: " Sine< in ill """,ne<
'h< iron, like [he "",rd. is. liruegic:ol .cr, i, neve' ",,,'ed .. Iigion b.... lik. ,h.
word. Iu. alwoy ...... " .nd is an in[eg'oI pan of .. Iigion, ,><.. of ,he in>1 tu"",ntS
of the kno,,kdtle of Cod, """ of the It!C:on' of emnmuniation." And "Thc
Ch,,h..,.,. in itS holy im'S" "'" 'imply One "f,h. "peel> "ro"lnxIo. ,,,,,,h
ing, but ,he ClIp,,,,,i,," of Onhodo.y in ito 'ol:llil)', the upS>ion of Onhodo><y
.. "",h ," Like A<koul, M.. hodi .... md 5.>""', beli .... ,Iu, ,uch
.""'~ a... 1'''' "f ,~. """",,,,n >lock of ...1, Chri""n .... ching. Y<I ,hei, carlin'
.u.ho.if)' i, St. John of D.. m.>SCU'l, who w"''' in ,h. 1 ond 70400 ..., ,h.
imag< qu:m,,], weI'< " .. II und .. w.ty. Mo,"':...... john'. '<>ching "-,,, .., I Jull
.egu., ddibet.. dy'" ""ide .. Nicx . Some of what eUlTent OnhOOo' "";11
.. y .ho", im . "" an i>e found in ,h. w,i,ing< ,,( ,h. nin,h-cen,uf)' ou,ho ..
P... "h 1'>:i<q>horu. of (".o"I:Inrin""l nd Abbot Th<odo "f Studion. J)u,
...,,,,,.,f .hi, h>d J"" been .. id . mb"""",,, .. ~ued. nt ,d;"ed wh<n 'm.g<:s ~"t
,,',1'< 1Ir.><kcJ. Robin Connack , .... " ,he oubjc.:o hi ..",ial!y wh<n h...~ ,h..
fte< icunod m "one could no, claim ,,, be On" o<Io>. .nd cri,ici.e <h< icon."
H. add.
0Il1)' . ft" 84) "'... "th. iron not jus< >. [ol"",@obj<co; i, "'as [h
ign md symbol of Onhodo,y, a di"ingu"hing f<:llU'" of ,h. full , agreed
doS"" of ,h ....... 'n <huh.""
Th ..... . f. ><inao;ng " o ry i>ehind booh ,he .his""ical i.' p..... ;""'..,
olttn .pplied '0 iron nd tht im.iguing .imil",it)l amf>1lg vin ....11y 011 ",
iron., In 8J9 Adolp/l. N.pol .... n Did,,,n .., ou, to diseo"," why 011 E.... m
",li190'" 'm'g.,. looked "" much oI 'ke. " Hi, '1u.,., f"' .n .n...... ,ook him '0
M, . Ath".. ",locI'< he d,,,,,,,,,,t<d ",in'''' w<ori<ing ..:co.ding '" m.n""l. H e h>d
<tumbled upon ,he I'~;~ ... i Mam.../ of Di"n)~iu' of Foum, (,67o-' H II6},




"";,,.n ;n ,h. '7JO< b~, ... minglr bo><:d "" 1'<'1)' oid n,.,erials, H. "ied in ,',in
'" acqu;", ,he book b." did <:>b,.in , Gtttk ,r."",';p,;"'n, r",m wh;eh he pre
",red , French ,,.o,J,,;on. The ,,'o,k COUwl quite' >liL 5<hol.... ",m.n,iCi,
.nd novcli",_ Didron dedic.,,,,, hi, wo,k tn Vi"o, Hu g<>---h<l~ ,h ,hey
h.d unlo<ked the <C<:"'t '0 Byuntine .n. Bu, the M~~""I"... ,cant .nd the ..
hod h<>on no lowli'" fOfmut"ion of ,he rub of Byuoti"" OR io [he "",wi
Byun. in. pctiod. "n,. wo,k W"'" the imp,... ion: .. ys Belting. "of being.
codi~CI,i"" of, ,,,Ji,;"n 1m long.' li.;ng ,nd ,h ... fore rndmgrred. "', iurn to
preven, ,he ,..,Ii ,ion f",m being ("nher diston"". " Th .. ,,,di,;on . !t~"gh
r=ntl~ in'"CIl,ed. h., been [<1roj<Ct"" into the ca,li .. t pcriotl. of Brunti"" . nd
Ch,;'ti. n h;'t0l)" much '0 .he coofu.inn of both. Som .mol.n, [<>gni,ing
,.... [he ,~i,;"n found in [he M~n"",I"'nno, he ,rxcd bo,k bcfo .. ,he ;cono'
d."i< pcriotl. auign to [he ",..;aIled ", n >l>1"I<" of II Nicod " 'CipOfl,iI,.lity
fo, Ii .ing both the them .. 10d .he Sr)1.. of Byz.aotine migio", . n." They "
... king.o 0,,,. 1 h. ura of IIp... nti,,. 1ft hiory. Wh),... ,he", SO
linle inno..,;"n' Why dOd min iconog... ph;ea] moo", emerge '" e.rly .nJ
defioitivdy? Bu, ,h. OR ,," Ul< i. in [... Ii,) no ' '''ute'' ,II" Th. f.. he ....
Nico'" WC", OIl ,!w: nov,i,' ide, rof",ing Hie",i nd. on ,he p"";,i s.idc .
ffi[ming .he ."di.innl of the f.. hers. Hi';. h,d 001 mod. ""emen" .oou,
.ni>tic them", . nJ "yies lI"'t Nico.. cuulJ h.-e rofutro. Mo,",,,, ... ,he 787
council meant b..i<:ally to uy tlut the . u.oo,ity of iams dc$ttndcd from the
fath." . nJ not from [he whim. nf p. inl<". On. mu>t, [hat i., l(}Ok [ 0 ' lime
I.... thon.he iconod ..,i, C". iod<cd I..", ,han ,h~ M;ddl. Age>, f(lf
1,;. iron<>g" phy of [hose wo,k> of m tho, we ",II icon.
Receot thcoJog;.n pc~k mo .. of 'l'iritu.1 m ..n;ng [han ,hey do of ><yI .
He...goin , the vKv.1 ...h ich . hey 1I$O<i...... itb [h. ~~,Ii", .t.)'. of Ch,;',i. ni,),
... romp' .... i,.I) tcot ,nd, .... h.. i. mot<. Ru,.i.n in pro,.",n. In [he h[e
nineteenth ntul)' two p[~ ",lo"'" [0 imog<. led ' 0 [h bbo",ioo of
,,"'~t """" tnrb)" '" the
quo.:uion how. fo' [h. no,m:uiv. ,LN'. Th.
h'" unf(,ld..l brtw=n ,h. ,;m< whocn 8 ;.Mp [''''ph;,; U'p<n<ky o<qu;.-..! twO
;com fron, M . Ad"" in ,U4j .nJ '~50, ,,><I tllt t890S wh.n N. r. Kondak<w
i><!.n ", ,rudy [he R....... " ;"'".. M.ny;n Ru.,;. h.d ,irat ofth. E'''-opc:oni ...
,ion of Ru."i.n ,uhurc ,h., hod been '" marked. f..,,,,. of offic;.. llife ,;n
the 1,,< >cv<;n,n,h n, ury. Among m.ny .nemp" to "'""'" the .u.Mmic
origin! .nd .ho"",,,,,;,,;,,,, of I{u"i.n <uh"I<. [h.
W>.i d;",,,,,<red . nJ held
up" p<'ci.1 .nd .o~ic", Ru,.'.n ""h><vern..". The ..."nd p""""" inwdved
the fo.mubtion b)' Ro,.i.n Onhodolr <hrologi.", of. ""ic> of Nropl1lonic
aplo",nion. oficon. [h .. derived much from ,he ,hough, of John of D.Ol>.><,..

,h. ,..



" 'hilt ."ribut,,,, .h... hougI. to the wtook cbronolocr of ........... daimod ..
th< .... ud>cn.;'; au"'''n <noli"""'>"
To ... m up. th<n. To und<<><:rnd wIu. h.>pptnN .n fI)'UII"um ,n II>< ';&,,,h
<cnrurr .... mUM ..-oid """'"",,,.ic ....,.,.. of bod. lI)'Un"1I< :on ~nd of the
an It< .ttributed ro 00' ck,;-J f'tom
F", ~,;.",.
prokplic.1Id b,. kptic ",.dinp of ,he o,"'Uln ,DdJ,ion .. it .PJ>Iie> Kl act
h:tV<' ob,ru..,J .... nIp" ' 0 com< '0 griP" wi,h N.i< WI .... No oil< wi,h orcs '0
..., Col" .!tny ,ho: .. ren. ""di,>rn of d ... iai llyun'i .... rdigiou. ",,",<>gr.<_
phy, 8u. ,h ,,,",,i,ion ,001. i" . is. in ,,,," in, d lm" .1 h...,b of ,h igh ,h
ttn'u'J' .nd .. pru><ol i,.. tfin the on oft.. im .., Li~; ... no "n. can dmy
,h. prol'undi'J' of ,n. R....i>n contribu,ion '0 moJrlh O,thodo. inugc do<:'rina. 8u, ,he<- W<1'r no R......,.. ,n ,he 'igh'h a:n.u'J'.


.ba, ....

Ou.brak of ,h. Controversy

H ... iI cornmon .ocroun. of the .ond ... bocqu.m, """"" of Byun,in<
iconocwm, " II. liz<> 11I1"""! ,he dd<"",,;"" of ....... nobk ,m"8< of a.m,
. bovt: .N 8roruc- C.rc of th< 'mp<.;'1 ~. It
from high '0 low.
B4l' im""' .... ",ino; n, ..
wi,h"u, number; .t..- d.
",,,ian of . Imoo 11 icon>; . nd finoUy ,ho: mOl' profound di..: .... 'on
.hCtJlogy of ;tath<" ... ,"''' Kcn, ' .... reh h.. Q U.d i,,,o ' Iuotion . Im"" tw'J'
"'pte, of ,hi. f.miliu fOITnub.ion. Tod..y. " " an"'" be <<< jUi' wha, 1.<0
did. l ikr;wi ....... do nO'< Imow CU<1ly wh.n ht "".cd, Mo,...,.,.",. hi, ,"",i""ion
bcrood our reach, In .".ning 'n Leo JlI _ . i, will be ...dl to odd.
fo,east that. ,n ... boojurn. O"tioru. J ~Iluw _
'0 ..... doubts abou,



w" ....


... .I..,..,

,.... civil .... , ""'" nwtyfdonu. .1Id """n ,he whoIcsaIt ckottuttion of ....,.ju


Dccidinl ....... Leo III ao:naally did dq>c:nch <t't.irdy "" ....... ~ :ore
upon .. ""tnQIo to th< p<>Ui:bI< .....,,, of th< u.. ,100 .,..J ~ 7.10" 01
I"riup. on ,t.. ~j p< of t<>W_in~""" du, Iht ),i>' ..... n-chcf P1""'"I..... _rcn. ....h Niaphotw .nd 1~ h oft.., t:-n aoco<d<d
becauoc .h.,. .... m to p..,.idc: ,he '""" '",um ... mw aocoun". Con
,.m[>O,.ur -""n,.uch .. ,he <01re><:e of l'.,.uh c.", and , ~"
Ro'n," 1.11Hr f>"",';;"di>. at. ""'-Illy Cllpted to ..w fl ..."" .nd <010, '0 ,he
""';" di, h.. htc.o" .. 'h")' do <>0, provi<k a >:ali,fyiog ",.,I- .up[>O" a na.,.
,iV<-l'l' ,h ...... lvcs.


Th. oI<k>, of ,h, !.'e ",ur=, in o,he. word! [I>< one do,CI' in ,im< '0 'he
""en" i,
,h. S;"',., H;"O? .,r Ni<:<phor"" rh~ fuml'< "".. i,reh of
Co",un,inupk who wro,. ,hi, "oc,,'" d. je"ncs.<" in
;rllos, A=rding
10 1"iecphoru., Leo h.. rd of volemic "uption. on ,I>< i,l. nds of Th.r. and
T h.r..i, .nd, ... king ,h... n. ,u ",1 diU<t<" '0 be 'ign. of Ji,-in. wr.. h, "h. took
up . pus",o" con,,,,,.,.. (0 ,ht 'ru< f.i,h .nd pb""eJ ,he 'nn""') of holy ico" .
. . . H. tti.,j 'u npounJ hi' 0"'" doc"i"e '0 ,h. pco!pI. ,"II Th. new.. of ,h.
b [. ",u".., ,h. Cbronuil of Thropluncs, prod"'" <:>f [he ~,,'IQund 8, S,
rcpea." ",me <:>f Niecphoru" infotm>tion , nd , dd.! O1h d.... i1<, Under ,Ix
~ ' 7U- '} ,I>< .h",,,id.. ,.11, ",.,k,hl. ,.1 . l"hoeopIu" .... Y' ,Iu" ,I<.... i,h
.... i..rd "",n' '0 Ca)iph Y""OJ (I,id) .nJ '0ld hi", ,h.. h. rould "'peel , "~,, of
forI)' Y"'" "if h. dcmoy<d 'h, hoi)' i""n. ,Iu, weI< v,n ...,eJ in Ch.i"i.n
church.. ,hroughou, hi, dom'nion . , Th...tlld .... W:H per:",.<kd hy him
and dc<:....J gen.,,1 >n"itu,ion 'goin" ,h. holy" " Th. ElOpe""
leo," Th<opn.~ <:oo, inU<$, "p>" ook of ,h. same '[[0',' g,iC\'O'U.nd illicit
on . nd SO 1!CO.m< '<:<pOn,ibl. fu, ioftiaing m.ny ."iI, uPO" .", H. h",d
p.nn~. in [his boo,ishneu-J IIIln oiled B<Y.
B.c= of hi, phy>ial
""'''gti. ond )ike-mindeJnC'S, in ."ot. he ..... l",nou,eJ by ,h....n>< Leo....
Anmher of hi. wide<! """di"'o" w.,
hi,hop <:>f N, ,,,,ki. who W:H filbl
wi,h ...,.,.. kiod of impu.ity '0.1 livd in .imi!'. boo,;.hn ...... Th.n, .ft.. a
g.;orble<! . ccou", of ""'dopmcnr> in h aly th .. ><1,,-,11)' do from ,he ?SO> but
,bat l'hropb.nC'S ... igns ", 71)-'"4,
.:hronid.. rid" up hi' Ji"", ..;"n of leo
undc. [h. ye~. 7'"4-1\_ "Thi> yeo.," I>< ")~' ",I>< impiou, .mpc'''' Lou ",nl
m, king pronoun"'m.n" (l\o'fioO... ).6yov) abou, ,h. ",mo..1of ,h. holy .0.1
ven."bk icon,. \'('hcn G...go'l"'. ,he pop< of Rome, h.d been informed <:>f ,hi"
h. withheld the u . C'S of 1... ly,nd of Rome,nd wro leo. docftin,llctt.. '0
,hIf, [Iu, 1n .mp"'o. oug)" not 10 m,k< prono,,,,ccm<o,, ""n'fling [I><
f, i,h n..... ,... >ltc, ,h "ci.o' Joc,,; n.. of
Chuleh ,,'hich h.d been ..kroned
by ,h. ~ ... Ir (..1,<1'>: ' Und ,h< )'C 7'1- .6 n..:q,1",,,,. "'I'''''' .10. ,,,,,-,,n",
erup,ion. on Th .... . nd Th ........"d, like N'eepho,u dd, ,h.. leo ",hinkin~
,hOI G"d', wr.,h .... , in I,i. ('VOUf i""e.d ofb<i"g d',..,<:d 'g.>i"st h'nI , ..
.. irred up' m",c lU[hlcs> """ on
hoi)' and veo. .. hl. 'wn . " Apin ",i,hou,
goins in,,, .pecina;. Thoophanes men,ion. lieser, leo', 111)';n ,hi, .... ""'I....
n<," lhroplun<> go<'>
hcyond Niceph",u. in odding [Iu, ,h. "popu);,"
of ,h. imP<',i.1 ,i,y. ".,,,eh distressed by ,h. n...r.,,~.,j d"",r;n." pu",.,..J
'" ."uk L",,_ In ,Iu[ 'h<y we'" not , u o:n.ful, bur ,h<y dOt! kill ",m<' of ,h.

=,,,,0,,, ;,

,n.: Lt,.






empaot'. rnm

" had ,;tkn ",,",'n , ... iwn of ,... 1.<>1 ,ha, _ u-.: II><

6ronu G .. ~." A. a mull, " "",n1 of !hom '*CK puni>htd in .... "'.... of
.... ' .... f .. d. by m",!b!;"", Wha, bon .............. nd firco. np<riallr ......
,.<K pram ....... by bi"1'I and wh .. ~." H.api~ fu ....... ,t..... on 1.<0. Thcoplu.... ><I<U ...., .... impious emperor cloKd .... tdrooh tb~. had bn Con".n.i ., ~'Y ,i"""' .... dor> ofComl2J"inc. AI", .. n.... , ... rear 7.6 .nd
, .... "Pin ""dtt ,ht yn ... 7>8 ,0 no Th",!,h.ineo !'(I.d! I<nlpu by l<O to
g ,ht r, ..;'u th ofComt>ntinople Gc"n. nu.
along wi,h hi <.w., In an
_ n , brimn,inl; wi,h """Fu.iM. Theop .... n.. od ...
I...,. btaU.l<
Ge,m.M . und., hi< a m,"" . expdlro him from hi. office. M.. nwfti" Pope
G~ .... pro .... hin. oprnly i.. 1'Ii< widdy known
whi" Jobn
" Chrywr'''-'' (.hat i.. Jobn af O'muc .... wi, h ...hom I ,lull be mud. occu_
pi<d) .""ht....,iml ,... empem'. Nool'I"" do .. n,ro. leu IUm""",ro.,;Jnr_
{. ooItmn phori", of...,. imperial ~ ,ha, ....... ty had cer<mon;,,1 or





judicial "apMut .... .....,. and ..,ncrabk icoN" on J.nuuy ".


To this mtni", uo ....... mot><d Ge,,,,,,n,,, ,o, bim if ... .....aId....,..,ribe '0

,hot ,mpe .... ~ .nd...i>m he t</'used. Leo P'"m"'~ h"" to mite to
.nco'ral ......... Gemull",dial inai" in 7)). On .... twe01.y-oca>nd ofJ.nowy
An .......... Cc-' .... n ....':1""-IIM(p. n.-, ~.'7) ...... n ......J ...,ri.",h . C~.
D'Y ,ma..J ,1> r"S""" A .... w.i"'. WYUte Ict'm conde-mning wha, had happenni, .nd O<J"l",ro Home: and 1t>ly f,om impe,;,,1 au,hority. Lro W21
infuri .. <d . nd " inn"fi<d ,II< ....ult on ,he holy icono," M'ny cl.rie&. mon ....
nd pioul byrn.n talnN [h. crown of martyrdom. Lro rtigrtrd un,il Jun. of
bu, 'fh",!,h. n.. 00..."", me:ncion hi, imap: pol ida. d u,ing ,t.. ..It .kv<n
1'"'" af hi. lif"."
Tn ,h;. .... ic "",lin . ,Iifl" mo .. m.ybc,MIJed"""' .... 5OUlC... The Ufo
~ th. Y.~"t"". ...~;"... in &00,1. "Y' that , ... ,n:rwd .... hich au:""U<i
,t.. ooId .... .x..royaI the
icon ...11< Clulki c.1< OQI Ird br
womm." A,,,,,,h..,.......,. s,-.;- (on .nn............ of r..... .. oft.n "';,h
rodin ..) ........ ,ho d>i<f' d.~ lbcodoai.a." -n..
'ho .... n,nlh 11''''1, tq>au ,hot uk of 8ac..,.nd Con... n" ... ofNarokU',




S), /.... V""'.,.....,..


""",ri....,....... nd .. y> .... , G~ "'P"iuod '11""'1.

,II< iconoda" . nd "",, cri,Ocionu '" Leo" 0nrIy tho..: of ,.... ""'Y had
bKome: fi .... ,n n..... "'Y.
1M ... iJ.nce tha, i< con .. mpot>'Y m~""""""",,, be ~"N in'o ,hi . ..... i<
..."Iin., 11,.
""u,"" i. ,II< Uvn af G f<ll"'Y II b'I" P) .nd G"'Il"'Y 111
11j'-4') in 'he U,," l'~~rifit~/;" Ch.p ..... ) 'hrough ,6
,II< Lifi' ajCi"X"?
ff """,,,m .. ruggl .. in ""n'nl lul)' ~n. on .11< on< .id . Loa" .nd lorn iwd< .nd. on
OIlI<r .id impcti.1 "&tht. mol I"rW <.>ffi<iab ... ho _Ie p .. -




PO"!'''!' "'," "'i ""'!' '!'IJ. 'An> I'!WW! ~~, , ,y,. y!ri, , ..... .(o.o.y "ynUOjyn
.w" )~, ''''iu><>p 10<1 . , . " m'l '"<H,,,....,
"'i' ~,,~ ..... Ifl. J" ,',uwn' "1"'; ..,
~u"d, '~I U\ I""~. l"jV
,,~ ,no AU.,
I"~um 00l ....... .(0.0.",







vu"u""'U:> I"~">J ,"""',
"'1.1. ...."" "~J" 1'"'" "'i'
,o,>dW)~' ", .." '" In.> "1' 01 """1 ,U>I" III .(Jolb'9 ..... 1!1 ,~, ,-=~d
,,~ "In '''OOS>J''Ul P'"
>~, II' P'" "'I'rod. "1"'1 '~I "~,,,w AI"'I '.1"",)
'''!''D sn<>f 1""1 ,n,,)o .,g.W! fUl"'" '~')O "O!,,,,,,I<>!' I"'
,~, ro;
Fll'" .,,~, "OUllIl>d ,~, ~u,~.., ''''' )"~' <o 'I'q" (A) , U!,U." u"".) 1"'. 0>")"

'''"I 'Y'




ooY"Y ,.... "'"Sol,) "Y' '" 'II" 111 ....x..!) fo 111

,~, "!J""!/i'~'V

'''1''/ ,~, III ~~d""""'lIU""I'" "~'" '~.1. .. '>OI"h", "'i' ,,, ><>"Id",oo f'I" 'Sm
nmuv ~".""d M.>1J "'i' )~p.>I"""~J~ '" fUSlY'" ",olbl~
""1' fAts
pm U,,!,!SO<bp '.'n".IU'''91'' .u" "'1'4<'/ >ILL ' 1"'f'''M.>l,~ ... >J;M\ "~JJn~J
'~I U. ,.~, 'PI" so'l. '~I '" 1", .d>Jd "Iq'q<"d ""'"'''' V ,, '"'"''I''n'''
~q n!,d .~, p!.d ~w'" pu. ~~"'i "' ..." >w'" ', "'", " ~I ~"" UM>Jd "'>N.
"""'Indoo '.A'"
J" .Ill.", .I"'S .,(", '~'JO '11'1"'" ,~, '" "'''I' u,nq '"
'''O!,,,,W I~"!W '! '''I''' '1'''' '<>"!" "'I' 11'1"" "q'ow "I"q '!q ,no!,. s >'p
J" '""" ""~, ';),'>J'~," ~:n,u, """'f' ' ''I"' ", """.n"",1 P'" '" ""Iodw", 'I""l
Aq '100U!'U"'uo:) U! ~"!"!I ),,0.{,= uO A.." '!q 'JJ~
''''I' ,w"""'l JJ!'...,d
,~, ,,,.=>>d w,~
,,~, N>up.>, '!"" s,iOJ",hu'
.Its o. uo ,,..,s
4<7 'q' '6,L 1"" 8" 01 1""1' >q ,,0:> l.ql "u,wd"p.,p ~U!"IUI!P "IJ\'
'bi pu. hi "~ pou>o:l
'~I ", I"u~"', "'i II' "nu, ,,, ....1 ,,~, 01 dn p$<1O<'P <>u>A> "'1.1. .",,,t..:.o
I"~IOUOJ~~ q'iin< U! J>C"l!uriJo.! ~(" "I 1<q." JO 'sow q'ii""'l'I' .\lIoI""OJ~~
"p>Jd, """'I' ~u~'1 U! I"' <>J""! .(~'I""!UW ,Ou """ 'XlI '!~I JO ''''l,n. >'U
"'I'w" ~"'q"UI1lt ,0 .. ~"'J ,~, ,d,~" "~.,, '1dod 1"11"').1' "Iod "I' """"II'!:!
"'I ..... ""~I "W!"WOS " OJ;dw> ' q' 1..Aoi P""!""'" >u< >~, u" '''~'o >I!~'"
"",, "q pu. >doxl " 1' ~" ..... ~. ~1''1 "' '(0"," "~I '<;'1" " 'J 'p>A' I" "".~
.I,w , u""! " U!ri< .. "'~ .. '" ..'~"'.. _.'OJ;dIU> >ql """ '''I''' AI '>= ..,!,JJ><I
'" p.>'q " ,~""
",,,m "! A"",.p'" I.!'><IW! 1" UO! ,~" I""!I!I"" '"1'''''''
'q' q'!-" pnU!'''OJ ,,,,d.q, '!'ll ..... p,.~ '!"I' YO "'I 0,
'" ~'"'''''' P'" .....,q "q lIuou"""'p .(w,,,> u. "",,,,. .. ,,,,><Iw, '~I ",,!r.t.
JI>lW!q I"IU'. "I MO" 1"" ',!"o rno~!I)JI! ' ,u!'d "I' 1""!d.>p.. P' '''' ''!
",oi>,~ 'I'~<"bp >q PI""""q "!-""q'" .{Idwoo '" ""'~ PI""""~ 10''"J''~
U!"" 0, ' . q' >doxl "I' PI'" " qUlY IOJ>dW' ''U ,:1""""" II' w>ql PO' ''''I'
'f.! ' ~JJn~J ' '" IJnr "I Plno~. 1;lI", ," I~'''''' '"".. .Iu'J" iii,,"! "U .. ~,
pJ"p iOJ><Iw, 'q' 'l"qJl~p uq 'ilu!",~ =P'O .. ." ",d'q> U! " .. "/~)
'!I."~~ ll</!"1 'q. 'u""",,"oo I"'!'!IOO 1"" "I""" AI"nd '!~l )O II' ~U!'llJ," J"
><P!W ,ql U! '1'''' AIJIUOO o. ><1....1 "'I' ;>:oJ '>l
u' "' .11"1 '>l <>,d.>I>f'

'''''r '"




'q' ""1..






'''''!'.., 'u" IOJ><IW> "'U ",'''' '' S"!""'IIOJ WUlJ ")W '?lduu!,u.><"OJ SU!'"....




in Sicily I:>y i"'pc ...1 >gen, .. In

of 7J ' G"1!O'Y kid ...,,,h.t """neil
,",'h"", pronoonccd .n.. hom. Ul"'n .ny.,n. who
henccf<mh dire." "re""'Y<O, d",,,oy. profane .nd bl .. pheme .poinn .hi> ""nat;"n of .... mJ i""'ga,"
M<>s<ngw beating n...... of the council', 1C'li"" W<'K ",n' to c"n,,:mtin"l'l.
bUl iiI:< ,he prc>';"'" "n. , were held cap.i,. in Sicily, Propk from .11 0""
It. ly .Iso "5Om wtitings of '"ppli ... ,;"n to ,he p,inces fOt the "<fing up of
;m~" 1:>." ,h .... ''''' wet .. ;>1 by ,he .mpt"'t" hencbmen, On.
the Lifo "Y" Grego.y wro<e to the empero <><1 to A......,iw;. No info.m.. i""
i, provided .bou. tbe nu,,,,,,.,. of thi' .tmpt, The mt or the Lifo 4G"l"'7
Ill, .ome th ... _founh. of tk whole, omi .. an)' funhcT men,ion of the "''', the



''''f'C''''. 0' ",,,,,,,,,!.un,The"l'h ....... nd ,ho l.iht> (>O""fi'''& both ..y ""pli.;,ly ,h .. I'op<:> C"'f;ory
II ,nd Gregory III wro I." .... '" ,h. L", in .".mp" '" pe .... "'d. ,h. empe ... '
.nJ ,he p'"i.rch '0 ch" nge ,h<i ..... )~. S<><h \er ..... _IJ "" ;n,,,lu.ble oou","""
if ,hey ,,,,,,i"ed. The oUr.. of II Nic> do indml h"vc. ".nding rig)" .. ,hei,



1<... purponing!O "" mi"ivn flOm Gregory II '" Lro. " SchoLt,1y

"ro;.,.. on ,h ulh.micity of Ih"", klt.n h.... Aip-Aopped """..I ,imes .in

,h. Lt .. "i"CT",,,,h nlUry. Todly. i, 50''''' ",IU, !O ..!mi, ,h"" eve" if ,h .... i,
in ,hem some 'ubm"u m <If 6';gi".1 m.,eri.I, the ,,,,,,;,ing ..... i"n. of G,<il""
'Y" I...."' ... '" t-Jly . ",""min"",J by Lt, .. ,h"..,;"n, ,nd ,,,rpol ..;,,,,. ,ha,
,hey .imply e>n",,' "" u><d. Likewi5O, .h, .I~ 10".. of G"'f;"f)' II '" G ..manU! mw;, be , .." cd .. f"rged ". dpIy con .. min .. ed,"
Th. _ "f Nie><> d" com.. in """'< perfrly genui"" 10"<,, of G<H1UJ1l1l
'0 ,h, Bi,hynian bi'hop.>. John of S~n.da, Tho""", of O.OO;0l"'li... nd ,ha,
'"CrY Con", n,in. ofN .. o/eia whom. numbe, of ,he Ltte ,,>uKe< ......,i.. ed wi,h
I"", Ill ." M,,,op<JI i,.,, John "f Syn.da " ."". 'n C m" .. , ['mh.hly in 7>1> '"
7'7, 'n .< ~ ..!,io; Oil how
hamll. 1I i<l>op Co"".",i.< 'If Nacol.i, who h>d
1>" :ogI.,uing >gli"" ;m>g<>. G.nrumu, wro'< h><k '0 John, fir>' 'o"y ,h", h.
h.d ,1<caJ~ in ..",iowed Con",,,';o< .nd, 5CCOnd, '0 ofk. "'m< f,irly ,,,",,i'K-n,1
,nd 1:.~11 I'"fu."" ",}, <kf<:""" of in,"I!'<", The p"" .. h .... ,,,1 john ,h ..
Con ... mi". Iud . beady ogrccd .o ""'l" ,be ,ndi.ion.ol ,eaching>,nd '0 C<3,. prople, E,idently. ono: h< ~ ''''''1 from.!.e capi"l, Con, ... ",in
... umed hi. "PI"";';O" to ;m>go ,nd ,hi. "1'1"";';"" p,,,mptcd John ', lett ..,
I'un,,,n, '" Joh" '. I.u Ge.m.",,, .,ml"'1 '0 ",'''rc h;.nrchic diocipli""
He wro<' ' 0 c"n.un,ine "f", ,he hemy h.d begun wi,h him .", urged


CO"' .. n'i .... '" [,'''''01 ,hi.lcu.. '" John .<><1 t" ... hmi' '" hi< m.. rol"'li .. n i"
,II ' h in~. G<'",'nui. 1. oJ"'''Y'
Con".",i ... had in,i.<tcd
he hod
nm x,,,,,lIr .. ken "",ion agoi .... inug<:o bu, hod m.",ly poin'ed ou, ",.i[,fUnl



p.US>gC$ th.t pro/,ibitc.! the wu!lhip of crew:d (hing. Cormm,,; (hre>t<:nC'<.l

,dkv< Con,,,,n,,,,,, of h" olf> if he d i..! n(>C m<nd hi. waY',


Germmus's third ktw U ", Bi!h,'P Th" ..... of CbuJ"'roli . It i. d ..rly

!i"le la"f ,/"n ,h< l<11en '" John .nd Con".",i"..'" . nd it may ~.I thot
"I'f"1",ion '0 im>g<. W. f growing in Bilhyn;', Grrmonu''')"1 m.t he had heud
tu mo" . bout Thorn... nd .h.. . hey .urpri'i! him beau .. ~, bd"Uff had
Thorn....i<ttl q"estiu" bou, im,ges. Iea'ned ,h .. Thom .. was
,.. chin8 [hac if
>epublc In pmhibi, .nd ",,<n dewOJ' im"8<>' Ge[m. ",,,
:ol.w 11 tlut on """unt ,,/" this now t<",hing ,itin md plpl WI:!e b.:ins
thrown intu oonf".",,,. AI." G.",,,,,u. docs nUl n,me ,h.,.. ci,ies or peopl,
does nUl expl,in ,It<i. oonf"''''n. doe> nOt .ny ,ddi,ion"" iconophobe o.
ironocl.a .. bi,hop> . nd docs not pro,ide .ny det. ils .bo", "t... may h>"e been
growing movement.
Th. "",den from Gelm.n,," letten i. ronfi[ml in twO chapte" that
,,..""'"u. addl, e;,I"" hef" .. hi. ,\ep<"k>n or during hi.)'<"I" in <>ile, '0 ,he
In these Getm.1"u. says ,hat.
;cvrn,h-.:c<ltUlY 'mltis< 0" HnnMl ~""
"'""in bi.hop of N.roki . litt l< bitty "'w" in Bi'hy"i.. .-he d..... nu' ..... en
""[her '" n, me him _ lookl on hi, own in,,, ,h< Scrip'u,,,,.nd f"und .niOn,
'0 rcj<'<' [he ,cachinp ~ <I" f.. hefl. " k ,
in ,he church,"' sap
the pa, ri.rch. 'What doe> 'hot mean' ik)."nd the><" twU clup.en~' G" .... n"',
, , hird ch.p''' w>.. added '0 ,he " ..,i.. by an .non)'mm" .,,[ho' wno ' rok
about impt,;'1 and "Aie;'1 fury .Dd p"nilhrncnt<. [OnufCl. and ail". Thi.
clupte, i. ",i.houf doub I"" in.etpol .. ion 50 it! .."imo"y i. wi,hou .,1""
for Grrmanu,', ,-invs o[ time_'" A> in his leuen. Germanul'", to On
Hnnu-. ,,"" S" ,<x/< .uggcs. th.. he "'.. ci,k, di"""", or i~"u,.,,1t , o."".",io<
... virruaUy dUmi...,!: Tnom.lS ,u'r,iSl him: .nd ~ [here was. ..... f...
1....... i. 0"" ",he. ronmpo':"y ..,"'ce. [he ,hrtt Qr,.,j,>I1' (or ApoltJtin or
AAdft"fUj1 of St. John of D,ma5CUI Alaim' TIxu. \1"1.0. Atrar.t ,IN Dh';nr /""'l"',"
D .. ing ,h..., to" i, not <..y.'" Th< fi nt 'PPC:O" to have been ... rit",n in ,he
I... 7"''' re.h.po .J,,,,,ly .ft", Juhn got wind "f wh ......, gu;"S un i"
,;nuplc. Th. <ceond " ,.. <1 ... lr ~""." .fie, Get"'"'''"' ~.J boo." dq.o..-..l: ....
af.ot J,nu,ry of 7JO. The fin, . nd o<cond O.a';~", m.y II."" been PICI'.t<:d
. bol11 ,h< .. m< ,ime. ,It< IIOfId being ptc>Cn,I .. ,elarifi"uion of ,h< fi",.
Duing ,f.< ,hird Qr",;on i. <>pi.ll y difficuh_ h ouy h,Y< been w,inon .honly
.f", the othe,.wu '" uId mol': ",.",;:oJ.nd '" c),rify sum, lin"" of "gun,.n"
8m John m. )' ha .. W'titten [he ,hiro in ,t.., 7400 when h< "'" ""'i,ing m. ny of
hi, o:>,li", woth Tit. fin' No'O Ow;"", ,h<tcfurc "k u. [0 ,It< <>.rly da )~ of
iconod.. m.nd the thi[d m.y do '" o r m.~ ron" in ble' minion< by.n
ct.pge</ pony,





~1 ICC [h. ChUlch of GOO . . J;..,,,cr! .. by [he .urgi ~g .... ",-,rwhelming

" wi,h w>y< upon ""'y<. [o..w ,bo", ,nd ""ubll by ,h. grievous , .... ul!
..,f wicked 'Pi,it<. nd Ch riST', tuni" W<W<'fl from "'P to OO<lOm. ren[. whi.h
the child", n of the ungodly ru"" artog..ntly ",usht to divide. and hi. body CUt
tu pie<.. which i. the p>pl. of God . nd the [~i.ion of ,he chufch:' >or>
John." He go<> on [0 y . Iu[ """mpdll '" .p<>k by, r." [h .. "',,"Of he
oome. I Iu,.. oom< fo.w:",1 .. . ro. [h. or><;Ula. p>noun<tm<n" of. king (1Wv
flo.<AA>W>v . Oe",'6.t(~v) =n:i.. terro. 0 .... ' hiJ .ubj<cIS."" On other
OXQ>ion> John ~ aplicitl~ .., o. about leo. "It ;, DQt foremp<m1S to Iogiobte
,I>< <h,,<eh:~' John uk; 'hetorially. "Ar<;)"Ou ".,... goin~ ." ... rite the Co.pd
><cording 10 leo"'''' John nuk .. "" m.nnon of penon. who inRuc<><t<l '" coIbb0 .. ,1 wj. h .1>< ""1"'ro . John """,k> ClCpli<;dy only of Getn""u", trnubk:s,
"And "" ... [he bbscd Ge"""nu .... dian' in hi> lill: ..,d hi, words. i> Aogg!
and .<ent in .., "",I . nd nuny <>tn.-, b~ .nd r.the ... whusc n....... "'" do
no. lnuw:'" John addmkS h, ....df ,,, "the p>pk of GOO"" but docs not .eli
u, where o. when ,hoo< p>pk werc g.. her!. John WU , m<>nk " S" S,h.
"""ide J<TUW-m '" hi. w.i[ing>. like ,hoi< of ,he pop<>. indi"" . [hi, new, of, "",Wh' .ptc>d quite "idely, .,,01 f.idy q"ielly if.he ~ ... two o.~.iMs ar<
(0 h< .t.,<J .."",..! 7}o. W'h.o,. ",,,,,Iy. did Jul,,' ~nd ooj<ion>.lole------o.l'.n h om
impe.i.1 intfer<nce in <Iown'~ In '''''' pi..:.: Juhn
,hat "For h.Y<"
[iscn up. "yi,,!; [h .. it" no. nemf)' 10 make"" In a['OTh" phc<.
John off... ,h. intriguing fCm .. k thaI " Bu[ thrn they .. y ' nuke .n i"",go: <
Chris,.nd of~i, Mo,~er who V"" bi~ to> God, .nd I.. ,h.. suffice. .... John
dw"" to intetprct the I...., ... n .. tick on the rult of".



le, u, gather in the banest flm th<l<" ,mall fiddi of <vidence. Our .im i.t to
an,we. [hi , qu=;on: Who, Iup1"'DI~ In ,bo", 7>\ or 7.6 E.rn1""or leo JI[
~ to ~t.te 'I\",n" iron~ Schol.r> h.v. debatl fur ~r> whethe, Of no.
1.." isoued f" ,m. 1 ~tivc doc=
icons." I do not bdKvc rru,. ~.
Jid. Th. ",,,,,:co"y he """pounded hi' v;"'~,"
he "'poke ,".nd Thcoph.nes a n find no be"" word .han """,. which i> no "",rd .. >.II fo law.
P-'I"I 'o" tCCS ....A of orde ..... nd of "d=" b", do 50 in ,he midst of.
rather oompli,,"<J aero,,", of im1""w m<mp" '0 co1'" wi[~ open reb<lIioo in
h. ly. No bter . mpero..... '<Kind'" d'C by Lro ,nd "" t. .... hurch
co"neil .,r.:.. unamb's,,(> "",h. tkc"", ..;"" ... eh. dec .... , o r
demand, ,he ... mo ....1 of .uch. <1 ..... The lik"'io~ of 7JO W>.'! not .Iegisl..;,..




11)'1""'''' 100",,<1...,


....,mbly, The ufo ofSuphm ,,,- Yon&" may impl)' thot (A)nsuntine V lo...
,un>! ,I'e ,;~"riM in,,, > !cg;,lu;.., """i(>n bu. i. w no. .h ;n Leo', .;m....
1n. m1ing that < Cernlan", .... , ro"",I, .. ion among roIIn; .... I.."
,he be no m i,,~k< .,,,u, i" Lro HI Jecitll r" """"'" ;n"g<>, G~ry II.
Gu-gory TIl. Jot,... of D. mo><u,. NiphOfll> . nd Th""ph." .. pbce It.., hi,,,".
"IU. My on Lro
W . . Leo in<;,1 [0 "k< "".i"n? [) id h. "ir up movement? G"nunu<.
displa)'ing , dil<rrtion <ntird~ 'pp""," '" ." the m.n who held , high .... d
sen.i,i" office. shifted ,he '" Con"'nti". of N.rol.i>. A cen,ury .nd
h.lf I.. er the SpodUun V"", tq>C"A<cd the ace"""i, .. , "g,in"
Ger .... n" ... correspond.n v<al. IUJp<!$r.nd di ....ppointmen' ,h,t Thorn.,
of CI.udiopoli. h.d g"'" over t" ,I.< hert,icr.. but that .. me ChrTe>t",nd,n
demon""",. th .. [he impomO! mClmpoli"n john "f S)'rud:r. main .. ined the
....:!it;.,"'1 f.i,h in iron . " In [he capit>.l. Germanu" "'Pla<cmen'. the Patri. ",h
A.... , .. i", t<imml hi ... ii,
tl.< 'mperial wind . S,ill, h. 'ool !:>road,;d..
nom ioonophil. wri' .... ror rtplacing the V<tro",. no, fOr .ny .!'t<ific. ''';!, or rcaching> >gaio" im.ges. Germ.nm w,. ",I.",cd fur,
fuur. Ii... ,i~ yea .... quietly dcpoocd . nd pe,mi"cd...i<lendr." ho"""bIt
ret;rtmenl. The wtiN ;toria .oout
J<wilh wiz..ld. Caliph Yaid, .nd .he
m)~w;"u, I\ostr.,.., ,n Ia, .... [,h,1I h,,, <><ei"n to .. ""n '0 thenL For now.
let it he said only that thoy rq> ..... nt. ,,', .n ' ((eOlp' to "tu... d.. image
qU1r ..I, wi[hin [ho con .." of ,h. old Ch,in;'n .,Jowi.h deh.... km.",s of
which came up in Ch.ptot t) .nd ror><! n .ffort '0 C'><culp'" ,h. ",ling h""se
... time when a I.." member of ,h.t hou>c ..... ing in defcn>< of rtligiou.
i""g<>. None of [hi, lUgg<''' mOKh of 3 mo .. men!.
\1('hat kind< of wion did Leo Ex.oly One deI,tO)...! mug< is men
tioned .nywh.,.: In. im.g< of Ch,i..- 0'''' .h. Bn::m'" Glf. of [h. impe,;,1
1"1"". Th. dc,;.ruction of th .. im'g< by ..,Idie... in 716 i, "'LUll)' I<'<n . , ,h.
in<<p<ion of iconoclasm in O<1ion. Bu. [he vivid ><:<n< .... y " ..II be [he I" "
lite"If tepracn .. ,ion of. J>Olemica l lcj;cr.d." Th, i., i, m.y nCVff have hoprc....J. '" i, ""y h.... h'I'I><nl d iffi:,~", ly ,h", I,,~, w,i .... d.imo.t . Th",~
ph,n .. >CeOu,", of L'. 'I~ dc,t<ue,ion of ,hi, in"1;< i, tloe f.mili .. o"e.
bu. it i. "'" .he fit ... The Lift o[S" Sp"-~ 11K y",,"t'T. ...-.,,1 )'"'' older than
Throph.ncs Clm>~;d~. tdb of
dcsu uct;"n of ,he image but pl.. it in the
time of P...ucch ....... "";u . [hi[ i,. aha ]JoY No sou,<. ><"",d, 10)' promi.
ncn '" ,hi. im.g. in ,he .i&I\l1> ,n."ry." and >!temp" by I.ter write ... to
fTC... . """,.. ble P' " for ,he image ar.. ,uifu..d wi[h legend. Germ, nu., in his
Th" ...... does mcn,ion ,n im"$< on ,h. f""" of ,ho 1"'1><:<:. but i, i,
n", ,hc f.mou, Ch,;" im>g<, Son,.,i"", bot""," 710 and .buu, 7'9 Leu himself





I."" '0


C H . . . . . T"O


~.d pIw:d an im_1\<

>f'O>.ks .nd p,oph<tS "in front of ,I.e impet;') p>!.rc ....
Th;' "",emen' is '<V<"aling. It .hows .h.. ..... not .1 .... ,.. .n H:onoplwbo:
. nd .hot. r<,h,p< . h.rt w<f< i",>f!C' ' hot I>< ..... prel"tc<l ", ",Iel>. Maybe ~e
"",,14nnl with ,ndi,i<:KL>l practia;, 14, a whil<<y btpn '0 offend him.
In .0'1 .cc",on, ,h" ;; aI"""" h)~,<.iaI. , I>< Uk 1'9nliJi(~1is
Qf imagc>


bo:ing ga,hem:l ~p .nd burned in C m """,inopl . Bu, ,his .... m.nt l.d. rot
rob"..... io" . nd i[ i> lurd [0 bel""" [ru.[ , I>< irotw)philro """,Id Iu"" o'"<,looked
such on opponunity [0 unear Leo. The point i. qui impl<: It i> iml"""ibk '"
n.u ne -.i,h c<rtainty 0 _rk of on dntroyl by '" dn,roycd in hi> ,iln<. Tht
o.igin ..", of ironodum mor hoy. """,, no n\<,r< .h." >I, . .d,", H:oMph""".
Thtophon .. k...,.... of pc........"iO<1.' b u. '1'''' from .h. hbtr 1'.~uji4'~-,.
OJn,.m"" ..,.,. ....
do no,. Grrm,n ..... ill hi' l<ttrt< .nd in tho ch.p"" b,
.d<.kd [0 Q" H""in ,,"" S~. m.kes no men, ion of (eUow . ufl<:r<rs. John of
D,nuscu . ..pile doc< no, how h..,... "'~ny poople m.y sulfttc<l. S,tpfJen,
biogr:ophtr .nd Throplun ... w'iting long . n [h, <vtn .. [hey d""'til,...", CKa<f
';';,1 piC(u"" of ,he mob in Conmntinopk- .ntI
"""Ka''''e,,' by ,he
wkli.tS who <uppodly took down ,h. Chalki i""'g<. For ,h. lou ... 'he le..den
.n "",men. 10, ,he IOrmer. ,he ,,,,,lled...1.Ii,. of , I>< ,if)'. II", <>the, ..,..",,,,. do
""' rick ur ,hi> ""I} "d. gi.... n Ih. colorful hi!!o..,. of the Conltan,inorotin"
popo!.ce. i, i> Iu,d.o im>gine that .ignil>arnt incident> of POl'o!., in.u,r<etion
<$C>pcd .h< nOli of ~1I bu'!WI) w,il<l'I. Sur<1y [h. ironophil", ""uIJ ru. ... Iud
CV<'I' ,<oW"
.hou, f,om 'he
.bout 'he popou, dcfcruc of imagc=s.
No "'~fC< n."'''' namd.~' 10. ,I>< .t..dowy Thcod. .. i . We h"", of "iJ.,."





bu, OIn only addu (""'no .." ... .. on o;.",ple.

Krun,i.., ;';onocl"m go< off "'. <k<;;dedly ,,,,,",.. , .ntI muller "." .ru.n
.h. omal acCOlln" """,Id hd on< to bel""". All , 10.< oc,ioo> nll'" be pocked into
,he)tll> bnwc<:n 71\ .nJ 7)O ntI if .he,~ i n)"lhing .. all.o ,h. <:<)M:,ion
1,, <I ..... n IJttv.=n', "".io ... ~nd the volcanic eruptio .... then 'he "";00
mIlS' be rompr<:>Kd into ,h. ye." . fttr 717 0' 7,8. Following hi' ,i/rn,um of
~.. Iy 730. I..." lOok no ".her 'Clion ~i ..., inges .. f........ know. He died
in 74' .nd ,II< empit< WD d;!lurbed for. ,i me by civil "'ifc. EV<n.U>.lIy. Leo.
",n o,,,,,.,,,i, .. V <ccu ....
,hm"e. AltI"" hin"f)' w",,1d ,na.k him do ..'"
.. the .rch.iconod ..,. I>< ,ook no kn<>w" oction. agai .... i""lP bcfot< ,II< lot<
7......... ,I>< <>,1 ..... I" -",,,,,,,k,n,. J"h., of 1>.0'1"""" I'""WJeo no I,in, of new
"'"""d..,ic compoig-,,> in hi, ,hird
,ru., do,es fron> ,h.
HOS. In R<,m< .he ""'" ccn yeor ""n,incol< of b<h.<y 17~J-\1) is ",!.,ed in 0
dc .. ilcd vi.. ru., ronni ... noc on. wo.d .bout on im>g< cnn.tOVe ..y_The pop<
ditl enter in,o ' .... io". of 50"'" 50" wi, h Con".n,i". V ."d """,i.-r<! from ,h.


o."lic., ,n;,

.....1"'_ [~,in of "'" ....... un. R.omt." All of [hit ".nd.........rp te

min<krth>[ llyun[i...,konacl .. m OI~ ...... .,,~ic.


Byzantine k onod ", Under ConMan[ine V

Mm Auny of ....ill dnou",i1rioru of 1...0 III , ,ht ........ lIyun.i .... ch"",iekn.
Nicc-phoNs and ThtopIwI<>, co...., thri. _nU fQn,,-.rd"'" nuny Y""" "';,b
no men'''''' .. all of any con, ............ mating '0 illUfP- II ~ Ix-m rcnurl.t.;l
only .bo.n 10 p<ran[ of ,hoc ..,. .. '''''' .. ,lor inus< con"""....,..,. T"....
.... chronickn fOC"f\"< ,hei ....."... ..... ,... pro"'"
de>1;~ " .. ,b ie_bun, but ,bit '[m o.nd ha, a,,_ II< .~ 10 obocu",
m. fxt rIu. in reali.,.. tclfdcd ......... ";'[n, /fum dllputd "'-c- icon...... e
f.... . nd fat be .....ftn. n.. ......" of eo.,....",i ... V iH'-7!) ill ...... ,.. ,his
darty. "




m' eo.....

The ..,.,."..
nrin... ,.i5" n<.m\ i" qu,",i,y . nd quality 'h"", for [h.
,.ilV' " f hi' f.tI,e[. but they Of< no.we. ", i"..,I"'" I" oJJi,;m' to t!.t hi" ... ,;
on, Niccpho"" and Thooph.."",. th".. ''''It;...'' and .. .....;0,', lif... <01>'
nin i",I"'''' '''[;"'n. \I;'h;o, i. ''''''0. ",,"'. f,..W',on" of Con ... ",; ".',
own W';';llS'' ' ""vi", .. do t!.t 1Nr.s.nd ,h n.,!.tlna from. ",.1 jot church
council !.tId unde, ,h.
xgi' in 7,..' Ii"'" hut",i.rn of Con,"nti",,',
",jp> it V',.li..l ,.,.. ro",,,,,,,i .... b"nd._ 01 ", ... ri.1. .he i. "<"'"Cnhdo.
,,)mi<d in ......".mp" '" .. ih t""the ~'" " ..",i, nd
WOfk "'"
d<t.;kd chror.olot;l-'.
"The vny IOn ofeon ... n,i",,,
by." .n<mp,I coup



"'.gn .... ,,,,.,hitd


br A".I.-... 0"

uk! """'po,,;"" in .......... 1.... m who Iud t...,n ,.,..

...,dtd,.,.. hit Ioy.dty and...,.,.t ""0" wi,h high office..nd <"'"Cn ...itt. tho h;ond
of one of ,he anp<1"O'"', dough, .... Nk~ ns....!y implico Wt Amh .......
rnrorrd i .............ile- n-pha.... '""YO 'h>' the pn>pI< ""'l"1 tho ~bo
...... p<rnt rrtciody boouc: ~h. """ onhodox.mel. dckndor of d'" di ... nc doc
"i... : lndoed .~'" rnrorrd ,.,. holy orort> ,h.......,....,..! tht city ....... arl ... >ehoI.
1fI. _h ... o.."'B"'>ky, -... ,nclined '0 ..xq>t of... h;""rUn,' ...... of
Aoubosdoo," bu, i, _
""'"" lik...,. th.!, ,tq " ......."'1 Itg<n<b. <ng;agnl in
;'won,ion. or p.>....J ...... C .. un"'b!.t;.nt .. tl iconoptIik ....... y..... 6t


""'y. [b<f~ i, no >:U[~ ""id<n [It" Co"." .."in< V oncoun 0' p"''''p,ed
a di'I""~ ,,'<. i",.g<S >f the OUtkt of hi' reign,
In hi, >:oun, of ,he ~.. 745- 41> Th>ph.n.s """,,,. an ea"h~ ... k< in
P.lesli". jord.n, and S)',ia as .... 11 .. ~ pbS"< ,h., ...ached ,,,," B,lb", from
Sicily . nd G.lobri:o. Oddl)', h< ")" II... [hc.t di ... , ... '"= ",incd "'" flHY" 01
Con".",i"" >g>;n., leon, .nd ,h. church ..... Thi, .. CI";OU' for ,wo ,..""'..
~i ..... ;, .... ".I,l . pf'<'>' '" be"
of <I,. even" of 716-'7 wh<n. ,'olcanie
<rup,ion incited [.ro', w"uh >g>in" inug<1 s.cond. it con,Ddin, Nicrphoru.
th.ot the calomi'ics of 7~6- 47 provoled an otw:k on inuga." On
"!pin. i, occnu [Iu" yea .. I..." p>pk .:lid no' =1Iy how wI", h>tllul'P<"ncd
. nd thot they 1',It"hed ",!!",h.. hi.. ano:l piocts of v:nioIU StOtic$. $(1m< 01 which
..... ). Iu,,< ~ .,,[he"'ic mmpon<nlS. Sp~. fur =rnpl<, [hini<> ,Iu[ ,f[cr ,ho
nnhqu. kc . nd pc;ti1<1>C< CoM"n,in< nuy .<tu.Uy have begun removing im
>sa from ,he areas in chuI<1w:s ""ar [ho . Iw wh .... [hey miglo. I>:t ... been
dimx,ion fro m ,he cuelu. i"ic linHID'," "flu, is. d",, gu .... bm i, is no m"",
,h,n .h.u.
Whhcr '>f nm Con,..",;n. ,,~, k .nr "",ion in obo." 746 . ,he fi .... hin<.
of . nti.i .... go:: kli.i".. COm< fro m the tiln< iw.t bcfof< tho Council of Hi...... in
75.. , 11,<.< i. ""id, " . (lU[ jl> n,<",i"8 i, ""Y'hinS b~, <Int. P<fh.p. i, '<>ok
Cunmnt'''c It" 0' , .....1... )"0>." tu o.kvdup hi.
iconophobic. and rvcn
iG<>noclasric. f'<Iin, of ";cw. Plup>. in view of in>UIT'Iinn'. nat ur.1 disas
rer>. opportuni\li. camf"'igru >g>inst th< M~ im ' .. the Um .~ Caliplutc
cl">Ckd '1'''' bctwc<n 748 .~d 7\0. close w><ch on ,h iw>ys d:tnS"",,,.
fulk.m frontier . nd m.jor fom... Const. ntine ;;mply did not pm
;m.!", ., ,hc 'OJ> of hi, ...... ki"f; ~nd . If ,hi, .... pl"""j"" i, ,.. liJ. ,hen it
h'!;hli!;h" the d<gltt to " ,> icon<><h>m ""as .n dcm<nt of . nd not the d
f,,<cc beh,nd <lrvcl""",."" .t (lyun,ium in the eighth cmrury. As W'< h,,'<
n<i,h" Conocam;ni. own .;....,. no, ,he .i....,. of '''r<>n< symf"',hcric '0 him .
W'< al'< rcdu<l ro ,casoned .puution.
1.., "u,i,. API;"" o,,,,un';"" <oys .h" . f,ct_i",",,,,li,,dy! me'dy ..
""". ,;n .. j~-ho came '"
.hlOn. ,he ''''pcro... nt au, "t co:Iict '0 tho
I'"",i,,,,.. ""dc, hi, ""h"ri.,. th" h<>\y image> t<> be <k'If"yco:I." The
oj,,,, Old M." (Nou,h""ia) sa)"' [lUI Cun,un[inc ~, QUI .. m....,nge .. of his cn.d,y"'" The 1_1' 4 S<q>hm
,hot Con".",i", got,htteJ the
peopl nd mod. tf.<.m ....<"Of nO, to ....... hip images and goo On ro .. y ,hal
m"""SC' ""'I'< s<m ,,,.11 pro"ine<> to mmmon official, .nd bishop< to. """n
,ii " Thoophanes ""i,es diocon!a", li"ny "f charges, H. "p ,he cmpcn"
d<>"i ...d mc .. u...... . ""~. ,ihtio~. pfOp.1t;.lndiud tho puhli . nd PI'<1'"ed
fi." 'compl". impi"y ," " NiC<'l'h",,,...,.. C.",,,~n, i"< "Nified bi'hup< "'ith






<a,.." pri"m', .hmlS, .nJ innum ... bk o.h .. horrible ",:>.m.n"," tx.. h.
doc. no. n. m 'ing\< ",,<on .hu. l<IIOri....!, 10d no on< 01 "'" did .i.hCT."
RCTUming to .h. AtbMnilion. ilS mo>< <.ion con,i,,, of. ddu.,e
brrwn lh. oIJrrly Grorg< of Cypru' .nd an imp<t;'J ag.n. n.mrJ Co>ma'
cooo""ed., . 'Ynod eall.-.l by ,hi. Co.m. Th...'" m.y '" rnd .. imrl)'ing
,h>, .uch di'pu,.,iofl< W.I< common., d,,>u' ,hi< ,im<. Co.trulJI . 1", refct. ",
,he edi.". oomm.nd . 00 word, of ,h m",,,,r. " Th ... edict> rn.) rd. ",
.h. convrn;ng of th. couocil. .o.ho ptop>gond. v.surly m.ntioned by Throph>n. 0' .n .ctual ",onod.. m. S'oph.n. biogr.phr. ><em. '0 ",~, wi,h ,&,.
'n"'0 ,hi, pre-HiCT.i. p<, iod. ,h>. iougn wel< ..... roy<"d 10d whitened 0'"<"'"
A, II Ni""". r a,,;',ct. T.... iu. >oK! ,h>, ,h. Council of Hi<t,;. found.1I ,hr
im:ogc> des,royed ." Thi, i, a hug< '''''~''Oon hu, m.y refe, a<X" ..,dy ..,m,
icon<)Clas,i. ac,ivity l>efO ... 7H.
If w, . pply. bi, of in'>gin.,i," punk solv ing In ,he.. " ' ''nl<n", wt COn
..., ,h., ",riow I.,.. write" ,II had 1""" of ,hr ..."" ..oty. TI... >loty I\""'"
..... n<thing lik hi . Con"'n,in . J'<, in 7\1 0' 7j), J<cidcd It, call . ch urch
"""neil 10 <.1..1wi,h ,h. i"'ag<" q"..,ion , H. m.~ h. ,.. , .... ,ed ,h. 1"'1''')''' of
,h. copi,.1 In h>nngu.. on ,h...,hj:1. H. nu r h, ..... n, ,,, .. ,.-.I agen"
'hroughout hi< .rupi ... '0 whip up ,uppon , Som. W<}tk. of ... may h.v< bn
rem"""l. '" d.",,,eJ <0 ,h>, ,hey could no, be ,",ucheJ ,,' li>Sed. ," ""hi.ewo;hed_ Such >ction. ddini,dy ""uned in ,he 760 . nd ""< con"", be con~.
J.n. ,h., I.... ""ri" JHl no, "ttojct, ~.n " fi-om .h>. <.kcaJ. """ .h. p....;.,u.
one. If .ny individu.l ult<m:I p<""""lIy, wo helf n"'hing .bout it_ 1.10" lihly
Con." mi"" pu, hi. bi.nop o wo,k collecting ,n. .O!!. ,h>, """,. ci,ed .. Hi,,
ci._ A, ;om. poin, du'ing ,h"" yeo ..... Consta",i". wrote hi. Ih,m. hi. '""u;,
in. In <>.rI~ of 7j4 .h mpr"" conv.oetl. council of ,,8 bi.hop .
I.~,II ,u,n '" ,~. ,hco~caI.'l>'''n.'''' uIf.m:I., Hi .... ;, ,,, . 1.1<' ""i"n
"f , hi. ch.p,et. Fo. now i, .~flic
say .1... for ,hc ~f''' ,im ho" . ro
'),>'clIU,ic, ""h.... n' pr=m"Oon of ,h. COS< for opposing fig".,1 rdigiou n.
11l< JJ8 hi.hop. p""""'" ,h. """,,,,,.'" ""ny m" .. d"," ,h_ who .... n.kJ
.he Trullan Council 10d dx>u, ,he same numhr, .. ,ho>< who would mend 11
Nictea in )11 7. 1.<0 III .00 G.n .... n,in. V Iud Iud many )=" '0 ' proin,
bi.hops f.,,'oubl. '0 .h';, cou ... Th..... mbled bi.hop hould nm hr oe<n ..
imp<ti.ollackql tx., in"ead .. meo who Iud m,<.I. ,h.i, own ,h. ct.urch', loog
unding un . .. ina> abou, ,eligion n. Thel< i. 00 ~idcnce fo, viol.nce 0'
,h .... ,,_ Th. hi.hops ,inc<<<ly >ow <I"""Iv<." ... nding """hin ,h. <h urd',
go-'" ..adi,ion, . nd 'h<)l called .hei, v<n.h.o put i. ~'mly wi.hin
,b. lin. of ,h. fi", .i, <cu,nenieol council<. Th vi"," did nm prevoil in



Lo." tim .. ........J mo.. '" m>n&ins ~i"oriaJ <i~ tIun '" any n'
,riciry ,,( ,he ugumtn .. in 714.
The counc~
rook finn "<po "&Ii,.., ,dip..... >I, and it> p~ ...
"r .i it,.,. pt'I>"id< ,he ~DI cuncn:t< ."d offici.oI ~ for >n
in ,lit 8Y"''l< 10m",,,,. 'n.. council named .00 .,..,....... Wn1
n.o<dy.1u ironophilc k~ Garnon .... ,lit pa,r\:udI <kpooed in no; jolon
of o.m-m. _ ....... 01 , hm: 0 . _ in dcfCm< t>f imag:>; and Gc<>tg.: t>f




Cypnu. m. kty fip'''' .n m. AJMniril ..." 1ftio io no! a ""'C'hy I;" of iwnopIo.
Ok.,,<min of m. ~ ",." ,he council obo ..ld
dccn:t: OA;lJl;'
m<KISIy ... tha, C"'a)" icon .....x of any""""" and of"", ki..d of g:>udi_ of
a>Ioun by pain ........ objta~, :aI~n , and """"""n, '" m. Chord> t>f!he
ChM .......... This dm: doa "'" all bplicidl
,ho dauuction of ico ....
" He ,,'00 fium now
yo ,he counal.
nuh an icon. or k>
.-. ..."', .-, or to "" one up in. ehllf"Ch or in. pn... .. bornt, of to hide on<.
if biIDop. prc>byt ... or <10(.,.,. Itt ~im b< un&odted; if monk or Lorman, I..
him ho . n.. hem.. W;d and ,ubj' '0 ,ho fOpi Lo_ ... n "PI"",e", 01 d><:
comm ..d ..... "" of God ,..d ' n .... my .,( ,I>< doctri .... of ,he F. d><: ... " Tn ..
po .. ion of ,he docrc< .... m. ' 0 V"" ..on of . mll<$ly '" penon. and lC.ioru. of
<he p"': "frum "".. on."' N.... phoJ ... I. ' ....iIl d..., <hey ..... down. prod..".
,ion of ,he deo.,,,,,,ion of ,he holy ko",:' bu Iu, &0<> beyond wh:o, ,h at
""'w.llr "yo." Then. in.n '''''''p' '" p,ov'n' ' he kinJ of ,.."d. li.m ,Iu, migh,


.,..... '0

"n:' ..

Iu,'. follo ... rd f"'tn .. ta.i" ..., I in ob,.crving in dic,", ... , h. oounc,l fuf bod.
,he .lte.. ,"'" of oacrtd "",,,II 1.... '-'<:il,. 0' "..,,,,.. ,, wi,hou, 'he bl"'.,;cJ
.pp>v>1 of ,he patrio h .nJ ,h< empcto' . Mo...,..e" ,ho council /O,1<k I.y.
tnen ,,, 1"" ,,,",i.
Tni.lurdlr look> like ,he grimly d....
of religiou . . ... r.d ' hc mtte,l ... pcn<:C<>';"" of ...', dcvor<e<
tha, irortOdul< SOUreft .nd nl(>d(rn
u.w.l1r port .. y. ~or ocycroi J'C'''
Hi ..... ,h. -"",tea >gain Dli ,ilm".part ffOm. bfid" f<nurk in
of r.ul II (71'7-67) in ,t.. UM 1''''';fiuJ;. '0 ,he off, ,I... ,he pop< badg<mJ

h.oo .,., m",chu"




m. emp<tof '" "".<>: d.. ,......"'.ion of irno~....."


~'. Iu,' boolutdy DO .... i-

.bou, ,h. impiem,,"u,,,,,, of Hit,.,., drco in 'h< .nc.m.oJ. of m.


Dwinr; ,he 7&:00 CtoruWl,i... V ,ool"""roI "<pi >pi .... indioidw.l """,It> ..d
opi ..., ,he ....,......;,:
in gmtul. t.., ... iconod .... ..,;.... in'pmal ......
....""" in COdIlt_ ... oJ. Conlul''';'''''' >n,i-;m. . policy and ,h .."um.,{ 'h>,


policy intu onc ott<n<kd br ctU<:ll'<fS<CU,i",,,, In f2<', Conmn""c', h."hn..,

in ,I>< 760s ..., inde<d d,r=oo "&,i",, "",,,.,,k;,,,, ."d .t..:. .gai..... pc<:>plc
who had .ng;o.gro in on .".mp'od """I'. Bu, ,It ...
'u ~
h<-<n u"",n"",'oo w"h ",h.... nd n",II<, ~d .n) d< ronn"'_
.ion w;,h ,II< ddt .... ofi .... gn.
Monb h.d bcao",.
,d, I",,,non.,,, i" ,Iv: Bru",i". """Id ,;n: ,h.
><ven,h c<n'u,)". Brun,ium 2<knowlodgcd nin.ty n...... ints bctwc<n the ....
emh ,.. mmy..,d '4H .nd <>f ,heo< ",,'cnry_fiv. """e mnnb. Between 701 . nd
"0+ fi:>tty-fi", of filty-$<V<n p>""",,h. wt:1'< monb. In ]00 :os much on._
,hird of .1I1.nd ,n ,h mpi ... w .! ,n ,h. lund, of ""o...,,,rio. Co"''''1)" ,uold.t
vi ..... ,Iu, monl, tended tu bc I,,,...,, ct... a"d u" ..h""ted, ,hc i"'<'1,n"O(ion
prcv:oiling ,,,.1.1' i, th.. tht), came f",m ,II ><>ci.1 d.S$<> onJ th .. th.i, in.1 of
culm'c ..... , imp'..,i"" ,,,,1 imp'w;"s. I" , "",.Id ,Iu, I'><e<loxl )'O" "S me" fo'
,h. armies and ulcmoxl men for ,II< c()Un. mo"",ic;'m WU on b)' Comumin.
:OS. d",in on ,he <em,. 1 human ' .... ur= of the '"!C.''' Con".",ine WU nO'
himl<lf oppo><d
mon."iei.m in principle. He " .. , a );1<'1' p>"'>o of .h.
mon ..,cty uf S,. Amhmia and II< n.moxl "n. of hi. d.ugh " .~ of ,hat
ho ..... In 771 I..,., IV . ppoime.J "","'0",1 n'guu,=n. '0 b'.h"",;", ... p,omin.",
monb ""'to ><ill "uunJ th.n, .nd the huS' numbct of monb octi", " II Ni"""
fKO"" ,Iu, ,he ",d., w.:t. nOf cr::tdic.,ed. Co",um;n< n,i_mo"",,;c polK)- .....
fucuu:J. P'W" ic. nd ,""i,u.ion.l,"
n.., policy
10" risen in .10. yea .... f,., Hie ... i., if NittphotuS',
no ..... 'oa-pf<:ci. >OO'J("" an he ndo m yidd h,r<l inf",m"ion . H... yo ,h.
holy ~mc", of monb w;u lawle>oly pe".ru,ed and 'h<< who wi,hed !O
"ding '0 ,heir tuhi," 0' who "<>pp<.I ,he ~nh"ly dQ<;!,inc o( 'ho>< mcn" werc
,ubjec,ed to ,onurt: and oU' '''gc, P...... n' could <Seape >uch ill "e"men' onlr
br I"",;ng off ,lI<i, mon ..,ic. g:..t. ""d acc,,!,<i ns iml""") ..tvic<. Some of ,h...,
mon"' .... re bc.'.n wi,h,ed ho"d., wi,h icon ."
Th. 6".<l .ictim of ,~i, ,urmoil WU A,><l. ", in 76,. Throph ........ Y' o( An.hew only ,~ .. "10. had proved ~i. 10",,,.n.i,,,,,1 impirty
.nd ""lied him. ormnJ V.I,m .nJ , >rC<.,.J Juli ... :" Th"", ~h.'1I'" ro~ld. ,,(
cou. l< ....
'hc rouncil of 7H u, tt..y could I"'ruin tt> til< h. t:u;mcn, of
monk.;n g<ncr.J. Aoo.n And,ew h,modf .booIUld~ nothing i, known.. Tb..,.
ph,,,,,, ,w"p' him up in hi, gen ....1 eundem n"iun of e""".n ,;n<. "",;on. in
,he 760> In
h." ...., .." , .h.", i, no unin>peocluhle", for h""il;ty
to monk. 0. to mon",ici,m hctwc<n 7~' .nd 766.
Th. mos, f,m", .. victim o( ,he .lIeged mo",,,i, I'<"," "iun or 'he ; 600 i,
S.. plv:" ,h. YuunSCt Hi, .';'4 .... ,;"." ,nu,. ,lun f"n, ,..,." 10,., und., &cl'ly
iooMphik i< ;" ,ruei.1 but pfohl.,,,,,.;, IOu"' . It "')1 ,lut S,eph'n

ph.""",.". 'Pi><'"



_m' '"

1.,. '0



<" .....


and h .. f.mily lIN eoruta"ti...",.. in ,he 'i .... of l.oo III .nd xnk<I in .....
mo.."'lI,1I of lIi.hyni>.. Ewidondy 8nhynu .......... all i"'l"""'ibit plao<
icooophib dnf>i CO,....",i .... of Na.roku. and. ~ ....... of hi> opiocopal
coIltaguco. So<pl><tr bca..,.. n'I<InI< on M,_ A..utll .... " ....... ,ho" .... nrions
eon ...".in" de"'uaion of i"'4'" . nd ..... O><!ncrl of 1M. Mony nKKtb'P!",.n,ly ,hoy "'<'" .bIt '" ".veI q .. fr<dy-"""" '0 5,.phon f",
,~ .... ttl him if ,h.,... wc'" .ny oaf. pt.::... . nd ho .. "ltd off.n imp'''';.'
Ii" du, d...,ri.... <>I<",... tly ,he fton'i .... of ,h. <"'pi ... p,""",. in 0' ....
whco< ,he i"'I'"''''1 w,i. did no! run. The .ml'"rof ,hor" .. n, . n i,npo'''''' nohl .
man '0 M,. Au ..."i ... II' gn S.<ph<n I<> , ill" ,h yn<><W A"A, Srrphon flUcl
.nd ...... pbced under t.ou ut"" bu, f .."j ....... k w., booo .... ~ broke au,
"';,h ,he Scy.h"n.~ 'The <"'1'"",,', minioru !\OW "ied ........ ,,,,,,Oc. n..y
indllCl monk n.amrd s.rg; ... '0 ciKtJ.l.a .. oil -.. of ........'" "oriel. abou,
S,tp/Ion. In,unrin",. [....... oriel. tu.d to do> "';,h ... ....,J impropnnic:o. not
with ..... diopbyinl inuges- "The imp<tial ..... did cliscoooot ,hOI noobIc
...,.,...,. ..... ~i", rhrj. Know Ii ... to 1"01...... S,."....,. and ,hi> conduct
otnnl '" ..... powItd of... u[horirin. T ho
,hm drJl".d><d
to S.tpho'n. and th< <&in, icJ ", ........." tu",. "" aoopn-.. <.:I <"'I'""" ,hen
'""'.g,1S.<pio<n ,,, ,t.. ~itol, ~hr ... he _ k<pt uncle. t....- ......J . Hi, hiowrorher ")~
ho ktpt inuga in hi. COfl~ ..."",nl ond Ill .. mony f'<"'I'k co"..





S,....a. c...... _


'" hin. ,.,.tunr; .d.icr. Secul... and ..,ioc' >jul . ... ho,i ..... It.p. "" .ryin~ '" go:>
S'eph.n .0 0<<<1" ,h. bo"" of 714. Ali .. ... rio ... <<> in hi' plo of COn_
~n.m."'. S.cpI .. " ...... fi nolly <JICCU,ttl, or n.."y...!. fo' h" .... .. nch opposi,;"",
Hie", .... Th",. hundred md forI)' '....0 of S,..,h.n, follo::rwno war ,ounded


up. impr;..,..t<I, 'o""...!. nd mu,ilurd."

, .......... hen... K<ScS S'erh0n', ,,, oe<op' [t.. dr<, ... of 714 bu,
NiapIoorus.nd Thtop/>an<s ..n a cliff"",n. '!Of}'. They had ~ incrn.i>T..,< Srrphrn ... icooorhilo mutyr. Nic<pho<w"')"1 tha, whm S'ephrn ....
'I'P"M-ndo:d . ~Thoy broup' api.... tum ch.'F ...."i"'", rd.p.n (
Bloyalrr") ..yi", in tho f""<"'" !ha. ..... dtcriYcd .... "1 film by .cadtiog
.... m to cIopoo< .... r;Io<y of "'" woot.l . '" d~ r>may .nd rduioeo. ' 0
.vood ,he 'mprrul COUl1. and '" adopt ,he """""ic lik. ... Thtopha .... says
,ha, S.tpho'n w puniot..d booo.... "t.. ao,Imoniot..d """Y J'<OI'Ir'" On'" ....
mo ........ lifo .nd haoJ prnua<kd .hem '0 scum i"'l'"rial digni,~:and money .....



Tho ni",h.n,ury Lift of NimAJ ~f MrJ;ft",~ ;. inllrutti. . .,.,. It ")"I

Co"".n. in. IIOunJc<I ,ho mon ..,ic order. Bpuni,h,nB ........ by ""ilo, killing
>onl<, lIoaI!:ing ",me.nd 'rilling ,heir
(ho m<o,ion. S"ph.n .he Younger
he .. ), II ... in .hi, ....1>01. "',e,l",.tcJ ~ he")"1 nOlO .......or.! abou. ,n,~.'"
In 766 Coru ..",i"" ..~. public humili.1 t"'" fot ,ho tnO<Ik> in eon",,",i


""I'1t- H. nude monk>

imo ,he hi~rom. h.nd in h.nd ,,ith ""men

whik the crowd '1"" upon ,hem," In T1" Micft.cI Ltkh. ood,. koo, '"4''1:''' of
,he Th",k<sion ,hem . "'tried 0111 bru",1 I"'rg< of ,h. mon .... ri'" in hi>
juri"'!iction. He ..i ...d monk> .nd lIun . ",on"'etio, 'cligiow l"-"pho.I'"
. nd boolu. All ,he>< he ",Id .nd ,,,,"o.m;III the p<0CC'I.-J. to ,he empcror, Some
monh he Ruggc<l .nd nthe" he dcg.-.d<-J by .... ting their heard. On nrc."
Ck:orly. Con"".n,in. se, OUt quite .y>t.m:oticaJly [0 the very 'Ymool<
of til< ,'",nas<ic 'mkr. their bnnJ.. thei' h.hi". th.i , cdi~ , ,h.i, brning.
He .ubject..! them to pub/ic , idirul. to dcmy:;ti/y ,heir p<I>OOI .nd , .. tUI, Hut
h. ,lid . 11 thi> fO-J "'..",,. .-d.,..! to the >""ty of hi, ,,~t . ' m.go ploy..!
min", rok. if ' ''y rol . in.1I of ,h;~"
In ,he mid" of [h.i, n.... ''''n. of St<phen', ,,., .... ,', both N><q>ho"".nd
Thcophmco ). [h.. ",me offici.). Cmen '""ro with . u,hority") .nd ..,Idie"
we ,,",,<cd of vctlt""ing i<on nd wet< punished. All publi< official< " .....
"kro to plroge th .. thoy """ Id not , .. n",,,,, icon . A f..., days . ftot the abbot<
..... par.dl in the hippod",me. ",netccn """I., ofFici.l. ",'e'" <. crutro. In
76! Con.tao,ine mode the p>tri>t<h, . bo oaml Co",untitlt. hold up. eros<
. od 'WCO, ,Iu, no one "~ven .... i"g ;0""- The emp<n)t ,]", It,ed II' got him


lNndon hi. mooanic "ate and adopt the lIat'" of a 5t'CUi>, d.,ic. H. rvrn

,tied to);rt " im

to ctt toctt .. the impc,i.l .. ble .od '0 join to

men If," n.. rub Kern. ho[h '0 ft.,...... f>,ro , he I"-....,h', loyalty md [0
luve u ken . 0 opponuni,), '" bcli,,1c moo" ,ici,m 0"", 'll-'io. Shonly
proo:cro iog<,
the p;"i.",h.. Con".n';n< h. d
'pp".-.ndy b.:cn ,he "'8'" of 0PI""',ion. and .hhoug/> ,h.. OPI",sitio" m.y
","" in,ol,-.d the de-k"se of 'm.g... i, k<to' f() h.v. b.:cn ... i", co, . ,,,,dit;on. 1
mililary, coullly. ,Id but .. "em;" ...... ngling."
l.coviog ",ide ,he ;sob",.! CO"" of And""" ,h. K>.lyb;.nd M'ch ..] l.adt.nod .. koo. it 'pf'C' " [h....,[K.I ""n[. ""n.piredl><<w<<n 7<>! . nd 767. Lo.[.,
write!) conn",'" [h .... n'< n" wi,h <kvo,it)n to im. g<> . nd wi, h moolu. ,I
. hough ,~d", nor ,1 .... )~ <>pli<"'Y y ,~" monk:s ,,'e.. pc.....:",'" IO, ,h.i,
<k-o.ion '0 im.s". Th. , .. Ii,y i, mo", ,,"mpic. . Th. , ... " 76) ..,d 7<S6 .... '"
. rcmendorniy cluUcnging fot Co"'''n ,i"" V, H. "1)n g.<>t mil,t")' ,,,,ori,,
'll-'io .. ",.,Its . od Slav. but .uff.,red d'ploou[ic ,<",<,.. I. wi.h [h. 1"-1"-'1' 10d
,h. C.mlingi.m, He .1", f.a-d prohle"" with the church. >0, .h'nJonmrnt ,of
,he ,eI ... 'vc ,h~1 q""" >in", Hi<:.-.ia, and. m... ivc plo, again .. hi. ,uk
W by both ci,jj .nd ecd",,,,'ic>1 di[",_ in putting S[.phen '0 ,s.,.. h. d<-po>ing
.od =,ing ,he I"-tfi. rcn. hOlnili. ting higoume .... nd bo,h humil i.. ing . nd
(UCOIing civil ""m",n,,,:' .<tt> n "",It of . 1I<sian", '0 Hi.,,-.od. ft _
n,lIy.;o ."",king """<monk> .nd .. ",me mon""i< P"'f'C"Y. Co"'IOm





c ....... , .,

iM ..... "templin, '0 put hi> ......... ;" orda. I"""" pL.)'Cd onIy nuIl role- in
th .. ,U;ft,_ Mom>m- t.. ..13Ck "" .t.. monks ..... no< to m..da "" ..13Ck ""
_,.,...., i .... f .. . pm:;:.. carn~ ....-J >pi .... ~ who .... '" .......ifa,1y d~ ...ho ,hra.ened "'" N:iW. V...-;I \hroosh doe 1m. of ...,..
ironophile ,n.u, .ppeMOnccs .re .."ry &a-;.;", U\ ,~ (';,01 yeo ......
F.tap< (nt few "",K<Cd ",,,=~ ro ......Iu of on
....,..,./ nt
.....i'...... ht 'he I.., doad< of ConHa n';n<', "'iw' ......
i""idt",. _
'0 i''';II,od m ..... we ho"" _n. hi, "'IK""ion Of ,lit K<>brg< of ""nodules
i . .."Iy ,ugge..
Ona ,he monk' a.. ,""en off ,he Il" 01 "'ono<Iul.. whu
.ufl'tml pn><"tu,iun, ",nu", 0 ' ~n <k.,h .pifioJly bJo .... of , I,ci .."n...
00.. of ""n., ,he Ii .. of ,ho.< who d id ""oWly suffe' hon,a ""'Y ........ , iml<a!.
l""""Phile hi>ton.n. tr.i hapognphcn; hod CVO:'Y n:u>n.o n.ame n.a ...... Soch
wn,... "",,,,,,*1 no opportunity bomi..h ,he
of Leo JJI tr.i

,ho, ""'"






Coruc:"";M V. bu, cJ..r IOund "'"

ot. con,,", ,hril ~ ....
..... U""(hlnp wi'" I" ,iaims. S,eph<n. it is toUt. rtfu,...,J ,o>ign .... xu of
71--1 bu, """" of,be _fUll bb..... h.. d<.o,h .... , .... refWaI. A~ ,he KaI,.
biK nuy 1...." b<m .. tadrd for h" de>oooion <0 ........ bu, ,h.. is "'" dw-.
John, hpmm of M~ ...... ,h"""'.... in.., ,....... bu, ... ""'1 _u 1..""

0"'"", of c;.,.,"'mi",,, ",mp"isn "Pi ....

monk... h ;, .. m... . lubk ,I."

"" mon ..,ie: ~gu .... an ... ,!>own ,,, Iu.....pok<n up for illUfiC> J urin, , ... 7"=>s.

.,1 ,I,c (une...1o...ion of ,he ""nophil. Pl.o,o of S. kioudiun ,how. Ih.. he


oble 10"""" . bout qlli .. (""'!y ,nd ,hoo t I,c I,ckl offici.1 roo;,;"n, HOund m'In ,h. end. ,h.,. ,.. p"'iod of inn.., "ntimon .. ,jc " ,h'il)" t..-twn 76") .nd
767.nd , I,cn "Pin in nJ-71 in ,h. Throlc.. ion oJ .. me. N<>n< 0f,hi, .... ivi~"
obviowly or ncsw"ily COfInea..J ...i,h 'h< ""n<..'ioJo nt p>hibilion of icons.
The ,., .. of Socphm ,he rounga " moo'
Ahho"gh i.....tho. 1O..p.,
[0 pnMde long ",.oJoguc of WO<S, the Ct..fuJ ,...J,er an ..., ,Nt the roIln .....
con,ncd '0 win S,cpheto 0Vft and tried ...... y .....""",, .............. .Jw: ...!.
S,<plo.m ..... h.>ndl<d wi,h h:l gIova.'"


I IOun.l .... """'''tI~ n"id<na fOr p ....I."ion in , ......... of Leo III . ond
"""" I "'I"'" ,..., ,line io ....,. link .mdrnct '" oM Iw-ryi", of ironop/Iila in
, ... , im. of Co.,...n, i... V. In 1.<0:0', rrij;n I de,..,...J pnood of iconapbcbic
"",i.i,y riBl1' ."",nd ,he yar 7,0 wirn. p<lOIibly. ",me
in the,...,..
betwccn 71\ ood 710. 0...';"8 oM rei", o(Con ... n';1I< V . ........... , ,ime of
in .. n.. icooophohi, in ,I>< ra' Of IWO preadlng ,I,c "" ..
of ~ .no! ,hen
pouibly in , he rnid7600 OJ , he .m",,'''' souW>' '" ooIidiry. hi. rule agoin .. ,.,.,.
.... "i(, oppo.ilion .nd C<III p '''<mP"'. In othe. wo,d.. ico,lOCl.. rn is "'" ,he
"0<}' of Ih, cigl"h o<n'u'Y in Byz.omium. I, i. on oo>;"n. l. Ilxi, m<mor.>bk.
in ,ho, >!ory.



Wh., iml'><t did icooocl .. m h~"" 00 ~It! Fo, ~II of ,h. "7~" brtwttn 7'j
.no 84' onl)' """my [0 ",enl}""fiv< works of.1t e>n be o:ruinl)' iden,ified ..
dc;"orcd o[ <ovcml over. We ~Irady -"'<n [h .. i, i. by no m",n' d""
wh .. , if 'nphing, h..pp<ned '0 [h. OulH im>g< in [he .i"", of Len III Tho
f.,h ... of II Niata ,.id ""'ni,hingly 1i.1I "","[ ,,,i,,ed ", work.. 0 ". ,pt".h,
mentioned . book with I"" im'g<" th" " ... ,h,n"'n into. fire.nd .nother
with p>g<> t/;"",,;"t irnogc< ,hat "'eTC Cut o"t_lthough the I..." book', Cffi.. "
with .i)... , im.w::< of ... in" ..crt unJ'nl"l;ed. A""th" .p.. kcr ,..01 tl,,, in hi'
ei!), ,hirty boolt ........ h,,,"ed_ ""p' ,,,,,,,.J number ,,,.1 '''gtlC , .. t;
moo)" .. to whcrhcr the boob wet< bu'ned to <lm",y ,hei , ,m. g<'> or their .",u.
y., .t>Oth . pc:okcr ",id he h.d.n Old T.."ment with. Sf"hofium on im.gc<
,hOI hod """'0 erased .Ibei, "'" .IOcompletely ,h.. it ,ould 00' "ill be....w. Two
other 'I""'hr> ooml'loi"ed of boob f,om which I"'g<> hod bccn CUI com.ining
.....pcc'ivtiy. KCount> of the Grnol"'n. iron . nd the Abt;o' im'l;<. The 1"',,; .
rch him>df offt,cd in e,.. iJ<ncc. book from I,i. "".. lib,.!}' th.t ..... miS>ing
oJl . he PO&'" on im. g." Whe ... book. . ... oontt.ncJ, ,h.". i. ""'''''' II.,. ,t..
iconQciutl WC"' mn", UlloUI
",mo" ing im. gt' ,t'lIth;," th~y ""e.t , hom
,nipping im.g them",lvd.
The bestknown "'''''' of da.truction or rem",.. I . re in building< with which
tho cmr<mr> h.d impo"'''' """"i.,m",. ,.. Fo, in,,,oc<. , cyck of New Tes.,men. inuga in St, M.!}', church in BI",he,n.i w:u rcploccJ with IOli'S., .nd
on...r depiction. of lit< .i. rouncib Ln the Mil",n of the imperi.1 pobcc ,,~
plucd with ....... of durio, I'2C<S_ Only in 768/6<) did P",i.h Ni= ..
repi.a: mWlio", ofO"i... nd [he uiou with <roooc> in the ",,tum of ,he
p'''''-uch.1 p>Lou. '" J usti";.,, II 1",.1 I>"t the i"'>g< of CI,,;n 0" I,i. cuin.
" it..,... Ill. Comuntin, V. nd Uo IV put .m. 1I c"""'" on .hei, roim.
Thi ...... I.... n ... of iron"d.. m. ht)WC>.. " ,h.n. ,eturn to <>rli.... h.m", of
",,,,,i,n,,,i, ico""U'phy_' .. Ni.:ct .. >.I"" sc .... "if ""n< "",.,<a . nd f""""""
in ,he p",i.,~h,1 1'.1""" ,<><I,cJ ""'" ",h.. image> ,he,~ . nJ in ,h. ",b ... m.ion. H~ m.y h." n",.cd <Om' im.J; ftom the golleCf b'd of H.g;.
Sc.phi . '... A, de' Itbl1',i Ius poin,cJ ""', mud> more.n ..... poin,cJ ov .h,,,
Jestn:>yN,. point . o"firmed by the fomou< ,mni.. ure ,n the <>rl)' nin.h-ccot"Cf
KhloJo. I'",her d.picting.n iconoc!." whi......,hing '" im.g<. ,,.
I" the pruvi",""" icon"cl..", ..... ~e'1' "~nlr .pplicJ. In the " oimi.
cl!u,<h to Ni<aca the .pse m""i< ...... <hipped out .nd "'l'1.ccd with. <",s.<,
Th. ",me "', . done 11 H.,.i", O..-;,J in S. I"n"". But .h. churehcs "fS . ()"m.,.
Itiul ",d S'- George in S:tlonic> were undisturbed ,,., u,,,rgical.n "'., <:<p,... ly



'l"n:d by ,he """ncil of 7!'" which .I.., flied p = ' vandali,,,,.'" W< ,..,.
.iud .hove
S. S.cph.n w.; .blo .lir! p>pl. to "",nf sof. "<2$.
Th. fO<l ,h..:o, (XImp.>n,i""ly linl. ~" . "noi."" r'm" .h. h<~nl.n'" of'M
Brun[in. Empire during [h. i""",:>cbs' ''''r:! m~" . m.<d"on:. Ix .",ib",abIc ' "


OIh... h..:o n ... nron d""'><1ion."'" Th. """" w:L!I oflicuUy iconoplw>bic
.~, I"'''''' ,of .<t. The oflie .. 1ehoo",h . h. church
of [h. bi>hops. w:u p<.fOf i"""OVOOhi,. M.ny """,,,,"'ion, must h, ,,, be."
I"". 1Oi> w:L!I .r.~, a tim. of <k>p< ... ", milit.ry ch.U.. "!;".. fr~u<nl n>tu ..1d;"'"
t." ......<II .. ma;O. fi",nciak kpI . nd admin; .. ",.iv< ,d"o".... Thc Sf' ''' w.u
<p<nding mont)" bu dd"", on
"f any ki nd-p.>lxn. church ... civic
>",,,,,iti,,. nl< foct 01 ... ioon ...d . ..
Put up hleri. and n"u .. listie
Ian .. ,ugg<>'> ,h..:o, .hey w.n: n.;,her op p<i .0 ,n .. such nor a<>,h .. ic bun,!'""
kin~ '.. Tht)" .imply opp<cJ imaga of Ch.i ... and p<,h..:oI"
of M>ry .nd
.he .. in". Bu,. m oonch,dc, II.... W;U no ... hoksal. destructio" of"n in .h<
.igh[h cen.ury. an)' more .h..:on ,he.e w;u .... n1On p<fKCUfion ofico"ophib.


,h. <uun ...,. .I.... yo

<TTl""'. ."


Emp.ess I'e ne . nd II Nic...

Arre, long reign wh .... m.ny


h..:o"" be.n oMcu,cd by irunophik

w.i ..... Con".n,i", V died in n! . He" ...... ua:dcd by hi>,.,., L..., IV.



only umil 780. from >om. rema.k. by Tlt<opru"to .nd fN. oth"
<Catttfed bi .. of i"foITm.ion. hi"on.n. h...., co nd..dcd [h>l Lro rel",ed cu""n,
pmhihi[i"... on ,h. cull "f M.ry .nd "",encd h .. f .. M.', .h..:o'l' "I'J"O'i.i"n [.,
,h. monk>. Why h. 'ook ,h... ''1" .. "'" d<>., I" ""Y .... , "., _ICc tq><>IU
.ny <"Oo<"T<IC "<f'$ k,""
im.g<>' '" .h<;. wonhip<" , 5om< monr.. ,...,,"
.ppoin,I ro key offices. indooing bi>hopri",. ,"d wlt<n ,b. ico'lOphobc p.>tti.h Ni"", .. dOc-d in fllo Lro 1<01 .. hi' .UCC>of [h. C),!,'OO[ P.ul woo
" .. ;.,.J ,,, ........... himlf o~ OCCOOnt of. he igning "",toy:' .<Co.d ing ro Throph.n .., \lihc,h., 1'.,,1 w.u . ct".lIy.n i<:unopbil< i. difficult
bu' Lro did
m.oh him -I>I'CIe ... ">lh 00' [0 w".-.hip im.ges''"



Irene from Rq:em


8 ...,li..,.

Whcn Lro dil he left hehind. nin<. ~= """ld ",n, Con..",in. VI. ."d rem.rbbk wid"",. lreot. B=..,..Ire"" ."mmonl ,h. Nicen. COI,, PUt
.n . "d ' 0 e;gh,h-<.",,,'J' ,-,>,>ntI .,m ...... kco"",. he",,,,. cv<o figure
.m<>08 1>.., Konophil. ",rittn. Thus i. i. 'mport>nt to undt""nd her si.uation

8)"<.>.n,il>< Iconocbom 7'

pri.tly .nd '" 00 .."'" try cotdUlly who, .he actu. lly did. fo, ins"n,e, Thc<> .... Y' ,ha, .nc, r .ul w,.. consccr.u<d .. p.arri. rch lOrn< co"rr officiol.....",
di,mis"'" "'hen i, was di!Cowm,l ,hat ,hey had im.ges ,n thei[ f'O"C<'ion,
",h<le" 'he m""h 1:0.., Ccdren u hc" <Ire "Of}'10 [ha, in lou 'dling 1",,,< had
i"'"ll"" unde, her rillow>. '" '11><", i, "", ... lIy no ..,lid "",den:
]"'''e " ...
p>rrieul. rly iro!lOphile, .i,hcr befo" 0' ju>! .f.., ]80, h iI, .her .11. hard '0
heliOY< <I... , Gon". mi"" V wo,,1d luvt I"',miucd hi, ddes, .<on .nd I'>"ml"'.e
h.i, , h"" m. rried. k"o",,, im. g< "",,,hi peT, 5<:holo" haY< nOf emb[:occd che
ideo [ha, lreoe, ... worn.", was mOre indined '0 "'",lOphili. ,h.n. m.n "'(mid
ha b:n. 11>< old nOfion ,Iu, bea. .... ,he was on A,hen"" 1"',1< ", ..... Id h"'e
.uprone<! im. g<> cion ... from . n,iq"><cd jU><>f'O'i,ion, of "Htlkn"''' . nd
"A>,,,,c" ",n.,bil'tin tI.. , 1,0<1. lot of eulrency. ''''''m)' >go ioU! no 1':iI1""".1I
todor.''' Th. poin' i. ,h.., in ,h.)'a" ju>! .f.., 78<>. I,en. de<idcd to "'..""
official poiiq
hi Imoo, impossible '0 a ' !\IIero ,he J,Aimhy "f I... "c', po. i,i"" in 7lIo.
She "-;U 'egen, fo, h., IOn bu, had no independent powct b.s<: of her own , She
had ~vc broth ...... i,,-I.w. "'n' ofCom-tan,in. V by. I"" m.iog< ,lu.n [he fin!
o"e ",hieh had 1'><10>:<1 I..." IV, wh" h.d d"m. "n ,he ,hro.,. "Ie.., good
.. ,host "f h,,," ... " Com"'n,ine VI. 11>< .rmy .nd admini" ... io" h.d
b:n orefully ruhiv:ucd by Con".""", V .nJ owed I",ne "",hinS- Mili",y
,lore, ,, ",rroundcd
rOll"'" with ,hr t.,'a of ,lor oliph , ",host .nnu.1 in_



COrne was pmhobl)' .iun <0 .;gl"",," ,;"' .. S>'" ,~'" llyunt,um'" ""''''"''''ing ,he dirQ' ,h. lleng<, 11>< OrrhOOo. Chun;h was S<p1"ucd (rom.1I OIh.,
Ch,i ...." romnmni. ies ..J, p. rricul .. ly owing '" "Aici.1 ""nod" m, had l>ocn
di.ided from C halcrdoo;'o Ch,u,u". k>,. half e<" '",),.'''
Fo,,), doY' oft coming '0 powe' lrenr f:occd >o'l'i",<:), led by ... riou.
p>u.:" d'g";""" who w....... iog on hehalf ofNi:phoru . ,b. rides, of hrnr',
bro[he,,;,,l:ow. Shc m,n>g<d co p"""il OV'c' I.. , opl"onrn".oo beg>" ]JUtting
hcr 0"'" peopk into Iy I""i,io," ufpowc" She 01 ... bcgon '0 rule mo", '" Ie"
in ~, own n,nl< .. b.>J;jiJu ond. ,n ,hi. cop><;'r. hr ."..hcd hr""lf [hr
mo" p<>,e", "'p<eI of ,hr m.","'}' of Con . ..",i,,,, V, She ini<i. ,cd ",iliu<),
compo,igns. In thr E.o5t 'he>< ,,,,,,I,cd in " .. ful [ru", in ;rti, where .., in ,he
B.llan. henc', k>''''f ><",. 11)' won n,*., .i"",';e> ."d ,ro;"..,cd ",,,ito,ies. In
;11' lreo .<en, .nVO)~ '0 " K.wul,,'" to .n~ui tr . bout' m. nioge .11;',,:, Onr
n y i"f., (,urn d,i. init""i"" ,h .. I",nr w. , <king rnd hcr diplo .... ,;., 0010
,ion from ",h.. Chn"i.n
\I,hil 110 .,,~m p, ing.'n p."ic"b" tu ..,d.
[he mm" of 1",ly, Th .. i. i, """,IJ 'P]>e>J' thot [",n. ,,'" prqrcd '" ttdr ,0
Ch. rI"" ond ' 0 hi, pm<<'gO, 1""""';"" of n" "I",,,, .,Id :"". 1 if thr
Fran"'oo ,he po,p>ey would. in fU m, gi,-. Ilyun,ium. (... lund in [it( lOUth ,






P,.sum.bly ,he l..,mMrd dochy of Rc .....en,o ,",',", '0 .."'e .... kind of buffe.
In 'he midI' of this hn,je .ivitr, Throph>n.... )~. " T he pi"", ~n
t<) 'P<'".u. f-=ly:" " Aim"" minly ,h'" """',,, ,I" n~,nls ... ho Iud I:on ,h,..".
enl .nd "",,,i un.lIy r,t,Uiud in """,n, ytlrs. During ,h .... rurs. ha!iaJly
780 '0 78~ . ,he W1.I no' 1 word .oou, images.
In;14 'he "" n.rch 1'.,,1 fdl ill. "" itCd fmn. office .... ,I .."etCd mo"u'CT)'. On bcing ... kcd wh)' he ....d done th ... , P.ul ... id he " .... dply lI'ie-I ,\u.,
his mUlch w" ..",,,,,I from .11 mh" Ch,iMi, ... He inoi,tcd ,\u., ther< wo.
,><I of.n <"CUmcoial synod '0 upoi' ,he d,m.S" which , in ,he cin;um".nces,
Gin only ! m.. n' ,he decision. of ,he Council uf Hiei. in 754. Given p.ur.
lttCtanct to ..."m. <I.. ]>Otri.rd>al ' hrone in 71k> becou of ",he igoing
heresy" mud> ring< trite in the '<pO" of hi, """,n, in 78+'" On Pml" W""'iun. 1ncop1" .... "' ..... " . Th. que"i"" uf ,he holy icon. bogon '0 be di""",..,a
.nd dispu,I h) ...eryone ... '" Irene .nd Pml hod .ppointed known iconophila
bi<hupria. monks hod gutn , f.vo,....ble to, from ,h. gin,. . nd ,h.", hod
betn no h".,il. "",ions .g>ins< .i,h., .nu g.. '" inugc wo,.],ip"" io moof fC''''
Pe,h. ps, th.,dQ. ,.. id".1 """'ophil ... huhNI '" ,h. ",rf..u in ,h" mo f._
o",N~ . "vimnm.,,,. r.,\u.I'" '00. In<, .. movement from which >h.
couk! pro~,. o. ""rh<. cv<o. which >h< c<>o,ld le.d. <"""" !;.,.j .he '""noph
,I ... " r ..... ibly. in the i"geni"", "'88<'1'iun "f M k Whitt""" Iren .....' ',,'0... ,ion of iconophil;' .. ,he "n<tt>'l' r~lu,iun" thot would <r~at< u, men'
gonuine , uP!"''' for h., in. wo,ld wher<: he, po<i,io" \u.d been plCC:iriOttl-'''
Ik ,h .... i, ""y. icolll wc bock 0fI ,he 8yz.ontinc Wn<b for ,he Ii ... ,im.
,in I'. ul hod pmn,i;cd "'"
wo .. hip .hem in 7lk> and ,inu p ... io",h Niu5
hod cov<rcJ up irn.go in ,he paui.teh, 1 1",1"" in ,he
760>, '''o,h
mind .. of j"" how infla1u<ntly i""go "'e topic of mojo, ""nnti"n in ,he
"A~ of I>noclm. "
But when ,he ci'CIOm.unca of r.u r bdica,ion 1 ... mined mo,~ d"",dy
SOme perulio.i,i.. cmetge. P.ulobdict,n1 on Aug" J'. 714. ThrophonC'S givt:<
us this dote . nd "Y' , hat when 'he I"",mcd o( Paul'...i'hJ"'....1 Ircr>< . Iong
with her .on. _n' '0
him , ask why he hod cione 'his. H. ,old he, of hi'
distfCU .. koJing. church ..,p.... 1 frum.1I o,helS. On hanng thi' Inc .. n,
fO, ,he "'chief men of rhe Sen. ,,"" so ,ha, ,hey could h"" r aul". word. and hi,
coli (or an oxumenicol rounciL '" Wh,u i, p<=1;', is. fifil of oJl, t\u.t [one \u.d<n '0 Pop" HuI,;,n on Aug"iI 19. 784 (the let",. bea .. the da", [V Kol.
Sq>,. Io>dicr. VII), Iom,,,,ing ,h. I.mg_ ... nd ing opposi.ion '" in"ge' .nd invi,
ing ,b.]>O]><.".n ecumenical council. '" Second. ... Y' in her \0:"., ,\u.,
,he hod been .. Iking 'OOut ,hes< very "'>tt"" fut to IX.: wi,h 8;'1op Co"",nt.
in. of~ntine in Sicily """om ,he ..." now .. nding to I~odfi.n. The leI,e, .lso




rncntil)n; the bishop of N.pb in ""y th .. might imply tlut he tOO h.d
bc<n in",l,cd in .lICn di.,am"'n>. '" O"'''I\o<>l<y thought tn .. 1'.,,1 hod l>on
p<"ua<kd to .bd"" ... '" nu, i. """,illk. bu, i, mol' ,Iso be ,he c/o< ,h" Th .....
ph.n", Ius .imply comp r.....J """"" .nJ ",cord! .hem , ligh,ly ou, of order.
I'orlup> did W:ln' council 1I\J h< 1I\d I",ne migh' h,,'< hn .. Iking
"",oring im>gel. holding. cooncil. . nJ id<n,ifying ' n..... p.... i.. ch for
some ,,"Or.. or month, bdO", I'.ul vKi:ltcd hi. ,h,on.,
A, """. point .n 1'.,,1 died I","" go,hen:d ",11 ,he people" ",h. M'g_
n..". I',b", .nd told .he", tl.., it ..... n<a<sary t<J ~"J .... Ol.>"< ... ho i. ,hi.
to .end u' !il.e . Ihqoh.rd .nd t<, fonify the Church with hi. ""rd. ofinstruc,ion," The Jl<Opl< we .. uno"ionom in ""lLing fo' the chin itnl"''') "':""ry.
T..... i"'. )",n< <.lid th ... he too "i,hed fur T.",i ... to become p. uior.h bu,
h...... "heing diO<>beJi.", . Th u" ,h. put l ..... ,iw before ,he ,hl"<)"& ond
",ked him to < himself. He ddi"C,ed long .pm:h in which he .. id .
p~i=blr. ,Iu, he ...... ""P"'l,,,ed . ltd ",,,.... ,,,hy .",t. mo,"'~'. ,h" h. """Id
"'" in good ronicnct .Cctp< the k.dcnl'ip of . chutch . h....... cu. "fT lTom
.11 ",her Ch,;n"", of ,II< world. Ag:tin .nd 'Vin he i",;,ted on ,he need fm
cedes,,1 uniry. Fin. lLy ,he people .r;reed th .. the"' ...... need lOt . <ouneil, Then .
, ifro rtmind .ltem (tnct mOle wl\o.t "llI . t ,take. T.ras;", said th.t 111 hod
d<mo)'ro ,he iron. 1I\d Iud u.,.., . n .neiem runom of ,he eh",eh. '''' On
Dro:mbcr Ij. ;84, neo" )' fu'" full mo",h ncr r,ul", . bdia,i"". Ta .... i"' .......




Onct .goin obi, n..... ,i,o i, decep,i,... ), i. ligni6",n, ,Iu, hene". hi, of
.hea'er" ,h. M'g"",,. WU no, ...oged un,iI .rtcr p,ul died? Why".... good
1<o<h . nd postor onl~ '0 bc fuund . mong the r.:.)' digni".i o( ,he 1"1au~
Giv." ,hOI T....;........ "being diO<>beJi,m. bow long h>tl he hn Ji ...... i,,&
'he I""i"elul office w;,h hone' Why"'" he ..1",lOm' Th. "<!I;on orT..... i" ...
pm:h <on .. incd in the I)'nodol ",ta of II NiC1<:il difl'cn from Throplton"'"
"""unt in ono interesting ,es(11: It ... }~ ,Iu, "some few" people in the crowd
",h< Mogn,,, ... di ...g...,ro wi,h ,he ;de~ "fholding' coo"ci1. '" ['lup. ), ...
,;'" h.d .. hc.I,hy f.,.", "r ,uch ~'pl< '" l"'rI"P' h< ... d I"<:n< ""''' ,,<ork; .. S ,,,
ov<rcome opl""i,ion . T.....;u, " .... bym' n .nd h>tl '" bc ""hed ,hrough ,h.
d.rial g.. des befOtc heing """"",.. ,<.1 p",;.tch. hen so, i, ,,,,,k. long ,;m.
'0 .",h"" .. him. The 0PI"";""" moy h.v< bee .. "iff ,h,,, .he ia ",upl,il.
"'~t"<"c! imply.

T.",iu. wr<>t< ' 0 Pop< Hodri.n '"~ ~nn"un<. hi. d,;"n ,nd.o pro("" hi,
M,h",lo'y. Thi, I.. ,.r i, ,,'" <m", ..... , ,h... ,,"';V< , frnm <kroI><, of ~5.
H.d,;,... ""ron"" '0 both h"ne .nd Con,un,ine VI . nd '0 T..... iu . ". f rom
'hese k " .n we Ic>rn th.ot H.d,ion " ... told tlut hoth the rulers .nd thc p>tri.reh



wc'c planning
rollncil. "If," ",id ,hc p<>p<. hi, i. im""",il,rc.o
, he
ooly .nd ""n.",ble i/mg<S wi.hou, ,"",ncil. " ,hen kt On< "" hold
wiU. in
,h, p,.,..,nc. of [he I"'P" kg:>, ... . "",h ,,,,,,.i.., <he ~d<:>>un<iI of 7H Fo'
hi< kg:>' "'" I"'p" eho .. "" Ron,.n .rchpries, I'... r (ba,ically "'" he.d of ,he
ec:d<>i",ti",,1 p<""",,,,1 of <he Rom.n Chu,ch).1><1 . nothe, 1' ... [he .bbo[ of
[h. G,..,k mon""ic communiry ~(s,. S. b.>.''' It nuy he oigni~an, ,ho, H._
d,;,n did no[ .,,,><1 high. ranking o<o>Lar ck'iCl. /'of i..... ncc. one 0' """ of ,he
... bumi""ti." 1>1.,'1'<- It nuy .!w be in.l"'tu", ,ho[ H.d,i>n ",'" G_k
~ki ',& .n,O)'.'''' On
won<k .. jf i, i< coinciden,.1 ,ho, ,h. ''''''' "f I'....
",,,, '''''' "'en ,,,,m.,,!
h> "'p''''''' hin,
H..J .... n". kIte .. '''' in"iguing in o<"VC<>I =p<c... Given ,h.. '",ne ,",'ro
'" him in ,,",. Augu;r of ~. "'lry did Ire " .. it m"", ,hon ~, '" rnpond'
\1Vhr .... he cool '0 ,he ide. of. CO\InciJ? ,:r:r ~I i. bo ., .'tUm.n .. m.y provide
,he ...."". '" [I.;' '1t><><;'," , H.d .... n >l id i.... " emly ,ho, hi< p,cd<>OQ'" ';no:
Grq;ory II hod been entreating CoMt,,,,tintrple', tulen t" put the bctc<y
"f >co"""I,,,,, , In
,h. ""un.iI of rn ... '" compk-rdy ill<gi,im"" n" Iegi,i.
m ... w:1..""ic:o! forum Iu.! pronounced on inug. .nd .., ,here .... n""'\
only to rerum'" the ttu. f.i,h. Th. I"'P"', krte ... f< fi,1I <>f P." i", referenen.
lhey pc-" ally .,..... nd <mph ' ,h . .. "h."..,~ of ,he hi>hop "f Ron" ..
"...,', ."e<:eso<>'. H.d,"" W>.n" ,he C .... '0 >okn."..r<tlge 1,,,,1. hi, (>W~ .~ .
tho'it~ . ,><1 ,he ancien, ,~i,i",,-, which h. ,r><! hi! pled..".."" h, ,,,, 01..-.".
f.;thf"lI y 1", .. " Hadti." . 1.. , ,.,iJe"i o,h .. "."'.", T........ u... ho .. i"K been de.. texl w the p",tiarch.1 "fficc /i"m the I. ily: the f"" ,h .. ,I.e impetUl_'4 calls
T. ""i", '"ecumenical''; the mureh provinc", . nd revenues seized by Lro li t
p"1"1 ,igh" '0 ord'in .hbi.hop' .nd bi,h"!,, in .omh.,n 1.. lr. H>tltian .Iso
..,.. thot only i( the Eal'rn ",k.. hoW tightly to r .. ti"< te.ching." the great
King Ch ..... does, em ,hey
'0 ho""
Fi n.lIy, h. "')~ ,hot on.
thing hi, l<gotd will do i, mal him '" mo[e <:dt>in" .bou, the
of ,he p". h on ... hieh Coo-""m inople 1m <:>'idently emb.>rlcd. H,drian', Wl)fds
on inuS'" PfOJ"'" '0 which T.h.1I .urn in d< ..iI in Ch,.,.., J nu,bbly
.... ".i"td. The By>~nri'", docun""n,, l.y p,im.ry"""" on ,r,. .... 'v~.,i"" "f
uni<r in rJ .. chICh whik the I"pal !er.. rn'ptwioc: palul ."thorit~, In~
ploy .n oddly "",""dory rok "",. in tl.e- dr.lma of which , norm.lly .... n
the title r:horacrc". And the I"'PC .Irn' I<so than confident dr..t r..: .... II~
know> wh" i, going on in ,he wt.
The East ...n k.rning how ro .....Jk "" ~hell" A council ..... i"<ked
.ummontd to meet on Augu .. '. ]86. and. pc[ ...... jwt
heating from the
p<:>p<. ....,'. disp .. ch.d [0 ,r..: w'" P",ri.or.. inoi,ins ,he", '0 COOl,. 0'
rel'l<$MIt.t; . .... he ... tJ'UCC of 781 wi,n ,r,. caliph ..... "ill in plaa .nd











i, m'r !u."" bn pos<ibl. ", g<' m~<$ though. Unf(>ftu",",d). ,he 'ruct
,!I,ps! in]IJ~ ,nd ,h. E.>t"n ,burc h.. "..... l"<f'r<S<n,,,,j (>Illy by [W<) m""h

who ""'" u"co'w "i,h gl<"

~ hu,

wl..>s< offici.1 !t>nding is "'"


H"", ""my bishops Iud .... mbl<tl in c;.;",,,.n,inopic by b July of 786 is
"0, kn'...... n. hut ,hotely be/"o,"" ,he ,:""n,il co,,1J begin i" wo,k on A"8Ust 1,
T. ""i", leo,,,,,,! ,h., m,n)' bi,hop< ,nd .<Om. !.ym<n w<:'. "ill icon"d , $I, , ,,.1
t/u, 'h<y wert ",temp,ing '0 prc\"<m ,he council from mc<"{ing. , .. Th. p'uim:h
IQrhaJ< mmingo .mong ,uch
Th< bishop< h.d b<"<n calk<! to mm in
,I>< pol:K< bm weI< ,old '0 ....,mhk in tb< Church of th. Holy Al""'tics br ,h



uk". No ""'"." hot! ,h. n,...,i"s b.gun ,lun local

il\,-ad<t! tlr< proc~.
ingo to bf"COk ,bern up. The iCQnophobo bi,ho!" 1<"1>0 did no< "":In, council
.hout!. "'\1:'. Iu,'c ,,on .
di,b.nd 1>1" ;om. of
b ishops.nd thei, military 'rmpo,hi" ,tayl around long .""ugh to read . nd
.flirm the di,;.,o. of H i.i . Th.n """~....... won' hum .
10"<"<. ,><'>, roo ... ,,",I< b ,illi.n,. '" 5h< .. nt St, u':Kius. h chief .upport
in ,I>< impe,i.1 adminis",,,ion. '0 Thne< '0 pe"u:oJ. ,I>< ' roo!" ,h.I< '0 I><lp
1><, ,id ,I>< 'iry of ,h. d"loyn '1'OOfI>. Th.n. 'mOd rumors of.n Arab .>ok in
[hc Easr, ,he 5(n, [hc rtbelt>gm;uic [1'OOpS om of [he city, .no whcn [h<y had





",,,1tcJ ,h. r. ..., impo"'''' ">ging 1""" ...., tho ",.d t<> the F.a<t<tn frun'i., .....
a.hi.kd th<m. W ith koy>l troop' in con,rol and th< dilloyal on .. di<mit.><d.
Irene h:oJ li"k '0 f.1t from
m,hop,. Aec.. ,d;ng]y. >h<- eoll<tl fu, n....
cuu,Kil '0 m<ct at Nica<, in Sopmbc:r of 787. Ni<:K:I ~ clos.: to Constmtin.,.
pl. ho, jus, f" eno" gh '''":Iy '0 , ...". > oense m lCCu,i,y. Nica<. "":l< in ,he
Op.ikion ,hem. ,,hoo< comnunde, ...... . 10)">1 '1'1""'"''''' of Irtf"\( '. Th. ciry
i,stlf hot! dp his,o,i",1 roon,nee> wi,h ,he ~rs, eo>lncil held th .... in J~S "td.
",,". inly 'lui corneio ... ly. I",n . in ch OO>.iog Ni=:o. "",an, fo, cv<~"n< to
d.. w ]..11.1. hetv," "n h<l-"'" .nd Con".ntin< , .... CI<">.' .nd betv.ttn h<lself
a nd ~Id . .... ,h. "'m<tl moth" of ,he lim Co ... ,.nti"", S'ill. ,he ..... n" of ;U
,rood .. , di<quicting .. m;nd .. of th. hl.lrdlcs th .. 1' ;n tho ], h of .ny .tt<mpl
IQ ......." ..... -"" ' ' ' n/:'y ," ,;" r ),.", oft <.>ffici.ll"'licy.


Th. ba,ic story of tb< 5<-rond Couocil of Nico<o Iu, bn ,old nun)' ,im<> ,nd
,h .... i, no f"COSOn '0 re .. 11 ,Iu, -,,0'Y.'" It
highlight b.,i. i....... The
.,,," ,, of 714, .Iong wi,h d .. ""di<tl dil'k",..,i< .mbigui,ies of Hodri.n .I<lt.......
pi", ,h. tum"I"IOU' cv<"" of 786 "ill h.,-. combi,t<tI ' 0 t".d, To .. ,i", ",.J

,,,Rica ,0

I",n. rlur rhq Iud ro rr=:l vel)' cm:fully-<t> if not ro br<~k ~Ir,clb. Th<
Lrym<n . nd d.ri" .... ho .houtl at T.... i... in 78 .. and "'bo di""ptl ,I>< COUncil of 786 we",' group ro I,. =koni wirh. lIur Iwno.' I>lge: ...... rl>< group' No
f\tMI,., Lry OJ>pQOirion <mergl , Iu fo' ,h< <>gnUr", rmops. ir st<ms lik<ly rl",
.hq "-'''' mur. 1oy.1 to ,he rrn:m<>ry of <:Onrlantin. V.<><I ", hi. polic;" tlun
they ,,-.,. to i>o""I"m p<T se:.''' Whet. ,h. bishop<'r<: '''>no::rnl it i. w.1l to
be" in mind th. "",r.J."f on< of t ~<>k .... 100 .... fOC(O.OcilooJ in 787. After Iu";og
be<n . Ii<<<l whcth he: .nd ,h. othet iconoph<>bc b"hop. h.d be<n ,",,"'tained
r" . dopr rhcir herny. Hyp.ui". ofNia<:o ... id no bur "'we: ,.'e,.. born. lucated .
nd IV"'" up in rhi. h,rny ,,( """."" " Th< ~ !"'i" .. of ..,"..... i" h.. "<>:P'
fu,.n unknown nurnbe, of putati..,ly i",nopnik b"...,p.< "I'!",intal bctwcr:n
~o . "d 787.~"'"
in ,I,. llyumin< Empi'" was. " I""" officially. an
i",nopbolx. Some of ,hes< men wer< ptrh.p incrt< in ,hei, hdid"., Orh.A
wcr< .1....)" IuJ bn, 'luire prcpam! to rrim th<i,"'1$ to th.c pr<Vailing wind .
It i. in""ting th .. th."' .... n<V<'t. couoter paMy in tire ch,,,th. We )"'1f of
no otpniu:d or "um<tou, 0p!",,,,,n,, in ,he yea .. ~n no .nd 714. in ,he
y<' " .round Hi<:",; "r in the pt.iod ,J",i"8 and followin~ II Nicaa. !d'houp.
.... n,. pt<Jplo ""'''' willing '0 ,.1 mod"" " .nd fo< icorwd..m in 78 .. and
'!p ,n in 796, ,10,"' .... no la,S" I"rty , .... , wa< willinS ,,-, ,..:,iGee <V<'Y'hin5 ro
dden,1 ,he ........ of leo IJI ,nd Con ...",io< V'''' lIur, I.,. "'" rq>e>r, tl,.", was
nu diKc:mibk iconopl>ik pa " y in ,he u.u.-cl> .fr 7)0.' ~ It 'J>p<><> ,Iu, images
wer<: bs im!"'rt...,t I,.rwn 7)0 .nd 787 th.n they became: in lat<, Y<'" .mong
ironophik wri'<,,- 11M: <Keprion rn.) be tho p>pa<j'. bur it..."." fai, to
,Iu, '''''8'''' in ,h<rru<Iv.. were: bs impo.m to the pop<> .lun ,he Lrrg< . nd
compit> """" of papal . u,hor"i,),
Anlong the ironophik ... , i" ...... h" I"., ,h. ;.,)nOO.... , ,I,.
nlonlJ we """,,ially promi""" " W. Iu .. ...,n ,Iu, monk. d id .,,~, from ,I,.
~mc: o r Con.",,,;,,. V h," .11" ,Iu, ,hty p"",,"bly did nor .. ,w." p,im>l;ly
because: of ,hei, i<onophil;" Still. tho monks ""' ., . n!>')' in 787 .nd ",:>.n,cd a
pnund of ironod... R<sh
lre:"" pooi';on ..... 'ridry too. She: was " ill ",ling ... "'Il"m for. hoy wIIo
" .. , yowing old all the tim< , WhOK')' """,Id rom< OOOn, .nd ... h_
.iews on ,he: grc>< i...... of ,he da)' " not publicly known. lr-.:n. may
h. 1'<: emb",e<d ,he: ironophiko '0 crcat< >om< d;,,,,= "'''''n h<nclr_ .nd
,I", h<. "",!-;>nd th.c Iq;u:y of Con".n,in< V, II", ,har ...... ",kuL.,ed II"m
bk. as rh. rro~ble ",used by ,hc 'mop! i n 7U mowed all too wdl, Iren. IuJ to
mol'<: "'Ul i"",ly.nd ,h< dam! no, indulge: in ,horoup.going
.... of t.." '",,'n .. ><I p.rtieuL ,ly h" >on'. <ly,"",y.
UM" ,he: baton of m..... O l '''''';u. "'')1 <li.<e<>nUn ' no .. w>s ",'oi,l.ecI.



",,,,,,,,,,i;, """"".


d,=,,~n ~f

ti,. Scc""d


or N,caca i, ono of ,h. moif ..",n;.hing

fe." in tilt hi"o')' of Chri""n"y .nd d

TI'e ",uncil opened w,tI, trne 1\' b,<!",p" l>t<r .... io". had .. " .. ,,~ .,
,6j . Thi, IUgge>U ,h., Ixtwn S<p<emlx, 1.4 .00 Oc,obe, 'J Tar. ,i", won
. nd monk 1", .<t<,>tIed,
1.'1;" ",,,sen,,,., One hundmJ ,nd thirty-o,1<
", ''''u.....Uy "i!;h " ""'...., . I,.".. "'red ',...y bu. w ,<p,,,..,,,ed by ]'1<",,,,
the of the OJ>>ikion tneme &nd th", tI .. loal mili .. 'Y "'nl!n.nd. and
b)' Jonn, the m'li .. ~, ~Qthet<, ,rusted cunuch ,J>1 As ">on .. ,he """neil
f. ,h ... had . ""mbled in ,h. Chureh of S" Sophi. , ,h. bi.hop. of Sicily nomi
n.. ed Tar";... to "I'<n the 'rnod ~)." ~ This provided him with the legiti_
m... p<;,;on h. nrokd to m.n>.g< .If,; .., Th. p.n;',ch .. mindrd ,h.


S",hcting of the .boned synod of 786 .nd (Of ,be mob tb .. n.d I""" ined up,
n. .. id, by "",,,,in bi,hops ",+rorn i, "'"uld be '0 identify hut wh.,.. n,mes
1 willingly p... O\'C'f"19WO-E), H. then "1<'Ml ,h .. the ruk-r. h.d ""mmoned
tI", Sj-nod. and h ..,ndudoJ hy in"i,ing in ''''' t.;.1>op< who Iud hocn ""pon.i_
1>1. 10, ,i><: prcvio", y " ,roubles (,oou\-C). Oh", ,he ''''' rn'imity of
u.rn bi,hops hod hocn >tIm,tted ...,ti, no qun,ion ... to thei, o!thod""".
Only' .... ,rouhkm:tl<cn of 786, .nd po.. ihly the .un-i'ing bi ..."", of Hi.reia, " ,
were oIudcJ f<Qm ,h. opening .i[... Tko< . moumed '0 [.n only, . nd 'no''''''
>ms ,,, h.. "i~...J, b;t 1... AI[..><Iy T..... i'" w.s di!pl'},ing mod .... tion.
Af[er h.. opening di""",roc, T....iu .nd [he o[h ... in~i[cJ [h< 0 exdudcJ
bi'hops to <nto'. Bdo.. w,ing tb.m .n y .h. n to .j><.k.l>w<vct. tbe rouneil
oo-d.mJ [h. ading of [h. imj><,i.1 iiU'nl, 0' b[~, of ",,,,,,,,,,,,.ion (,0010-


tOO7<:). r ,h.1I re'um oft.n ,hi, ma[l-bl. docum.nt. Fo, 'M momrn' it i,
enough to > bow "nth the wcmhkd bi,hops .od [h. dubiou, newl)' admi"cJ
""'''' ""'00 [ 0 ' d . .. ...m.n[ ,Iu, [he rouncillud m with impc,ial .",oo,_
ioy. 11'0"" and Con. n,i". ,pc.k of h"'" ,hry d<q>ly dima<cJ by ,h<
divi.ion, in the eh"",h , ll>ry deli,. to "hi"". "unity '00 concord. " '0 !CStore
"Iu. m"ny in t .... pric>tfto,.,J," tOt <:..-,hli,,, ,!S"'<nl<'" wi,b ,h. deci,ion. of to.:

old councils, '" "''''0'' the ,,,,i.n, ",I... ,,,d o'd ..... " 11>0 [ub..., th. , i, ,,-as

,h. f<><mer P",;,,,h 1', 01 who oJ,;,.,.! ,h<m of ,n.: I',obkm, 1><""";"5 'h<
ehreh, n.mrl)' tlut 0"" u n, inoplc .. <:><><I undr[ [h n,, ,Mm. of.1I ",her
Chti"i," communiti", b::to,. "th<J' ")' [Iu[ ",m< ,yn<:><! ot other"~ (<J~ VQ/)o\,
tLVU ),i;yQtl\Il) had botn hold [0 sub"," pic,ute> .nd im'g. l'.ullud .. Od [Iu[
council wu n='Y '0 ",,J,, ,Il< .un,,1I" ,,>tIh...i.... h" hi, p.M, would
only """"pt ,h. p' !fi.",lul oAi if .uch. <r'tOO wt '0 lot held. So . "'n"eil
h'" hocn Cliloo to b ting tb. d",t<h togbe, in tb. <taditio" oftbe foth.,,TIt... worn, having botn read 00[, ,h. of tho j",[ admiucJ bi,h,,!,>, 8 .. ,1
of An')..." Theodo,< "f My... . nd l1>eodosiu, of A"""ion , wer< l>rougl>, 10,

....1'<1. FWiI.poko ~"' . .. yirog ,h., he had .... rni....:! d,. i.... e bdO .. ,he COI"",I
and ""'" wished ' ' pp=ch , he C.,l>olic Church ('OO7O-,o" B) , fusil theo
"",d 0'" Ioog .od qui ...... di,iorul p""""ion of f.i,h ,,,,,,,,,rd ,I>< end of which
I>< emhnca! im>g<> of ,he inc.." .. e jc.~., of M.')'. mg<b. "P""i<s. I'f"ph",
m""y'" .nd .. inti , He ,hen deli ... ~1 ,he .rutl><,nu >vin .. ,h.osc wi", "d.,>dc.
Ch,ii. "," (,hot is., Ocooocb,;u) ... "..,11 as >pin" a series of ... ,hct demen",),
irooophobic .... """'. for iru""", that im.g are idols. n.: """<><il >ponded
'0 B.,il wi,h " Thank., be '0 G<><l who .... united w/u., had hem scp=oted ,"
8 .. il "'as ,hu. ",.dmiued '" full communion .nd Th""!"re 01 M,.... was
brougll! forw. rd. Hc tOO . lied to be reunirtd to the eh",eh and then '<od oot
d.. ,.mc !"'of.... ion of fai.h ,ha, B.;il had j,," .polocn (,oHG- D). Whcn T hrodOfe finimed . Euthymirn ofS.l'< "BI<SIoOd be G<><l who bas uni,ed him
'0 the Catholic Church." Nat Throdosiu he" ame forward ('0" 0-'015B).
H< . pologized fo, ..ying .nd '=hing "" much >vi"" im:ogcs lite m<n'ion, no
io.,,,,,,", ...... ) and that lit had .:<n , .... e,mr oflli. ""'YO and""", wi.hed '0
he "'uni,ed "ith ".11 oth., Chri"wOl," In S<$S;"n fivt of tI>e council ,,'e lcam
,hat l'hrod",,;u, t-l been pr.... n'.' H ie;' (,,: ' 7)D). He ,hm procadcd ro
rcod fiiHU~, "'hich he himstlf had !",<p>.rcd. He .ddc.l si . .... ,hem'" m ...h
lik< <10< """, hiJ pm:l~, hod ",,,,1,,,. Tlo. cum",il """, . g<rt<l ,h., T\,~ ...
d".i ........ wonhy 01 >dmi .. ion, .nd.1I ,h...,. bisho!" "'.".. bidden '0 !Ok ,hei,



T he rouneil ,I><n mmed '0 ,ouchi., , ul>jo<" ~" m_ ),i,h<lpS

h.ill h<~,,,, ,he . ~.. ,,,hlr . nd T..... i". h.... ,,&',1 ,hcon fo' ,Ioe;, "",iei".. ,io"
in ,he prohlem. of;1l6 ( ,,>t5f~ '0'8A) , Tioe bi"'<IpS ,hen .bi<:crly .pologized rot
,,,",,i, co,>d""" .. yi,,! ,hat ,hey wo: ... deui.-.d by ,hei,
."J the p.""';li~!
condi,ion< of ,I..: church. Hoving.:<" t ho fully of their ... yo, they n<>w wished
,codmi'",n ft, the ehutch (tOtSA- 10f9 B). The council pfOn(HJ.nccd ' .... m wor
'hy of rca<!m;"';oo, hu, ,hen john. 00(0 of ,I>< rnm Iq;>,es, urged ,h .. ,I..:
eooneil """', the "~iting> of the f he .. to.:< exactly h""" tI>e church .hould
go iliou, r<admining t." .. ri<1 The coocilia,
now go "" for coln m". .nd
rolumn. ;n ,he " . nd.u d ed;,ion in dilig<m . Im"" f..s,idiou . ~i .. ,ion of
I"'"i"ic .nd coneil;', pro""~nmen .. on ,t." rcttp<ion of heretia (tOt9BtOjoC). The dca, imp"";on i, ptomot...! tt... ",e<)'thing is to he Jone accord
;og u,StriCt tub ond in ","",,,.. " ,nform;'y wi,h eo:ldia;ti.ool t..d;,ion,. On
.......1 ","""ion'. h.....<VCr. ,he mont.. opoke up "'ith KOious obi<:crio .... lhcy
-'J~ ronCC1n".) ,10 .., ......toni" ".) he,nie:! tOO, be >dmi"rtl '0 ,he pri<:!thood; ,hat
1""',>11, who h<ray w;lIingly "'" h< easily rndmi,,I; .nd ,ha, pc"
..,n, " ,,,,"ine<l by hc, ..ia n", h< p<,m;".,J '" =.cioc clerical min",,),, """'u
nd ,100 bi,hop> .killfully """rame ..cJo """""ic objection . nd. ~n.lly. ,he



6r<>ncin< Iwnod.. m



IIlO<lks agreed <I", ,lie proposed ...!",ion. ""fe

Tl>c ",",'en bi,hops
tt.:n . , k1 t" .",<1 th.i, '>n,.,i",,,. Thei' f,,11 recq>1i"" " ... , how.,.',
postponl to 1.. >e>sion of tho: council. prob.ahly to procuim that the-if
culp'biliry ..... S"''''' ,h,n ,h .. of [h. [h"", bUMps who were r<i"ro immcdi_
>!ely . ,'" [hei' """,,,,,[ion,.
Ai. ,ho: >ond .... Oon of thc rouncil "('<nN.n i"'r<n.1 ,=ng<' "n"ro
wi[h lIi,hop G, "ll"'Y of N""""",.", "'h,, wo bo _ki"g t'<C(>1tcili.,ion. G"ll"'1" ..... qucs.ionro ""1' clo,dy.nd [h~n hi, e< was """ponro uh[il ,rucu
..,..ioo hOSlD--lOS~D). Th. bu,ih"" of tho """,nd ..".;"n ..... tho: odi,,);
cJ Pore H,dn",', It. to Ihe .nd Con".nti"" (tOjSJ\- 'Oj "D) .nd m T.,._
.i u. (t078C-l08.D j_M we: t...v. aloc:ody ""'n, H.drian, I." et to In<
in an exP"'lI"tcd vc"~'n ,hot ".<:<1 wdl to .voOd e<>ntrov."y. F_n,i.lly <I ..
P"f< affi<ml the ,u,hon'Y of St. Peter. of the p<tp(:u Potcr', vi(::lr.:rnJ of the
Ron.. " Cl,u",h. H. p,...,,;l Ioi, pic ..... "'" ,he d""g<: "f ho:,,, on ,he pot, of
B)'Z'tmium', rule ... And he bid out a good m'ny biNi",1 and I'"nic .ita[ion.
in drten", of irn:l~. Througho"" hi, Icc"" the POr< cmph"izes [he n<cc>,ity
of =1"';",i,,1 ""it), "ndtr hi. lcad<"hip. 0". "''' .>sa), ;",.gin. ,]'" tI,.
Bruntin would h>ve pr&rml" "'ith , little Ie "'... on 'he I"P><Y
b~" ., , he ~me ,ime. gi,..,n ,heif own Mr.. q;y of cmph"iling unity, ,he p<lp<'.j
word< wt .. wtlcome ..J ,<>lc ... bl<. Mtc. ,h. 1"-'r<',lct"" had lottn tca<l thc
')'nod off,ted m.ny .ffitm.,ion. of their ,..ching< (,oUC-llll). He was
.o",hcr pon[ 'ign of unif)'.
lne ,hird ..... iOOl <>p<" ..1 by .d,ni lt ing ,ht, hi, h"I" wh ......"'. h,el h<:cn
po;poncd '" ....h of the
twu ..... 'on . Th. bi<h"l" who h,d .I.'~)' _
canted ,,~ in" i[ro in .I"ns wi,h G[~'Y of N:><><ure:<. who ..." .. one
point 'n do< I'roca<linSS bbelro ,h. chi.f of the l",,,,i .. (lll8A). ,ltd ,ht,
(l;uQXo-> of tht, p='iou. ""nhol~" .ynod (l< ,SR). G""S"'Y ,cad hi. tcan,.,ion
and ,ht,n was qu<>,ioncd do.dy on whhel Or no< h. h>d caused . n)'Onc '"
.... lfe' on ><CO"'" of hi, cloy."io" '" in"SO'. G,<go'Y denied ,h .. h< hod iniuted
u)un . Ot t...el urdcted . nyone to be h"mcd hlls ll-llt9BI. Al no On. Orne
~> ..... ,~ '0 ".>"",.Ji<, him_,..., "''''Y'''''' ""ins d;o.;tC. ""'ct, f .... I_pic Icft
ftOln ,ht, 7\0., Ot," 1 .<u>pt. were "'ry f.... J>C0pl .,.-.:r .u,lIy h.<med for
,heir iconophili,?_i, w:u d<c~led ,h., .u ,h. rt""ining bi'hops could be
.... ,ro. ,.. Abbo[ s . ba, of S",dion 11"" [h.nk> for the n"",I)' ,ato,I uoi'}" of
[h. church.
lIi,hop Con".o[inc of Con,un[;' in C)'l'rn .. who
acting .. m..,r of
cert",,,,,i.., ,h." .... 1 tl .. , To''';'''''' lett ,,, ,I,. f., s'Ctn ck~ be .-.-..J "ut
('"9D- m 7A) . Aft.. [he Ie" .. ,..:or, tcad ,h. pop<', I<g> ffirmcd [I. .. HuI .;'n
hod rro:i"ro ius' , I."... , n,,", of ""me ionl'''' ''''> .i"" "]'",,;u"






C ... " . . , .. "

1m....0 Hod..w. ;. "'" OWl' (barring b .... ,n.tTpOI.. oo!U 0( W rcmrd" which
an_ bt <uk<! om). Tuui ... k<p< ro 1 'T'l' "iJI> I<'wcl 0( Il"ntr:diurion. u~
......,................ r~ Iud brough, tum. nm ,"""'" ~, '0 ,he
1"',ri..I<1ul dlgn"y: hoow ht IOund ....., 0( _d. ~n, in his ..... m: """. M
mu>, odht .. 10 "",om 1nd I>}' d<no..... proIftsion 0( f':,J.h. T1o.ttt IOUow. Ion&
.nd "'hoIly ,<odi,i<HuI ~~ foJn which <u<>duJ.. wi,h on inl<rarins se, 0(
. fIi,m.,;"n. 0( ,he- ... <rumrnical coulKil>. H~ ,IK" pren .. his ""II fo, an
"",'n~ka1 ",uneil ond <ksctihcs ,he comp~e ,ul'I"'" of ,he n,len fo, ,hi,
1,I,n. T.. asi ... asks for J.p, .. .., ,h.. ,he uni,y of ,he church .nd f. i,h an bt
''''0,1. ,ho, ,h. di.i<kJ be uni,ed. Th. , ,he ....,.,.nded be ht.kd. n.. .ynod
Then Ix-.. d ,I>< 10".. of The f=~m I"'tri..n:h<. wbo ..... "nahlo fO .".nd 'Col .... 0( Mu>lim oo..ilioy nd ,he .,...ooia.l let .., of
.~ of
}c1usal<m IUI)'C-u46Cl. 1......, docurnmlS e>p<a4sre";o,.
0 cooncil";U
be lKid 10 rcpoir ,1M: rift in dormurdo 100 ~ P<Ofaolon. of(,,,h. n...c uU
,he fo'm of. ctbl .u,....... , IOIlowod by an ..." ....... ,iort ..... affirmation of
,Ix- ... ccumomia.l CDUTK-it.. along with .:ondnnna,ion of ,ho pontdo-O<W1>th
coon<~ of 7!4. In'........ the dorumen .. ""',m <he ,rWi<1otu of d.. councit..
II.. cui, of ri>< ";nlS, :onol ,he cui. 0( ......... <n
on\o,. Aha ,1M: dt.:umn\..
I...l - . . ......t ,h~ boolo"l'" "",,/;,.,,1 ,hci, ,-'>i.....
The founh ....""' ...... "krn up "'ith tho radinS ..... 'I'I"'lval of . whole
.me. ofbibH",J. "....i"i,. ..... ~pbicol 'al> I"",;ng ' 0 inup. II <:<>nduJ.o wi,h r",r...;"n "ff"lh J:,y ,he- . ... mbll cl<'V If): 11SC-'JJA}. Th.
p",f..,inn hepn. wi,h crtt\l1ik.... " o,.n, of f.;,h. ",n,in ILtS ",i,h , condem... ,;"'n of ,lie ..J<"w"i .... Con n.ic\e .ho, "!wk<d" apin!! im,,,,". anJ
,,ith an .n;,m:.tlicm of.he culT of 1>1.'1 .nd ,lie .. inu .1>< culT .,r .h. "'''''", and
,hen tho cui. of imogu, n......;.,n mndodc. wi, h ,I>< wbscrip<iono of all <he




hip""'"'' p!'......,.
s..._ Gvc......u iu w.r .hrt:ough LontIl.. oI ....ion. ho:rnio.nd concluda J:,y ... x/ti", ic:onocIoom ro <he Ions 1... 01 mon. A ... of .....J,..,rw
biohups and

."'* """"

in any way Kj<a irn.oF' (fH A-to,E), Se.ion toiJ., .1><1onp
in ,1M: O><Inc:U. """..... of. r<ading om and I""n. ,by-poon ..,ru",ion of me
"""'"' of H...., .. ( >04A- J64D), In 1'" """,h<r nic~ 'f'l'C'm<n 0( m,lTOgnt'I"
T.....;... hod G'"I'>')' of NOOCICIII"<'>. "'ho had 1x<n I><... nl in 7!4> <ud OUT
<he /,0 ... pi:< by pi< ...he rouocill"'oaedi '" ,...f",~ il. 'n.. oesoio """dudes by """';ndin8 ,II< .n.,lIem pl"OllOl,nced in 714 >pinn I'.u;"th Ger

""oUS, c;..,,.- of Cypru r.d J<>hn of D.m""",. SeN;"n - . . ..... <lNot..d '0
....di"8 of ,1.. '-w of J1 NiCK .Jon, wi,h ..., of ",.,h.n". l!64E-~.}A).
M"" <>f ,h.... J< di,,,,,,,..d agoi"" ,hoo.< who .".. k im'ge<. hut .mong tllem
.......1 Jesc"" .po:c:iol ""'i.e<. fi,.. , ";nwlly .... "'h<lk hbmr for H ....... i.

pL.:cd "" til< h<ad, of ,h,tt long-<le;l</ bid,,,,,,, Tl>rodosius of Eph""" Sisin.
ni ... p..,ill.. , ."d R..a T,;<oc>b ~, (.."oA) . S<t<>nd. ",ndomn""'n on ,he
'hI<'< I",';.rchs of ,he ironoc!."i< etol: An ....,i .... Co""",ncin<. nd NicrtolS
(>OA). Third. Bi,h"". John of Nio,ml" (",he.wi$< dttpl)' oi:>scu) .nd Con. .. n,ine of N.""I.i <0 ""lied ,he herosi".h. (~ooB). Th, rouncil 'hen ..",
I",." U) Irene .nd (;o n,un,ine (400D - 4080) .nd '" ,h. cl<rgy of Ii,,!!i. Sophi nd "f Con.u nlin.>ple S"I",,,,II~ 14OIIb-il-4A). Th<s< I",." go OU' of ,heir
W>~ ,,, ptoli .. I",.'" ",I, in ""lIing ,he council ,nd
""""1' ,he collllcil",
;l</h,l'<"", to tf.. .n<~t .nd Mi""",! ,toIditioo., of tf.c church.
Schot.." h. ve long nmiccd thu. roml"rcd to .,Ii., <",,1 rouncil .
II Niacas
""""i n MI... Ii,,", d,o.~"I\)'. I" To that tho.,I"I\)' I , h. 1I tutTI
,ho.dr. For now i, is i.,po"".' m ... ,..hy ,dmini"""i," ,,,.,ngemenn ,001<
u p." ",uch ,ime in 787. le, u. reall the ten ... i,w.i,", brtw..,n <It< ,,,rn.n,,,



"f 78 nd ]86, .oruiu" h. ndling of the rouncil must be SOn .~in" th ..

Sool'<ly Ih., . "'C" ic""""hib .nw"'g Ihe bi,h"ps in )117 ho"
mu" " ill
bet" men .ppointed undo, the ico"""""i. time. Apl',rendr
they WCr. nO< f",,",,1 about image< but they "ill h;oJ to be rcroncilcd. The
mon"" in p.nirular,
kerr of ,hei, old foes, Thu" Tar.,;u, followro "",r.1
CO" ..... simuh,n..,,,sly ,0 ach~e hi, de>ircd ",,,con'e: church .. one .nd at
pcocc. A condem""io" of i""nod .. m, o.:on ,/Ii"".,i"" of ictmophil'" 1 11k
to he: li<Wr><bry ol*.,i,"<,-1IOf .n un;mpon .n1 on. 00, noc ,,,. imporun'





Fint. T.",,;u. ><cured 11\.1 bm.d"", .. lolldly .. he could both ;mperi. 1

"'ppon .nd the ,ul'pon of Ru,ne .nd ,f.. Ea.teJn I""i .. ch . By thi' mco.n. f..
could he: ... n 10 be -.e,ing with ,h. compl<IC .ppmv:ol of ,he lUI ..... poin' , ... ,
"'ill nO! h.... be<:n 1m, on thnse "."" ~ ..... pe'(ec,ly "'011 ,hat 1"" nile .. h,d
bern brgoly 'copon,;bl. fu, ironocWm , H. could.1so fulfill p.ur. wi.h ... . nd
hi, own. ,hOI ,he Onhnd". Church no longer f.. "I"..,,<d f,om ,11 o,her
<huhe<. Th" gow Ih_ " 'h" w.;", "ill iconocl.:urs in 7 ~ 7 ",me rove. '0 rejoin
,h. cho.-.:h . Th<")" ,(;,1 '"'' h,,,, '" "" ><en., """ns ,n '" ,he pm,.h .Ion. Or
to. fae,;on in the"""" Omrch i"df. Second, document .Ii.. docum.nt
tediollSly I<'<ite< the t...:hing> of the .i~ ecun",ni",,1 <,""""ils while .1", <i'ing
hibli",,1 .nd I",,;,,ic 'c," 1'<"",,1\, 10 in"ge<. H.", .g.>in ,h. Ihem. of uni,y " ...
",,,>dod. The ""Y".. rd "'C ""ing uk<! ,0 join, ,radi,ion. w ./Ii.m" f.i,h. A
td.."ivcly ,;ny n,,,,,be, "f 1><""''' WC'e "nsled 0 .. , fO, p" hlic """",.,",n,. At
In.,, """ of the>< Iud bn prn<n1" Hie" .00 r.cvcn ",he" had Ixrn 'ing_
",hj<aed '0 my <mb..rr:o"..
I<.do" in ,h. di,m,honccs of 786. No one .h.
W:oI><clum i,,,,lf ""'" """",,n<:<I--<llod I "'ill ro"" b.>ck ju"
ing ",n";,,y.



below to ... h.:., II NiCK> .,iJ

.bu." lIy",,,,i,,,"', O:o"od.., ",Io<>-no "" 0 .1;..,

.. td prestn, was bbm..! IUr ;,. Con,,,,n,in. of N..,..,I.i ...... ,urn..! ;n,o ,I><
I><ft"<iar<h .".1 rnftt o1nin.n~y fOf);<1,~bl. bi,hops ""'0 bl.",..! rut Hi.r<; .

'In,,,,, "",ri.rch.. [ht b.,[ o' ,htm de,d lOr more ,h.:.n I<V<'R yea ... "",. "",..d.

,nd [h"", O:on<>phil. he..,.. wet< rdubiliu,w. 1lu, i, . 11. Th..., " .... no hU Rt
h-., hemic>. Tht",....,r< no bhnk... coMem",,"''''' T..... iu. p....,.ie<:J tho, .i/ton .... ;., fu' which the 1I,.,."t;n< """Id i, justly f,moJ, the """""" ... prin<ipkd
reco",ili. tion of J i...,,,,,n, poi"t> of view. 'U Tu iu. had to find ..... ). to t._
mo.', O:onod."" "';thoot """ ".nently . li."",ioS the icono<l. "" H uc_

l.n '" look. much

more bri<tl),> .. ,h .....y 1.....;'" dealt "'i ,h ,h. monks

in 78].'" lii'lOricaJly monks Iud nO! I>n o<cotdcd. promi"'''' rol. in <CII.
men;"",1 cnuJlcik "'....,iu' ;n"Olvd ... m.ny .. ')1 mooks in U Ni=>. H.
J><nniuw [h.m to .".nd . 11 =>ion . to 'J><.k on ~br bo.;". to q~n
.h. hi.hops who "'-.rc being ' <o>ncilw lO. ht church . nd '0 ming lO"h imw
t<s,imon;'" in "",ion> fuur .nd 'ix, T..... i'" .nd lren. m. y ... n in .1><
monks. n.tural ,uppo" group for their pblLl..nd ..:>toting imag<> waJ 01><
effec.i.. way of winning ..... . "'-';oriry of .h. mo ..... '" ckrg> n-.:n .hough not
.11 monk.! ....,f< ;"-'n,.:Iol... Y T ... ,i ... k~ ~Iy wdl ,ho, he <""Id n " ,
oJ><, .... church wi.hou[ til< bishops .n d h< kn",,' [Of) [ho. , ",nicol,rl)' in ligh[
of.he .ulTering of [h. mOllks in .h. 7600 h.RO
bod f linS' htrwttn .h.
monks and ,ht bi<hop>, Thu,. the p.. ri.h JjJ OOt let the monks prC'Sl for
." .... m. m..,;u.n On
dmitt;ng h"rtia. but ht k, .he n>onb
h.. ";.ibk rok in the council ... hid> conde",,,w tht;,x,~ .. hich had
I>n , hollm:uk of .h< imperial . nd . piscop>l ~mc .ho. hod h. rried .htm
"'cil""ly 00" leas ..,me """'-""n,. I.;. .1", mp[i ng .o .""",1 . . link 00
,ho IWtn,y.wo <:>"0<>< [ho. 'r< .pp<nded '" ,ht .... of ,ht cnurocil. It i, "'"
known enctly wh .... o. ho..' ,he""" wt .. ,""P ...J. M.,.. of,hem de.i.. in " ",
.... y '" ..r,,~htr f...,,,, .. .li., concilias Iq;isI>ti"" (<><>Iy number> 1. of, 8. 9 nd '7
.rc new), '" Tl.cK hod not b<cn 'igni Ilea". council of ,ht 8yun,in< Church
in . Imo>[ n.u ry.., .he Ninc f.the .. may ho"" J><rcci.ed need '0 innodu
few discil'lin>!), " ...."[... S.iII. ",.ny o f ,h=.", J<ciJ..!ly in,.. ting in .. ,.,
,hey ,,,,h on ,he f.ith> m",aI . nd ecclesi ... ical conduC! of tht ,,;u.ops. P....... bly T. r.uiu, . nd , ht mOflU agr...J.o .dd .... <pisco",1 ronduct in th""" ",non.
i", of [ekntkMl)' .."eking CJ'iKoval bdid", in tht .C!"
Fin. lly. T.m;u,. ,nd J><rh..,. I "" '00. finc>o<d .h. impe,;"1 invol .. m.",
in ;"-' ,,' Tht coun did no. " .. ne ;,x,lIod"m labobl .n im"",;,,' h.~y
lren. ~ in the deli",[. """tion of >im uh.. r.rously embracing.oo di .... ncing
h ....,lffmm ,h. l.. u,i.n ""Ieg>cy. She eQuld no. J><.mi n ourrig],. "'mdem ...


.0<1, ................



,ion of he' p,kc""" ... The o.m" .." "res< on

dni", '" pu, . igh, ,he
"~()ngs in 'he church migh' iuv< rung ~ li"l. hollow if Jrro. and Ta""i"" hod
ot .... ",lin. ,ime eu,ig"cd .,I~ inll.. tial "",i.i,i...
L>oking .. ,he coneil;...<co.d. i. ' "",,,cti,,, in "g'I.d '0 TaUl''''' pltn of
""';.,., . U .drian , k " ". in [he ,,,,,ion .h..[ "." f<".d 0 0 [. nn", ... mcs l<o Hl.
O m" .",i n< V. '" lLU IV. Th. pop< . ,... k, only of y<>o, s",..S"'nJf..h:
' yoo, S"'ndf"her: .00 ..YO'" f"h<," llOn<, lone, ~) Had,;.. ...,un dipl"""" .
ictlly [0 ',ho.. who rulcd bdo", 0,,, In ,he fiiih .... ioo John. one of [he

Eas'ern 1,,&,'''. mid.


of on< myste";"u, Tcuo,()kon"phys. . J",i,h wi>

.ro woo p[omi.w ,he ",Iiph cigo of 'hiny )."''' if h< "",,old dnlfO)
,m.go. Somehow ,h;., te""hing tnehe<l Con". n.i"" of N><oIei. who Iong
wi,1I hi, 'UPJ'IOI'<I>. dos,royi im.g<"' (19711-1008). l<o i. not This
"01)' i 0'piciou.J y like 'h< on,
Theoph. ncs .dl> 110,1.. 'h< )'<11 71).'"
In .he h;".orian .telli ng. on unrutmcd ~i,h wiuro Went '0 and p[omiscd
him a f"ny.yeo< ign if It. "",,old d " 'my in",g<"'. A Ch.i"i.n<l !ko<
who h.d bc:en. cop,i," in Sy. i . common;".,e<I ,hi =hiog '0 lLU
was spon,ible for inAicting n.. ny ",jJs upon u.: l<o h>.d Con.",,,,;n, of
Noroleia .. an . Il ~. It ""m. cbl ,It" COII,n,on ",,,,k of ,",o[ies ><:oved a, a



:iO)Uf(C fm oolh lhe council


alld T hrophancs. Bu. "he..... Iil< latler Leu. oo,h w<"Cd in pl><ing' bbme ()n a Jew. M o.lim . nd a
woyw. ro " i.hop .," A. W<c . h>1I ..., in Qllr di.!co .. ion of Ni"..,, [h,I<>g.v . Ito
wri,inp of John ofD.n<a<ru. Ue "" ngdy negl=ed in 787. One .... <On roulcl
wdl bo . hat JoItn ~ ...... g< in h;' eri.ici.m, of the rule". ~ntl h. ab<t .ttacked
[he rightS of , ny rub '0 inIVon< in ,h..,l<>sical mme". ,.,. Making "''' much
USC of John _uld h>", bt<n ,n . ffront 10 ,h, .. h,,1r Jyna;,y .ncl 50 he wo,
gingerly kep' O./l one .OJe. Con .... n,in. V ~ntl lro IV
nnly in "",ion
poinlS wh<'" ,h ...,"" of Hie"". ~ being qU01ed ('09D.
lIIE). The .. i. one patticu["ly .evcaling =mpl. of ,he ..ay In whi.h the rule"
w.o ,il<nd)' .,duded_ A, he ".". t=tiing i, nlll. G"'1\'>1)' of N>a.<s>I<> q""'cd
0'" I"-'"ion of ,he 1",.... as ....ying .h., Go.l h.d "isecl up "oor f.i.hful king>.
,he un .. ",[,,,I ,,, the ap"'d<>" ". kod ",><l ... h "oJ '0 .ooli,h cun
ning. When Dc.""n",.cad oUt ,,,,, co"",i]". ",(uI>{ion of ,hi, "",ion
of tho 1",,,,, he .. boc>" .. 'h< m<mbon of [hot counc;1 w~", bish"p,
hlID. llijq. One would no' know. from .h<so documents . h .. CO .... n.i ....
V h,d w<ltkcd h.. d ... l''''I'.n: flO, ,h. C"un,;1 .,f Hi.", .. Ot , I", <I" "",un,il
h.d taken iM() con,id-or.It"'n
wphi,,;a,ed .h<oI,>gial 'poe"I,,"'n ()n ,he
emperot'. pOI' . H.", i. how the council ... mmcd up its "ew of I.ene. anCCS'()n;
" Their p<" drro . ,he vi<roria S'in! OV<l . ... mi<>. ,he ."bi"S""'n of barba
IOUS o"i"",. ,he 5O);'i.ud<: ,hey ,h....vcJ f() ... bjoct . ,he wil< me.. o...





CH . . ' . . TWO

,hey 'ook. ,h. ron,,;,u';om ,h.y promulg;nod . ,h.;r ci.;c ;n,,;'u,;orur. nd ,h.
in\pro.~m.m. clf"",od br ,lI<m in ,II< ci,;" .. .uch .. ,k ,i,l. o' ,he dead
. mp<rors '0 f"">e. tl ..., ... hU:h sccu"'" '0 ,h.", ,he lV",i,,,de of.1I ,n.,; "bjccn"
hJ: Jill." '" Thi, i. ",,;,h ,II< vicw no. the ling",!!" of rho 'hree midmury
trc:o,i!<S '" of til< Lift .fS~p- II.< Y
... np.
h ....iu hi ...od no<.bi. resul,. ,.... Ju.o, 1i II< h>d ra:oneikd ,he bi>hopo
, 00 .ppca.>l ,h.
h. ",hit~hod ,II< imptri.1 rok in iconocl.. m.
lcun""I"m ~ i", ... n to pi'" wi ..,d.. Muslim 1'<"<" ... ,.... ,,,d 0,,.. m;>guM!od bi.hop. Rulers """,e ",,,,.how infccr<d w;,h the ron .. gioo h", i, w:u not
,h.i. foul!. Hie .. i. w:u .n.ibmod '0 ,h,'" bi,hop<. not '0 ,h. whok q>!srop".
or '0 Cot ..... mi"" V. Th ...-hoI. poin, of II Nieu>. f""n one Oi'" of ,....... "'~
to uAdo ,he w.m>gc WlOUgh t~ 'hc council of;l ... "Tha, d",~,,~ ""rcfully
.rt,ihutod [0 $nUll oumi)(r of ""'~"I .. h"<2< iconox).um itIClf w:u lrWrrod on
k>n ... fmm ""i,hin 01 oddh:.lls fmm wid,o", ,I>< <mpif< , "';'< n ... ,1""Jy sn
th .. ,I>< .. n..y "...,. h, .. been
limn.1 iconocw.ic odic1 i" 7JO or " .ny
o[her ,im<, Bo: !lUll . . it "'"y. l reo. <;ould no' <2<ily i~u<. o odiet .bol;lhing
iomucl"", ",i, hou, ,h r:by ."""king rhe ""'~"' n,1 ,h u, ,h. ffi<m"ry of he,
prcdcccuo". T. mi", fuuoo. w.y nO<.., ",,,,,h to acull"'l< Lro!ll .nd Con".n,;n. V., <0 Ie..'< ,hen, .,," of <he "ory.
I.ool<ing hack, on. can.ay ,h>, II Ni""". i>cg.on br Itgirimi<ing;t>
I"'n". ,hen kgirimi.."j inuS'" ""i,h ."!\Um.n" d .. wn .Im"" ,,;rely fru m his,ory .nd ,Mirton. rhen JdeWri".i.."j ,he rou.,.;1 of 7H. JM'dy by .<M,<Cing
mo", " , U!h<n[ic" ,radi[ion nJ I"'nly by impugning <I><
or inrell'",n,ion.
uoed in 714. aiM! ,hen i"U!. /,.,,,,, ,1-.,,, i, .m,,;ngiy jej un< ......... m<n' of
im,1l" ,heulogy. Th, reuon. ". '0 be "',nd in ,he ..,h,. long Jisc""ion we
h>,,, ;un boxn p""u ;ng. The s.c.,.,d Council ofNW::.e.",,, . bou, n.. "y rhing>
All o' ,hose 'hing> ""'" >CUldy imp<>nant in ,hoe Byuot;n...."rId ,n ,he 7110<.
Onl~ SOm< of 'ho>< 'hing> .... '" ,h<m .. lvcs p,inurily .bou, ;m.g<~

""'til<.. '"




I... U> .... ," li p ,hi, accouo< uf lIyu",;um ;" ,h, /; ... ,,, of ico,>I>C4sm, So"''
",;,ici.", W2.< I' rdg<d >vin" ;m"l\e< b)' 1.0:0 111 in .b<~" 7JO. W< do no r ",,111
know ",h.. he ..1M!. No,hin~ tI>< ....".i ning '0 im.8'=". " I.... ,h>, we lnow
. bo",. h'rrenod ""'il ,!>our 75' ,,hen Co"",,,,ine V h<gan , I>< 'giu,,,,,, ,I",
I<d '0 'he deeply ioroophok """,.cil of 714. In ,h. 7600 f.... prominen' """k,
"f.rt """, . ",movod ftom ron.picul~" I",bl;': pl>CcS. Sum< m.nusc,iplS_'"
muril"od. When P,ul w.. ..,I;t<d for [hc I"'trL:uch:ol offic<, h...~ ..ked. '0

off.. mun""" ,Iu, be woul" nor "",.. bip imn . Th .. i< ju" .bou, ,be "frok
h."ory of KonocJ.,m .. ,,"" e>n "",wily kn",",' i,. Ir i hi"ory wi,h .pi....!..

b", "" rim.

P. tfio,eh Ge,m,onu, p<'X<fully "epped .. ide , B'!!.0l" occq> .. bk ", ,ho:- io...
n"l'hobc ruk" Lro III. Co"".n,i"" V. and Lro IV wtft grodwlly PU' ,nw
"fIi. We
'If no. 1"'18"'. W. h",r 'If ...., ,Iu'l' opp<irion ro rhe h,,bo!",
In 75<1 'he b'lhopl g>,h<red ,n 'mOO ~nd ded, red ,hc" oPI"",',on to im'ge
wo,!h'p. W. he.. of no "I'1""",ion '0 ,hem. """"P' from p. p. 1 Rome, In 'he
7So. 'he old r.trio,m r.ul. if 'he ""uren can b.: b.:li",'ed, Iud. cri.i, of ron
K;'n hcc>UI<: he presided ov.r ehu"h divided from .11 ",her church... Obvi.
"",Iy ,he divi,ion ".,. o<ca>ior>ed hy ironod,, "m, bu, i, i. no'ew<>n hy ,h.. 'he
_'en do not <>.plie'tly '''Kh I'.ul', .trgu',b '0
By 78, Itenc .. ><I
T. ""iu. w..< r~y '0 rrunil)- ,he ehurch .nd '0 .... bli,h ,hei, "... n powe,!rue
"",hin ,he empi ... , To do ,h" 'hey okcidcJ
im'g< worsh'p. Pertup.
they weI< .ioo::. r~.p> ' hey ""T< ""kul.. ing. Thet........ """,e "I'~,ion ,n
7114 ,nd .g:oin in 786. bn' i, ..... dro',ly o"'''''''''c... >d ,hen T,,,,,;u" '''porb
m","!;Cmen, of'he rouncil in 787 .11"",0<1 .11 f'>nic:!, ,tu ... in ,he n... I) ..'on
do",<>, ir: ,,.,nqu ili,y ."d =lc:.i,,,ial l"''''otry.
Thc dc'l!l' .hould 00. be ~n as 'pmcirn in"]l of 'his. No. mould they be
ittn .. ,he willing ,001. of. !ai.. of d"miru,ing lUI .... Ck'ID"nod ,ub. h>d
lI""'t '<>p<CI fOl <:aeh ,~h<,', mle. '" ,h. ' '''<Jo,h " ........ ,i"n <>f ,he "ni.....,1
Oui"ion rommonwe.lth ,h>' ,ioo:: Con"'ntine 'he C ..... J .."'nded on .. 0 ....
emp<ror. one .mpi .... on. f.i,h," 1-1,,1<1.. AJr",-.iI ... minds u. I"'intlly 'hat
"'C "He" .""".10" ""..,ropapi,m, ,h.. ,. rom<"'f"ibl< "..,Iogi,m."'" II is u",1eI..
.. . hi.""ial mtcrpt<ta,ion of <he rompliated ",,<ling "'>tioll!nip oo..-n
Byun,i"m 's ><,1" .nd 'pi,i"",1 ofFici.1<. The de'l;Y '" Byun,i"", ..-.'< .I"",yo
prcl',,0<1 ,0 "'PPO" .nd '0 coopcmo wi,h ,he ",I... " ,hey roI,ld ,,.. r n
,he .igb,h unrury 'h<y .Im"" .I,,",,)~ could. Thi. ,elli w no, ,h.. ,I>< cle,gy
we ... ,to<>g<:< but
,m. go> ......i, her not ,ueh big jo,ue-cenainly no'
"orrhodo.y .. ,u<h"--o, dK no< SO un.mbiguou,ly dcfjnl by ,he ,radi,ion
'" ""k< ,-" ... nd only,,, .. po .. i,ion<, honorabk. It i. only in ,he ligh'
of ' .....
i",noJ"l. ~iC!ory ,h., ... ""
note.I.I ...... in ,hi, .. ody. io,n<>phobia wa.! m.d< '0 'ppo" bad in i""lf.nJ ou, of "ep ..ith con,inuo", Ch,i.
,i.n ",,,,hing
loonocl."" " ... iml"""nr in .igh,h-n,ury Byun'ium m.inly hcc>u ..
,wo empt"'''' bid ""ne ".-= On it on at ....., . f....
But iron .... I.. O\
i, nOf 'h< "ory of eigl"hun rury Byu",ium.
in An .. <:>Iio ..d th< B. llan,
"'C'" mOf< ,mp""'o', l.cpl . .J",ini",..~,Ovc . nJ ~sc>1 ,""',"" .... '" mo", im
pomn!. Th< kinds of ,.n,ion, ,h>, led '0 m up .".mp" in 7~" in ,he mid



10 '''''0'''






]6o> n.! prohobly "&lin in nf>.n.! 710. oIooZ wi,h ,II< <u, rrnU <ho, .. p<<d
,~.nud\lft in ,II< >bon .... , bru ...1a,...:k 011 ,II< """,In in ,h. ]60> on.! >pin in
on< ,h<mc: in ,II< c.rly nco. om< more .. p&o.i"" m..n ."y of ,II< fiK.,.. gena_

br ;"'....eI..." . Thi.

is oI ......:Iy ...... ,mptN"U<l' pin in I"', ..... <li ... fiJI" "'"
uhima,. '"'" '" .. pbini~ " .... , luppt:r><d in .he Weo(. W .....J MIl ro:ckoo
"';,h. or on< end of ,II< Mo:di'....... -... a d<adr..-Ions crioi> of <On$lOn, .n.!
in and . ..
orh<, .nd. powe.11y _",. at 011.



An Talk in Eigh,h-Cc,"ul)' R)"un[ium

H'.inA........,' on ....' he all..;! ,ho ....,no! hiMOf}' of 8 yuntinc: icono>.
tiJhth etn,"I)'. i, is ,imo ,(> kx>II iruirk. '" > ,.fu, ltindo of thinp
_ .... id.oo.., rdipo........ '" 'WI> ,pin to ,be kinds of ......ds.n.! conctpU
"" on>wt,.,...j in 0..1"''' ,. Tho ,i"", ollto III is cri.icoI in m>Oy ~
bu, from ~im..,l( MIl won:! ........; ..... Qu, .....;.d....:c r.,.. ......oiy irooo-

cbom in


pl>obo pooirion mus, II< infm<d (tom rho law<> of G.mwruo ro ,II< lIi,nynian
bi,l>opo. Ao...., ..w ... rlia. I""P'" wroo ...... ro.Ila,." but rl>cs< do tIOI
, ko" "'" in .....,i, ",i,inai Ii",,,. Ni\:"(I'Iw..... ;m~ l "hwr/J;u>a r~ly II..,...
m;t..,me .au... ", inhuma,ion hut ir i. h.rd ro ..-p;ar... tbei, embroidery f"""
tho pb;" <!..>th ... " wh ich ,hoy pu, It. G .",... "u, >Ion<. ,lI<tdO, . PC""''''''nt("
'''';!VIt ;'''0 how tho i.""opholxo "'S"...! their cut. Go"t.."",.110 I..... '"
dues '" tI, wi ... ,." ironopl,il. ",s"m.'" onw.t h Iookc-d li ke:. lIut it is
mtlly John of 0. ........... who p, ... n,,_ fOr the fi ... ,im< dc:t.ill. cogent



'<gU m, .. , fo' the icono!'hil. <:lOt. John'. writin" ,.",Iy PC"";' ink""","". how
=r . bout tile <nC' ..... ;,ion. ,II .. he mit>h' Ito ... bn rtbu,ti ng.

Some of .... ,nft1Wt"" pc,m,ned by C.." ...... " ... Ia'er> K<"m abtoiu,<ly~.
Fo< '''''''''''''''. G",,,anus told Joh .. of Synada (.ooC) rI,.. Con...",; ... of NiICO-

In. tu.d hK...- co:oncned .Ii.. ......:Ii .... 10.., '"Th" .. tw.w "'" dc:&ndc:d
himidf." ...d .... pun.. ... h. In hi> lcotn to Constanti ... hirrudf. Gnmoa ....
rtp<>" tht bi!I>op of N..:okaa, 'n .... ma ,Itot no c"'"'to:d thi", be- toOOttipcd
(IOI D ) ...tUdo .. .-n,i,tIly ,It.c .. me p<><ht ... tu.d modt in hi. IIft to
John. "rinK ,,,,," ,hat eo.....ntint had i~ ,hat _h"l ~rnod< by lund!."
" ....... by mm" (,ooC) ohot.tld be ...... ohopcd. In hi. Ions ""- to


CbuJiopoIi> Gt .......... " ...........,. knphy dJe.... ............... of idolatry

(1"9I1-E. ,uC-D. 11711-1>10. I"-Ie) '''''' II< bdiewd 1<, k grounded in 0 poor
reading of rhe Scrip"' .... 0' bl'QUgh, fOnh .... iff",m ,he scrip,ur<$." ldol:ury.
,hen . und ...,ood .. , O'J<l,,,,venri o " of ,he M".,i c 1.:ow. of ,he E.od .. , prohibi.
'ion.,..... .. ,he t.- of wiulC'o'<r i""nophobi. eme,ged in ,h. 7'0>.
Dlhe, inferencc; d... """ f'o<n Gm.... " .... ' k".I'> 'rc' li"l. h,,,J .. '" If. . .
wi,h oon~dcocc. G e"""n .... I<I'" '" John ... l" ,I. .. i. il impos>ibk 10 J<pi
God. "' m,1 ,n i<lUg< of ,h. ;n"i,ihle Godh~ (lolA). II is p<>ibk , h.. ,he
io;mopl><>hco hod "gO>! ,hu>. Ago;n;n ,he 1< John. Germ. nm 'PJ'C'l"'o
be refu'ing clurg< .Iu. he"in~ .nJ rtld;ng .1< '''retio, '0 "",i"l\. ... png
"b<c>.. >< w< ore m,d.: of Re.h ,00 1.1"""' ...... or. fo,crd '0 know more c<n.inly
,hOle ,hing' which 'h,oug/1 'igb' off...... 1""""'OCC '0 the "",I"' ('oI E), In hi,

I..,.. .0 Thorn ... G.. mrnu, ci,.. fusil f<) 'he <fI,

,I." p;c."",. ,how

,he cy<:
wiut ,he eOf he-, ". Sccing .nd h<>.ring I><>,h inciK '0 vinue ",[ui,-.Ien<
[IIJB-,uiAI . P""ii:>ly. ,I.... ,he imn<>pboks h,d ... iscd ,he i"u . no"d in
Clupre, I. of ,he "'re,imi<y of re-...!ing ..,dlm h ,ing '0 "",ing. Bu. it m'J
, I", he
Ge,m,nu, .. ",," ,h. "gum.n, of ,h. Iui,',I<n<:< of th ... modes of
re,etp.ion. CVOfl rugacs,ing tho , ure,iorifJ' of ,igh, ... "ne demon, in hi, re',,,ire of dcfi:n> of i"'-'g<!. Tlu. i. he moy no, Iu", been ........ ,ing. clu'g<


so much", odvoncing .n . rgumem or h i, 0 .." . In , b,ief p~e in 'he 1<11.. '0

Tho""" Cem..,,,.... f' ,Iu, i, i, n(l' ",.. ,h" bCI:;r, ... ,h.",.", ;m.g.. people

,i"". (1lY\). I'<,h,p> fOrne of ,1.01<

,I." ;""":

do nm h.v. ,n "'end "':!lui .. chureh <:<I<b ...

wI><> hod ""n<t'''' .I><>u, inuses ",;.00

if ,hey did 10, ,hi. " new
cri. ie;"" ofimage<.
If linle new w" "id -Vi"" imoga " the outbreak of iconodum . litlle
new " .... dvonad "n beh,lf ofim 'g<>. (",e,, PrclCn" 6ve buic defen><>.

,I." ""


Firs" he ","
<:"",,-.l ,hing ;, """ ........hip! by Ch,,,,i,n,,
WCI"hip (4 ' T(>fln) i. , ...rveJ fOr G od .Ion. : ,hOI Ch,i";,,,, ne.... r make imag..
of ,he in"i,il>l< Godlle-...!: ",d ,I. .. C h,;" I... frnd .11 hi, f"n""", .. ft-om idolouy
(,00<:. E. ,0,A. mC-O). S=nd, he . rgu<J'
b<-coUI< Ch,i" 'I'!'Urro :os,
m,n. n< .." boo d<p;ct<J .cting in ,1.< .-.,ioo> hi"orico) ... "ings in ,,h;oh ,he
(",osp<1s plo<t him. 1.iI<N';"'. M.<y con be depicted ">;o,ding ro ,he fl.,h>O ..
wdl ... >I""',b, m. 'IJo'f>. prophet" and .. im. (,o,A_ D. "M). Thi,d, ~rm.n'"
im;'" ,h., d.:pict;on. of Ch,in ,>I of the gee>l 6gure. of ,h. Scriptum . nd rhe


ch " tCh iMpire i",i",i"" and u'Se pwplc '0 P'" glory to G ",l (10' D. "JS--u6A.
"711). In ",he, "",,,Is. imag<! ,to ,W)I ... i" fo' ,hemsel,,,,, fOl",h, ,he I""i.reh
re'urn, >g>in ro ,he argumen'
imag., "" of kmg . .... d ing in ,he c hurch
.nd ha", n<vc, been wndr:mnl by d.."";,,,1 .urho'i<y (r"9A. u6C-D,


1L4D-nsA. IlsA-E). Firully. Gcrnu nu, pl..d, wi.h hi, ron"l"'ndcn" no'




<11Ibr.,,,, .he ~nu of,.,.~ ..... MuoIi.... ........., only olm .. Kl cko<roy God',
dmn:h uog8-E, ,,,.D-,,y,).
",.... .. obooiu.dy
in Gct_",,', dd'm.. of image> ,Iu, "" Iu"
I!KI oI.~..Jy. N ... in ,he 7100 "'... ,~ in..,l"" ...... ' of .... fflIptfOt . SchoIan
luve bbGotd rrodig.,.,oIy,., .. rUin Leo', >c''''''' Oft 011 IGndo of ground>; H
..,..~b, ", g;oin
w <hu,d, which h..J ""'" of ,he om,"&"" he oough,
'" Ji.c<, 1oy>1')' .nJ C"o".n
to the imp<. i.1 oIIia ..... hod '0 di"fC i,
f""n i"",g<Io' I,....... p romo' ing a .ul, of ,-ie,,,!)" and ",Id n", boa. cornpcciron:
h...... ""kin, """,...;on, '0 tho pop"l .. i"", of bi, E..... m P"";nc... '" I ...


""".ro! ""'.



no ... lOn '0 ,uPPOO< ,Iu. any

""pl:uu.ion. luI 'M wl>ok ,,,,,h u' th ..
ony of .1>< ... locks ..-holly in , ... ,h . Fo. my !W" I on, indi....! '0 ...1'1'.... ,h.,
Leo ...... "nr< in bdicving th.., irru@.<> _'" idoLouOOl. ,.. L<t ... <em<mbe,
,Iu. i, ;. .... Iy in ........ of ,he ,,/U11W. viclcwy of ,n ".., ~;!ia ,Iut ,he
...hole hi<ro<y of Q.ruoion ......... lease in ,ho
been mmmcd 10 Ii,
on<" pm< .......... bnl of ;n~o,ion. V..... we luve ....... ,,,",,, ""'<ft in onriq-


"'')' ....." y pt<>pk ""'" Iud .....,.,.,"""" abou, Chricoian .......I:an .nd, in ,he

,w.,h ='''f)'. ....., of Onhod<>Iy',


""'''''''pocva eor;J,.,...,J ~

u.! .n. I...,', po><;1;"" doe. ""' ...... odd., .a. And hi> ;on~ ..., ""'<ft ~

F ' deal mort mode", .. ,haft hi< Ia .... alumniOlon ...-ould Iu.., '" bel ...... .
M ......., , if,t..)'<'O .. bO'Mo" me middk of
",h an'",), and ,he ... Iy
<kco<k< ..r tho .ipoth Iud ""'0 an up.u.-gc in act< ..r ",,,,,,,,ion ""nnled wi,h
imOS" .nd i,ing ... Iid in ,,,. mi"",o lo,,, pow<>'..r i",>gO' w",..I..,., if in
otho. wo.ds , 'hco< were ",Ia,i... ly f'<CCm",on, nJ t>ol ......." P""";:S.
,h.n it ""r he poMibl. 10 .cg;tnl \.,v, a",d Con .. on,i"" of NacoI.;a '00...
<O"....-v;t,iv<$ ... upOOld ... of ,r.Jition.
P..lul" in ,.;.,.- of tbe Ro""" eout>cll of 7JI. and obolotWy 7!6.
tomconc In Rom. proptm.lo ..-.00... IIotilrgium of ironophik ."",,- f ...... Ia, ..
...... ion, of oom< of the n'oa<t> conuinl In .h.. Ronkpum, j , an be ohown
'" Iu.., Iud . , Inst ...-mcy-rn.... c1upocn. To _
of it, ,,,,;,,,,,,,, 1 oh.aIllUl1l

w .....

in Ouptcr ) in dioruuion of.n talk in , ... 'lIi'<>t. For ...--nl I"'.,-n it ;,

~,., .. y ,Iu, 1M ,anrolk<-kd in rn .. RoriIcpum "" 011 r.m.iliot ......... ,
chi-. >f>ific colItion doe. no< "I'\'C" to ~ Iud .ny inH""""" in ,II< E.nt
Ib.;, F~tn\ wti .......... >wan of anol ..,..,..;""" ' ... n' ...... , i,cd ~
fo..nd in
R...... n """orW, ''''

u.. f", .., Byu ... ;"m , in p, ks.;n<, John of D."....". ""k up hi. p<n.
like .......d, in '" , I>only .ft... no. Th. dot< i. p"",;drd by ...f~"'!K~ in ,b.

8yumin< lronoc:b,m '"

QI"'"ing KClioo <>f }ohn', ~ tlt OWiM ",h ieh " Ik.< about IIuth being Itf{)ng<r
thon . h. mig/lt of kings, . nd .bout the of good propk "" dilObcy evil
b,,~ of kings' " John ..Jd.....,d him>df", the Chri " i.n J><O!>k, hut jm, which
Ch,i"i.n cnmmunity he hul in mind w< do no, know, Evid<ntl)' hi. fi", OrA_
,;,,~ w.u c<>n,i<k,I imrene,,.,bl, by ',,,ne ."d '" JQIH'I q ~i<llr 1'''1",1 . "".
ond on . The.< Ii", [WO [<X!> . '" pol.mia of high in..",i,),. Thus i, i<
in,.ra,ing [0 not<
[h. [hird Orlit""" probably w,itten during the
when John ..... "",,,ing good
uf h" "..Ii., ",o.b. ,~, lik< ......,.,.,
. nd [hnial ,hoologial ,,,,,,i,,,," 'Q uS< ,It< W<)n\s of Jolon', Ii'Qf, Ilooif"i",
Kou.r,' " It m.y be ,h .. John l.l'" .n opportunity f<> p,ovido: 1 'Y' .. m.. i< <xpo"
of imag< ,ho"sh nJ i, ""y
be ,h~, ,he 740< """, b'gtlr wi,hou. ,ignin
a n, imllg< "'n'rm'''''i<>.., ,h" Jolon', Lu, WOld, on ,be .... hj1 could ,.kc on
"",ne . ir noubly . horn[ f""m hi. <>,1;", cnmmunia.ion., Ano.h.. prodUCI
of rhe ]40., John', fx,mi,wlt ~f ,iIt fisirh, " .. " im,s<' wi,ho'" ,h. polemia.1
'OtlC of th.Ii .. , <wo Or"';-','''' Wi,h hi, wri.ings John .honged forcv<or ,h.
,1,,1'" of ,he im.g< d;""",ion
John m.odo: ,hItt fund.ltnen ..1 ronrribmion. '0' diSC<mion ,h" had Ixcn
going on IpOrod;",U)' .ina: ,he fourt h cenlUty, Fif'>[, he uId,cucd hinuclf in on
wended. indctd ,Imou in, 'yuem,uic. "'lty to ,h. whok problem ofimltgfl in
,I.e d>u,cl... $ec.:mJ, as "'phinia,'" ,i>>Iog;'m .nd phito....,,!,e. , Joh .. refcc;"'''' ~."" in the .rgum.nt> for .nd . goin" im.g<>.rod prm;,ted fur ,I.e lir"
.ime. p.,fuund ",A""ioon on Chri"""
Thin!. john .nus>/ ,.. ",,,,",,,1
buJy of ",i.knee In ,uppo.r' of~i, view',
John ',Ii", two Ora,",,,, .'" ... th", Iik. ""'ny of the writing> we ho,,,, no,ed
.I ..-.df in 'hi< hook, Tho, i<, ,hey .. k< up. wide .my of 'opi<> in no ",,,icub.
ordet < ""lu<n, It is h.n! ,oil if John i< raf'Onding 'ats written by 'he
opp<><ition or .imply .. king up ",levan, >ubjt> " 'hey occurred.o him, In ,he
,hird Or.,U>~, however, JOOn i, gr ... ,ly mOl< 'ys .. n>1t;c.
John point> out tho, m.ny ..
":gul>rly used by Chri"im\-"Trinity,"
"co"",b... ,,,;.I."
".our< of tI,< Godh,-.d," """e.
"one ,"lSOn
w;,h [WQ n.""""'_,,, "n, fo",,,J ;" ,h. Sc';p,u.o bu, h..-. been i""'1're,ed
try. the ti.. he .... nd those ". an .. he""'ti"'" who ",fu '0 UCotp[ ,hem (pr), '"
So ' 00, John "')~' G od him>Clf romm.ndcd im'Ol" ' 0 be m.odo: .nd rh ... imag<>
hoY< long b<.:n ""'p,ed 1).,,) - In "[h,,, ",onl" John i<'<" prohibi,;"'n, b.sed
on whll h. vi""" ....i"'ph"ie ..-.d ing of Scril" ~"_ Then j<.o/l" .. h . "Wh.. is
. n im' ge'" Her. is hi, ,lefini,;"n: "An imag< i, ,h.t-efu",. lik,,, ...."d p,uter"
. nd inlpSSion of ",m<1hing. showing in i,lf " -h,, is depiCted: howcv. ,he
im>gc i< ccn.inly no, lik. 'he ",cheryl"', [h. , i., who, ;, depicted, in <VC!Y
<npt_fu, the im'll' "on. 'hing. .nd who, i, d<pias i< .n... hc,_.nd <cr










.. inly , di'""""" i, ...,n I><.....,.n ,hem, , in,," fh<jl 'rt no< idenfical"' U_,6)
Af.., ' ''<nlpling ". d.,ify "'" Mid of di""'''''''n, John uls wh)' im.g<> ...
m.d . He 'm ...... , "All im.og<> ,ev<>l.nd m,kc p<fccp<ilMe m.... fbin!;' ..,h;';h
.... hidd.n_" To ill ",,,... hi, poin. John say> .... , p<"",n con "", h,ve immcdi_
><. lrnow!Ig< of som.,hing du, is im'i,ibl<>-,h.e soul. fOr """"pl<-<>r of
thinS' th.. >Ie f., .w' y in.""", or time, [""'iP CIIi ... ,hen. '0 ""V'lIlU know!
Ig< by tevt.ling ,nJ m.king p<fC<:ptiblc sec ... , thinp- Imag<> ,1< helpful U.(7).
A. ,hi, poin' John m il" ro.n <n ~m.".,;"n of.1I fhe J>O$Sibk kinds of
imagcs. 'w '11,.......ix U,18- ,,). 1.... fin, i< .h. Son as. p<rtn im.g. of the
F. th ... Thi. is . n.... ",1 imag< ,nd mw" p,k all orb kind . The """nJ i.
(,...,d', fotclcnOW!Ig< of 'hings to com<, $i""" (,...,d', pun i, immu ..bk. His
&sign,"'r Hi, ",,,fi,,,, 'rt t"", Th. ,hird kind ofinug< is nun, nudo by ('...,d
as.n im. of Hi"""'' M.n ,toes "'" of <0" .... .<It .... in ,h. divine ....""" b, ..
i=g<> God b)' imi .. ,ion. Th< founh ~i nd ofinuge is the ...... dOWl . nd fOrm
nd 'YP"''' of invi,ibk ."d bOOil"" 'hinl\' which >I" m<fl(i""al in ,he xriptu .... Th. cumpk Job n gi.... ;. .ngel . But his mai" point he .. is to say rhat
we ul< ";"., cvc'Y.d.y mal;"" to prod"", m.nM . nalogies th .. nr.aI:e it
p""'ibk fur US to con""'pIAt< hother . pi ntual ,...Jiti",. A fif. h kif..! of
ill h>l'P'"n , Hc," Jo"n me.on, 'YI"" in '''c ",,'W"k-.I X "><' So
,he bu,ning bu,h 0' the rod of Aaton wh;ch fo ...harlow ,he Throtolros. o. ,h.
dow!. .nd
of ,he sea ",hi'h point to b.pti<",.1 gr:occ. The .i.. h kind of
im. g< i. ""de for Kmemb .. nce of 1""" .... <n"'. John i. ..ding '0
"""whelm tho>< cri,ics ...-flo h.... fCj. I on< Of ,nother kind of i""g< in ,n
w<mpt '0 d;"',Iit all imogco. Th< matt i, ,'.ry rompla. John.<lt~
John ask> what may be d.~ and how >Ie images ro be m.d. {'J.4- 'j).
]>,1;.1:>1)" John saY' ,Iu. imag m.y be mad" of "'physicl ,hing. ,luf h. ",
.... p<, bodies ",h;';h >It circumS(fibcd and h>v< (01<')1," lIuf im.>J!<' con al.o be
nude of bei"g< , .... h>"" "" ph,..;.,.! ""'p<, of '''so:.'' f<,.. a.>mple. lIodily
im.g of the tan be f.. hioncrl. as Mosn m..J. 'mages of the ,h.rubim . Th_
who al< wonhy look upon .."h inuga .and p<fuivc "a bodil... ,nJ imdkcru.1
.ij;ht mode m'nir." throush phy>ical mcan,: ' john i. ~lIy -",ying ,h .. im>g<S
an be made of ,he proi=ion' of O.J< ,I.ouw.", . nd tlut .. , .,,,ive congt<SS
betw",n ,,~, ,houw." and ,uch imogcs produce> unde" ... nding of . he <k<per
I<..h,ies behind bo,h the i=g< and our ,houw." about i.
John ,h<n imi,., ,h .. it ..... God Hirruclf..-ho fi"" nude im.>g. beginning
... i,h hi. Son - ,h< '"n. <u ...1 im.g<"' (,.,. 'he fi", kind abm"j. john talb of
Adam. Ab",h>m. j acob. M ....... j",hu., h ...... Inn;'l. and Pml . .. ho ..... in
some ....1 an im>g< of God, God did nOl t<VC>1 in ,hi, .... y Hi, divine IU"''''
but ,n .. i..... g< and ~gul<. All the p<"" ....... hu <ow .uch 'mages fell down . oJ

"'''A' ...


wollhil""l Ihem, nol ~ if Iht)' Wtrc God bUI on tc$pI of

God ",h"", ,m,go:

'~"""<' 1"<>1'1. ,.,J'r ",n d" 1;1",...;"" John ",-yo Ip6). ''''

TIti, htingo< John ,,, hi. t." nuin <opic: wonhip.'" John dilfcn,i.. be
"'-.:cn tho ,l>$OIut< wut>I';p th .. ;1 d". ,,, (~,.j .I,,"e .n,1
t.,i ... ","O""'il'
Ih.. m'r b< paid ", cln,.d 'hinS'. John ', poim i u,ely ,..Iid on ,hrologic.l
ground. hUl, ... f'."y ""'... ,h. di"inc.i"n bcrwctn
md p""Irymi1'"i,.
purely n",,,i,,.! d;n;"<:Ii"" ,,h ich
d. di,.;I\K"i, h<d in pr><.k ."'" lAW'
den ""fl, this kind olngumem "woo:<.k b=<usc i, "'cquit<> (Very individ""f
Chtini ..
ob .. "" the ... btl< di"i,,;on ho,w<.n ......""il' and """...,ion ." '"
Amery, in he, ,ran,l .. i"n of ,he Lift 0{ Sufhm rIH Y~ung<'T. af ...,)~ " . n.lltes
p!Wry,...;" in .n)' lO,m, ... "p",-,t .. tion ' ..-. ... 10 m.I ck>, th .. ""ul p .. ices
and !to{ V<" .b.ttKti"m are .. i"" . '''' Some I..., iconopoobc. """e unc y
abou, this di"inction ."d, ... I .1..11 .how in Ioter chapt<f>, W"".,n .... 'ite ..
be dubiow .bout it.
~'" John,
a.. ~v< kind. of
hip (p8- j,). F;"" ,h Jo ...
tion gi'-' " to Goo .lon . Stcond. ,h. a""", .nd r<>-tning ...'O h.", fur God b=<"",
ofl1i. giOlY, TIti,d , ,he thmksgiving w< f...1fo,.11 au, bl<ing>- Founh i. ,he

,n. ..

I.,,, ..





."""1,,,. _ ..

hopc "'" 1u.vt: th.. Goo will m .... W' n..Ms. Fifth is rcpcnune< , nd oonf<;"n.
Of rd..,ivt: womo.ip therr arc ,,",'On kind> (J ,H- )9). Firll is rrvcrencc for Ihe
holy pI"es .... here Goo 1.0< t<'StcJ. &cond i, the f<'\'etcOC< fu, ,he piKe! and
' hings by m<"On' of which God ha. dfOCtN ou' ..I.. tion. TIti,d i. the ..... e.. n
.I ... '0 objc<1. dcdic."ed '0 Goo .uch .. litorgical .......1. Founh COm ,he
iINg<> of fu m .. ,hingo _n by ,~. prophc<,. Fifr~ .,..nd. OUI ... n.,."ion f",
.. c~ ",I.... ,,,.....h """co,n, ,h. ,'<n< .. ,ion due

,.,.."IS '"


,boo< woo rul. ovt:' ".

Se...nth i.,h. fClj><C' by ..

, """....
In few ' e!pt. W2$ John', ,hought O'iginai . P,im.o,ily h<- wu ""mpt<hen,i,'O
. nd otg;<ni>.cd .... het< hi. pmiecc:<so", on both ,ideo of the ioe, had .. lecn
nmow .""'~ oflimi,ed.,pt. of the ",hok pto~eon posed by imaga. Xottemi
t hrotigh Jobn', Q,,,,wn, .t< m.ny rommen" nn 'npi", ,hat \\" .Iread)'
enrount.mi. He .. )~ .igh, ;, ou, nobl .., ... n... ,'7), H. rompl.;n' ,bout ,h.o<e
w!. " I<:<' mmer '" wh<, ",nn", .bid. ,he
ofhu ",." h.n .... l . 'j- 'i, ,~,
11). H . iMistS that i/rulSC< C.m mind ul of p"" .I""", and hdp ul to emulate
,hem ( . '0, H). Chrii>n' .imply ' l< nOl idoi.,." aod those woo "'-y tru., thCJI
.re i"" do no< know how '" ,cad ,he Sip"''''' (1.4. I , 8, '--I: 1. 7, 8). In.1I
' hingo< 'he ,,.,di,i,,,,, "f ,he ch uICh ' IC '0 he m .. in"incd (,." ' j , ,6: 1.,6. >0) .
Finally, John .",,1 angrily .oou< ,h. e"'pc""', in,c,ren in dogm .. ic W,..,
1'1>, ,,..... mind tl .. , in l,i. ti""" 1..-0
, I, .. n"". of hi. COne'''" i" tho
III wu <>pi.olly in effor (1.1: 1,4, 11, ,6: j . , )
Wri .. h,d '-n .. ~ins lOt Inns ,ime ,h" imag<> of Ch,;" "",,1.1 be





p>.m'od bea .... Chri .. Iwl.waml .s . ..... ~ on.d Hi< hun,ani,!, ~ ",.,abl.
of dacription. Thi..... an old a'W' m. n ' br John's ,ime. 8 u, John " ... a good
,no<lgh ,h..,logi>n '0 know ,Iu, 0."" ....., "",. "m<', m.n , John ,.,Irud
ima~ of Chri" \I.... "'OK ,lun a .iepioion of Hi. humaniry, G h.n
Ladn., 011 . . id
,h. Gt,",i.n con""" of,l>< imag< w.. daooca,ed in ,h.
,.,jm "f ,h. mru, fundom<nt2l dognw .bou. COO.r>d m.n. ",.. P.,ri.k Hen.,.
argued 'hot
ico""cla." ic ron,,,,,"",,)" .... , <ss<n,i.l1r aoou, Chri""logy. '"
Hn", Breol,ltaml' in,iseed ,h" i, .... in.... i.. hl ..
,he ;m,g.:
should 'm<rg< in [he ""n["", of [h. Ch ""ol<>giul ""nllo'...;"'. P. Wh" ,h...
f. il '" rgni~ i,
i, ,.... n~"< ",her ,lun J<>hn .,r D.m"""" wh ...
m.d. ,I>< '<gum.n, 0Vd im.W" in,,, an al);um.n, abou, Chriscology in

,h., an









Pno, ,n John'. ,im. propl. had often said 'hat on""Id poi", Otri
V" 1....
""""",cd, ", i[hoo, q ui,. """"ng rh.< impli"'Hion, of
his ob .."""ion.
John .......
,n tcali~
tht key i.. u. '., ... not




,h. 6",


"atUr< bu, ,II< rno'" fundon,,","1 q"""ion of hYJ"lSusi., '" John ..... ,h.. ,h.
'q>men'ation of ,h.< hypo,..,;, of , h.< <lInd ptfSOn "f [h. T'ini,!, .... , a very
compli""ed i.. u. '" h ..... no, I"""ibk '0 rq>me<>, ,I>< humani'y .10'" beau ..
,he hu",.n"l' .k", .I,d no'
.p>." f", m ,h. hYl"-"'"'" ..,f ,h. '-"II'-"" " ,..,"
.1><> '00 .implc t<> .. ).
no on. co uld depict .he di"n. n.. u
bta.... "" on. b;,d <''-'" <:n i" 0"", "I;>in. ,Ite key I~,in,,.... ,t.;" ,ho: di~i""
"""Ur< I,,,,, nil ,n,I<I",n",,,, .. i,,<nce 'j"" f,om ,h. 1~'Il"'. Th"j , Ch,i" h.d
.I'f'<"\ml .... n"n .nd h.J bc-cn ..... n. n .. k;"S who h.J ket' .... n """Id t:><
d<piaed lik< .IIY other t:><ing, 110' )<>u.t Ch,;" "'.,.. '"'' lik. any ot h.<t being, A.t
0"". di5(w, m<"'i.,.1 bein!\- On. hypo<ta,i . Chri" hod tw<> na'u . 0fIt
hum.n .",1 0"" ,Ii.i"e. 11m ... ,h..., """''''' hod no indcp<ndon' o'"eno: >
,.. i,h .. " .. ,l.j b<- d'I';ctW ~~,n., b' "'f',,,,,dy. Any .!<pia;'-'~ ,,fO"'" ,he-,.fo.-. ..-v<a1cd, in >Om<" mrs'''';ow .... y. me .ing!<- I.ow><. To John ,hi, W1> no',
>on nf 'hrol<>gio.1 pm<. fO, an~ deni.1 tha, Ori" rould b<- depicted ,/"",,nw
<1>< ,,,,,Ii,)" of ,he incun .. ion.r>d [h", ""lied ;n,o qUc>'ion ,h.< cem,.,1 mrs'''1'
of til< Ch,;"i." f..i,h ."d 'h< ...-holt d' ... i"" <o><>omy "f .. k .. ,iOft. John hod
. "cit", ,Ii""""",,, in'o _
I.:or. He m>d< ,he- Jch,,~ ""'"
im. gcs int<>. Ch, .... ological .<>n,t<W<l!y.
John', ,hi,d con,ribu,ion
'he imag< con'rm'f'f>Y i, to b<- fOur>d in 'he
larg< collec,ion of .",ho,imiY< ""-'tee>
he apptr>ded t<> hi, Or~,itJ",. T he
,u",iving nunusc"p do no[ ...,h;, =r to pc'cei~e ,he orisin. 1 form of ,h.
Il""",i, Ul), coneil'" (ll. ,,'" lug:i<>gr:>rhir: {I)) ,,-,uteeS 'M' J<>hn .... n,b1cd.'''
John m.y h,y< 11""" .... ching
r<fn.ncn 0' he m.) h.Y< <n'''un




'''''''P''''''' ..,





[om! [hom in u.. COllfIC ofhi.long lifo and "Ok rndin~ One: nudmt <>fJolm',
""",,= __ "' [..... JoI>n...... ,~ O>I1lain. "" f<.o...:. ,h.n 7'" .i,... ion. of >j.l worb
by aud,o ... ,,, John "";OJ I KIlol.>t of formod.bk nudition. Writ... on images
"""'" John ,ondtd '"~ ci,~ r.... biblic".1 ~""'U' .00 IOmttin><> on. of ,he
cUs.icol i.... ,..... """' .. d......U.k""..... pauago from &.il Of G~ of
Nyssa. John ............... rulkd '''V' ....... n .. npr<Udm'..d <bo~ of .....nW'\lith clurv ...u.ic ""'''1 ........ ij", h....ud;.d ohc ...-ay in ..-hid>
...... bcc.amc .....lpOftI in d>t .my 8run""" pn1od. '... A> .my .. <he fifth
= ....,. pokmic:alli,.....~, oft... in diaiorc ""m.1xpn '0 proIi.......... At ,he
ti .... of the Fifth Uum<nic:al Cou...:il 1m) ..... IIorikpo of proof-te:<" bq;an
bcins odduml. In 610 ,he- Si" h coiled by Adolf,,,,, H........,..
<0<1...:.1 of " antiquariQ and paiqnphi,,,:"- ...... ,~....J .boo, fobificd
and broupl, in ..'holt boob <lI\\k. lock and key. During d.. ...,.onth
~,u.,.. '" .... h",,~ ... n, ,he-~ .... ,. Ch.;..i.".,.... ... ><gIl"",n" abou, i""ll<>_
wi"""" Uort,i... of Nc.opoliJ.nd S,.,.hm of bra. 8dO~ John of Omuocu<
"".,.... hod "" ,ho .,....,.ly ...",tytJ ,he- O' '' .... n~' fOf ,t.. 'au tha, 100<. ""
imagoo . lthough ,hOff ..... tl,. nt.t>dnt .n,1>oIog P'" '<>gelhe-. in Rom< \xtwcal
7.6 and 7) '. R<an,ly. Akund, h.. dcmon..",od ,m, prqr.l!ion of
m....... icollophil. lIo.i~ ~"" p,ob;obly in Ronl<. in
770. l'hi. rolk<,ion...." 'hrn n~ndod in n . ". nl .nd. prob.bly in ill .hon" ...... ion. sent
by Hod,i." I '0 T".o$i", . Iong wi,h hi. kt,n "r 71,. Th"". John ', <ullcai"n,
pi ... . h. (>fit of no. pc.h. p. a. e",en<kd few ,...... I". ",,,,ro ,he- hui> ko.
,he ''''''' c;'ro .. Nicacll in 787.'"
In . 1l <OK., ",emp" '" pull '''I\<, h., cli nchi ng '<:>'imoni......... n "".r<i",
in OJ>propri .. i,,S ,rodi,ion. \l:'. h. ...... n , h., irunophilc. 1I>1I.1I) .. Kl ,h.. i",:oges "'0" of .nc;'n, us;agt .0<1 ,h., no churth council haJ .".r proh ibi,ro
,h.m. By .... mbling a body of nid,_ fr<)n, ,he- ...Ji,ioos nf ,he- church, john
bun.a><d ,his argUm<n, from ,...J;,"'" .......... bd'on:. In doing ,hi .. John
prnioully ",.;nly O"ilt<lologicol.
inocnro ;mag in,,, ,t.. ~
hod !:ott .. d..... od by ,a,ua) "",.. ing m. ..."- in ,t.. 1"""'...... rw(> or ,h"",






Un''' .....

JOO" 01", PU'

OJ'I><>"'<n .. .,( iftUJ!<O in d,f\i.:ult I""i,;"". E~ i( ,hey

....... """ ..,i.r..d by hi! ttfu,,;[[ion of , ... w'l"" of idoLmy. by his P',itn,
diflflenti.1uon of ,he.viooul kind! of'map. .nd by hi. ddi ..... ion of d>t 'J"P<S
and objca. of """"'ip, ,hon ,......, ' 1'IWN"''''' ......' hod ' 0 oodIc his .chobrly
<IoWa. ",.,. hod to ciullo..., ti ..... tho
' icity or oM rdn:tn<t of his
ti ..,.......... doc they hod .u <on>< "I' ....'" ,u,""'i.;.. of their -... 11> "",al
~. ,he- p<riod ......." '" ,,,," arly ~ ........ for .. on be di... crr>c<l. qui.,
.... ohc JUbjca of i""PP< TIL"
would 1;(,.

.u' .....



of Con... nti"" V WI: ';",Ify F" cOOtftn. n-idmc:~

.M icooophobt s-i.ion. The '-w of Hinria "'2> ..,..j OUt . , N"",," ill
~ along wi,h i" biblical .nd po'';'';': ~um. T!.io pocciouo "",r","
p<rnU" ... to h.c:u ,ho icoooduo. IpQki"K in .heir own voices (I ..... me this;
oth<n mis'n no<.l. Sim,br In de" .."., f-.. ... ~ bu. ~ .. ro
th.:;r proo'MoIlI<t..., .... p"""" (/..,..._) of Con.o ... ,i"" V,'" The .... ptrOI'
'pp"on,ly ddiv<rtd .. ...." y .. ,h"...." >p<ha on the !<>pi< ofinug<'O be, n
.bout 71. ..... ~ ............ of q..... ioou .. toeh he .ubmitted
to m. biohopI. lot se"nin, ....I coofinn ....,n. The op<hQ do """ $tiM>"< ODd
i. i, noc dnt ,It .. ,bey ..., i" any cas< idm,iaj '" ...bsunu or ugumm' <0 the
I'nans. t . . n.c LII", ........... only .. fngmm" a'rxtN by G<ocJ< Oocrngonl.,.
from ,Itt AM"rrNrii#i of I'."r\&n:h Niphorw.. n.c iT............. pn;>b>bIy
rtaSOOUbIy a<cUn.,<: ,ho tto:hniqut of qUOtin,.be ~ to be murcd h>virtg
long pN'l!= in O,,; ,,;,n ''I''mtI""ion. Mott<m: . noon 9 of N"",,"
(71.D-E) rcqui.N th>. ~ of ,ho iw...ophuboo books be pu' in ,ho rolli,,,
ehollihn.ry. N~ would h.... tw:I nor o<ca. to ,ho>< books. Bu . hm.
Duri"K the


he ""',.. hi, A~,,,,'Mi/..,, be, ...." I .~ ~ nJ 0 .. kn k ..... in ",jk .,><1 '-'r

from hi,lib.ary. ~, ... ,ul'fl'O><' ,h>, hi. m.mot)' ..-as ~ 0' ,h>t h. Iud notes. ,h. f.c< ,h., in Q"",in8 onlr
a ...... Niccphoru. dcpli.-<$
u.s of .ny >en ... of ,h. "'''''''' ""luone. o. d .I>o",.io .. of Cun.~.n,in .,gu_
m'nt>. $.ill. WI: 'ft j\I.d '0 h>vt 10m. of hi. '!,wi",; ...,./.t.'" Fin.!ly. ,h.



N~"thm4 h.
M",,,,,, CMsl''''''~''''' c",!>.JUin ..",. and .h. ,mo .... M
....,.,.'" 1..-"",,,,.'" .J'h<>Uglt ioon<>phik and pokmi.-..l. "'Wly ..,m ... l""bk

inf., ...

n......,.... compJ...- ..b.ion,hip Ixtwc.:n ,h. Pnnri, and ,h. 1,0,.,.,. Let
,.. begin ...-i,h the fOrma. n.c Ii", I'_i, <>pCN by ""nbling ,h" ,ho C.,hoiic
o.urcl\.nd all i" m<mlxn hold pu. CIt,.;,. '0 be on. I"'no<! in "''' n"Ute>.
I I" di vinity....l humonity .... "'"& t-n joino:d '.'00 "'ithou, """fUMOn (f'"l'
,). An image. Conwan,if\t uy.. mWl be one;n bc-in~...-ith ..... ' i, rq> .........
(frot- '41. >wi .i xW..W<; ~ (It"'; " d't\" t OO w.o..~). So
eon.....,;n. PU'" ,ho qut>tion of hoo. i ..ould bc po;to>ibk '" m.ok.o >II image of
t..;ns ",ho has """ ... , ....... on< lpIri....aI.nd on< .......w ( ,... -~ . No
image .. pouibk. the <mp<"" ")'>0>< .ny "'''''I'' '0 nukt on< ~Iy
in......'u "cimunocribintl'" .jw di.i........,.. f< and ,Iuo .. impo::oooibio (frogs. ,~
S,),'" L.I~ . ..... ttnt canncM nukt:an ,..,.. of tho AnI>.1one. If . pain .. ,
nuI<a.n ..... of ,Itt II..oh oIono ,It.m ... odds I feu"h 1"''-' '" the Trinity,I.,... d;.;........." ... . nrI human on. (j;-ot- '49). Tlou. i. is impoc<ibk to


dC'S(. ibc: in.n im.g< of one n" ~f<' po<non wl,o .. im in

""ulCO. Tl><r. i.
no im.g< "'1"'1>1. of ",h~ing ,hi, (frags. 'S6-S9).
The ><:rol,d Ih,;, <xplof<:! ",h<th.. 0 1 not til< euchari" c.1n be.n im'ge of
th< boJy-<Jf ,I>< hum.n n.. urr---ofChr' " (th,tt he' ns no I~ ""'hili'y mh.violS
. n im'll" of the divinity). Con'ton,it>< ttfort! '0 the b......J .nd win. of tho
.uch.. i..."d .. id rhor Chr;'r romnundall li, disciple> . nd
ro ",osmir
,bese . . . .i,ibl. ttmin<ler of Hi, kwe (fr>g:>. '<4 - 6S). Her. i. ,n inug< of
Ch.i .. bOOr ,ho, """'.. from Ch.i" Himself. Thi, i, ,I>< only proper ,nd
po<Sibk im.g< fur th< b.... d .nd win. arc tho bOOr . nd blood ofChri" (f"g:>.
'66- 67\. N",.II b.<ld ,od win< ~gure Ch,i", "f <;OU.". h", only rh".. CQn;<
.... ,aI hy ,he I"i .... Thu. who, h><l b<en m.Je by h"m>n h,nd, bc:<:om.. rh"
which,..., no' m,de by hum.n h.nd, (f.. g. 68) ,
Con",",i". m,y no, ho ... u<eJ Ch>l<>:d<>"i,n ,e.m inology qui .. <;omc,l y
bur his idw 1ft basically """,,, ... m with imponmt " ... in, in <cd"'; .."i,,1 ,mii, i",, ' " Wh<n ,he Co uncil "f Hi.tti, ,n"
uldr= ,he im.g< qu ..,"'" ..,.1 '"
r<$pond to Corn"ntine'. inquiri .., rhe b;.oop> f=ic;olly addal rigor .nd prcci .
ion to
idcao of ,I>< emr<m . '" The council did oor r>kc lip CAn.ton,inc',
ide' ,~,." im.1I< ""sIo' ,,, ...
;,1, " ,1", ;, "l'<e><nt>. ". I,,>,<>d,
the bi)hops developed CoR~'lO';nc 'I Chri\rologiul rdkoion). ThOle who milund<"""", Ch .. ,,, hum.:roity. ,hey ... id. wet< ,h. h.i" of Ari" nd of ,he
A..,...,I.i--< ... o;,,<m< Monoph~i'G--"'hil< thOl< ",ho "",-,,,1<1 ....1"' ..... ,he
diY,n< . ml hm:m o.. ura ,,"cr. dn<cr><> of Ne>t",i,,, (l-."F..- 14jE). FunJo
m.nlOll y 'h<)' .g.".,.j with eo"".mine .i><>m ,h. iml"""ibility of m.kins .n
imag< ,h .. <lid no, <i,h<r cirrumscribe- ,he uncir<Um>rrib.bk divinity o. 01""
><1"'''''' 111< huon.lti,y froon ,h. in><l"'"bl. ~nion of nature> (lSM- ,600A), ,OJ
Coo".n[in", id .. 'oo~ , ,he _ho,i" .. ,n im.:tge ..... ret.ined 1:><" '<hncJ
bit (,6'E-'6 ~C). " Obvioul,y the bi,h0l" " Hi.I<i. """fC nOl ,ub.crvienl. They
responded though.-full)" '" Con".min<'& "'lu... ioo ."
Bu[ ,h. bi,h"p' did morc ,ho" j''''
,I>< '"'pem' "'1'1..
reruncnt motif of ,he ","",." "YO St<p"'n G.IO. "i. [h. "gum.", [h .. Ch .. "i.:tn
;..... g< """hip ;, .n ."ihe< of <1 .. <1<.;1. .oJ 1'rncnl> =o'5"n <>1''''''10",..:'
'Thr council bcI"')~' hc go<> on, ". go:nuin< h."ed md fe:" of, poisonous
'<mn,n' of pog:oni' m."' " lIKif<,-, "nt of ~ . nd jcalou.,.., dc.:Nled ,o . lien ...
man from God by '<mpting him to wormip , ....[ioo i",'c.d "f [h. ,r",Uo.
(111E-><}A), '" J<>w ""'y ho.o ..,...J bum.n. from idolmy bur ,1.< &'"il h",
c.... erly tcin,rod...:c.1 it (.. 60--:1ID). P,soni,m . nd id(.t..,ry we.c iml",,,,n,
i...... fOr ,he iamophobc::s. Bu, ~n ",ott ,",,,,,,,.nt to ,hem "i'" t<jting ,I><
;m.~'d w... ",mol""" ",[',;V'.I.", to ""..J.'" 1h<y ""K,kj
, h.. , image> coul.! convey 'rue knowltdg< of ,hrological rc.l i,i. B,....ntium.




hom_,,,,, . .

"""",..! '"

iJ., ,Iu,



",k.. tI,.<di,t....."'bkd bi,hops to .,,,.... , ,he- SC,iptu .... fut "f,., th<)l "Y
.!,ou, ho... f..l;e the mind down I'mm pure 'l'iri,.w "",.hip '0 , he
~ w,,,,h ip of m... ,i. 1 c~'",n (u9I>-E). W,,"hl ... . nd J..d """.. ,imply
"'nOOl "'pl ur<: ,h. gIo<y ofGoJ 0 ' ,he vinu.c "f ,h. marty" . nd .. ints. Tan
..Jo"" an do ' his ('nC-D).,.. 0"" of the rouncil", . ".. h.m:u aco,;,'<> ,ho><
...ho 'hrough "m.t<,i.1 0010,.. ' '"""' '0 und ..... nd ,h. W"rd ,n Hi, hunun"y
!J;6E) . nd .noth., .n.. hem ...... g<:" tholt who .. tempt t<, rqoroduct in them
I.-eo til< .jttl><S
the .,ints by looking at inanimat< .nd >pc<Chlds ;a.n'
mo.Jc of nu,e,;.] 0010 .. when ,h~' could turn '0 hook.. '" " .nim.." "".....
!.HIC-D). An in,,,.,,ing ... m>tk sal" rh .. ,h .... i> no p .. ye, to <on"", ..... n
icun (.68C) . A pia,,,. is. ,nJ ,.,,"'i ..... ""rnmon.nd "",,,hless.
Much of ,hi. line of 1tgumen..,ion i, f..m~i .. '0 u, by """'. hu, '0 p/><:< i,
in Contat. one mU!t teaCh back 0'..,' ' he age of Leo III <0 atguments m"re
'ypia.1 of ,h. fo""h .nd ~f<h n tu,i"". I, i, 'ru< tlu, Hi" ...... I>ibliaJ Ro"I .
gium ... , ,hc >c'iptur.tll"0hibition.! of imogco . I,hough it ouy be <igni/i"'nt
,... , .00'" >0 . i, m;";ng. .... ing bct,n rqolaord b) Drutcronomy ~ .J1 . nd
j .8. Tllc bihlia.1 a" .... op,:r" wi,h John ....... :u>d mmin ..... "",h ,.,8. H7 . nd
(>.BoE-lAta. In oclt .. ""rd ny ",.ightfu"""rd .pplication of the Mu..'" p",,"il,ion ~ I>n , ... 'dl. rh,!" <hi, """" "",,,,,hing ", John of D._
muoa, ,heology. Ie Clnn'" be me ... roincidence t"', John iI .crotdcd
panicul .. ly p<""n.1 .nd IInt ..1.n."henu (J6\D): he cl ..,ly w. ,hink.. wi,~
whom ,h. Hi....;,n boo"", , n=l to n:ckon. ""' i, m.y he
.nces ,t> john, Gosp<1 m>e>1 w~" iI r.:all)' going on h..... nd ,h,ow'n .J..""",
in i<onopht>bc ,hough'. Th. '<pu,ed ~mph .. is OIl """"hip in .piri' .nd in
,ruth coupled with complain" aboot J"", ",",net ,ugg<"<" <hpIy fd, >Cnlt
,hot """"hip. 'u be .",hocn,". hod '" be spi,i",..J . Nothi ng in
,his c~,..J _~d is rornmcn.!u"', "'i,h the Ul"><f<:I.tM <I;';o;oy. ~nd nothing
moJ. by ~um.n. on elevate hum.", '0.0 ""J.,.,.nJi"S ufGod. N",io: ho ....
in Iti' <uc .... is, .. ,hougl". Con " .m' n< ulko "f how ...... , hod I-n mo.d< ,urn,
infO ..,m.. hing u"m.od< (h. T{)~ XIQ<)" ....'Tt<ro ,,(IQ.; TO UXtl(J<).,"Wi'lTOV) .
O " ly i" thi, un,,,..ic " " e a n ,he <>>chari" fisu ,he Ixxly ofChn" . TIIe ..
PIa,oni,m h.,. of <;on ,h" Iud oevc douoo .bou, ...... ri. 1... Iioy .nd ,he
is lte%g). he .. ,h., ., p,ofo"u-.;lly ,nnocend.n,' " Th.", i. al",. ,heology
h.... 'h" ... Ii... ,hoc full impli""io" ' of John of D.mascu", Chn.,olosi",1
",~cc,ion' on imag<:". ". Whc"", John w:L!f d ...... n '0 ..y , ... , in ",me my... ,iou.
f",hiOfl .n im.g. of /<>u, hum.nity could reveal His d;vi nioy. ,hoc bj.oo", ...
"'mblcd at Hi.,"",.
J.;t<>' p. in, ,,,.how ,h .. ' his .imply could not be 'h<
"'<C. Fo, ,hoc ~'" .im. in ."h" ..
im>gc ,heologi.tns ar< ,colly gnoppling
wi.h ch ocit"', ide.









""",nd un l1i....;..... ndtd a bi. ~ Coru(lIl,i"". Th. <m.ptn><

.ha. h< had 1"1<">'<. oq>Mi"m hinudf I'm", tlx church .
Ind h< ~ a pa,ristic f\orilcsi .. m '0 his th,m, .. I .... Yof .....-ning I.i>
odhcrmct .0 .ndi.ion.'" A, ,he- council . bilhops "lked ",",... ndy ahom ,ndi.

" ..... 10...... pai n. ' 0 orgy<

,;"" . "Pin and >pin. the- biohopo '",m~N.Mi, fa"hfuJ ad ... Kft<C '0 .......
c:ummial councils 11t7A~D, 'nIl-InO. [n On adroi ...."...,. the- bUhopo .i,N
,... "''')' in which .... .;" council< >eIJ......-d ,.... pD' Trinoun... .nd
lop::ol iuun of,. ......... " - ,hey
'C'ft"d "'''h ,be- ~ndi"P
of ""- cour>cils. This rncwt .......... i" full ...."ni", whm i. io uUn in <0<>junction with .I>c counc,[', p<tfmly Ch.Iadon;"n (mD-E) pro/UI.ion of faich



ond CIu"'oIosied ''5'''''"n..,'''n :abou, "".... "fhc biohopo wet< . .yin, tha .
bcaw.c fOI><' .. l\\knundin8 of ,he Il"<:Ond pttWn .... ,hot T rinil}', """"y
,00", fot-bitl< iconJ, ,11m . 11 ...... ic. <CIIM<nial cou .... ib had >Ito fot-I>iddrn
icons beau.. ,hey roo h.>d ,h" Pf"I"" u......... ndirl of the bO", ol Ch .......
~ fac,
,Ix COUJ>C"iI >f>1>tr.<kd pa,,,,,ic ftorilcpum ~ """'he, .....y of
d . imi"l\ """idol il}' wi,h ,he church , 8m, .roidi.;.,., . oo " ,Ix ''''x 'i ..... of
di.puting Jolll, of Dant .." ..... ' M''''!'ti ..ion of that ,radi.ion on bch.Jf of im_
ogeo (,~,D-JW). Tbe- eou"C:1 of 1 [ie ..;.. WI> profa.Nly <Orn<",. . i"". HiP.
on iu lilt of aim! Wll ~n ,Utnlp' th~t the iconophilo Waf innol"ll'on.
And. '0 "1"''' ....... ... hi"", ....1 ,,,,,,t><!, fQ, .~u ing ,h., , radi,;"",I Konophili ...... , "J..,;..,Jy innov. ,i in ,II< """y be'o .. Hi..,..i .
Front the v"iou, leollol'hil< w,!!, , .... , ... ("m om!"',.,y witft Con, .. m
in< V. i. i. !"'.. ibk '" ~",n .... m .. " .. or .... Cu.,,", 'hinking of thox ,..ho
tkfond<J i.... g>. Son,... n .. only: I:or I> wc h... only Nicephol\U, atnet>
(rom Coma""",,, /'... "'~ .., 'DI) " ...... , .. fro", ,II< icunophil<> n"inly 'hdr
atkmp" '" ",nil, Co"'''n,i",,', p",!,apnd. a"'poigl'. ,II< /'~ and
b#n. Much of ,hoi, 'hinki..g i. qui .. du. bu, .... do rtO. have, 1$ in .Iolm'$
co>< full.oJ .rue..... ,ic <.pool.ion.
N" t... tlwl too. "1'1":I1wnu. ,he iCOClOphila bid to the
uniV<1"lal ,radi.;"". of ,II< ch"",h. 1M .u,ho. of the- .""nix AJ.....'" I~
cried ",.. in ,,'S"iI-h ,ho, i..... h.od f-" hun......l ru. 74S f,Kj ,..... " and .......,
only now bd", .,ud<cd .... AI In in'C1"Oti"l\ ..... Y""taking "p tht pa'tUtic <Iud.
,be- .uthor of AJ_ c.",..~"~~,,, c..NIIt~~", "Y' i, ;, he" .. ,,, IOIIow fut.iI.
jobn Ch.,..., t><! G.....,. Nuian:un ,..... ['$in.., T.icaocabou, ",d ......
""fOul pest~ tho po" ... ch Con... n.i"".."' [.I,,in8 h.>d prok.oion. of &i,h hu,W
., thonn. tho i<onoph,k, Au", thonn ,.h, bIt.. ,,. To ,he eN'S<" d;d
not comm.;ond im:ogt'l 10 boo .......... he """."phiko>ndcd ,...., ;"..,. ..... of
0"";"" ....".. and .......... m.ny 'hon8' in , ... <hurd. ..... idt IaCh tip., bKIr.
10 .... opooda evm if ON an"", find
Oori.. IN '" .1f'O"I< wmmlnd.d






,heir ~. ,.. Tt.n., u< ..." "",..-I .x-..Iopm<n.. 'n ;.:onoph,," :upm<fI':>,I0Il. Fin' ....,. bcpn awca!i", '0 <=ain ."".... , i....,.. Sprciliclly. ,t..y
ref.,r ..... '0 ,he I...,."
of M'l)" and '" ,he Ahpr ..... of Ch"".- .
"""it; <:alkd by Robin
"Of>< of lhe mon; dcptro .. OUSV',ion. g( m.
~ob '" ouPf"'"
a .. .nd ....... ,d ... ;""" ..nIT:... Second. in
,b.i. _ito''''n. of ,be .;, council,. '" whKh 'hrr prok..ot.l rornpkre .Ikp>roc<.


tho iconophilel btpn < ,he e;gt.'Y"""""" 1"",II'n (:lllon. tht 0"" ,h.>.. com
",""dod tb. ",,,,........ion of Ch ,;.... 0 nun ..,b.. ,hon .. . .ym bol. for
in".n~e . lon\b. '"' Thi. to . no, "''1'ri.i"&l1' wu no' ci,td ., Hie",ia .lId
,*""IJ bt promi ....
II On "",,,h.uln. ,b.n ... c
,ha. ,h....."Ic
"'-Cf im"B"' ..... btromi"l\' .... ,,'" fOr 'hc right to tk/int th< ,", of ,IKchurch , '" ~ ,IK- church', mcmo.y.lOvaJiJat.;" h;'rory-un<kmood dwUy
ail ,100 ~'Hl the rip" '" t<CO<d , .... , 1"'" IndoN. ,100 t...o ran 01 ,be
eighth crn,ury.nd ,ho< fin, ran 01 th. nin' h ..-.u neh in hiorotiaJ ""';,ing
and rcfIcoiom.:o/"""" .... irciy by iconopholcs. .... 8r m.okins ~ coorctl\f">'
c..,. "";,h 0..;.,. by i...... i~ <Iu, >II ... url;"- ~OaI O>uncik Iuod .ffi,.,...J
i<om. and by """"'''&
tho: wtbrnkt:rt tOOition of ,ho< church n1icbttd i<om.
,h< iconophiko rJY<k icont. ;an inscpat.tbk I"" of ,h< , ......;,. Th<y rooIr Io"ll
"..,.. """.n.! """""S' .."h 'bf'<C' to i.n .. ,"", ...... oflmmolMliry t/u, Iu> ...
Ion,; 11m> . ",ib.""d '0 Byuo,in< hi<to<y.
No, . ''''' k<>noph,b a.nicd <>0 wi.h ,IK- old ..S" ..... n' ,ho, ""'".. It:...! in
......nd .... not noso.ily ~il _ A('e' p"" ..,iog
.hty do "'" _"hip,f.. lU.tJ 'hings ,nd
,hey do not odo.., w.n .. rolo". (tf "",,, - ,h.
iro"""hil .. ",f"m'allt. ,heir """,lp., ~>"" n",,,, l""i, i.d1'" ,h<i, prka-..oo ..
hoJ "'''' do ..... Tha. ;., ,hey ..y , .... t m ony nunufo<.m<'ll,hinp Of. _,hy of
vcncr .. ion: ,100 emu. , IK- Goopd. ltIu., ;,.. boob). li,urgk:li .....k. the church.
Ih< .Im." A..... he. .a.<on fOr dcfnooding i""F" i. dw , un hdp to lift
pc:opI< f..,.,., ,ho WUlIo:I of ..... ry.ioy ..,.]i1y to tho hip;hc< ....>1 .... ~ I"""",
an Jrow ,hOI, .tc-n up ~h<>m Kruibk minp 10 iovisobk ....... "ironopM........ ,hco. OPPOOk"" )u..,....., -r d,frctm. "1'1""""'.... to ,ho "",,10:1
of ..... .ro.J .nli.,.. If ,ho icooophobeo.~ Pla."" ...... ""'"' il. oem.: itt whiclt
,ho iconophila :u. Aristotni:lru. It ""OII1d lit luurdoo. in ,100 <Drnnt" '0 i......
t.... , ..,,,,,," amp or """,,,..;.,,...Jr 0.- aplici'ly foikno'in, <>n< of ,IK- Grni. mu" ... bu. ,ho ~ ... ra1 ,h....., of ,h.i. ,hough, i. unmill .... bIt ... '
~in:olJr. tfor d.r.nde ... of im>g<> Wd th .. p<in"'" nl<",ly, "'N' ...,.;,."
pu, ;n,o h<><>h. "E..-.,. im>g< ,h., .... ..."J in <hvf'<h .~ >or> ,IK- .atho. of AJ.......
"oJ C.~"'IN'InM'" C.b.llinM
"'. """""tt>. like. 'p<.king im.g<', .nd op<n.l ,IKflingo.nd do< mind tho, w< migh ' cmuLtI< tIK-m " (my ''''plu.tio).* I''''!P
an indot<d "mind th.i. vi<wtt. of ,he .!d. ond nf 'M vi" .... of ,ho ..itt...

<,." ...






Cuing .. . ><CfIe o( ,h. ,ru,ifi. i"n em irtlpi,....orship .... Th. i",n''I'hib of

mid-c<mmy. lik< John of D.mucu, before , hem. hdicvd 'igh. '" be



bkzt sens<> .
..... f.. I C1n


><C. no> imophilc 'h ink<, o>f .hi$ I"nirula. pc. iod tool< "P
,hot.n im~u.ould be "ne in I,,;n~ ... i,~ ... ~" it "I".><n<>

lik<Wise. <I" .uch..i"ic ,nching of ho,t, Con".min nd Hi.rn. ><tm, ,0>

h,"" gone "hr<m.rk<d. Th. Chri"ol"!\)" of t.h<>< "Ti,.", ., liul,: 1",1.1 ,,, s .... p.
T her ,<jtcd ,IK ch.'!;<' ,h>t ,h.y "",'e g.,iity (If ci """',,e.ihih~ God .. divi"i,y
,,' of "'I"m,ng Hi. """teS. but ,hoy did "'" .d,...,,: I""i,;,.. duettin. of
[h.i. GWn. If ,hey 'Iltttd oe di .. g~ wi.h John of D.maKU" ",,1, d.. ing
'IGIr''''' ' of ,h. Christiologial impli",'i"'" of in,'Il"". ,her did no, say..,.'"
The ironoph iles did objec, to ,h. >d .. ,I,.. Hie",i, ..... "menial, bo,h be
cuse it Iud no l""u,d",1 I<pra<m..ion .nd because i[ d<p.n<d (10m ,IK

,h. ,i.

"",neil..'" Thi, 1Igumenl,ni'>n ..... b.<cd (In pte

ancien' ,t..Ji,ion, of
... iling 'Y",><l.1 'hooty >nd mund ... ). :oo;q>.. nu >I Jl NiC><"> . It i, e) '0 ><C
why [h. hi,hop'" Hi";. weI<.., in,i>len, on C1l1ing ,h,,;, .ynod oc"mcnOI.
Th. "g""",n!>
,miition . bou, m.ttc< . nd
.igh, " .t< old .nd h.d
f<"C<ntiy betn t<'"".-.I by John of D.m<w. 1"hcy ''''' found Ke.p"n "



y", just .. John hi", .. lf i.... I.... by"""'. ,Imo,"


f",m Ni"",, ,

I"tCONs. SO too ... ,h. irunophil. ",i,ings of m idntury. Th. reuon. I would
''lI'''". i. ,h...~< No",INti4 .. well .. tk
AJ,m", G>~,,,,,,,;~",,, ufu/
/I"",,, . nd Ad"",,,, /"'''''"'''''','' v...1< I<kntl ... in tIKi, rq>udio,ion of Co",,,n,
i.... v. In<k<-d ' he Adv=", G>"'f4n';n"m put . hom ,he ""ty ,b., ,he empc[o,


go, his ni<klUm. Copronymt)u, (""I)u ng N.mW) h<c>u", h< had (""I.-.I hi,


b.pti,m,1 f"n, .'" The ideo> ,h"",

protTered we", oI ...d) ,ilo blc but
,her them",l"", """,W h.v. betn .. , itt'''nt to T.,,,, iu" ekganl oi/tonomi4.

In uddi,iun to 'IG,ing ' numbet of ,""'mdy "'n.i,i"" i........... 'h .. ,mobili ..,
ing iconophohc bishops . nd nO! ","i.iting ,he [eput"io,", of L<o III .nd Con
... n,ine V, II Nie><. ,I.., hud to add,ess ,he 'opi< of images. TIK .... mblW
did ' hi' prim"il) by <I;>,ion. 110.. i. ""her ,h.., <>ffmng, 'Y"t<m"ic .od
<;ompl<h.n,ive ...",mcn, .bou. im.S"' . :u bmh John of D.mucu,.nd Hiei.
Iud dOOle. Nic>o:" hi,J,<>1" ' ook tho: C1utiou. lin. "f devo,ing mm. of ,h";,
tI< .. fu ..,ion of ,Io.c d;,ion, of Hict.i . Evcn ,n .dv.",ing
,h.i, .. ft. ..,ion. h........". ,IK bi>hops <onfin.-.l them",lvC$ m.only It> cTi,iciting


I~iari.a, in'.'p.... ,;... I<Chniq .... .and ,.... , ""' ... ~ dq>.u, ..... from ,radi,;"".
In <Khn ...,..w, Nic:an Jq>CO,cdly $aid. "h is wro", '0 btl......
bu, 01_
........ wrn' on co ..,., "<and 10 i, .. ...........,. CO bd~ ....." From Nic.oea',
fI<I1'ion. i, is poosibk '0 fo<m "'..... bly dov """'" olwtw lho iconopbileo in
7f7 a."" '0 p<e>m' ... lhe chid' foul .. <If m. iconop!>obn bu, only. limitl
..,...... of wh.t tho icooophiks ,I><m""~ Xlwlly bd~ .bout images.
In ,I>< mido' of Kion 01><." bW,...,."; ""'1"" "Throdon: of My ....
nd Throdo>.iu. of "morioo ""',., admin.,J to the """... il, "",h bi ... op Iud.o
follow hi. pwro..ion "f f,i, h wi[h a >do of .n.. hem .. (IOI~IOlllJ). 1~
anathom... ,., r<p<1'.,J, .1""", vm,.,im.nd in .... rly ,he .. mt 0","',.[ ,I><
ond ,,; >e$I;"'" foOl' and 6",. ,I>< ....
which m-iownl ,ho: Bibk IlI'Hl ,he
churdo fo."",,, '" .,fll .. ,ho: """;,ings of ancien. I><,<tio (111JC..E, 101R-D). A,
,I><.nd of -'on In'rn n..- tho< '-'" ond sin.o''''''IJ9,c..-,<), ond >pin
in .......... right (4.AA..Q. <hot IOrnuI conclusion <If tho: (;OUJIo(i1 t.dd bacIr: in
ConJoan,inorit" ,he M"P""'" Pabtt. m. ....,bmw _ '<penal onU >pin.
n..x """,,"mn.o,iono .......! clc.oly tho< 1",,"1..11 .. NOaa ....uI>cd '0 tnm. it.
Nic:an ....,.......,i.aI
who apply P'" Ii' of Scnp<U'" >pi .... idol> to
il"lt.lf!">: , ...... who coli i"'"VI idoI.: t ....... who .. y ,iI< d>urdo ..... r ><Iminal




idol" ,,,,- who .. y , .... , 0.,;....... tqpt<l im"$'" .. rd', .hooo who _nbc
<1<1 ......11 from idoobt.,. .nyun< bu, Chriso , ,...,.. who odd ' 0 0, d<tr>Ct
from II>< ,.->ChinS' of ,he "J'O>'J.. and tiolh.<n: and 'M" ""ho inJlOfl". In on.
form or '''''''''''' ,h .".,"""'" .1", ,o-uch thooc who
'0 ..101 " (u.u. 11y
.."". form of o:lutovm 10 .,IUI" ~, . mb .c. , ki,,) tht It.olyand v<" . ... bl.
im>&,,>, Th< .n.. h.m in .... ioo right .1",
,IWK wlt.o .. fw.. to .cccp'
.11 ... ,;"t" .nd ~nwri".n tradi[ion. of ,he chucch ...... n .. ,ho who <'<;.a
Co.pc:. ..on.. ",preso<d 1' images.




\l'hat .........., heK is

m. .n'.....' ~ ofidGbuy. Tl... . ....'F pIoj"<d .


rok On 71.... to I>< ...... h...

piau ....,., ......pi<k "'1" ...." .. . bou.l>ow
~ conl\utd 01 "P""',..d <hot ... ,uns of Ch .... and abou, [h< pAon'Y of
(<II <a<li"ll to ....",. 'The: La" .. IWO ...brr<" did indtN ro .... up
dorwhoot in Niaod, docu.....,n. ... r will show. Bu. 717" pri .... 'Y '>CW of.he
f.ulin5' of 71~ amou",aI '0 ......100 ocau.a.ion of idoIo"y. II ..."..."J no... is
pl.;n', . 0 be _n in ,he ..... m.m..: ;n...,...'ion. Niac;, claimed ,h.. .......,.


infu""! ,ht procmlin5' in,~ precisely bea ~ .. ,h. b;,hop; ~,bertd ,he.. okp.tttal r..... m ,radi,;"" .nd, ;n >0 <loin&- in""""I..d, R...h".,J '0 ~n[w., [he
.~n"nt from "'P,;"n hold. rh.. in,,1!"" ohould be . mb....,..!. im.I!""'" " Of
idol.. n" "no .hould dop.t" from tho tcadi'iom of ,"" d"",h , Thi, .... rdly doe!
jU>li", .0 ,he .... phi ..i.... oJ .hinki"j! of Cor"' . n.i~ V .nd hi' billwp<. Niaco
.. ndo mort '0 ""kmic ' .... n [0 >p<>iogt''''

How did I'iCK> go, '0 ,hese: nog>,i,.. <ondu,ioo,~ Tht bi,!,ops uodc. Taraoi"" di,=iul\ p,uc=ll ;0 ...,h., in,.,.,,;ng ""y. In rho roollh ..,.,ion,
NOa<... bishop< ....",bll ,h. biblinl .nd "m;"i< ,..,imon;" ,l>td in 7H, In
,he fifih ",.. ioo Ni""", dmlgod up . in". lIy.1I imagio.bI. heresies. Aod in ,h.
,ix,h ..... iuo Ni<=> .i,oJ .nd r.uoJ ,he~ .... of Hieo"ri . III ca>< .ftet
Ni""",', hi,hop.> dcmon, ....,,l how p">go h,d hccn .. ken OUI of li'e,,')' or
hi"o<ial <On"''' .nd, in i",I"""n . I.od been ,.1"", "'. ~"e"" ,,,,,.men,- Ni
(2C> w.o , ..[><Ci.lly Iu"h in " .. ,king H ie"';,', w< of met. ex'rxu (;uno'"". ,,) .
nd ,he Nieeoe ('" hef> ""''' c"dul '0 u>< whok boob. """dy d.-awn from ,he
"",ti. ",IuI I;br''Y ,,1 ;n I<:w c>><:s ",..,..",ed hy p.nicip. n,,' " In.,,",. """'.
when H;rtc;, hod e;,oJ ""rrieu!'" p;$l'lgo fmm , work by church f"het.
Nie><> ,ired m h "" .... g<> fmm ,h", f:.. h '0 ,how th .. ,he pcepondcrar>e< of
. h" wri'er'. ,..,imony ,old tOr .nd no g:>in" imag<>. In lhe ..", of. ",riter
like u5<bill.'l, ,h. bi,ho", in 787 >gtd til" h. Iud ,,,,,ken .g:>in" im.g but
,hen ,hey di,mi.,.J him ...n Ari.n h",...ic; """" .bou, on< 'hing. wrong
.bou, eve<y<hing. Fioally. Ni= .dop'o:<I the " ... t<g<m ...[><C;'lIy in ,he ""'" of
(piph.niu, "r 5.>bm'" of denying rhe ~urhcn'l<:i'r of hi, ,ll<gcdly i",n<>poohe
wri. ingo. All "f ,his <><OS"'ial .nd hermencu,iu.ll.thor i, soph;',i",ul .nd im
p=iv . Sm i, hos ,ht 0 ...... 11 eff.." of "tg:l.ting ",h., 714 ~id by o;h.ntnWng
""". 7H wen' .bou, it> wurl<. '" It Joe> no' h.... 'he circa of .ul><"""in8
I""i,i.. doctrine fur erroorotU.
n .. ",",uncil .1..-. ""p~ i,,,df in .Ili,n.. ,i,.. ,orm, hrs' .nd foremos,. II
Ni= ,he ~ ... church counci1 to .ndOl>< im'se> .nd ,Ilt "n..... ioo
p'id to ,h<tn. In it> htmn NiClC> "Y"


We dedor~ ,h... ne .. . o rhe .ign of rhe p",eOou, .nd liftgiving eros>.

" ond holy I<:on> of colouD, pebble>. 'Of .ny "'her mot.ri.1 ,h" i, fit- .",y be: ..., in ,he holy church.. of G...J. on holy ",<",;1,
, nd vco,mem., 00 W>.lb , nd ho.:r. ds. ;n hou"" .nd in "r<el'. '11><0<
m'r Ix i<.<>fl' of OUI 1.ord.nd God ,he $.viou, pu, Chri". '" of <>ur
1"'''' l... dy ,h. holy n..:o,okos. 0' of I,,,,,(ou <>bk '''g<r.. "' of '"y ",i",
or ooly rn.n. f or ,he mOf. ,h... .... kep, in Vtcw 'hrollsh t ~c;r i<onl<:
'<"!'rco<m. ,Oon. ,he mru. ,hn.. who I<>ok" ,hem or. li(,l up m ",.
m.mhtr .nd h",. a" e.,n .., desi",
,heir promtypes. AI", I.... <lcd . f< 1 ,h .. on< m.y tender ,,, them ,h. "ncr-.,i"n ofhonou~ nO< lh.
till< _"hip of our f.i. h ...!ri,h i, due only to ,he divine n"Uf<, hu,
,h~ .. me kiod of "",,,,,,100" i, offe",d '0 ,Ilt form of rllt p,iou,
.n,l li ~g;,;ng CtoS< , '0 ,I,. holy g"'I'<I . n<! ". ,he 0'''''' holy Jl;.
""'M i,em;, AI", (we dI>",( ,h" on< m.y honour thcs< by bringing



CHH'" ' ' ' 0

'0 wm i""" ......nd liyn, ....... II.. p;ow "'"om of ,i>< ..,Iy (O>,is,illUI; fO< ",lit to)<\o.", of ,lit icort i. ton-.yc;l to ,lit 1"""01)1..... Thus,

lit who vetl .... , .. ,I>< icort .............. h),!,,,,,,,,;, of .... r-oon dopitt..! on M. unDF~ """. s.tu .. p . 1791

,t... if......, -.. to Ix- i........

,hen dq >houId """ "'" .ymbolic. Nicat. <lo:cIuu "'"'. '''''''''' ...,.
br P'" up on<! .ho< .lqo -.y "" ........... cd. I. ;. imt-un. 00 _ .t... w council


cich~ T NIt.....,..",

h.>d ......,...!t ..;.1

did no! '"'lui ... ,t.. ptnnlC< o(i..... and did no! ... fotu worship ( .....ruion)

'" """'.
s.r.- .....,...;n'

in """. dcui! ,hi< k.y...ction "' .... ___ 10. ... "", hot

,""e."... of ,t.. ..... IS ,.... ddj"M..... bcpru by ..yi"A .t... Chris!

ddivncd hi> propIc from idoh .,. """ ,hen """,,;.cd .0 Ix- wi.h ,I>tm fO< aU
" ..... Some people dev .. m:I (rom
m,nkin, """ from ,ndition:and int..,..
d...:cd he....,. by f..iL", to dJ .. i"'u.... I>erweon ,he .........t and ,he
f~ eon.ran,i". and h .... alltd ,"!".he council"" th..,. by O><tUOn
d.ltba..,;"n. ,he ,nci<n. ,radl.""" of ,he f.ilh migh' Ix- .... ffirmt<l. Ccn'r.oI ,.,
.hose ,.,.di,"""';' ,he f.i, h i... lf. TO .ffi.m which , br COIInal". ddini.ion ci ...
h. Niu ... C....,J. n .. <>.ou",il .he ........ I>cm .. i-.l .11 .ho..... hu. brgnni"6
with A. iu.. '1"'1 oq;>irur tl>c ..... hing> <>f ,h. rou,.eil" n"h of ... hKh mel TO
".nie,d , .... lting ,h h.d bun .It.d...!. TI>c bUhops ,hen say ,b.,.
in .... m. ,hey pme ..... . 11 ,I>< II.d;,ion. of ,I>< <hUTch ,b., .. ist in .. ,i"." o.
un""i".n fO,m. Only" ,hi, I",in,.
.,..,.,hi.,1. of .h....oy .hrough .I>c
/xwo" did ,I>< hi,hops >p<.k ,h. ,,orUs '1"",I~. 11,..... of ..."",,1,.







inus" i. fullowc<l hy)'C1 ."",1,., d.i n, of 11.....""".0 tr.di. K",.

n.. impof1''''''' of ad"',;nl '0 ,,><Ii.;"n;'.1>c ,hoolutdy ~n."" '<tum...,
of II NiacI.''' Th.... i.: "'l'> K.n,...m I'..,y.... ",II>< ;n which ,he em;re
.""'''''''Ny ...... ;m>v> rould ......HI ", ""',., <Oft .1>< 1'10... of ,radi,;"" in .h.
8yuntin< dmm.:'" Th. imperial W"T<f ,...d "". in ""';"n D<><"Y tho ......
rouMilt... h<.:-n ",Iltd '0 dccidt in il<"COrd .."h , .... .u "'.mc...... ilh the >q!ulo
ion, of tht fo,h.... and with ,he aMi.." ",les of ,he <hurd!. Only .Iuough
,...d..ion "'" .ho: t... un;,y ;n ,he chtU". h. John. ,I>< ~ .. of w E.u<. ~
C<H"ot:anal ,h>..... "",... il ..,.abI .. h .he odmia.ib;I;oy of fOnn<.r(y ir:onodast
bi<hopi "" imnueuLo.<fy ",.ti,io.... """"", 00 eI , w prac<t. roun<il",.....)d
he in p>d oro. . T......... ,old<")' ofN~rn .h..... ...-ouIJ b.,. befto
much bel,.. 011" b! he hdd Wt .0 'mlirioo """ noidc<l ptof~ in...,..., .....
rcit"" n..... <.'l bu. chan"", IU~ ''''0 'uu....ouMu;). When
Hadrian...., ... -..,eOJ ,hey ~ fO.I~ by. 1ft;" of alii."", ..,." TO the .b.. the pope' ............ u wnt in oeconI with ,.,.ru.ion. rn writi"'.o ....

Eas, .... n bi.t.op.. Tamiw ci'N Trull.m canon eighty",,, ""d in ""';"n fum
fJw, 1M 1rchprie>< of nlocl>rr .... i. wd 'N' ... ty canon chanj;<d him from
p<..,ru.",.Q.........ip<r ofim.,.... ' ''. "hoi< of ocosion four,.... ~ to .
KnI,i ny of ,t.. holy bo<>Iu of ,t.. Qri"ia/I ,~i.ion. In .... ioo ~ Tarniw tlUI dv", wn< 'Ufficiml ~
,he holy f.,h.., lo ....bI;J, ,ho, i<n<
~ of...cirnt Ii. . . . In It.. chUKh. Ap,n.nd "&I,n NicK. .......ed ...... he
~ n' .;. """001. ~ " ' - and . ....... ~ . ....... InS no all .., chalkn~
donn. TIlt I.... of the- council 'ppc>1. '" ,rodi".. n r<pCa,edly. In dv fi .... pix.: .
....... [I Nioe> w:u cblminl fOt "..-If """men;.... nlidity beau.., i ...... in
conlOnnity ";th .I.e ,,~.ion of It.. chun:h.
OIwioowJy Nic:>n
of.1.e key tr.di.inns ..... cult
i ....... In-usc tDlin'lnllio Or< c ~ .obundondy in -"on /OO .nd in""';"n
~ on ."em?, is mod. '"
,hOI. in .11< pa>t. ooly ,,"r<tia t...l nudcJ
irNfP- In >nSion " ho: "'-"""il !oJ)'> , ''', lho: poin,in8 of imasa
bac~ .0
,t.. .poo<l...... (Ill<; CUI tell from IooI<in5 .. churd... . nd from ,<a<iins hwo....
council! of the- church p,C$C~ f,id.fully all .he ....-in... and
un ... ,i".n ,rodi,""" . nd """ of lhe..: .. ,ft. rain,ing of imago. loded. cvay
council a<q>t thc""" of,,~
images '" imag<:> m.... be: .Itigh. and
714 m ..... be ,,rollg. NO'I'o'hcrc in III of t his IIliumrnwion ~OO u:.timonr do .he


_.Iou .

,t... """


-n.. m


f.,.hc" of Nic>< ".nlp' '" iu"iIY <>AIr "" Ift.i, 0"'" '<.m . Alw:o)'> i. is
nu"., .. f ' .... i,i .. " fi n .
Bm i. i, no .... d",i.cly. m." .. .,( ,,.,d i,i<>n. ,,,.. is, im.W" or< . 1> .. lid
for n,in d id."ie muol\S.'" Th.y h.l p to ""II '0 mind .h. ocrn.. of ,he Bible,
,I>< "",g&I.. of ,I.. nwry .... nd .hl I,b" .. of.h< "in". Im>go> "",ngfh<n
helicf. 'They .waken.II.h< ........ Th~ lifr 1>OOf>lc ul' ' 0 1ft. gI"')' of God. "They
cncoungc <>nIin.'Y p>J>I< in ,fte;r wily, (1;', ... mplc. lot~C- D. 9 D--E.

9-''''-' 17F.-wD. 'WF.-llIA, uy. ." B. lSIIC-D. JooC. JOIe. J.O.4A..

~IIC-D.)6o(:: ,,,",,, ..... menu or< "" common ,h .. it .......Jd Ix otio<c TO ci.,
"""" namplco). 1m.".. may be paniculul)' h<lpful fDr In" 'h< unln.
t<r<d (Iot~D, 9E). .... ''f<"m 0I .... i'in8 .. ( to.~EJ. "They .... he "'lui .
Ir... of t/,..
"""d, "b,,,,,,,. w. it . ... o,,,,"';"n of j, II.,.... wC-D.
.".! "" on)!" ~ 1It'. Iea.n .Ix """ thing>. tNl is. r..m;:al1
wIw. .... uhn piau" (u,A). 1""fP . r< ,h ... l~rio<uI bu .r..o mili .. ';'n.
~.ic. Tftcy an acnWly hdp '" I...ct. . 10 inculan- the..-.y .~ i.;"". of they Me p>n.
'" It.. I.... "'Y'- imop Me holy in IaJ>t of wit .. thcy rq>l'ex.... not in
rnp<CI of ....... ,hey ar . Im..,..r< ..... teri. L. to .... "'~. bu, m.,l<f ohoWd no<
be """""'.-...!';mp!y oo.ho: pou ..... oii".r...........-wi,y_ h is impon.nt.o
aomain ..'Iu, matt .. i ....... fOt. S;ma..1y piinltng " ... i,h<. ~ 00' i:>3d




ettA"" T .,

( ,B--C), If ", """'" >pin,<t of why tho painter I"'in" . nd wru.t he
I"i"". The <Dunc,1 .ffi.m, ",in"" ",Ii<:>, .nd im.g<o-in ,h., "rd.,. Tho: =,neil
d,. "" p. ",lIeb betwc<n im'g<' . nd the <rou, [he Go.p<b, veil nd .<s[menn,
. nd ""ml ,'~k BtQ>dly .p<uing. one On $Oy tt..t ironophilQ "".-.: ~ t.,
"""y ch."nd.. of divi,,,, S"'C<: . So,,, .,{,~ _'" "",,,,,;.1 . nd SOme "'C'"
hnun in ,h. IOtm of [he mooks , dm;u.,.J '0 , he "",uncil .od w.o"""ed wi,h
syml",hy fOr
",W<rings. The icQrw>pho!:...., on ,Ite oth., h,,'>d,
sough[ '0 limi[ r.uh """.-.:Iy ,he ch.nnd. . 10,,& ""'ich di.ine 1\"'" ,,",uld
flow' " F..... n,i.lly <hey Slopped .. ,he w<)Id of God md of .ppt<Wcd w';,..,., ..
,he con ...."ted bodi .. o( o"bined p,; ....... od bi.hop>. ,nd" ,he cud.... ,;" . It
i, impon." " to """, in mind, how= . ,h .. inugu ""'-':. <'"tn" Nic:te>, only
ooe me1O, of "o<li~co"oo . od 0", n:<>o>rily ,h< mos, '"'PO'''.' one.'" The
coun<il f"<)rd .. 1(" in ... n"" ref.. (ot mo'e freque",ly '" m'l">(ies p<,f~tmcd by
,he .. inlS ,hemoct..,. o. by ,hei, rdia d,.n by ,hei, im>teo, '"
J"" " N;"""', bi,hop.< ...."" ...,;ou; t<, .." blish t1ut im>go> w<te not
""".hired " toos' SO '00 ,he council""", I<,a,n 'n ,00-,. 'hot pu ... ""'lShip,
,..""hip " in ;pirit .,..t ',,"h:' w.u """,nkd only to GOO,""'or '0 on image. '"
M.I)'. n' '" the .. inlS. Images rtived the rebtive "",""ip uf hono<. In\Ojl<S 0 ",
.<"" 1, 00001."<1, ' pp,oad>I ... Im.l,, <mbt-acl ""Iy I><=u .. of .1><,.
pro'0<YPC> .nd beco"", ,hey ",m,nd p>pi<.,f (hose P""0'YJ>CI .od .wU:.n d
for .hem (j6l\- 1I, 6g[)- 69A.
nll'o, 'j.C- D, ~oA 0J so ""J. In odd ...
,ion (0 f<r<"'tl di"' .... io.... in tho <<>un<;l'o .... iOft' (he.-.: i long di"l~i>iti()n
on worship in the co~nc~',lc"<f to I.-.:n< . nd u.n! .. ntin. 14"-lD-4oS D). Ni
=:0" t..... ' ment of tho .opic of ..... " hip .ppe. 1S to me '" be the onlr pI.c<
",he.-.: ,he ,,",i.ings of John of D.masc ~, we", ~<l i" . .. <iou. w.y.'" Ev""
h<fe, ho~,,'. John "'., no' ci,ed by !Urn . T he poin, of 011 ,h. """d" I.. i.hed
upon """.hip i, ""lIy t" ~ .. blish on . nd for ,II [ru.. i<rUg<> h..d . I" .. ys
1>:" occonJe,J .n ,pp,ul',i,,,, m<>Jt,,,, of tdf'CC' oncl Hi."i. hod pc<wndr
mi .... nde'''ood thi.
Wi[h ,hi< ,h. 1<;.; "h,ng of II Nic> .. "op>. I.." US "". ~ ,h. b.. ie
point.<. Traditio" 1",,,,,ilS, .In,,,,, <km. n"" irn.ges. ImOj;d .... functi<molly
C<juivak .. , '" words. Tex,. ....t pictUre< an , .. h .-.<all to memory 'he ... ,,,,,i..,.
'If [h. lIiblc. ,he kn,i.m of ,h. m'rT)-n, ,he .i,,,... of ,h. "',,..... ncl ,ho:
i"gs of .he r.. helS, Tho .. ",.. hing< em ho[h p",.ide .<> mpb .nd lili up.he
, ....... , ,'I (he conmpl"io" or tho higbet-, mO", gI<><iou. "",Ii,i.. of tho h....,nly
"",1m. ["S . ... owed clct:p . nd ("",,,,n' mp! beau.. o( [he ,,<Hi.. Or
PC"""" th<)l "'p'CKn .. Ac .. of 'ev<",na uodcn.kc" hd'o", on 'm.1\" . '" ",.
r<<r<<l '0 ,he p'o'''rype . In flUny .... po<:<!' ,h... ~e tdd id.... On. CO" ...u eh
the [",di.ioo (com , he (ouflh a muty to ,he .. ely eigJub .nd find. -IC>n".ed.1I

,Itc,. ",""'"



.c...... ,~ ..."""II.Msapc, .i"""II .. "''e~' demen, of ,hi, ,eaching. 1JIIh", w;u

ift ,h igJ"h ",n",'Y ..... ,h. ,i8"''''''' and comprchen,iv< ddini.ion . nd
. ffi rm .. iOl! of ,h... idns.
Yet ",me i"u ,ho, ...... in ,he ~ighth crntU<]l did not ""pp'" fully at
Ni=o. fu i..... ",isal by Co"",",ine V in hi. strood P~;I, ",rndy ,hot ,he
cuch"i" ""'" , he . uthorized >COn of Ch,;,,', body. w,. r<j<",~ in "". b,ief
I"""'g< of the ,iuh .... "'n" mUlOtion of Him .. (1640-1681\). It i. in .."", ing
to note thot "'i, , ,);um<", lthougl1 .:entr.1 to Con".nti,,". strond in~ ui<]l.
W;U Mt octually afFi ,med by Hiere". ThO! Nia<::t .dd:S<c<J it at . 11 .uggcs".
6"". thot the Pnnro ffi' Ita ... been .v.ilabk ot Kicaco and <ccond tho,. here
.g>in, ,he Ni",n< bi.t..,p. <li<l no, wi.h '" .ddmo ,he formt' empero, di<1ly.
Thu> ,hey kft ,hi, "~u"'en, .. ide.
More impomnt i. the .... y "i=. de.1t with
Chri"oIogial ' 'llum<!tt''
ti"n ,ho, 'I'n> ""nm.1 '" ,h. ,hough. of booh Con". nti",. .nd l-lie .." , h will b<:
rcnllcJ that in tho 7\0$ ,f.c ironophot... m. intoincJ thot . n) ,mag< of Chrilt
.i,her confi..cJ 0' di.idcJ Hi, divi,,, and h",,,,n n""res, 'Thi, line of ,hough,
m1l'ked conside" hle ><I .... """ "n .,rli" iconophobe .rgu me"" '0 .he
tho,. bcca"", "no one"'" eve, <cen God. ~ no One could make . n imag< of Him.
thot Constantine .nd Hi.m, dOl not introJ uce this Ch,i!tulogi
cal dime ... ion but i ... t<ad tltat they ,,'er< rcspon<ling to the it!<:>1 of John of
I),mucu . John \vaS n." ronten. ' " "y, wi. h .h. ",di.ion . ho. h.oc,os< Chris.
h><l .ppe>rcJ ... m.n Hi. hum.n "OIu could be depicrcd like .h. ltum.n
n, ,,,,. of .ny ",.n , Fur, .. J<>hn say Ch,i" ""'. n", mer. ",.n ," He,.......
ingle b<:i~g wi, h "'" nOlurn, Any im.g< ofCh ,;",,~ likely. in >Ome fo,kio~.
to ,..'~.J-and pe,h. p' too to <=11 to mind_ bo.h G<:>d and m. n, Mm..".., .
.<in", God IuJ hc<:ome hu""n p"",;..,ly .n n" ke i. I",,,ihle fur human. " ..
bocome more like G<:>d, .he wOOk :ooomy " f ..Iv.,i"n d<pcn<leJ in 10m .... y
on .he depict",n of Chri". To deny Hi, "t!<:p;c,abilily"'
in ;ume =y ''''
"tad .h. ,..,.lilY of H i, inamati",,, and I~U' I'" all i",,,, qu."i,," lhe poIOibili.y
of sal"",K,n. 11>< ""noel.." <cern.o Ita"" ond .... ood thi> ><gumem .nd ." h,y,





" i ..ll..nI " .. ",,,m .., i, .

Nicaea 'I>oke "n d,e "'''''' of Ch,i"uIot;y """y limes bo' i" ..... h..
t;""''''''' ""'y, AI,ho.ogh .te M,ff.; thin k h.. the ""< of J<>hn "'""", Out
e"1IIinuou.I)' from he",," .h. fOlds "f.he Couocil of Nic.c.:ilj i. <cem, '0
me .hoc Nia .. ",m,lIy bbnkela! John.., .. to m,k. hinl invi,ible. H. is ",mcd
,,,"cdy 0""""""'" 'he poin' whe .. hi na.hem. \vaS l<>eindeJ (l!7E1-C). On thi,
""""""n Jolt n i, I'"i;ed .. """
lif. a! up hi, ,'oice in
'lI" in" .host
,",'h .. ",,,,k Ch,iSt at'" Ch,i,,', peol'l bin n".hing i, ..;d '00'" J<>hn ', "" ",I
.eaching. In . 11 the p. tti,,;' ,cf,rencc:s-thirty-<>ne ... tho .. in fifty_"", to;t> plo.




CHA"" ',.0

~nty., h ..., lugiogr.>pn'callOluccs-john i, not n.. ,,,ion<tl once, "" Th< On<
pix< wl>cr< J"~ n 's t=~ing ""'y ru.Y< made rnI rom. ibut"'n is in ,he """ion,
d I;ng ",;,h ,t.. kinds of ",,,,,,hip prope,ly ocro,J<tl to God and t" otbct ooly
thin!\"_ I .rgu<tl ,ru., N~ did n<)' wi.<h '0 bting up John (or '0
dor>< SO """"Id hove aposcd hi' drtp Iw,,'ility '0 imperiol im<rfacncc in dogm. ,
lIur I ,h,nk ,h.,.. ..."",10.......,n. N'<:aeiI d,d noo .. ,.h to ",i,~ 1<>"<1 of
Ch,i.<oIogK.J 'p<Cut.,ion O<Cl>ionro by inug<'O. In. ml n. '~ "",,"';1 of
787 hdd '0 ,h< lin< , ho, had b<cn . nicut.,ed by G "",nu nd by m.ny bd'o..
hin> . lkau Ch,,,, had '1'1"",,1 ... "",n H. could b< <kpic,ed ""d ....,h
d<piction, ""'''' n<ither idol. ""w; not b!.sph<mous btcrw< ,!toy did nr:>< Bci,
",,,,rib<" Ch,is, ', di.ioity.""
Ika"", John, Co,m.""ine. nd IIier<" had .. i>l ,I>< b,d of Chr,,..,Iogi.
cal d<bat<. howcvo:r . nod b<ca,, NiCKa ch ..... ro p~ mor< by n"l""ion . nd
r<fu!O,ion ,lur by p<><"'v< .'Sum."",, '''''' rhe bishop< in 787 ... '" led in'o
some slighrly .ml:>iguom o..... en ron,ndierory , .. I<m..,,,. Th. onl)' <'<plici, 1y
Ch,i"olvgical , ...."'.". in ,Ix boroJ saY'- "Ix who vcnct <o tho iroa ..,,,,,"',<0
rho h)p<>S ..,i. of ,he P<""" <kp,cr<tl on
un[ ) If rh .. m,c",.nt ;, to b<
,d .. oJ to Clot"" ,hen i. might 'pp<.' to co.r<SpOnd with John', t<""hing. 11><
P"""" of my ..i", '" . poni ........... Id ,.-.1 ,,"Iy , .... , 1',,,..,"', hYl""'"'' .. .
hum.n .1I><i, ,I>< pietur< would. Ol' would nOl', d<p<nding on "" gene,.}
. "icud< '0 im>g<>, rcval ,10< "in .... of ,Iu, p<,..,n. nu, Chri" ...... uniqu.
",.,..,. ... i<,. "mqu< rct'On. in which twO din;n ""u,e! h.d bn <nhypo ....
,;:r.ed. Thu<. piut< tn .. m<e'. led Hil h)p<>S~... i. mi~' wdl be thoogh to rev<al
Hi. di.inity. Thi' go<" t><yond wh., "". m.nw had .. id . nd go<> '0 ,10< h",n
of w/u., Hi<,. .. lud . ri<tl '0 p~m.
&.ding this " ng\< line from ,he 1H>""
<a,li.,. ... m.n", ho~"
.... ~ .. i, link diffiath '0 .... o.actly wh>< ,t-.. Ni"'n< r.. h." inkr>d<tl. FOf
in" " . in ",;.c,ing "of,., Hi<",i. Iu.d '0 <or .bou, the Ntotim impliCit;'::",.
ohn im.g< of Chris<. Ni"", . .. id th.. rn", Chri,. .. ns nulr<.n inuge ",n SO f."
.. ,h. Word btcrm. AesJ, '_. h., is .,..rf. "",o_', tI,1 J"",lt .n>"o~ ..: God
,10< Word circum!<ribcd Ilim><lf when He Ci"'" '0 .. in ,h< A."JL N" M.
c<>uld I'<>""bly think of f<proJucing H i. divinity, h~<" b.w< 'no on.
Ir.. /:Vc. =n Cod: He i, u""i,<um""i"'bl<. i",i,ibl<..r><! inromp"'hemibk
hhough c;rcUtn",.,!,;.hI. '<CQ,d'''g to the h,un.nity"' (1A- B. t"'n'. S.h ... 1',
n). Thi' rass.oge ,mtn the cru.rg< of Nw-omni"" dk.;,i,.1y bur I... "", op<n
ju". li"k ,he p<nSihility ,Iu, ." inl3ge ~.!' ,he Wo,d who<> beam. fIoh in
m",. ,lun m.",lr H" h",,,,ut f,onn. lI"t .. tho x. go<> On tlu, doo, i. do...!
b,t f,,,t "'" oI>ut t'gh,. "' F,,' .... know Chris, to bc of!WO naru,,,, . nod in ,wo
""'ut",. ,ho, i, . d",n< .nd . I..,,,,." On<. with"u. division. Th< 6"", ,h=fOt.o.



which i> unc;,cun'lCril>oblt and ,II< _ ,,'hich a n bt ci,curl\lCribcd ilrt " ' " in
the ..... C hrisc ImynnptoJis], 1l>t K'OfI ........ bIa the prow/YP<, "'" ..i.h rwrd
w "'" ....""". b." only wi,h rtprd t<, til< !WI>< and ,,, the p<>Ii.ion of the
manbtn which an bt d .......... ;,~' ("4411)."in~ the ~ ..,.. .... ,
pai n.", ..ho dcpitu ...... n dooo noc oeek hi> "",I in the ckpiaion.nd t/u. no
oo<...too 1ooL .. im'flt ...... body "'I"""~ from i<s _I. HietN ..
~ of ~IW, ~ n." is u . talnly mo ........ Ganun", J..d bttrt
..illi"$ '" ...y, bu. It:,. u.... John h.od ....,1.
A bit lu... in the .... h ......,.., .1It NIet ... D.II.: .. owroochcJ cY<f\ doot, 10
John. " If"'" di..i... ""'''''' .... ' ;......,"".ibN ' ....11.:, ",uh ,II.: human
by h.. bci",1..iJ oo..'n.nd ..-.4f'J'<d ,n ....<iJdlinl .I",.... ,nlid< a ....... "' ..
hi> uncirrum><riIuhJc diYini'}' in ,II< dep;ctcd im>g< of h.. hum.on "", ..... So it
i. (N .B. iI. noc "'"" ,he- td"trma" .. ,lin to .h. <1.rn. ll"a<na: ofthccrucifu.
ion 01 cH.: to .h. p>rtl(UL" p<a<ncc of
m, in an im .) on the '!<1M. If
the d;yi ... ""'ure ..... d",.......,,,bN ,," h ,II< hwrun .... 'u .... '" is his unci"",,,,,
crib>blc di';ni,}, ."S',II<. "';,h 'ht ~d im>fi< of .11< hu ...... ""IU ....
('UD-. 'WHo Soh.., pp. 86- 81). 11.i. ".'..... n' I,'P"''' '" """' '" door ope"
bit f.rt ..... bu. ,h.n rome> .nock... "u.lilia,""'. "They occ .... Chti", . ... of
d&ribing d,,, incomprchmlible and uuJl5Cribohlr
of Cn ri .... .. Cnri<... ,,. ... ico""ll" ph H'm in '" fa, II.! ',he: t.ogo. bearne Hnh'" (1\6C). "No
0I\c of ,""un..! mind," ,hey ""n,in"., "look> in any .... y '" ,he im.S' rot tI
quali'i .. of ,h. p""orype" (117 1 . l',,,tn ,hi'p"i", on .h. Nice .. ," turn
", a demo""""io .. ,h., ,h. in"" .nd it< I""''''r,''' Jiff.. in "...,,'"" (,60f,..
26ID). lIy mifling ,~~ dilCU .. ion '0 ,h. on,oIogy of i~. by "ring ,h" ,t..i=ge i, "'" on. in bting ... i,h i"p""" """ .nJ Ch,i" i,,,n< in h<,ng ... i.h Hi ,
D,he" ,he: co~ncil n..",wed once- agoi" ,t..- door'. or<"ing hut ,hey did not
dooe it. n,., is, 'hor did no' ~".ur. definj'i.... ly .. y ,,-Ju,.t..- image ............. ,
wha, i. rn=\ . NOI did ,hey"r ~'" an imas< KV<"~I1. N.... did they"1 "'ho,
In inug< is.
Niaa ,ook .. iu.I< . he: ,efura,lon of ~t;",..;". Chri"oiopal 'IJUI"<f"
,ha, on im.8" of Chn" n .h.ct <.... f.......t ,,. ..,." Hi, """",". 'n thi, .dUt>,;"n
Nic;oea ..... qui,. "",lid",,,. Bu, ,he ......, ,imo;, .1It C<>U"'~ did not ..... m.
fa""".it)i!i,}, lOt ""n;ns .he- ""''''''' .. f .he h)"f"""U''' <Jtp<:oed on ... ,~ of
Ch ..... n.. wuncillichm _n, ranhrt ,1wI Grona..",.nd ,he ".,di,inn had
gont, bu, lao (.. ,han Jobn had.,..... Only ,n thc nin.h """H,)"
"ill >tp><
in a..""" 6. did ,he ....... iDIt "",n.-., IUlk, apiic:..."n . n... Nican kfi
rlunp on I .<Iis1nly ambiguous pWw i. only'" b< 0l""'~' n.. wunci' ... iohc:d
feCtn' n.....-lt ... . nd '" .... n Di<hfU1M>< '" .M onci<n, ,-"inp of
"'" mUlch. Gnnd <p<rub'iotU:about i.....,. would IKM h..~........J n ...... ""'


,ha, ..




, ...

C HU . . . . . . . "

Th .. may be: why N .... " did ,,'" " k. "P John. "",dill diikrem i."ion
tlun H ierei. had done fO. Thi,..,. of
i~ wu "'" pm of 11K '...di'ion. The.. is . 1..,. fi",lIy, ,h. profoundly p"'",..1
dim<nsiOfl of ll Nia... ,hat ... "". cd .Irndr in mhe. >mau. The >Iln
cil "f 787 wished only '0 uy '" 'he roum,il of 7H ... You d.l"'"cd f,..,rn ,...di,ion.
I..<t 11 g. '0 put ,hinp back .. ,hey ,I .....ys we",. n., Collncil of 787 did
nOf w"h '0 .. y. ulrr '" , II 'g,ee ,n something n....... "ThO! migh, h ..., hr. ..
ry difficlllt '0 aa;omplish in 'he n>o< circum"',nccs of ,Itt: mid711t><_ On.
Ita< ,h. imp'''''''''': .. ys ScMn"",",
,h. f."bc: .. wished to . .oid.1I .Ii..
pll'cd quc<,io .... H U7 Or. in ,h. d<g>n' fOrn\uL.,ion of Aid,n N",oob. Niaeo
d i.rhy<:d .. , cernin in,dl<c, cI,..';ry

of the kind. of> .ny more



Thi. long ""d d< .. ilcd d'i<Il .. ion Ita< .".mp,I '0 identil}- the mN' crucial
'hing> ,hat wt:ro done .nd said durinll. lIyt>n,illm . "Vuh.,;.mllry enro,m .
wi,h images. Th. follo cllap'''' "'ill "'m In ,h. W.., OIl ,he 1:... of.n
u".I<."""d;"g <If wh .. ;d.., we ;n ,h. ,i.
Id .... ,boll' ,h. ploe< of iroo. hal'< Ixcome Ii. ed in O"hOOo. 'hinking. bu, Jon .., in w.ys ,It .. ",ok. i, ""m '" ,hough booh ,,,,,,,odllii. a"d i,.
,htologicol deftn ... are 1"'''' of ,he rn<>;;' ancient ,tadi,io"" of ,h. church. A. we
1<. IOen. ,here wu ... Ilm ai><>Il' ... hich i, was f'Owbl. tu 'rg'" in .h igh,h
c<n1Ury priKl)" benwc wid .. p.-e>td i""noduli ....... ""h.. ",m and "0 ro~
""i~' pa'""" had .... hr." /i:",,,,,I,,ed On ,hi. cl",ge-d topic. La"" ironopltik
wri .... dcpK"l<d the iconophobcs . nd , h. iro,w>clas< ... p'''''''''' who b rol< wi,h
'he .uthe"rie ,...ditio". of d.. church. I n fact, ,h"", who opf"'-"'d ,he p<IC$Sion
o ...,,,uoo of ico". vi<:wod ,ho *"""0'" '0 w~ ich ,hoo< obi" were inc ....
i"slr . uhj<C1" innova, ... a fotm ofidob,ry, Wo.,J,'p. th.,.. uid ......
10 be 'in 'pi.i, .nd in tru,h :' .nd couW not be ret.~ '" God ot '0 ,,,.,
"';n", ,h.ough mate.ial 00;":'" .. od .ho"ld n<V<' be di"",<1 to ,h .... ooju
,hem""I .... _
lronopltik "',i .... dd~,.ded inlag" .. >n."'" wi,h 'he m""
,tadi"on. of ,h. church. F.""" with ,he ch~ th .. neithe, ,h. Se';p"".. nOf
,h. rath .... 'f'Oke Il". mbiguomly .bout imag... let ,long .booll irons (in ,h.
!<n>< in which I ha,.., hr.n u,ing
~rm). rn. ieol>Ophii<> .th.. ,,1 '0
un""iuen ,tadition, i" . .. rue '0 .rgum... " fronl ,ilen , On bo,h .ido. ,here
.... , keen doire to I'r ebi ,n ", . t:><li,;"'n . n., imag< q .... 'rel "'-:11 fundamen .. lly
Nul< fur ,r.Ji'">n. h:t 'igh' reuli n~ of h"u)f)", But that hi,,,,,}" louls diffe,





now than it did to the vi''''11 i~ 787: " Th. SonJ Cou~cil "f NiQ<.> did

"'" t=t.bI"h , I>< cult of iro .. " it at.bli,hcd it."'"

0"" ironophik ... ,i,e,. John of Dam.!CW. brough, the futl W<igln of ~i,
rnai", bm ing to be" on<. He devdopcJ funhe, th..n anyone bcfur<:
him . n in!fic... k1 of dill"efC1lti.. ion< among f(mm of _r>hip .nd . mong typ<O
of irnagcs. One migl>! )' ,h .. for John ,h'r<: ..",cd,,.,,, hie .... "hyofim'sa
,h, bog.:tn wi,h Jnu. OJ.n imogc of ,he: F.. her .nd ,ho, ... cnded downward '0
. ny ioon , In .hi. view, iRUg<> wae ho,h C"o'Klcno for .nd panKipam' in the
"'hole """nom)' of di"ine ... I".. i"n. wh id> wu i"df <"')ted in the incam.tion,
ic>1 ><:!
in. ""Y, kW' im'S'" in ,he fit>< pl"""}nus ..... .
m>n . nd ronld b< depicoed li ke my m.n. Yet john. ide.. wer<: tOO bold.
nmod. 100 difficul. '0 he fully emb",""" in ,he eigh,h century.
john', ... ';t;n5 ,n~ "".nophobc. ,,, m;, ... ,bei, trc'. t me"t of d", ,ubjeco
of idoI"'Y .od to
for ,hemICI"c> the ontology of im>gn. For the ioo

h"" ..

,h.. ,




""phib i, wa. .. ... m .. '"

i"". gao .... '. kW,i"" .. just b.:e>u!C ,hoy we:
different ftom ,he penon they rep .... nt..!, F", ie<>""phobc$.n im>go hod '"
bc like. no, ju" look like. itS , uhioc<. Wi,h ,h ingle rxccp,ion of ,hecuchari...
"" " bc like" i/rUg< emt"!. Mo,cov<'. irunophil wac r<:btivdy oj><n to m . ..

ri,l.;"ihk dllnn<b nf gr= whe~ icnnopOObo ,hottgl!! ,h.. mm., wll

incapable of commun icating in"i.ible gn<c.
b.. uu that"'d for onmri.. 'Pj><1tt:d ""Iy """"i"",lIy .nd in ;""b,ed con

te"' .... in ,he eighth ccntucy g"hetcd together . nd . i,cd quit< fully. Ru, in
,he end ... N"""" , ,,,cli,ion.1 p""i,ion, .... '" .dop,I. n.. holcks, , binket,
Jobn o f Dom"""" . ..." def,ly ,,"U"II .,;<1< itu, u , i"'e""t;n~y . ""ugh , ,he
".".. "ri19",1 ico""l'h,obc. Emp<'''' (".<}nmn,i" . V, ...." <> ..f"lIy ,~btq>p<J
by ,I.e biJhop> .. NiQ<.>. TIti." ,he intdloc ....1 backgrouncl ..g.i"" ,,-hich the
We" mUSt bc ""' ,
l". i(:01lod .... ic co",mv.,,)', " ,ul'f><>'o<dly ,,"'ning fro'" ,h. 7.00 '0 ,he
7800, " ... 01",
I"...! .hou,ing, I""""'ution, hu..""",n, of monks. .nd [h.
dco,ruc,ion of .n , I\em.lly.,he", """ ... onl)'. few Mid j><riod, of :ocri.. h""iliry
'" j""'g<>' ,he ~, ... ju" .,unJ 7JO. ,I>c ,,<li<XI. ,.,.,g/>Ir. 7" ". lH . nd ,he
ye~ ... from 76j to 76 7. n..1..t "fth..., pctiod, was >CtwJly '" romplic>ted in


i" :>C!~"U .nJ ",miv..i"", ,h.., i, " h.. ... ,J"'.. '" ""Y ...1.,,, l""I"""'~'n i<u,~'ph ....

bi> '" ""moeh."" po......d wid ,," tit. tonlity "f ... h., took place,,
wIt .. cvcr it . ncl wh ..cva i, mcam. hoppcned ",tel)' and """'" ><CtruI '0
have .b50rhcd ,h. full .nergi.. "f ,he llyun'ine .",,,.
It i, difficul, '" fi nd m.ny of ieOftocl .. , p<tO>,;"n. Gcrnunu, ......
f"",cd '" ''';gr'. b ut he """, I.. tdly d .. only p;o,,;,,.h ...1." f,i!cd t" get >lung
wi,". reigning "".j><ror. It" imp""'ibl. '" .noth.. ,iet;nt in tne ti",e of


eMAH . . , .. "

1,.<0111. Vic,i .... in .he Y"" iuS! ,"'u ~d Hi,r<i, ~'" Iu.d.o d"",,,,,. _Th"",
""'''' pl,my "f ,ini",.. in lhc mid76o> . nd ,hcn in .oou. n'. tn., i, i, ... ,dy
<2Sl' ,o"y wi.h confidence ,Iu, ,1.0>< vicum> wffc,ro bccame of ,hcir .".ch
mcnt 10 ioon . no m.ue' ,,-\u, I.,., .00"""," mi~. Iu,' or impli ro .
It i. iiouJly. 'imply n", the a .. llu. P,,...,,,dum '. p.",imo"y ,n ",!igloo'"''
w.o. d..,~ _ N i, lupl"'.... ,I., f.. mili ...nd aubtr:m, dceo"";'" ",h<mer of
"'yun,;"e church"'r< ,he produc" of ,he I"",.ioor.och..-ic .", Some of ,I..,
~n' for thi< bet will
OuI ... <ntion in laid , h.pten. Wc mUS! "'"
,uppo><, h~, .Iu. iQ)flod... " had ~ ... ibbl< <0 ,hem 'h< innumc,.,bl, fOpcrt";.., of ml;<" that it i< .11 ''''' easy to i....gin<. Sum. ' m.ll<" ","";,ed rigt"
. h"",~ .h. I"'r;oo. ",wIly 0<1<0 ,Iu, _ .... fely 0'" of raeh. But surely i, i<
,,'iking ,Iu, , ""n"d,." l.eo IIl ,nd
"n, i"" V .ol<,.,ed f<> ..,
long.., m'''r .,/fending pictu"," in .he p>Ja.:.:. .nd .hoJh.. of Co ..... n,i"',ple
n." I.n kw),!:>" of tl.. 7600 ><con'o h,.e letn .he Je.;'ruc<ion """,,ting'''p
of n,,,,,,.n ,lun ,he ,,'hoI< 'os' of.1>< ic<>r.oct."ic pe,iod "k.on >gerher. 1"1><",
w.o. d",ruction. But it was not <y>tema<i. 1''''1'1 nd an w,,,, not runtinuou<iy
in g"" -' pe,il in .is!>th-<tntul}' Bytantium.
Fin.ny. ,he .,;ghth-cen,,,1}' ''''''' di"",Ukd hen: '''5',L,ly u.w: ,he ",-"d ,;Iron.
,,'I,i.h,. I .. OJ in Ch.. P'''' can ,<fe, ,,, ."~ itn.S". I.. i,. ~ '" "",..;" "' .
porubl. p. nd pain'ing. On. ""p ti,ing .km.", in all ,h. te .... h","""",. i, ,h.
of rcfc"""C! '" ,he kind. of p",,-,rn I dilCWS<:d io .. '.
to i",no proper. N;<=> dH.! .uthori.. the ""n,,, .. ion ofin,.gn. Th. bid..,p, ..;d
<lu, ..""",ion u"-"'Il)' .ook ,h. fotm of
k;"ing. 'ouching. h. ili"g.
.he "'0ge of p~'io:s .Iu, wpp<>!i!:dly prol;~r.lIed in ,he period
hrwn .bou. ~.nd 'fOO .re co"'l';.;-uou, b~ ,hei' absence. TI>< .urviving
or)"""", .!fun! limi,ed """'" '0 ,I>< objec.ion. "f
ioonnphoo... Sc>nlJl
though i, i., none of ,Iu, ""ido""", I""""'P .nyon< remiling i" ho.ror bcf"ore
of p>plc b.:"hillS irons, scr.oping ,hei, surf..",..o OO",in h<>ling I,.",--d.,.
Or ba"ging them {lutlido that .OOps. 00 the {I,h.. 'ido. iroo<>philc!...,,,, mOO
e in <I..:ir cbim. Of( belulf of iron . h i. Iurd 10 find ~"y apl;"i, d<fe",,, of
,he kin,!, of pru:rH:o ,Iu, rn" l.:i"'"I;<' ,,,,,k '0 be ch'T><:f<,iu", of iron
pnc.ic<s in the ''',h .nd ...... n,h cenlu,ies. It m.y "'011 be ,hal ... I .rgu<d in
Chapte' ,. the iro" was .. ill ,.lot;""ly ...,.. . nd m. in the .is!>th ee:mu<y. Th ..e-IV,., """"ph""'" objected '" imag<> of . ny sorr .nd iCOflophiJc, did DO' ''''''
icon . '"' c<nml '0 ,t..: , .. di,ion . I'Cfh.p. Nic...'. li",i,ed .UI<rn<n... bo", cuI<
pnc.icc:s ....,.i"ed wi.h religiou rr uld up '0 one "",re in ... nce of .h. >v"id .
nee: of no .. I'Y'









An and An Talk in the West in the

First Age of Iconoclasm

TIwo.~, tiN ,.~dJ, ~

0,"""""1} ;, '" ;., food

~ "''' 404 4" ~ by"jj tht foirhfol,.

,~hoIy j"..

rho, by . ",i,;1>Nll 'Jfi<r ,

_.,,,"'''',, '" in"",." -;.

m,04 ""'l;" ",",,,J "'~ tht ""i~

~~ tiN ",,","""n' oftiN fiF"" i'""'P ot'""""1
to tiN fo<h .-hirh tiN <0. ofC"" J.i",.N '"
fr , ..I""",.
_ Pop< H:oJ,w, 1,1<"" '" Ch .. km>gn<. 7~1

"" oftiN




II~'QU t",u
boa.m< invol""" wi.h .h e im.:lg<' comm" ",y, . h. eigh.h
e<:o<ury in .he "IXb.,.... bnck .. ed b)' tw<> .utoon who .. lkcd . bout >It in t<nn,
b.ning ",1",a mi,1 .imilari,!, .0 .hOK wi.h which we ru.v< bome f.milia, in
"''''eying I, t< . ntiquity . nd ",.Iy Byzantium . On. of th ... i. ,he Angl<>-Suon
Ik-<le and the ot'-<, i. Pop< H,dri, n r. Fu. m<t of the .ight h e<:ntmy. the

"'Y'" i. ,p..... nd unfonhcohling; i, i. """I)' .It"i< of wh.,
p-copk 'housl" . .. id. ,nd did during''''' p<,iOO wh.n lI)"l.lntium w:... ddr=ing
the p,oblelI\Jl.OO po .. ibilitie> poocd by im'g", Th. p''''''"' .... . (W()
fOld .im:.o ", .., Out . hi""ry of W."c<n .., .. lk in .h igh.h ""ntu~' and. o
"'t the ""I!" fOr thc ."cn,iv< F.."ki,h di",u<>;"'n, of 'he 7'JO',
W...... in Ch. plot 1 thar, .p.n from >omc m . nge doi ng> in Seren""
M.... ilJ .. . nd oome .mhiguou, ,nd , I i",i"ed , .rypial p
in Gn;og0'l' of
'l"u", ,he..
1 di",umon of . n, ."J .,.n" nly no argu n"m, . bou, " ,
before .h ighth .,.mury_ Ik-<l< ""'" " ....." of.he ",.. l;e .. 'UJle> of B)"l.ln'in<
iconophobi. tld b)' 'he 'NO' ,he F",,,k. "'<tt .,.cu,iating ,h" "' 00gu' c"un,il

w,.. "" ...


o( [h. Gr.d,.: ,h., i" II NicK>.. So i[ .tan'" to tnSOn ,h>, ,hc Western dio<m"~,," wa.! '''!Iend'tot<! by ,h. W tdn ""c. Th., thc WC>l<rn di><:us.sion wa.! nor
indigenou. i In=l) "It< impo"'''' poin, to eoo,bli.<h. Mor< imJ>OC" m. how
"".r. i..... bli'hing wh .. pcopk in the Wen know, when ,h<)' know it . nd!>ow
'h"" ""'P',ndcJ in ,he d<Oldcs bdQr< Throd~lf W",[c . h. Op", c,,,,Ji.
Pu, link diff"trrnolr. ,hi. dldf"cr .nd the ""'" th .. I<:>lIow rgue .Iong
.mical . nd hOfizon ....1pl.n"". T h. , .. "ical ' 'l!"m..u Os t:.....ially chronological.
It aplm how the po$ition. "".nm,lIy 'dopred in ,he F..,"ki,I, """Id W.r<
huill up from pr=ding d"""I"pm.n". T he hori ...mtal ''l!um.nt foil",,", rwo
p;otalld t~. On. in.tip[" the a tcnt to which .... h>, [h. Frank< .."I w".
.pund by. In>u.em wi.h, 0. opp<><! to W\U. wa< bting .. Hl in [he f..<t. The
",h.. nplm .. how wh>. ,he Ff"1nk, .. iJ ,I,,,,,, .., ,hed< li#lt On what they
,bout mh .. ,opi",. nd via: , .......

Art T.Jk in Bro World

Th. firs,

of the qu.r,d <>'>'<. im>gQ $Oundot<! f:u (.om ,h. M.di_

in N""humb"; . ll><y .. ng in ,he w,i,ing> of lied. (671- 73SI
.mob, of imme .... !earning ,nd wid, connOCti"n . Bcd< "'",m.nd, at""tion
no, only beca",," h. is the fi,,[ tnm. lpinc wi,,,... .o .he new ""n."" .. ..,. ,,,-.f
in"ll<'_ bu, .1.., benu,," h. provides ",me him bour wh>, wu bting .. >d in
Y:l";ou, plOCQ in [he ca"y ... gco of .h" In,,,,,,,,..,.. H. himself act", lIy had.
good 001 '''''y . bo", >It ,nd ,h,.. f",. p,... ides at I".,,, on. gauge ofWc.tcrn
vi ..... on th.. gener.rI ,,,bjc< . Fin. lly. hi.> <ircul .."j widely .",1 "-ere
high I) ;nRu<n'''!'
Chop' > m.mionl in p... ing ,he liltk ,h., [h. liM Po~tifttiZli' ..".
,bout ",,<>crete i>sues in the .. ,Iy d.orp of the im:og< qu",,,'- II is irnJk-""f"n, ",
h..~ ,n mind what the Librr POlftiji",/i, hcca",e Ilede i. btli ...d !U h.....
Iud, "",.king cop)' of ,h. 1.1bn- p.",ijir4/i, containing on .. ycI lift
of Gregory II .' Iktwccn 729 .nd 7,t . nd prol:hIy d.,..r."
B<:.l. interrupted hi.< .lIcgorical cugcoi' of .I>c Old T.,,,m.n", description of
Solomon', Tempi.
say ,his: ' T h.t<.t< pcopk wbo think"", ,rc pmhibi[..!
by God,I.w {tom ",,,,jng or p;ointins- in . ch urcl> Ot .ny other piKe. tq>~n.
u[ion. of ,i,h.. hunun. ,,,
0' objo:ts of wh ....... r kind. on the ground<
th., H. said in the Ten Commandmem, 'You ""II not ",.k,:""' Thi, explici,
,detcn 10 ,he E..od ... pmhihi'i"" doco no' appa' in .h< LiM P""'ifo.J" and
th., wotk spco.!u onJ~ of. prohibition of image> of Mary. ,h. ,]>0<<1...
nd , ..: it does no< .pea\; of ,nimal. 0' ob;"""o. The..... rwo iM"" h... .
\1('.... "'..chon


,h. I.".. ,.....;



At1.nd At1 Talk


on. relev.n, '0 ,h= i"""Ii,,. ci rcu,,,, .. n= and one impot,.", rot ,he " ,hol<
hi'lOtial con",.. of ,he ."Iy ph . .. of ,h. inug< co",""""y. TI>< fiat point ;.
whe .. dtd \\cd. gel hi, inronn,uion~ Th. Librr POlfliji,a/is docs !.ly ,hOI Gr.go!)'
II w"',. Ch,i"i.", ""'rywho,.' c"n<;civ:>hly ..,me ,,,,,h 1<"., ,... chl En
gland. MOl<likdy, tI.<k k.on"! ",I,., W>.! SOing on in !W,ne .. >J o,n",,,,,io<>pI< from hi> ,no,!), info,m,n, on RomM ,If,i", No,hdm.' .... I'rg<"m! mol<
impo"'m' point i, 'hOI E\k', inrotm~nt. whhtt Nod."!m o. ",,,,,... ,,,. d ....
,old him only of ,he <:OJ'>d,mn.,ion of i m,S"> on ,he "",i, of f..>tlu, "1.4. "I1,i,
...... ,he V",".men of ,he<'I ,h .. eif"'I.,..! .mong [h. Bi[hyni.n bi,J,op>
.nd bctwcrn ,hem . nd the imperUl <OUl'. B..!. ,hu. pro"ide> . n inrnting
""'~'m>.[ion of ,I>< rd>liv<ly mod ... in.<lI[",1 fQc", of [he mn,m"<t.y" i"
[ocepnon .
Ik<k 1=1. dil<eming .y k",n int.rnt in m' rUl rulture . nd.n . bility
W <"""0 beau'iful wurJ pinu,,,, .... ny tud., of hi. 0,. ,I,.
o[ 0" ""
Tal"",,,," could not r<.ibly ovtrlook the 'hT delight \\cd. took in doctibing
."d then .lIegOli,ing 8"ld, ,il",[. b"",<.<, o;cohT.m! oli", wood. 'i<h colo... nd
[hick ",. ,u,.. in wool, linen, ,m! ,nim.1 ,kin,. tI.<k . 1"",)", [hough, ,hat only
[he ~o ..[ ,bioS' W<f< wonh)' of ,ymboli,ing God. on ,he one h. nd, .m! of
honoting Him, on ,he oth c . Hc ",in= .b.olu[ely no [~of ,he ,eodoncy we
00"'" in , .. ,iom 1. '"';que .m! .1", <igluh>c<n,ury Il)""o[in< w,i.ct, '0
.<Ok of d,,, .. n...1 OS ,ntrin.ico.lly unsuited to looly porI>""<'. Such"
",,~Id he .Lu.w::J, of >u .... bu. P"'perly ~"'I'I"yed it _
I~ .. i,i.dr b.nmcial,
H. ")'S <xpli<itly
'" [<lh. m. king of obj<Ct, O[ .nim . k i. not fu[bidd.n.
Ro[h... wh" i, ~n'irdt, p.ohil>i.ed i, m~king ,hem f<>, ,he purpose of iOOI"I)','"'
He ci,.. b,...j". 10.)- \'" <1..., ".men! .f",." i",,11"" of .l ien~, mod. by
,he ge",il .. for cult ."11 ...""hip.
Il<dc', ",i,ud. OS l(, why <ul, '" i. p<,mi"ed i, "'onh quoting. ",,,n [hough
i[ i, n Of o,igi..,1. He "'t~, ,gain in 0" II,. Tml~ "They (,he U;onophobn)
would no, "'y .ny .,,,h ,hing if ,hey Cllkd '0 mind .i,h" ,he wo.k of Solomon
. .. 0' if ,h<r ron.idcrl ,he wo,k, "f M,,~ . '" 11< I!'''''' on '0 "Y, "'1f i. i,
pclmi"ibk '0 .. i" up ,he bm.n "<pCn' On 't ,h .. the 1<"",li,.. m.y Ii ..
by Iooki~g at
wl,y i, ;, 'Wt pc,mi"ibk ,h.,
",,,It,,,,,n or 01... l.o.d "'''
S iou .... n ,he CtO hc .ccolkd.o tl .. mind, "f 01 f,i,hf,,1 piC!o<i.lly.">I
even Hi, mi""b . nd <u[e. . . ,in~ ,he oigh' of ,h.... hinS' offen ,ends '0
<Ii.i, gr<>[ cumpuniO!'l i" .h. behold .... . nd ,I"" [0 n" it< .... '" [boo<who >r" illi[e" .. ' I;ving "'''''';''' of
"o'Y of [h. I."d. Fo[ in G,k ''''''.
pointing is ",Ikd ~uryQU<;>ia. [h .. i, IWing wnting:" Ju;t. li,tI. funhe, on. in
de.t;,;bing ,h. grt", purifica'ion in 'he T.mpl< .nJ it> ,J""' .... i,. ,1c,.;I,.








CH , . . lH . . .

he asks why. if "",Ip,ut no .Iong lhil !:win '0 a kngt"h of !en cubi .......
c m ",,' ""a,,"c Of ""in"' " "",i.,. of ,he ... ints and m.rtyn?
AI! of ,~i, "'" by ,~,n f. ",ili" .nd ,r:oJi'iorui. 'm e Bible i<Klf "...rnn"
[he m. ki"l\ of im:os<> . nd ~ribcs ""'ny of them. Im. g ,he np.cily
move people in """,,,,enlb ble "-'Y'. And i"",goo an ,eacJ, ,he i[[i, ..... wh:u
[he Ii",,,, .. b in in orh waY'. If ,he i< .nythi ng at .ll new he, i, i. Bede',
p..,ing ........ ,k ,"", inugoo "'igll. he ""ull"~ .. well .. ""in [~. As f" .. I
know, llede n<vc, "p~ [he '"ref.n, i. l""< of i"",w:-the Odea t""t
an on of _ "" ip pcm.,mcd befo , .. im~ i, ,efe ,m;[ to the pc,..., .. "'1'", .
.. n'~. No, ~ he ...'" olft, ChrislOlogie>1 defrnoc: of i""'ga. The ...fe.rn,i. 1
d.I<:" .. t..J <k<p .""" in .n'iquily hu, i, "".I ,i,h" no, re><h~ IOngl.nd 0'
f. iled ro ..100 roor tba-e. Ch,;'[ologie.1 '<gU mem., .. I . <gU<d in Ch'p'er 1.
mu" primarily he . nribmro 10 John of DamasruJ who "'" in Bede', ,ime
uttmy utl kno",n in ,1.0 W ... {.nd "'hooc Ii", rwo (ftJ , tqm _r< w.i"en ""'.
[he very end of !kdc', lif.). lher< ""d long ci.<>tl.tcd w/u[ I ""... called the
rd"ively ,imple "ioc,,,na,ional"" deftn.. of imap-j.. u, "'" a man .nd could
he ""int~ like . rn.'.........t,.,' lkdc ~ nOf n'e"tion this dd"cn ...
Bed< ""m..lly did ",Ik good .;Inl .bou[ . n, . nd h;'tOf;'''' of.n 10d
.",hi'",,'mc .'" dd;w.,.,J '" ""..., h;" <ko<np';"'" .nd ""mmen ..,'" 1:>=0,_
much of ,)..: n... , .. ia.I .... idcncc: h>' ,he vi< ....1 "'. in Ikde', _.Id ..... v.n;'hcd.
I h.", mentioned .I..... dy hi. I"'u.i .... " """"'" .. of ,he Te " ' ple . ,,J T>bc"...::k.
Such d<.ICrip[ion. ar. ubiquilOU' in Bed aegaiClI ..... ,ks. 1'..",,1" ..... mem.
in hi, more obviomly hi"",ial hooks can ......."pan ~
mpko "f.he
kind, of thins< Bede i. likely 10 M"" .. ,d.
In ilie Ii.. t hook of hi, u,v,i..J';ral Hill"'] Bcd. ,<roun" [h...,iv.1 in
Engl.nd of Augustin nd hi, ""mpani""" di'l"",hed to.he
of. he ....I.
by P<>p< G'gOry I. The im'<f'id m;,.,io .... ri .. l>ndcd on the ;'1. of "Than.. jlLS'
off ,h. <:<5' of k en', .nd when [hq. infQrml King )E,hdbcrh[ of ,hei, a"ink
h. ord.m;[ ,hen> '0 "'y ",'1.,,,, .h<jl """'. AFr., f"",' d.Y' .he king him,df came
,nd ot<k.~ Allgu,,;n "d hi, e"t .... "ot< 10 .pt>ruach hi",. Th<jl
<:omplil '"be. ring .. thei, . .. mlard . .. h .. , <lo ... nd.n imag< of ()u, Lord .nd
Soviou. ""in.~ on [>'nel. Thq e""noed li1:lOi", . nd u"".cd pro).. n '" .he
Lord for thoi. OWn ...." .I ..!,.... i"" .. Id the gjv.,"'n of ,hose fOf "'ho", .nd '0
,,hom 'h<jl t..J rome. The aerou", ,hm rom.i",,,,,, ... i<llOu, f",lI,er men, iOfl
of .h. cro .. 0. p.nd ""i",ing. Ono .. n... in .hi,
h.. gnnd lirurgoal
ploe<:ion Je<ign.<d both to ""pl<S> .nd to t<:aU K . ) hod i"... ted ""
m<rting [he m;"'iona,i", in ,he open
fo, k .. ,""" in.n buildins.
,hey migh[ ... bi' him '0 10m. nugic." The ~."", .od p.nd p. in,ing will bOIl.
h."" come from Rome. 'm , CT1)f!1 i.."lf will h.v, bcen like ,he pro<CSIional


'AAJ," ....



>CeO,,"' .....


<ro>O<1 th" . r< m<l r.p<>totll)" in !Wrn>.n ""'r<c:>. 11K p.inting is m..." intct""
ing. but it i. iml"' .. ihl. '" say .n)"thing
it: where it wa> wh.,
ir loolotl like. where ir Iud hn bcfm. Aug ...... ine 1I\d <""'I"'"Y acquim:l it.
N..." "hd"", Bod. does "or say rh., ir ..... .<ome kind of p>1I><Iium or rh.,
. n)"Un ...... <lIpttt...! ro "'netot. it. In<k...t. he Sm' unint.""t"'! in its tkttik
E.,ly in hi' Ii;;",?"
A/>Hi, (of We .. n",u,h ."d J>ftQw) Redc e"ume'
" .. thing> th., Ren...!io Bi>>p brough. h..ek from !Wme. 10 Iif[h .ndl.." phct
hr men[K"'" p.iming> of fmj). irn.S"S ..hieh hr hroc.tght [0 ><lorn ,hr
<"uKh of bl<>S<"<l Pet" <h. Apo>,k which h. Iud huilt; .nd . 1", .n im.g< nf thr
bb>l mot""," of God md .... er virgin M.ry md likcwioc of 'hr twel", ' 1"',,1<$
... I,ich h " .. Ired pi,,!<>< by pl,'I<>< <0 .... tCh .... be-o .., in ,he ntot ufthe n, .e
"rc!<hing from w, 1I to ".,11, .nd irru~ of rho GO>I'<I "ory with whi,h he
decor."ed the ...,mh ".,11, . nd imoges of 'he ,i,ion, of the .OC>lyp.. of hkss<J
Joho ",i[h whKh he ) .... lIy adorned [he nofth .... 11 .., th..[ .... ryone ... ho did
whi<h """Y ,h<"y 1,.... Led. wo"I,1 ,tw.y> be ,ble
"'" know Ie".,"" ""
(OnmpU.[, Oft ,h. lo""bl. light of Chri<t .nd of hi ...inti . hhough in .n
in~. " II lil. fu"hrt on he I., .. ,h ...f, hi> ,i"h vi';t ,,, Rome Renediet
bmugllt numerou, bouk "d. onC< "Pin. im. g. The induded I"'int.





iogs of ,ht lord, !1Ory: ... j,h ,,hich h ncirelt'll ,h. church of M~ry in ,h.
mo"",!Of)': p.> in [he "",n..,[.ry of S,. Pml illu.mlli"ll .he <01<rord of the
Old .nd New T","m.nt<, 1"", <anying ,he wuod wi,h whK~ ~e ..... have
1>. immol .. ed, ,n<;( 0 corre;l"'nding p>inting of ,he I..,rd "",tying hi. el'OlS:
. nothrr p. ir of hi"", holding up .he b",.. n ><I]><n. and of the c"""' holding
)<:su . "
Wh., I\edc .... u.lly "Y> .bout di"' ..... illl'g in hi. oWn m ... "",')" ><Co.d.
well wi.h his more , hrorc.i<;>l " ....n,,,,,,. The><< ..~ hr.miful .od en_
hon"" ","rship. They help ,h. unle"er~ ,t> b" . I" .",1 nf th,", ... I~, ,hty
"'P"''''''' """&i><f""""rd rcp'escn",io'" of hiblie>l '""" .... f o' RorJ . rh .. i,
.nough. He doe. not <k>ctibc ,he< in d.",il. Joe. no' .. y wh .. thty
1ooI<~ lilre, who,ed 'hem. 0' whe ... hty ""me from in ,he 6.., plo (if
"'~ Rr>m<) . ' 1< ''''V<' men ........ hon. ~g;o;". H e ". ;,,11 "<VO' 'f'<"'k> of .n r
ut of "ncr>ti"n oonnled with ,h<&< or of .ny mi,...b >Un<i,,,ed wi,b


.j,e,,"Th Ilcd. dc<li .... ,n <"<pli<i, ."ribmion ro inug<> of.he f>OW<' '0 do
mOrc ,h.n in.pi .. ond ,each nur j ..., bt- ,,!;,,;f<am in .i.... of hi. , ... tm.n, or
...,,' which he kn ..... well: Adorn ... ", O~ "" IhIJ {'W,,- Suppo>cdly Adorn ... n
Iud m oPl"'ftuni'l-"'" intCrrog> 1 .h ipwr<eked pilgrim ,..ho h..d m><le. pil_
Stirn,s<." .h. HQly bnd .nd who,.....n eyewi. n"" to ,hr mirn:ulou. puni.h .
men, of 1""0:0"' who had desc<;",,~ im,8'" of S, . G,,"~ and of Mory."


Adomn.n, /Or hi< p. n, ' .. n<mi" 'hi' "'''y withoo, .:omment. H< ...
i>n<><:J:um ."d, .. far:u "'" can roll, ex~ no vi ...... on .rr,.ucred or ",1..._
<nJ of ',i. &-rini4J,.... / Hill"']. m<n,i ..... Adornn.n
wi..,. Bu, Ikd. n,:;"
.nd hn informer Ar<u.f .nd then
K>~ J>2$I"gt> from
deoctihing son", 1<)' ,i,to in ,h. lif. uf ","us. " Th< &<ksi",,;(~1 Hi/tory ~
fini.hed in 731 , n'" long .ft.. Ikde wrote the lir>es " "",cd .b."e rom:.. mir>g
Byun'ine """""h<>hi . Argu"",n" , silntriIJ ... aIw'Y' d''''gerow.. b." i, is
wonh ,hinking ,.bou, wbrther Bode mi!;h' h.v< men'ioned the mi=ulou. chas....",.,.n, of.1to$<
who dam.ged imag<:> if .... eh """ ...... nceo ... ..."j f,_
milial, or ~ 1;""Jy. to hi",.
8<f<t<" '''''''ing Ikdo, i, is ....,nh poin'ing
ju. I."", widely h.. """I<.<
ci.cul .. cd.r.J 1.0... inR""ntial he ...... 0"" h.u only '0"'0 the p>g<:> of ui<t n
d. flJ..J-UII
&tk ,\f~n""",,, to ! wh. . .'''' pr<ScnC< Bede .....
/0, Ute, mcJi<V' r>J>k. " c.:oen'i... ,ion, >p>n .......~" Bed., rou""y"'en
P'.Yl . decisive m'e in ,he .... isi"'" . .. d in,dkc.,.. l 'ife or C<'>",ine"," top<
io duo cig)"h nlU'Y' Willib""d, <he "Apc>ode of F,io,," who h,'e<! ... mil 739,
"-.. , f<U.,... Nonh,,,,,h,,,n , Bonifocc /OunJN eh"",h.:o. "'on... eri ... .nd
" h""Is . 1l ""cr what iI nOW ",n,raJ Gennany. Ute in his lift h. "'as osIcing /Or
work. hy 1Icd<. " In <he 7- ' in . i,,,,,,,,,.n,,,,,, ,I. .. wjll l;>< CQn,i<leml l., .. jn



o.r ,,,.




,hi, ch>p<<I. Lull ui Main>. I\onifa", ', SUCCCSWI. <t"""e<!. <up}' of Ik<k', 0"
tI" 1impk f,om Wea, mou.h. " Alruin " ., or>< "fCh...<nugn<', key ad.i..
kn..... nd ""mired Ikdo . nd ,,-0.<, in .nsc. ,he grea' Nonh~mbri.n ',
intelke' .... g.. n<lson. Throdulf knew Bcde, Indeed . he eite<! him in the ap..,
Ct~ and dt<W ;n'pi""ion from him in d<co' '''ing hi, own clup<' .. Gmogny.
To ,~m uP' In B<dc, .nd pc,h. !" by nICn,ion in Bode', ...:oders. ,,'e con
I":<<:<i,,, ,he ini,'" dimen,ion, of wru.[ me W", kn.... a'" "" ,he E. .., .nd of
wh... ,he W= i"elf W>i ' h inking. 0.. [he ~rs< po;n, . ,he ,",,'est kncw ""'),-i,
"",,,,o-that SOme people ... nk",ooJ the b od"" prohibition in atr=ely.r.J
un'<p"blr littt ,<rm . On ,he !Ond poin'. God wa; wonhy ofbcautirul
[hing>: m...,e, w:u creo,I by God .nd ,hen:foRO "'" quin' .... n'"lIy M, .tt
rou.d ilUpin:, .n<lan rould ,each.


8<,",n the 7W' anJ ,he mid'71'" [he politico' and in"i.... ,ional lift of Rome
apcticrtttd crucia' chang<:> ., th( P"I"" ,;",,,"1 tImKh"Q from ,he Syz.:on_
titt< Empi, nd al'i! wi[h ,he F.. nb. .x....1 f,,,Ot> ""''' ofbit;h >igni~",,,,,"

in , hi\- prl)Ca<: B,.....ntinc Wi polici<1, ""moly dwns by the oJmmi ... otion in
('.on,un,inoplc '0 .. i", monry in for us< in defending An ..oli nd 'he
B. lb "" CQntinuong lomb>.rd ."emp" to Clt",nJ ,h~r holding< in ccnt",lll21~
. nd ,,, join .ogrthcr ,h. kingdom pwpcr in tit. ,,,,,,h wi,h ,II. Ouch"" of
Spolcto .nd Benev.nto ,h.. loy ."ride . nd to the lOuth of the bnd, in cent..1
1121)' by the POP<": . nd the rciigiou, policic< of the imp<ri.1 t"'<mment.
",,,icowl,' icnnocwm " W"h ,h. in"""'n of lomlxndy h)' Pippin 111 in 7S1
.R<! 716 'he Fr.mko-I"'I"' I .lIion"" commenced in p"""ial ''''''', ... hik doc
~... bo-tv.... n ,h. I... ~ and ,h.l .. e 760s ,,i,lIC:S>ed. complia'M ,ri.ngllhr
diplom.q . mo" g pop::>. Fr."k>., ,,><I Brun,;""". Th;, ste' K," oJd= ,,"'h ..
an be: know" .bu,,,
te>ction, '" .nd ""n,inning ;nt<<eo' in Rrumi ...
iconocwm ,
Nomullr. wl><n invco,ig,ning ,I>< p. pocy in ,h. <>rI~ MOddk Ag.., ,I><
h'non.n "'"., blend t~hef ti", ~i"".lCC ,,f the p.p.1 ""'f<>Il'.>l1d.n"" with
.h.t of .be, LibtT hnliji'<1fu. For pn:scnt pu""' .....
ct. tl>< I.. ",,, a", uIta. On ,h. one h. nd. ,he Ict, ... of G~<r lJ .1I<g<dly reid .. 11 Ni<=> ''''
10 cotrupt
thq COn"'" be: put in tl>< dock . nd inlroga.M. On
h.nd . 1>< , ,,, .nd .."hen,i. p.p.IIct, ... y .Imoo, "<}fhing"""," images
or . nr C<)m"""" y C<)nccming ,h.m umil ;66167." Thi, fxt m.y j"" he of
",me ,ignilican_ If we CJ)mp.:uc .he k"." pcr.. ining '0 ,I>< 760s. no< . nd
780< with those: th .. .!UM" frum .he period dO" 'n to about
mid-71O<, on.
' hing is ,,,iking Jn ,he I.... Ie".". no ....".r wrun ,h. pope hoJ on hi. mind
1>< time. h Im"" . Iw.ys m . ... gcd '0 <or ""'''''hing . bou. lomb.-.rd dep ....
d". i"", .nd ,hon . ft.r .h~ (,11 of .ho ,-"mb.rd kingdom .h,,~. his prop<niQ
in July, Th. fd .. il'Cly few .urviving l<n." from ,he period ,,6'0710 oJdrc>s
""i."" o;o"c.:m, b,It n....'" ... ,'" ,~< iss" .. of im'ge>, 11)7.>n,i ... I><, ..y. Of ",,,,I
M.n .. of .1.. f.;,h ." If .h.,.. ...... cen ....1i~.o ,h. POP<>, in .i.her penon.1
Of poliry ,.rm . i, i, odd ,I... ,h<], nevcr com. ~p. I would nOf ca ... o .~ggcst
w, ,Ite Popes
unin'''''''N in o. un,,,,,, .. of
;m'g< ron,,,,,,... y in
l:Ip"m,ium. hu, I do ,hink i, wonh cl:ing whether. "n ,he 1>.-.>.. of ,I>< ,un'iving
ro .-epond"""". w< .houl.J .it-- ,t" i .. u< uf ;",.~" .. r. nking "'~<f luw '-'''
,I>< priMi')'Ii ..
The t.,.btT r.~,iji("Ii, h.. mort to .. y . nd i """,k of "''''i .... llie;.1 cI", .>Ct~'
.h... mged (,"'" ,he p. p.1 .em i"i",.,i"n i,..lf" It p""''''' ' diffe'" pi<.
,,, dun ,h. I,,, ... h," ,h''''r< ""Y' in which ,he CWO kind> of <"iden .S....
wi.h ..:h ",h...
In .!up, '7 of ,h. Lifo ofG"1I"rr It figh' in ,I>< middl. of.n <xndcd
di .." .. inn of in",,><: po<>Ii' ical squ.>hbli"g ",,,,, ,h-< ''''f''<'Or', meml'" '0 nil<
...... in Italy . nd to impose: hi. will .I><rt, .... .d: "Itt .h. m.nd .... h.I .....








HI ' .... H. T" " ,

.. n" 'he eml'<"'" hod tkcm:d ,h.. nO church i""'g< of any ... in'. m.nyr or
angcl mould Ix kep' . .. he ded.,ed ,bern .11
if ,be I"'miff "",,uld .~
he would emp<'or', f'VO<lr. if he p,<ven,ed ,hi. heing ",rried om ..
,,"eU II< would he ~ded f,,,,n hi'
So 'he piow man d"piKd the
p,inoo', I"0f..e mond;ue . nd n"'" "" . rmed himself'l\"in" ,he emperor ..
ag.ain ..." enemy. de""uneing hi. h.crny and ,,~i'ing ,h.. Ch,i<tion' .-.'e'Y"''''c
muSt guard 'I\"i"" ,he iml'Otr) <I"" had .,i",n."" Th. "".."d..... do no<
'''IViv< , But i, '1'1''''' from ,hn ocmun, , h.. ,hey invol...,d mo~"., wdl",h.n ju" 'he iso". of in, agO$. Inciml, G,<t;Oty had led."" ,nol, and ,hw:oncd
,be will of a sc, ia of impe,iaj offi..,n.
G><g<:>ty II". '-if o>,,,in,,. on.inly n.rt,"in~ 'he ong<>inpttifc in and.
,torn in chop,.. 1,.!;ty> th., the empero, """ at'empting to rotC<: hi . will ""
<Y<'tyOJ>< in Con". n, in"pl. to toke down im;tgco "wt.crcvc:r ,hey .... f... _ in
ch' p'ef '7 onl)' im. g<' in ch u h"'J< men,ioned-to burn ,hem in ,he n'er
of ,he ci,y, and to ..... i'.....,w, I"in,ed <h,,hco. CIup'er,... >n,im,., ,h.c ,h=d
by "ring ,Iu , m."y people opp.U! ,j,c ''''1''''''' and ,Iu ..,me we m.. ,ib,ed
. nd ",he" bchadcd. The d.cposition of Gmanwo is .Iso memi"nni.long wi,h
G"S"'Y" ... f" ..1 ,,, "",tnte""" hi, SI,.."...,', An ..,osi"" ,,,,1m he .... u"...:1 '0
,he c"h"l;e f.i,h. n.. l.ifo ,hen oo""I.,.J"", 'I";'" ,.-..Ii,ion.lly. wi,h I;", ,,'
G"'g<>ty', <\on"ion. '" R"",.n <huhe> ,nd his ordin"ions." 1",=
ate dc.:idedly .. ingy wi,h det.ik
Th. I.if of Gregoty 11 117J '- 4' ) is nOl nlud. diff...:n" From 'hot teJ<t. from
tcf"etonccs in ,h. pontly '''~.mined """,rds of, Rom,~ Synod of 769." .nd
f,om ,e/"rn:nCd to GtcgOf)' '...... '" in 'he rorrnl"'<c of Hulr;'n I (nl9j)." w<: kno ... ' hot he beld council. to condemn ..,,m im.ogc policy 71'."
The ><COII <I clup' of Gf<g<>ty", Lifo.-...d ... "I""'~: "' H. ,",'os bishop in , he
,imo of 'M .mperon L..:o.nd Con"an(int. while ,he", "'>! raging (h. p<n<"C"
i"" ,ltoy ", .. ed fO, ,he ,.""'.~ ,,,d <Ies,,,,,,,ion of 'he s..ct<:J imag.... , . On
beh. lf of thcoc:. just ... hi. pm!<tt>sot: of...,m! memory Iud d""., thi. holy
m. n "'n' w, incn ..... rningo. wi,h the .... 'h",.;ty "f ,he al"'"ol;,; ...,. ,,,,,,,hing.
fo' ,hem '" ,Iu ose ,hoi, mind< .nd quit ,hei, ro,,"" We .... in Chaptet ,
,h.. Ggt>r/. em .... 'i .... '" unabk: ". pt"OCO<tl '0 Const>minopk. G"'E"ty
n(Ow called 'he lug.., synod '0 mot in Rome .ina: ,he middle of , he
....... mh n'utr- ."vrn,).nint hishopo acconl ing to "ne "'ufO: (H,d,i>.n. Icttef), nint,)' ,h,,,,, """,r<!;ng '" ,"O(h., (Lik< l',mrijiatlji)-....,.Iong wi,h the
pfia, nd deaco", of Rome . nd ,h. Inca! nobility. Th. f~M l'~",jfo"'i, ''''......
(Iu, , his .ynod tkc,eed, "'If ,n),one (heneefunh, despising ,he faithful " .. of
,00..: who held ,he ancOcn, c,"'om of the '-I""""lie church, dtould temO>"<,
dc,;'roy" ptofme.nd bLuphem. 'Vin" ,hi, venomion of ,he ..,m! im>ges ...




1 him he d';""8 fonh from d>e body.oo hlood "f our u"d pu. Chri" , nd
fnlm ,he uni,y ,nd men,he,..hip of .h.. e".if( church, "" T he d",,,,,, of ,hi.
council or 1 .un,,"ary of its I';.w. .... '" .. nl 10 0mmnl;nopl. btu once "{;Oi"
1M emperor'. propie p,evcnla\ tI .. docunl<nrs frum , A li"k I"or. Ihe
Lifo ""y>. r>r1.,11 "'.., f('S< up in J<.kns< ufim~ .nd tl .. I"'''' w'ot<
yet .nolhc, I.",,, 'f) .he em.,."" ,00 'f) ,he l""inchaL ;",rudor, An<2Siu,
G~,y hdJ . nu,hor ')'noo in 7)' . '0 ..-hich we will
,i><"'ly. but with the
pOn of.hoe .ynod. of n. ,he Lifo'. " ..,men, of G'egory'. invol,.. men' wi.h
the <ontrove"y break, off. Abuut th=--qu,<te ... of the Lift i, <ilent On
, he .. ,hi""" Bu, ,h. ,,,,,hem. iu>< ",i!Vo' he h.lpful
" pl.""io" of why
1"1"1 oou","" .uhsoq ... n.l y "'Y ", link ,0."" ,he irruge <o"'rov<I', I'e.n,p'
IWm. ', ,,......... th", once the ico""Phobes h:od been arommunicoted, .nd
siven ,ha t , hey ind..Jed in ,I"i, numk, rI" ,ml><'O' .nd rI" p",i"eh, ,he
coS< ..... do..0.1 until the Bruntin .. decided to ch, nge rou"'.
from bter ""ido",e< ...ebrn ,h" Grtgory,...",,0.1 eo<,neil in 7J' prep.ted
p>tristic Ao,ilrgium in defense of" As "'e obS<f"V<'d in Ch.pter 1. ba"l.
by Aonlegium w:o, by the eighth n'",y ....,Ii.,..,<o;/ m<Th<:><l in the E.'n
Ch,",;"n world. lIld i, Iud been used " ,he Itonun Synod of 649. I, il no,
Gregory pu, locol "'),01 .... '0 work collring ...1=", r..,im ....
n"', 1"1"1 "ffic;"ls pmb>bly kn .... Greek ,..,j h:od """"" '" key ,.." . lito..,.,... .
,here ....... Luge G.k religiou. community in Rome." G.cgory, 'csporu.e '0
the ;...... po;cd by i~ we,. , littk prerociou.< .ntlsuggCSt. high., degree
of ""nOOm . bout inugc> <lun hi. kn.,.. 11", ;. 0 ...., '-'''' in Ch.p''' ,. Em
PC"" l<o 111 colll no <oun<il, ",d. u f... .. w. <:.On ,ell. John of D. m, ,,,",,
..,ing in pnvate ul""tr. fit>t .<.u, bled do<si in f .." of ,m'g" ,n the
F"",. " Hierei. then p,<:><Iucl 'he fi ..., dossi<f .gorin" im.s... Gregory d<m. nded th .. the iconophobn return '" the true f:.ith, Pertup< to dinch , ny
'.-gumen" ,Il,,,,, ... h,t the f,i.h ...,.. whieh n.... '" ... I"t tl,. ""ditio", held, he
h..J hi. Aonlrgium pr<p,ml.
U"f"" " n,l y. only . few f"~"'e"'" <of ,I... Ru,;leg;um ore .... ,,' , . nd tire"
only in I".. ",';,ing>. Th. f"'llmen" ,h" con bt: r<CQ"ed giv< " Ie..., ",me
i<k. of ... tu, kind. "f 'rg"""'''' ...... "sod ;n G"'S"'r', R"n"" '1". hi,h"f'"
who .... mhll in 769 ",Kl th .. ,II 'hei, p<od<ces><> .. had defended , he hono,
. nd '''peet due ro im' g" .ntI .h.. im>g.. we .. u..rul '0 the memory ,nJ
elicited rompunion ." From the woruing of the ~. ",d from it> cont.. t.
it .... m. .hot ,hoe Ilorikgium pr~,ed in ronn.ion with.he council of
731 i. m",nl here. With. liuk Jet.i,'e wock. i, .. po"ible to rcronstruct ..
Ic>sl ",me o( Ihot !Iorilrgium.'"' T....,Ive uui"",n;". r),ree hihlie>l.nd nine 1",,;,.




uo " " ..... '" ...

,;e. can wi.h ""'.00"" _u=><:< be


on. C>CIUociI <IE no. On

of n' con,';....! ,...... ,dim"<",,,

~ to

corutt'Y2Ii.~ 'ofKIruaion. "'" IIorikgi um



. uoolw 'J.'-U; Dc:scriptioo of"'" .d",nrnrn, of'M Trmpk.

II"",;.,,,~ ...... II. p. 9.
I. ) Kings 6.').)1: Da-triptl<>n of'M cherubim on ,h. An:
(ron. oli .. W<><XI .nd ,he cherubim CI~ in", 'M doo.. of ,he

Tempi .
Hll<lrUt,,~ ....

. II. p. 9.


). Numbers >I.S-1l: M ........... inS up 'M br...... ""pt"''''

114</';''''''''.1. >6. p. '7.
Puri ..", ~_i.t:
. I\cudo-Adun2>i .... Qtt-........ .J A".....-m... J.rn.r. 'iII'hy. if .....
.... nd li~ ~ noo adored, i..... ut. n.. ""POW ;, ,lu,
' ........ re noo adooro

on. ...., ........ of 'M ..... "". or

,,,,.,..,,,, .... .. J+ PI'.


,.-,1; Cone. Rom. P. ']' BGhringc., pp.

. I'.. udo-Oi<my>iw ,be: A~.e, Efu""" X d ,""",,_ Y",bk

.hins> an lad on< '0 invioibk ohinll"
1/.uI,u""m, . )6. p. ) .
J. p.IaJdoI)~"')~iuJ on. A~tc. n. ",,/n.' h,",,""i~ 1",>1\"> can
"IcY.... mind. from.he co'P",.,.j '" ,he inco"", 1.
I {,u/";"""",. 1. j.6. pp.
. Cpil of Alo:.nd,u.
"".(1"" "'", ...."...tWi Tri"j",,,,
looi<ing ... carefulJy tn><k imagr of'M "mpt'lOl' Ie>dI admi ....
,ion f<w .h..... p<>r. noo ("" ,he i .....: and ,he ....... ;,. ,n.o i.,



recogniz.i"K _


', . ' " " "

fI..._"...., . )7. p.)).

,. Gn-so<J' N..wu .... 0",,;. 4. I" 5.0_ .. r~ (",c,.l a:>mnuood<d
MOta 10 nW. cveoydIing: i...... 'hing:> h.od b<.n ......." ro him on
1M ..-on.. i". Apin. tMmc: of risi .... and inviooblc thinp.
JUJrI.""", . . -47. p. lb.
6. G.nnodi u. of M~"";lb. UM "'..
lJ: On the ' w'''!''';',,, bono, due to .. liQ.
flII<I,umu", . 19. p_ . " Cone. Ron." p. S] (1).
7. f>r.rr, ,Imu", ... 1'1 _""",*",,,, "" /"J,." "" "'~I"'~/jOM,.tj,,,,,U"':
Ac"""n1 (If ,,,. conciliar cotulc",,,1t;"n of . ~.mic "00

"'''' ';0'.



An....t Art l:.Jk '"

gold .nd ,il,'", inugo of doves.M ..+'o .. id i, "'.... nOf nee .... ry (0
",U holy Ihe H"I)' Spi,i, in ,h. fQ,m of, dov<
!i.JJ";"n~m. '- 19. pp. 4 ' - 4'.

8. Ps=do.John Ch'!"""tom (Sn-.,rimu, "fG, b.b). i" 'f~i",a

frrW /""cb..: [>ro(><, uOOmt.nding of the hono, be f'olid ) imp<"
,i>.l im,go.
If,"''';"~~,,,. ,. 'J, p. 47.
9. Gl"<'gOry l. ';;"'''' "d ~num; Unl .. ,.f'OiJ ""d in pi",...... h.. Ih.
kttem:l n:ad in I>oob.
H""";"num. _ I, pp. 4:<-4J


h mu" be ",membe,ed , ... , rcron,(1uning ,he ""'teriat. used in 7) 1 from Ltt

,=,d" ~;'II)' from lbdn.n, km:TS. ;. ,isky bcc.wc I-bd,i,n had OCC1Sion
'0 cit< only th""" ,ars whim h. n:<led in 78j ",d 79). ,nd "0' , whole
florilcgium. rut diffen,ly. i, i. u"likef)' tt..l "'< h,ve m'"'' th." f..... >On of
the ' at> conuincd in [he 7)1 Ao,ilcgium.
I.oo/<ing ",,,,!o,,,I), ., ,he ",'idonee " " "' <ii'pol I"'""i" , few in'igh"
inm wh. , ...... diocu.,ro in Rome in n '. Th. bihlical ~ uldoccd ,here,U
peruin 10 inlllnces whe't God t;Omm;>nda! im,ges 10 be m,de. Thl'l(' , re
wholly '",<iitio",,1 in ,hi. context . nd. as nOled .ho... ,hey ,<cord with Bcdc'.
",m"k ,h" I"">pl. woold 110' oh;.c, 'n imase' if ,hey (01)' CO<t,id.reoJ COO',
wonil '0 Moses. Jk.'ing in mind , ... , Bcd. "",m, '0 hove h""d ",mhing
.bout an ..cnsivdy rigid 'pplic)(ion " f the f.xod ... prohihition " Byz.;tn,ium
, nd , ben ei,a! ,h. Bible i"df", .u,h<"i>.ing im,g.:>, i[ i. in ...... ing ro nt) ,h"
in Rom. ,he .. mt: pooi'ion ..... being ...lop,ed ,,,d, with 'he f'ol"'"'l\< on Mo.".
h"",:n "'1"''''' ,he very .. mt: p>SS2g< ""'" being .ited . But W<' h". ""n ,Iu[
I""f"g< ,urn up in ""me" m:' , be J="" . 1....)'> wi,h.t.... mt: ..... ''llY:
If WIIKOI>< 'it E..odu> 10,4 Wi"Sf i",,,go ,h.n cit< b.d win" him o,he,
p"' .. gcs ",-he" God oontm.nded itn.gc. '0 be m.d..
"The I>.",i" i, p>ss>g.:> bro~ghl fQrw:trd in 7,' , I", , If...!i,;"n.1 ,rgo _
me"". n,,,,,, m.)' b.: Y"ureJ im(> 5<".",1 a,'ll"''''"' In ... ,;o~ . war> the "'pic
of impcrial imag.. rum .. up .... ui"hle """logy f", thinking . bout Ou;'t;.n

i""g<>, The old 1'<>"" i. "'.... , ... , " "'J.< "'" ,he ''''''S' " f ,he en,pc"" ,h ..
...... honma! nUl ,he em(><m' wh"", 'm>g< i, w>,. Although ~ onl)' know of
R"m" ..,iog Ih" point Ji=l)' by m",,,. of ,he l>oli", p.."do-A, ... "",i,o I."
.nd indi.-.:cdy by .~ a'",C' from C)'Iil, i, "",' . n old . rgumrnt 'hot a,"ld h.",
bn huumocd by ""'"r .. Ie",m p. ""P G,egory'OO Cyril. .hhough in qui
JilT.""" .... y>, .. y tt .., im.gcs can .=11 '0 mil><l biblial .."ri,., in tht 0'"
in".ncr ,od peopl. in ,II< o,h ... A philosophical 'rgUn,.OI i, . ,1>.,0,1 Ih.,

inug<> h,,,, [he .hili'!' '" dov." h""",,, dU)" w>IS from [hu W<I,1d '" ,h ...... ,.

11, i, ,h. poin, of ,h. <i",i,," fro m a" alleged 1.." ... "f D;':my>i", me "'''''pog_
i'e '" -"'1m the ova"lI"li". O ioonY'i", usuI , tu.t inuogcs an: mcn:ly ';';bl, "".
,i"" , or invui bk 'hings. ,t.., "fl. n
"iovUibl. ""hon," ale poimed with


""Iof"&, i, u """,ihl< fOr 0'" minds U) gra>p [hen" Pm . liftle d iff<",,,lIy , m..... i.>l


0_ ,,,

(vi,ibld 'bings pc.mi, '"

im"",ri. 1 (invi,ibkl 'hing>. Thel'<
mWl luv< I>:rn SOme d;.c.,,,,ioon "f ,he on'oIogy of i~.., h ,h",.. weI< ci[ro
'" sh<>w
inl1g<s ,henuclveo weI< "'" hooly 1><couse.,r ..-h., 'hq weI< made
of and ,lu , ,hey d id no, .<lu in ,he being <>f ,h. 1"'''''''' whom 'hey '<P~
..-n,ro. An An,Kx:.he"< .II<-g<dly >.,1<.1 A,h"Uli", whr , if he ,lid ,,,.. ><Inn:
and li~. he did ador< imag<>o Att..lU>i", '<$p<>nd. that ' he f,i,hful
d" no< >do",< >.' if ,hey we", god..... h.- I"lI"tlJ do. I"" ""h" fOt luvc
of the pc"",n depictro. H e ,h.c" "P 'h at if [hel'< W<1'< "nee an ;nug< on ..,me
wood bm that 'he imagt had bn dF"ad. ,hen , h.c wood could be b"!nro ,
A. halUii" " pt><><lly "id ,h,,, Jacob adored [h.
<>f Jo><ph no< fur .nr
quali!)' of ,ho:
t,." 1><co""" of whose i, wu. All of the;. ki!t<h of ... gurnrn ..
"""Id p<. hap> haY< httn .dv.ncnl wi[h be..e. [""IS t,." .11 .,r ,h. ''1\,,,,,,,n,,
them!dvc< on: f.mili,,, '0 U! by now. Mom>v< ,he littl ..... On know fOf
""".i" .hoo, u<.... ,I,." COn.n . .. 1I)'.<...."ium '0M"''' <I"" 'h"", kind.< <>f "'1\umen" n, "..II in,,, , hi"oric>l.rid <h",nological ""n">I.
T"", <>the, pU
Ih. ddibo:"uio n, in Rome or< a liuk d iff<l'<nt aoo
comidc""ion. The", U. dighd y obscu", fWS'Ig< from Gen nad
ius <>fM ..... illes whid, m,in";n' th .. rdia uuQt. to be honored if th<)l we'"
"'mmtb'<l amm" '" ...11 .. builicas dtdi",,<d in the 111"'" of .,in" . nd p!.oos
dtvoted U) .....,rmip. Two <>the. fngmcn .. [ha, ' PP"" in Wetm;n&hoff'. ooi,;"n
..i th",,, ."ril>."i.,,, ...,'" to me to bo: ,<1"00 to thi, "ne .oJ the
origin. lly have f".m<d pon of. Ionll'" p....g< ,h" mode 01",,,.. sense, This
1''''5'''<"' ")'0' ,It:.t . i, m",. I>< o .. full~ gu,rded >g>in" ,hat. on """,,n. "f ""'n .
'" 1""I"p> bca.~1e of du.:us..;.,n <>f ,hem. a bad .i.... t;.,n does nut grow WOlle
. "d sonl<"UlOC p",hibit. 1>< "<"","",, ion of ,dies ;0"" ,he ...mob o-.,./" ate
ven=>[oo. The " ... , m gme". "Y' "if we " ish '" luve ,ho: o>ml"n~ of the .,i" ...
,hen we ,.,lIy "ush' ,0 vene", .. II", .dia ,"" "oly of , ho:i, bodies b~t .Iso of
thei, clo,hes. me buili".. dtdic:"oo in ,heir !'11m.., and ,lteir inugn.rid ,hei,
<IIun"",nC". whercs<>cV<r pointed. wi,h ,he mQ>t ~ ... n[ marks of r<>f"'<' ."'
Tlli, " .. ng.... of "., impl"',ha, .he", "'.. d i'<c<''''''n o/" inugn ""d ",Iia.
t" be: .... n:, bu. al", of the locus of the holy: al ktit that is ho .... 1 mink 0"" mWl
"k. ,h. ,""ement> obo~" basilicas ""I places deojiat<d ' 0 _r<hip, I< i, not
",herwi xn<>wn ,ha, .hi, ~ of ''''''''' ".... di>cusscd in Brun,iom.., pe ..... !>'
the: 'Cltt! opc:n up, V1<v>' On 0" i ..... unatt .... 1 In aUnt Us .. '" $ Yet









An . o<I An

i, i. hard 10..., why people in Rom.


,:.u. ")

h..,. m.,m&r<d olf down ,hi. pa,h

wi,,,,,,,, I'fo ..,.,.,ion.

no.. SWlnd i""" <I,., all. fOr a bi, of in<kp<rI<lcn. disru..ion pcruin' " ,

or wh., "'" mighr all "",[i",," im. ge>. Pseudo-A,h. ni", ..Y' [har
a demon promi"'" [0 "or rorm.ming
peopl. if [h0' would ce:ue honoring
. n of.los<" a.,J Mary, This ,h.. in Jerusalem. ""he", ,h ......,,"
allegedly ,ook ploce . IIOme peopk honom:! .n imoge of Mary h"'ding pu. on
her 1.1',
don not ,.II u' .he end uf .he ''''')" bu. docs go 0" to lay
[ha. if im"!\", did "'" ha in .hem .h. po",., of God .hey would nor 00": holy
oil .od wouk! no. blc<d if pierced by a m; .. ile. Th;. i. fo.. as I con ..., he
fin , in". n<r of "ooi",,"> ruming up in [h. War in . n .orh",i,,,;,.
(papal. """cili..) ront<llt which e"end. b<yond ,he .rubiS""u. him. in G"'8"ry
of T""" .,J Veom,i", Formn"." , ''. "",ed in O"r,e, > ,h" miroa,Io",
ima!;C>. despi,e wh.t I"e, iconodub .. iJ .bou hem. wet< rumpaFolti,..,ly t<.
<rnt .,J no. very n~m<ro",. Still. ,he top'" may haY< h.d jun enough currency
arou.,J il ' that .ueh imag...irh .. h.d.o he defended Of dse ,hem,d,"CO .. rvcd
... dcfen", . g.>in" ico""phooi .
Two fin.1 poin .. ro.), be made .bo", .he <,'idenee
det,v.. from ,he
Rom.n G.ouncil of 7)'. Fir:; . it "'"' the Roman Gluoe;1 of 7)'. and nor Jl
Nico .... ,h., ("r .he fin. inre tcquiml .he venetation of image> unJOT pain of
1O.,hem. Thi, will he well '0 l>car in mind :IS we cun,ide, I.. e, 1"1'.1 .nJ
F.. nki.h I""i,iom ;n ,he image conrr"'........ Second. ,h. lansuage in ,,,,,",,
(taSmen, ... "n .he very oubjec, uf what SO" of ml' "'"' ofr.m:! to imag<>. i.
complcrdy inromi".n" Th. """d. ,&,,,,,,, . nd ,'m", u..,J i,,, ...I,.III;<'
. bly, .nd .re mi.ed wi,h ~. JiliX'". nd "'h.... Thi, dese", ... mph",i,
bocau>< Ausus,ine much ... Ii<l, John oll).mU01" bi, I"e' in .h. eiiVrtl'
""rI 'Y,), nd Thcodulf In the Op~, 6<roJi all tried to h.,p d;'tinc_
tion bcrwa:n ".do.. tOon " .nd "venemion" bm if "",m. ,h ... ., I.,,, in Rome,
nO .uch di"incrion w .. oo><rved.
Tu,ning bu); to the Libn I'onrifi<~lii. onc "'" [0 "",i, un,il ch.pIC'.o (of
>91 "fbel",),, !.if (H'; f~, ","n' hin' "f'ho """'''''''''y. Ar>d i,
;. only a loin . W. rcad .hat he I<n'.n """hodo ynodic Iw .." to ,h. "dru,dr
ofCon""n,inopl'" . nJ .norhct ,,,
"1'<'" pti nct."" Nonnally I",ti.,ch,.
O[ ,h. ,ime of [hei, own in".lla[ion. ><n, <hei, J>" .ynod i. kn ..... mrnhin.
<ion 8,..,ing. ill",.d""i" ... 'IIJ profcs.<i"" "ff.;,h . Sima.r Icrt<'" w.t< u, .... lIy
.. n, emperon .. well . 111",,,1;1, 'his m."., i bi, mo.c rompliated boca ....
in at k ... "'m. C2k> .mpero" in.isted on p,ior tiiVr' of appro,..1 before .n
.kc.ed candido ..
o>n>:ro,cr! .nd i",,,Hcr!. In .ny co ... I.."dr.ry wro o
,he mrs,,/' of Co,,,,.n.i,,,,pl . if til< [.iIK. f'qn.ifi<ali. i. occu""c. nJ nO 0


"Il,. ""'1':K1





'4 e" . .... H""


11.10=. he no.i~ed .he cmpcro. "fhi. eltion_he,,~.h.c la<.

""pc '0 do ><>. Bm ,h. Lifo indulge> in no .hct()nc on ,hi> <><"",i"no not. word
.boll' i_ go:<: ,w, in,o.;lc ch.~ .,r k<e<y; ,~" moe pc",,, .. 1 "'ock on tloe
empero, '" !".n.h, .hhOllgh Zachry', f.ilu,", .0 n.m he patti. h ".;gh. ho:
.n impliei. cri.ic;"m. O nce 'I\"in. iudj;ing only from .hi> Lifo One WQuld have
imap "",,", nO h. p,irn.tty isrue on.h.c ""pe' genda.
The Lifo "fS.ephen II 1711-\7) h.:u no .di:. en<c n '" .he image COntrove~. This i> panicularly .<Inking in vi"", of .he f.... that .he Council ofHi,.ci.
n.... in 7H. To ho: .u,",. S' ephen r.o:d acute l.omhood
in and he
ini,;"ed compk:< diplom .. ic m. n.n" .... ~ .. , wi.h ,h. Bytan.ilK"O .nd ,hen wi,h
.he F... nks..o.ry ' 0 alb"." .he ..... in nd '" reclaim 100, p,ope,., .... S.cphen
ligula promincnrly in ,h. gen....1 hi,,<>fY of Europe bccau,"" in 714 h. , ..,<led
." F.."r;'. concluded . form.1 .11;'0 wi.h ,he Frmks..nd crowned Pippi n ..
,heir king, Th""' ....... im""nan,.nd !' """"ro' bu, .urcly i, ;, .triking
rh" ,he Lifo Ius not > word '" .pa.. abonr h.reti<al Byzamincs "r .Ix>u, Hi<m...
The Lifo of Pml 1 (717-67) is unu" ... Uy ,h"n. F..>.rly "" ;, saY'. ",;,h"m
com .. ,,,,,,. " He ..... bi.oor in ,h. ,in", of ,h mpc"''' '",,,,,.mir>< (V) .nd
I"" (lV) ," T he'" i> "r>< ",her ,Jefen"" ,,, B)...."',inm .nd .I",,!O image>: "He
m"nl>Oy,ly dckndcJ ,he ""h.....,. f.i,h. which i, why he f'luc"dy .,"" hi,
en,oyo ...;,h 'I",,,oli<; In .." '0 entr.... nd warn .h e empe"''', . to 1a'0
..l<l .... blish in ,I>ci, .rstWh il.... m, of ... n.... tim> ,he oac.-.:d images."" Bu.
,h,,< i> no npliei. m.nri"n of H i... i. or ,he alkgcd bru ..1 pc<K<mion. of ,he
760& i,he, in ,hi. {.ifo O! in ,he 0'" I..... '0 Pippin
dio<wscs. b,ieRy, , h.
cIfo .., on khalf or im"S""'7 As "'" will _ below, !',ul "'.. con""n.,.j
Byun,ium. h. hi> COn""n' wnl: p<inw-ily co~noacd wi,h .he. to him,
. L.. ming p,o.pee' "f ~ F.... ko. .ntentt th .. migh' h.a"" left him de
fcrucko. again " ,h. beaten hut unbo,...,d Lomh:.rd~






Visual Evidence in Ten.. from Rome


In oddi.ion
,..1." ,I., Lim Po~tifi(,.'i' sa"" .bou he hi>,ori",1 i<Sud
inl'Ol~ in .he iconocl ... ic comrovctsy. ,he papalliva .1", provide .igni6am
.... idence . bou. p.pal pallon>&e "f work> <>f.II ~nd dc.cnk some ""Oft.. of.n
in rying d~ of d".il , Qui olion ,he . n WI"k, ,hem ... l= and
.. h ..., 'M ""I'" put ,hem "",,,,I im""tUn< "-'porn of the !"PKY', 'OPO" to
Byzantine iconod.. m. h i, ,rue ,h... he Rc.m.n =""m~ "'~ imp""ing """"'"
,he .igh,h "~''''Y .nd .h.. , ,h so","in;e cnd"".o,. "",re """ible
,ho. which would t., "cceded ,h. me>rt. of ""'" ""', ,n,h-an'uty ""pes,


An ""J An Toll


S,ill, ,h<; rc>1 =I>Omi, """m of ,h. n'''f)' foll"",'1 ,he dim in.. ion of .h.
lomb...l kingdom in n j - 74 . nd ielf mO" ~i'iblr in ,he I>on,i~a, .. Hod. i." 1'1 '0 LlIV, (nt- 8n) .... Th n ,.Ik of ,t.. POP<:! of ,h.
h.lf of ,h igh, h ern,ury am. I... in "",,rd. d,." in dtt;ll_ ..Id th ..... <k<-d<
,ook ,h. f(lfnl of imp,,,,,i .... . nd .,1'OV<>CO,i wntl. of.n ,h., may " .. II .....
<q>m<n,ro scoou. d""", on limi,ro nu,,,i. 1 '<>O<ITCC>,
G ~ry III held . 'yood on r.lm Sunday (Ap,il 11), 7 to insci,u. new
"",uory in S,_ !'d. ,nd ,t..n '" provid. d"""""ion, ,nd h""s'al " .. ngo_
mom, 1(" , h. , o....ory. T t.. o""ory W1! imcnJI '0 hon'" ,hc S>.vi",. Hi, hoi)'
moth ... , ,he holy 'J>O>d .., . nd . 11 'h< holy m".)' ... nd ron(...., ... ",..,ing in
pcocc ,hfOug/>ou, ,he wndd:' Th. f..", of ,he p',,"'n' ,h.f< romm<mo.-.,ro
""' ... '0 be ",kb""ro "';,h .igil> ~ ." by ,h. monk. of the IoaI mon. " ....... "d
m"""," w<,. ", be ,d.b,.."ro on ,h.;, "",ali,iA, tI,., iI_ ,h. day> of ,h.i, d<>d"
whcn ,hey WCf< "00"''' imo, n"", lifc in h..,vc n. 11m, (" ,hc only "'iking
'h ing
,hi. unwry is ,h. brcaJd, of it< droi, .. inn: ,,, .n ...;"" ,h. P"I" .... d . iming , ... , '" h"J .. ken c"''l!' oflooking aft 11 'he
... in" j... , as, in hi. OIronlmunic,,,iun. ,he p... i""" NM<",be., I... Iud ... him.. If up os gu.rdi,n of ,h. (ai,h "",!)'Wh'f< ,
1010 ,hi, o""' ''ry, oow<V<', ,h. Pope imroducro m imag< of M,ry .nd he
ado.ned ,h. ,m'g< wi,h <to" ",,, j.......1cd ,,,,, .nd .,rings, . oJ ,il,-..
cove. (0' f.. m,). Thi, ""ido",,,, .Ione n' igh' bJ us 1<, infor. ddibe ..",
uln, . nd oolcmn denial of impe,;,,1 ioonocwm. bm ,h. i, mOf< ",id.n
,.." ieh mIn> infeftn into ,.,'my_ The ufo, in det.iling ,he IiIU<gial.n-:ong<_
n)Cn" ,,,,,i,u ,ro by th. I'op< ", m.i"" i" ~ult in ~i, " .... """",.,.. -")~ ,ho< ,he;.:
...... ";""tibeJ On "on. p. n.I<." ~ A .ub<..",i..ol f"'sm.m of , ... , i.... rip' ion
,un'i"",_ Mof<OV<'. nin,h-o;nmry rru.nusc,ip<> ,,,,,,-,,,,I, ,he ... non. of ,he ['.Im
Sunday """ncil WIlcn m.rbk .nd ",n::hmcm . f< ju... p<><! i. 'PP<>" 'h" , in
1 asc .Imo>' unique in ..... Iy mroi.",1 Rome, ,he fO"Is of, ,hun::h ,,,,,neil
" " .. i"rib! .nd hu,,& in public. It i. f...,inoting ob,,--. 'h" ,h. roneili"
f<O>M f< da,ro by indiction y<>r only."d flO' b)' ,h. '"11",1 )"''' ofl.> Ill."
In lJ' C""S"ry III h.od <;<:>n.1<mnc.' .".1 hi., ;m'g< .,.,11. 1" "''''y 7J' ,"<
I"'P" ""'ro ,nd ron>r."",1 wi,h
ftmonr .n ol",l,n,!y decor:u~ 1 new " ....wry dcdie:uro 10 ,h. 0>1<, of lh, S.v"". M.f]o. >nd ,'" ... in"
whose imogn Loo ..... prohihi'ing: imrodoccd.n inugc of II-hry io", , ... , 0 ...
' ory, .nd pxIo imro, I"'blidy .ncI ,'i.ihl)' h" ,h. empero" ."ho,if)' .....
"0 Iongo...lid in Rom,. T.ken '<>geth ,h ynod . nd o .... ory
impkmrn .. ,ion in Rome of ,he <;<:>ocil .." doci,ion ... k<n in 7J'-" tn "''''"g<,
1.> ..". , A..., '0 ~.' .he Ad,i"ic ",,>t ."d
rrd ",I".bl, I""' n",ni",
. nd chu"h pmviOCQ in $Qu,"'m 1.. ly. Sicily. >nd o.lrn.a,i. our of ' h< pnp<'.









<on",~. Bullying and ,;u goupn, by iml""w <>ffiWls plu, ialnodasm Iud
co mbined '" df<'C, a >pIi. in ,I>< ~ ,ies ~ Ro"", and Co.uurllilW>pIr." G"W>'Y _rru '" h..,~ I""" 0" an imlflO-Occoming can,p.U1" in Rorn~
" .. h.,.. .oonly brIO.. , .... ,nlUlb"on of hi. _ 0 ..,"'Y. be B'" ... <Wist<d
on)" "umn. from ..... uuclt of R>wnou. Euoychi .... n..... I>< anang<d nar
........~ of S, . ..... r in coni"n,,,,," "";'h ,.... .u simil.. "umns 00 ... ,1
,.... bail"", by Cononn,j ... and
.........J ..hro Coq;o<y I rnrronp:d .....
p<Uby<nium. On <Of! of .........urn ... ho pIac<d bn.........ich Ix """...I ..ith
,,!vtr on ..... ich ,....'" ..,,'" "drpococJ in rdid" doc Sa .."..nd .,.,.u.s on ~
sid< and ~boy and holy virp ... on , ....... hn. In , ........ ''''l' dod"",...1 to m..
B<thkhcm coib . . . . . M .... ad"~ (b'n M~). t.. pl><ed a "sold
im.v 01 Go,f. """hn .mb.-.a". OUr lord and Savioour, ..;m .... rious;...-d>.
~i"l ! Ibs." H~ n<llwm,l an _o<n. imac< 01 God ', holy I'I'><)thn and '-_
ned i, ..;.h~ ... ..In' .... ""illl 50 Ibo. " n.. imog< in~ .. M., .. sound. lik.:
lIlUll1UfUt .. hik ,I>< unk_n 0 ... ,Iu, _ ""t.ntd" nuy...:ll Iu... bec-n.
p.Unting ,Iu, "".. ~ ...n a mo", il\an, f .. me . nd C01'r no! unlik.:. say. ,I>< 0".
ofr nnon, III . hal ,,;11 "",on.n. La ......, icon <>fChri" k'f" in ,I>< dupel of
S._ uwnC<c (,ho s."..", S.,.,.111",,,,) ., ,n. 'ap of , ... Sab San ... The L;1Hr




,II< <huh of S.n Cri~"" .,><1 inoulkd

"paintin,," there." Th<>< are "",.. bt ruund. in," .,I>-,,,,cd "",. of decoy.
in the mutch ,h. , i. bduw ,,.,, Icvcl of ,he: <u ....,"' b.uilic.o. " A, ,he ... oy Icaso
f'o~';fo".JU ..,..

th ..~

,h., ...


we,. pirtUfQ of I"'fl<'> and "'"ny... Thi. 'fIWO,k. '00, 01'1'""" to Iuvc

btt" ...Jcu J.,ro .frlOn, ,II ,,.,, .ml'~rut', policies." lie IC>.o,cd and "pa imed"
Mari. in Mjuiro. H. buill . "d p. in,cd tho .......bi_pmb. bly ,h. "".
f in.oUy. he ..... in,cd the .po< and
commoda,ion 10, ,h.
do""fro gold imag<. I"'ha .... a",,,,,,,, ...,.... '0 S" AnJ",w, .t So. P.t......
G~ 111'. W<),k w.u COII,in,ocd by hi. !It...........,. 7~haoy buil,. new
triclillium-4 bo"'1UC1ing ~...J .....'1"ion Iull--c. ,t.. "',.. an and 0'0.-..1 i,



";th moun.nd pUn,i" ... H. boil' a - . ...... I......... pIactd in fron, of

if " figu"," 01 ,t.. Sa.';",. p<rh0P' a ..., ..... ..Kl dccontcd 011< r<:w:>m wim an


imag< of ,t.. ",,"Id. Th .., !.as

$Om< ...,...,....j >p<tNlollOtl .. to ,,-bc<he:,
.t.. imag< 01 ..... Saoio, WOO d<lj"",",~ p<-.c<>tion oo:aoion<d by I..e<>', aJlq;.nI
IC1JI<IY1II 01 ,h. CJuJki imac< in Coouun,i"",*, Thi. io poooibk. but j, ohonId
t.. IC'fII<mbcml ..... ,""" i, ron,,,,...,.,,. """........ t.a u., attuoIl, ~
icon 110m ..... PO" '0 .... j"'l""iaI pabc>c 00 <q>bcm ouch on icon";!h.
noss. Th,
~ . OfOUnd the ...u<i....!y a... do .. fot ,t..
.........,.. tha, "'flO<' ..... ~. Thu .. j, ;. diflicuJ, to kncr.. """"' Z-twy k.ntw.
St.fficc i. to <My tha, .... ,m,.. _ ~i .... f", inoan<r. ,fZadwy', imag<
rcfnrrd to ,I>< lar:<nn f""iKium 01' Om.. oJ.m ,t.. I"'P" "'"l' .....~ bec-n .I.....


"""t,.,......, "".... '"

An,nJ ,,", Talk


ing.o impli,i[ <omp>.;"'n lx:<Wt(n , good .ml"'.o., Con", ",i"", .nd hod
empero" leo li t It i, oCU'>$>ry to kavc on [he m.~in the qucot"m of wheIhe.
Zachary', pmvt>a.tion ~ . direct tnponlC to a 'pific act on leo', pa .. ,
Zad,.ry'. image of the ",,[Id h... betn pLIU,ibly int.[p""cJ ,.. cuim to uoiYCT_
.. Iiry." He.l$o .d"mcJ St, SyI"<S[tr', .nd the ",mico with ..... ,red im'g<>."
Z"",fury', ,"cn,ion [0 [hc in" i,,,[iorul ",,"fc'. '0 ,hc s"....nn.. n' o/fi<:<:s . of ,hc
L:uer:>n i ignihoOl U' !<S[u .. for ,h<>e we .. [he fifO[ ..-.mpl.. (or mo .. [hoo
a ccomry of new coo",uc[ion io , of [he L.r<r:>n. Pl.eing im'g<> in ,h<>c
v<ry I"'hlic phccs-'he new "idinium ...... p"""'b-Iy ~sed fOr [he Itc"n.n Council ...f 7'l1----an hatdlr h. ,-. c<capcJ the ,ttcntiun of ,oyon. who " ... .",ore of
m:cnt hi"<><r. ZKhary .1", go" , 1<>, do[n; 10 St . Peta'. bearing i""'g<> of the
o i,iry:T h. Uf' of Stoph." II pf<Wid.-. only One ... mpl. of. n.... im.g< which h.
caused to Ix: m,de . nd pl><cd io . IWmm church. He pu,.o "i""'t"" of M. ry
i" S.nt> M.,i. :"h~n: d.piCfi,,~ Mary .... . ed 0" a tl""" ....J i>oldinl>J<:s""
on her knees. He adon>l i, wi,h je-w.:l< and piKed i, be,,,,-..:,, t"",olde.
of M.ry in
h. gildt<!. Thi. panicol.. im'g<, ",i ,ich 'W"." to h.....
betn a "Mari. Regini' ')"lX", "'",, I...... been. painting ... ith.n eI.borate fram.,
I will om .. h.,,1 to tl .. im>ge of ~1.ry" qll<'<o . But unde, St<"p h'n II .nother
kind of im. g. appco. .. for the Ii"t tim< . nd wi,h i, .no,h.. uput af Romc'.
in> ...!.."",nt ",-i th im. g.... 10 71' Ai"~lf " .. , thre.tening Rome, S.ephen "held
a procn<ion .00 lir:>Dr in [he u....1 "")' .... i,h ,he holy jm.ogo: of "'" Lord .nJ
Saviou. alit<! the 4<1"",,p';I~." Th~ ,at g<'" on '" .. y [h... v[ p"""",ioo
P[oett<led [0 San .. Mui. M'll8ia .. ,,00 [ho, ,he pup< co,ried ,he im' l\< a"
hi, 0""11 ,hould."" The ("''' nujor ~hri.n (eam-I'urilicuion, Annunci.,ion,
...... ump[ion, N1Iivi ty- h:td been or-gani,.e-d by POl'" Xt-gi"" [ (687""70')" Thi.
p..... g< ;, [he G"" "'j,n... '0 ,he proo:l>ion ,h." .... h Y">I. IC' "u, 'n' ,I-.< .igil
of the ",",,,mption for the fumm regM'" where, , flC" ,"",;" in tho old C~rW
s.-.'~I. by ,hcn ,he ch,"ch and de>conry ofS,,,,Mn. no, tI", p"""",;"n pro-a.Jcd 'hroogi, 01 .. "'[""r:> '0 S.n .. M.,i. fo, ",,,,,,i"E m. ... Th. im.1l" "no,
m>de by hond." i, m<ntioned h. .. (or til< fir>, ,im< '00, Almo" n ainly 'hi>
i> [hc r,mnu, \.>."",,, ;Wn
Im"ll"" " I"" ""d, by
hum'" ha"d." h>d '1'l'<ared fmn, ,ime '0 ,i",. in &:0 ..", ""'ten br 75' bu,
[his is , ~ ... , 0(' p<>5iib!y """,nd, "",h m<n,ia" in Rome. " \v., th. im.g<
"",n as p>1I.dium' The Li~ hntiji'''{;' doe. lnn"'" thi. pcocc .. iun wi.h [h.
image to Ai""I,. d<"predation' in ,It< ct>un'ry>>d . Bu. this might be . cainci
den<c:. n", i.
Latc",,, ico n "'-.. callied in I'~n ."nu,Ur 00 A"go"
'~- '\ which prob.My p'ovide; a d ... for Ai"uir..... ck bu, co nno. be token [0

,iI,." ,.....





e H., . . . TH . . .,

indk:>'~ <ha, d>t ico<o .... pu.o<kd 'h""'!h Rome', ........ only bea""" ,ho:
lomb.nJ kinK W ,hm'onine ,he city. "Therr;, no ",lin OCCO<In, ~I:.t .his one.
Tht Lift of 1'0.,1 ] .,ribu... a n"mM of;map ,a him, H< d>t
body of 5<. ".,,,,,,ala. oJi<FdIY 50. "', .t..o+,... from a m<f"'Y ......0.1<
ba",ifi.d]y rofurt.iol>l chopd juM ......ick 5<. r., .. on .he, "",tit
siole. Into ,hi. cn.pd he pIactd M..ondrou.iy bt .,tiful picru.....MAbo near s..
~ .... ho: rrmocIckd ..,w1 dourd! dnJic:a,od ... M.I)', San .. M..u ad Grad.\.
:and "doco""od it mw>ik<nrly.M ]n ,,,,,"J,., chard near 5<. ~ .... dtdic:atod
'0 MM}' he, in'rod...,."j ..,.,..iQ :and ... .Aiv of MM}' Moundint uphslo., of
pIded.a.n ~,nK'SO Ibs. ~ Th .. is undauti<odly a ........ Uu. bt.utnI his
.... n ........ in,a. """""'"'Y. San Si~ ..", in Capi.~ . and bt in ...><I00crd "'-,
ia." tn.'ing Midt ,he WOtk on his a.... n hooK, "~'. ororI. on> "-rlr t.tki"ll
pUc.... d>t J<p<>n of 5<. Pn.. an un. "';,h proiound mipoo>. <e<:1eoioIopeo],
.-..1 ido<:.IoP:oJ "",ilia"",. Thit ..... ,J... prim< .Inti....ion ofRom.n pilginu.
and oJ.. gcn<r:Il vicini.,. of ,he, ,C$idcn,i,oI
lOr fOni&n= I'",mi.,.".
Fnnb 1'O""".ly visiu:d 5<. ~.r',:and l'il'!'in', oIlicial, pI.>ad ,1>< ....,....." s..
I'..or'. gnv . copies of.1>< F.."k... lotnh."d pua ".>ties .nd m:ords of the
.. tbm"'''''' of ""'''y of, cit'" .a Rame .nd ,he pop<. n.. <topel of Pc<"".. ill. bean .. !...;':'Ily C"... roI'n~.n p';,..... < <h.op<l 'n It.,.... _ The pbm<n.
of imi ge> in ,his 'ogWn is in .... y coon "",,, to z..c ... .,.', work in .1><



L...... n R'gIOn."
Som ..Jdi,iorul 'n,.,I"~"'"'''' ... n bt ....d oUt of """" often "guo< ..ttt<nee> in .h. LiMo ''omljir,,'iJ. fin' of . 11.
Th. liM f'ontifU"'u doa not
"'" ,h. wo,d i<. .... hefo,. ,he middl. o( .h. n' n,h centu<y. Notm. I1)' tl>< UM
',On'ifo.1iJ ...... tl>< ,",'ot<!. i_po
o.r ,,,,,, ...." Anyon< of thQc w."do
mi&ht .ip>ify on ;...,., bu, . .. IkltiAK ~mpha.i..,. . n k .... ;. a mo,... bIc .nd
aut<)n(>lJI(>W iJ1U3< ,,kick ",... lIy (< a .i..po figu .. O! small group of
fi!" ...... h
,he ......... , '" on, .. inn> """ic..J.,lr 'n,; .... t. ",4,;"n, wi,h "
.u>d ill pltyoi<:al"''''o>cc' i, .1 .......... ,01 ...... n it I"'t into moIion. " Apon from
.he ~;'" mm'ion<d in .bt ufo of S.cphrn II in ron"""';"" with tho:
Asoumption P"'"""'" of ~., .... hi.. no ovldon<c of an ''''"F <Iu, _ atried




uaund from 0""' pbu to .notbtt. M OI'lO< Lz"" -"":and moo,.,. "'" "'"
""""~ '0 i",imacr. Om ......",. t .... LikT p."rij.cJu mmooru ...... ' ~
prohIbIy ""'- ~n<.....
and ....r wdI t<fet to tho: b<.utiful
PJdine.u>d fnm'nt oil... appl...J '0 plClura. Not once "on ;.... dacribcd
in det.;I." II'. on: ................. <old ...tu. ..... of them 100I<..:I li~. 'XO...... ,,,",
I"'P" tcbuil. <w <m,,",Udhod. dourch ,...,. on: wid to ....., ~d"".. od ~ it "" to
ha,... M
..........,Mi" ~ " bt.....fully" "" '.~ :. o...aoily pncm<s
i<>r .-..1 p<idc in d""Lzr. "'" ~n]i1o.
...hid> Dominic J..... uI<eo <0 be



,h.,=~ri"ic ofb.t~

.ntique church &col'ltio" .od i" ....,.,ioted W-4", of ~ing,

k<hng. .1><1 thinking," On. <ncounte" h.", 1"1"'1 ,h",ori<: .1><1 ...,h",ic ,hat
.hp" . I>e iml""i.1 "muni~ccncc" .nd ".bund.ncc' of 1> antiquity." Not
ooc<o finally. do<>.n ifrulg< M .ny,h ing. E n.I>< ",,,,,"P,;14 f:.ilul '0 ".m ,he
lomba,d Ilood_ if . h., is w"', it wo, ""'ed to do--and it> ""Ii..,}" 'ppc-.",n<e
matks the onl~ ""'" where "'mhing~. pe,h. p" exp,ed of an itNj;<.



from Rome, Physial Rem.ins

This is no< the 1'1> to .ttemp" hi story of 1"'1',1 .fti"ie p",on'g< in .igh,h_
century Rom<, mw;h k.. n' .... rvq ,he an i, .. lf My !"im.ry fixus 1><", will n:st
on the p. pacy', .dop,ion of ,I>< '"M"ia Rgin.>" i""'ge in ,he eighth century .nd
on wh" ,h" im.g... y> .bottt Rom nd ,he pope. in ,It<'ge of iconocl .. m, r
.... 11 .1.<0 i",..,iS'1< $(Ime vel .. , i,,,,!!,, of M.ry
Rome .. <tl ""rne vf ,he
p.inting:< in ,he TI.rodotUS Chapel in Son'" Motia An'iqw in .n cfFon [0 un _
tk" "'nd the u.... to which imag<> truly"''''' Ixcn pu, in eighth-ntury Rome.
In o,h wn<d., I .m g<>in~ to "tidy l",h,ical.nJ o;kvo,ion.1 'mages.
Ikginning with Jolm VII (701-7).
pon,ifica,e f.1I befor. ,he ico.....
d ... ie conlfo .... ,,)' but """" hod POO' .. ut;" ... with B)"'.>mium, ,h. p>p><y P'omoted . n expk"ion of M ...un im:tg.ry in Rom._ Some of ,h""" Mari.n im.g<>
took, very >pific fQ,m-the s<>--nlled '"M"i. Rcgina"'-al><l . Imo" ""'ry
pope of ,ht eighth century put up hi< Own im,&e in conncaion with, "bri.
Rq;in. image. This prolifc"ttion of tcgal M.t)1 in a>soeiat;'-'n with popes ...
quit<> an expun .. ion.
What. =e,ly. i '"M.ri. Rq;ina'" im>ge ~ This i. an imag< of. crowned
,1><1 <n,hroned M.ry. In 'he pot<h of S.nto Maria in Co,rncdin there i, .n
in><. ip,ion who< im .. ge h.. Ji.uppc>=I . It ....,k '''-/''", ";'l" rMiilli, , _".,.
d,,,,,i,,,, ""~ Oti t<'~
H.d,;.n J in'tolled in S.nta
M.ri, An,iqw Mafi. Regin. wi,h ,he in""iption MARIA RECINA, hence
,h. "",me (0' ,he im.ge_ In ,hi, ; M.ry ,....,," ,,,,h dmhing. "" .... p> .;<h.,
even ,"'n ["'t of a Nsifiw, and cupious jrn'cl<, The fam ili .. im"Se vfThcorJo ....
fmm S.o V;ule in Rove"", proviJ .. . n n ed Ie", "'''''' of whO( ,hi. i'n'ge I.,.des
like. " do. in . nother medium. the coi ... of Lieini. Eudoxia fmm ,he filih
centut) The J>iaUf Iottffi '0 h he<:n ,ak.n <We' from imperi,].rt not only
in 'ppc>",ncc bo[.1>0 in compo.i,ion. n ... i., M.ry i, olim Honked b)' .ogel,
who.rc like the ",ldim [hat !lank ;mpe,i.1 pon",i", Morro,.. , . nJ ,hi, ....
no< bn emphosi,.cd b}' ..,h ",hob", the "h,ia R<"gin. ;m.s...,.. .,,,,,,,in,,,
tkpicted holding in ,h';r id, h. "d< the ""'Pf'J lor ""'ppuIJ) ''"' 'n ;mpcn..1."ri






0 .... ' . . , ......

but. ,hat was I.rcf tnn..motd '0 ,,,.. COt .... k


the little ruplOn tha[

dropped ... ,,>It fateI '" ~.


the . , b untu'Y MofU IVgIn& inuga we pUad ,n St, P....'..

San.. M .... in Trast~, San.. Maria Anliqua. San a.......,., San LotrtUO
fuori Ie MuD, and San.. Susatuu.... It ;......alIy.fIU<'d that d>r M ..... Regina
... n cspW1y Itonun i....... U.... I. Nilport coils it d.. ~ .....Jonna ,,[ thot
popoo. ~ 1M fi ... ptlOIoibk nampk .ppe.m to mtnt I'rorn .... triwrtplul ardt of
San.. M .... M...... and can bt conlidet,,1y dated to ,,,.. tlUfd '" I'outth dec
D of d>r filih at"uf)'. 0... depict;"., of MI.,. on ,ho ardt ...,rn..,,,,, &'ma.."icil"'t. in a ony publit pbu ..,.... I'n<u"," of ,!,. ..... Maria Regi .....,
n.. fi ... unque>tionabk Maria Itt>gitu ..... painted ..... hot ~ pilimpoat
....u in San .. M..u. An'iquo In thc ~.rfy dradeo of ,,,.. "',h un.Uf)'. By 171
,.... " .... had ~ po.inotd .,..... 10 ;.. i"... was _ _ ibN< ;a a modd to
John \11. W1ut .. _ . thc M.n. Rqi... was pIxed in ,h" buildin, ~ it
beam. a . ...."'... It nuy haw ~ trtul .. oIIW::U.h ..ho -..: IQp<>n>ibI< lOr ;.,
1M ~n.h crnfU.,. _ no """he, M., t. ROJi ... i""F' in Rumc, Tho .. i>.
PY' from Grado .....,.. cow. bnn ,h~ image ~OO an iJol.,cd cumpk from
Du"a (.",ion, DyTf-..:hiumj ." The p",&,. m on San .. M .... Maggio .. ,,;um
ph;.I .",h ..,.....lIr cmph.o.t"", Ch. i>" I""","",. no< Ma.,..' MOI'<Of, Ro"",
did Ito[ h.. a "rong ",It of rho Virgin bdof< .he .ish,h an, ...,.." I'<:>pr Boni.
f""" IV (6<>8 ~ I I) did ....... ,h. 1'.",,,,",,,, in !Wm. f",m Emp<"" Ph""" and
rlcdieatcd it ... hcchurch ofM,.,. an d All the M"'y~t<. S.n .. M..i. ad
M.ttyrfl." Pop< Se's'''' I ("7-7<>1) ' <j!ul .. iU<! in 11.0"1< ,h. fOur .... in Mori,"
li.urpal f.........
i., ,h... ftm. >", unmwl , bou. ,h<.ooICQ nude
by John . nd hi> wca<sO<'.


In ,he .... h.oo ~[h un, urin f.he cuI, of .he Virgin .. ~! "",<Op<t<!ing
"pre><rt",ion, of ~"ry bea .... m<IK lrod """" prominen, in IJrumium. 'Th ...
"''Y ..... bn " in' re,;;.)" i " , . ofM.,y in eon ... n.inoplc fo<, lon, urn.,"
A. about the umt: ,un..
,Iw: M.ri:o Rtgi ... irrugc ...AI p.lin,..! in s"n ..
An,iq .... ,t.. po<! Cwil'l"''' in PU><&l'ri< odd........! ." J.... in [I . Ip<>l- of


'ori. "'....

.. Vi .........
ri . ..... ' iJoirna mundi. oed .. rep ... poIi" (M_ !loIy
\ ' irgin. motlw:r ,.,. rho WO<!d'>eIC2'<><. <1""" of t.c.-..;n on high),'" n.. Virgin
ame 10 t.. ... n .. ,he
of,1w " OY "nd Iw:r in rcc::tNon..u.t.. ciry',
pri ....'Y .,Iv..ion: ln ...... , "'" ,ho em ... _ ~~ intTOduood [he &... of
[he """'"P''''''.'' 1'1t.t rok pbyl by Muy', '''''F' ,rod inroa>oon aI thc
.m.. of ,he "'~ ""I'< .,/c-...n.inopIe in 6.6 .ppean ... h.a... bern thc.x.:u;...
momm, in MIt)" , ."",,,,,ncr .. d>r capi"", .hid" p.a'fUn.
Sun;n, wi,h Phn \11 """'" pIAoi",
0WfI i..... 11"" in RootUn



. btitcha m..rn """"

r...q...ndJo ,han ,hoi. P~ had do....~ }olt.n pus

"! "'''' '1",,!,.,,Iww "',... "!'~:l J" ~nur ",'''UI",) .u' I~ '''U~:l :.. 'I"w'~, .
r>U""~ 'p"''''''''v Plo,,,V
"~'I """"" ',,00<1:>1 ""~p!..,
'''' '4'OZ P"o 'lod'4' '!~ ~U!"u"" JF""'!~ ... ,,'"
"""u 'I,d,'f' '!4' r>'''''FI' ,ml""'ll '''Q~'' 0' ",.W " ''''!l''f I"" '''''!'!'ib
",,!n w'''<:=1 '4'--<'J'!PI"" MJ r>~u'ij 'OJodw, ''I.' '""Iwow:>] "1-1"' " pu,
''lI'''~U"H .u,~}!
'puy >110 '>lIn,,,")o "" ~'l '''I' 4'<>11]
""I'>Su"", '4')0 'I"'I"'"".~ FI'""''''''' '"I """y!,nn ,s,'I' . 04 II"" '!'lI.
pd' 4> '!U0f'W'U ''I.' J" II""
DldwflOl "l' " 0 'j/.hun> ,~ .."i>nuV
"1"1'1 ''''rs UI .... "'~'" """1"'-': -""",I In,,,!'!p'" "'"'' U! "'''!~ 'P!'" "'p'
-w'4' P>'"!>' <xIoJ '''"'''-4'qS" '''l'O ,i"!""'4'" '0 .(I"'"'~ '"mlly AUo
"":P'I ,,,,,rod, 4,n, y, r>J:Kd\ JI"""'4 1'''1 "":P'I , .." 1"'1 xlod "N .:.olIo:)
"""1'1 .' '4"U)[ "1',." ,,<><Idt "4"[ "! ",d l>"f'<"1 I'J>~ <v -.,.. ,~ "I"H
J" '0 '1"'~ JO "4'ol~ ''I.' JO ., ,,, .......... "l' .. "",ld. <XII' .(U"'" ' H ' ~" 'J'[
, ..url'l "$",[>,,,, ><Iod ' 'I.' '! "l ">'II' "."4<>( '! "11"->1 """,w'IJ "II' oU<J()P
,0W ''I.' J[ .. ,.'n'i''''-'lo~e SI}l nO"i'~~ no""90[" . 1'''" .."'!'r' lI'I: ,or'I,["oIS
I' I""""S ''''''"4''r.. .(F'... ,,~I<>.l -$'''11<>' ''''''~ f'I" '''''''1 '1""-1 u, ,,,,,,,,,,,,.,,,
,h, ",<I "'I ""h""y '''''1'1: """S '" ""\u'I'''~a.",,, '''I ,," f"" ,.'''''''S ",,,.,.,>'.)
!>(] ""'''' .. gU!p." ""!,d!,,,,,! '" p.><1" u4<>( '.""" "S U! ...
'!4 " I
q'!,,, 'I.>!' "1I'!'u~,OO ...... QOl ,~ , ,g,W! ,.uqo( '..,11 "l'.I" I'U" 'W,,}!
U'!'S'IIqJJo l"'lw,(, ,.",j ''I.' " 1"" , ....
"S '~g 'qJonqJ (l'~l"'q'c ,."uO}[
''''''''''1 u4"[ "S ""![!'''I U'!"!''''><'''':) ''I.' "w 1'''1 ."Ol'!~ JO '">PI'''''
"V ...:,woll J" 421"~J ,~, ,(q Awournn, J" w'~p U! ...." 0 ~I',.U! .. .(1'-''''
pm ..:>JUl';)y!ull!, 1"'!'!I,><i "><>'I'!'" >q ,ou""" .. >J"l' ~.,.,! ,~, ,na ... ~
' !4 J" I"""" u'4' pu. "'Iur "4.1
OJ"'" ,m .... ">lll
-.n,.,,"!) <un J """"J '4' ,,,rodd,, pm wn", wolf Will":! "'I' " ! "''''S "11\
>~'.II" "nl $O!I 4''''4' "4.L ''''''I,d 1,,!,>dW! "'[, '" '''''''''lU' >q' J" ul ~J""
, .... "'1"')0 ,00!].IOO U! I"">.IJ "q I'"'~ ,,~, 4"'''~' ''''b!'''v '!" I'! "D'S
'" >.In,,!" D,"" "4 m" "-'1M.! 1"1' "4<>( ,nil ''''''''"1
"'Id,"", IU'WW'.uS
"l,g"!P"I,,, pm ....!'I'!'I'''P')O """"",d guol ''I.' u-.fu.:t " ' 4JOZ '''''''l' r>'ou
<1: '1'''' u'l" "4')0 >ruC gU!~'ON .. '11'1 1 "'!"I',] 'q' "" <r,d 1,!",dw! ' q' OJ
u"! " ",,!"!wp< 111 ,~, liu!""w r>" ldw"uo> oqo( "q' ~, .. ,!/~J!I."u." P</!7
'4L ,jU!u",w 'I.'!'" 4J~ >.I, uO!I!"odwOJ '!'4' puo ",li,w! =q' j<l u,,!,~
>~l 4"'1:1 ~.'""" -'S 1'10 J" 1'''oJ P""I'4li!, '4' '!'''! ""! "'0''''''' u"! .. ,~
,,,",,, '!4 "! >i,w, "'l,n" "'I' "qo( ,,'II"" n,ltu"y "!"~ "''''S U! .,g,W!
'!'4' r>",td I "'!, p'H PUt '11"'" ''''4JOZ ., .."",,,,w'lJ '11'1' . 0u"l" l-'; " ''I.'
""I~ "'u'S "' ",,-"u lIuu",,,,,1 l,uI (10 ,g.w, u'''"f'! "l<>Iow
"! pu. ... It!'''y ""[011 "'''<$ '" O>,""ow "4U") """ u, '(,u>JUri! ""'!"'\ ''I.' '"
.U! ..... " '! J" ,"'w~J .)
-'S U! '\'0'''''' """u '!q U! J!<SOw 0' ~! "q









'''''''lI """I" ..""u"'lI ..

'4' '"



,I, '1'.l"V P'"


rich,h-anfUry Rome bu, inug<:< of Mary ""'.., p., ."..., .me... In...
and .m"S'" 'f'O".... ,ho La~ of ;n,.,""",,". San.. M>ri.a Anu'lw .... iudf ~
deoconry food d .... ribution
,Iu, diJpm...l ,ho prod"", of "'" ",pol
",'rimon;"''' BoWnninK...ith GKKOry 11 pop<> PI'Ofl..! ,ho Romans from till


rosin" .....rodcn.y . ...d lomOO.rdo who ....... poooihlt. By cLaimi", Mary ""
R.nrut and ,bm by UIOCi:uing " .. modus wi,h I.a in ... il>lc ... y>. ,ho pop<>
""'''' .ory publicly ,"ing tho mali va.ilal>lc 'n ,hom '0 ,(II ,he R""",n. ,h_
.hingo. Fin,. M.ry..,.. n,ad< the p. ""ne.. of R"mc and. by .... n.i"". Com... n,in<>pl . ..... d<ni! this upon he'- N.ith tho Iton .. ", ",,, tho pop
an",.. "'" ,n 'ny " hly rub. bu ..... Iy II} the q_n of hea .. n. Se<:ond. ,ho
I"'P< .... R<>"",', in ml.i.ory bcr-,va,n Mary...d Goo. , f.c. u!tim ... IIOtI= of
blc..inp. Th. p")'<I"' rlu, ,,"'.., .i<.l un .aeh of thc M.n.n
ic-u<, """.inually . m"..... ... i",,,=Woon." n.... piau,a _'" idroIop<:aI. rab", ,~.r.J
adu.toIog:iaI ,_ That;" if tho R<p ... 'nug<'! proclatmod in ..".,...... In dirKI -Y' ohm ........ i....,... ..-foidt pIaccrIlivinK papa
in -10m<" ...i,h heavenly
Muy, o;a;nn ..'" ..,....." to rnnind
tho .1<Wn
th ......,. pop<"OJ s<>'ns.o ......i' ,hom .... to ,ntrod"", ohcm
into. ....... n." Third. d.. cmpcto,', p..,hibicion of ........... ... th<>u. fore. in

f.""" .r.J






Rqina im;oga .f< lug< . nd rub/ic. Thor "" ROC l>CCa4>,ily
in.p;'" (ttlin' and ..,..,,,,ne. b", ... h, ... n,i""," .. of .....nd
.1I<gianc<. Thor Of. no "'Rnomo..... nd ,My do "'" pc,mi, ... 'ing\< "'dench
bIe"' in'<'1'"".,i08." n,or On: no, win"""" In,o ."",... , ....,.,Id 00 much as
Olmnl.nta,;., .... ,hi. world. AI Oilto,d Germ. obocrva. ;mpo<tant ronnl:Cl;"n< 0< ""'" bo"""""'n ,t-.. _ial ....Ii' ;.. of POW<' .nd .he:
')"mbolic fonn. of nprc:ss.ion ..."hid. tIu, powt: . ....y ... ~ 0 .... lhoolcl nor d...,.,
..... t II .... bn..~ tIK symbol.. or ' .... ppings of rulo ntI iu ,.,]iry. ;u sub""""." 1,.. ....S"'t>c.... M...-w. i ..... oi <Ulr~r;h'h-an,W)" Rom< op<n 00.... vi" .. ".., .me'&i"K.nd chatIgi"t po ..... od.tionshi .....nd 10m< of.t-.. ""2)'5
du . ..... lOund to ""';"ub ... ,t-.. ...... .; .... ,ion. C"Slidmo M."JoiK..,.... ynn
>flO mad< ,t-.. .. mplc bu, imporun' poin'
Rom<. p .... tho C.~
"adi'lon of ,.... didactic n1... of an. i, ", noy fi." ,.b,imy st. . .Iipous
do muh,pIc """"'. Th iI. d><y could do:o>o-... and pIoaso.. but thcy
could .ho ,....It. In ."""lting. .hey <nU1cl """,muniat. bihlial ou, ... 'ivQ bu,
'My <",,'d ,Iou .. k. 1"'" in
''''cub,ion of gen ui.... poli,;"] pn:>gr:>ou."
Molt t<cntlr o.n'oI Russo has .rgu..!, wi,h ",," Ocula, ..r.ltncc to tho M.. n.n
in<>g<I undo, d,,,,union licit.
,h .... im"fP "',.,...! '0 d . i", legi,i",KY for
,h. ruler, .."",i....! wi,h ,hem ond !O m.rk "'" tIK oo.",do,id of.t-.. .."i.o . .....
""'h pl.Y'ial.nd 'ym bolic. ""'" which tho rulc-n cl.i....,j autl..,,,ity."



,ha, ..

'masn '"




From politicol im>gel of Mary. I.. US t~rn

d ...."tiotul i..... ga. Sam.
M"i , A''';q", I, .. ',, i",~ uf M.<y tl,,, i. dilft ...", t~m the R<gin.
im;ogcs we h,~ hocn disc""ing, In 'mall ni.he '" 'he righ , of the n ,h ....
i ,m.lI.nd ",""utiful M>rian fr<SCU at <}'< k~.1. Thi' image i. intim ....
im'g< ."nd. ,10'" .nd M.<y i10"< in it , The ""fo= .round the . ...
pocbruul=! in w. y. ,Iu. ,ugges' ,Iu. p<", or ,h,nk.)'O\" ""... on"" ,ffi,.d
the",." Thi' migh, weil he . n icon in ,I""", ,II ",n>co of that .erm. But i.
anno. be <I"ed >OCUl'dy tu tho .ighth ""mury, """"pt un .t}li"i.c grounds,"
0"" "'p' of .hat iflUg< is ,n..,ing. h",,'e~"'. The scyI. of ,h. M'l}' de
picrtJ the ... i impl nd dq;:rnt. She wc:rr< only, ""'phorion." no roha.
"TO"'O" or jewel.. If ,he i, enthTOr><d. " " do no')CC .his. Thi, imag< of M,ry
h... lI"''' de.1 in rommon with the 5<"'ern ,u", Rom. n icon. of ~ "l}'
,lut ""'" schob" ,hink d ... from ,he liftb .0 ,he ,i.. h em",ry ""'" if .lIey
h,,,. btt".10 d""n .. i""lIy . 1t.rtJ <>v<, the emturi.. tlut w< ""nnot ronfidentl)
" )' 00... mud> Ii"" .he 0. i5io.1s ,he .."'" v.rsi"", "." n,,,.. ' ... the im,S
of , he I'.nth..,o, of the MO""'t<ti um Tempuli, of S.n .. i-h,i. No ... (S. n ...
Fc.,"= RumAna). nd "fS. nu M" i, M;oggiore (.he S. lu. Populi Rom,ni).
To ,hi. ,m.1I !II0up may b.: .dded the <nth,oned hut no, regal !\l. ry. of the
.. Tunu ..... p>inting f'om the c:UKOm h of Comm"dilb" ,nd ,h. f,e>o> from
,h. 10..... church of an Ckmen. '11>= M.ri.n icon re ""ry much lik< 101i",
and in the Ponthm. for "",mplc, ,hO}' m,y h,~. funcunncJ ... ubs,i,u, .. fol'
telic>. They '00 'pe.k ,he l.nS"ag< of ;010,0",100." Thor wet< .it<> of pri~.. e
,nd pe"",n. 11'''''''1' ."d do",io" .nd .... m to lack 'he politi""l.nd cceJcsjologi.
cal ro"" ...... tion. with the Regi"". No .......ce tdt. m if ,h... iJrulgt>
if ","dl... nd ince"", we .. oIl<tcd to ,h<m. but it i........
to "'1'1"'''' 'hat th ... kind, of devotion, WeT< known in Rom .
n .. l ......d.,tu, ch.pel '" an .. M.,i, Ant;qu' p'""id .. funh<-r hint< .bout
the mconing of Rumc'. irrurgt>;n ,he ...1)' d.:r)'> of 8Y''>OIi ... iconocu,m . Thi,
pri ...... <1uf><1 "'" i", .. I11 in .he nonhco" co'oer of thc huilding by, """I, hy
b)'m,n ... hilo ".....It,'}". ,,'1 '0 i. d<f'ictl with , ;quore nimbus indiating ,hot he
...... . Ii><. ,..., " ill>tr().., 71:, tim is .... Thc<.>Jotu> ...-. . ,ho Jis/K""''''.
chief odminiltf"o,. of thc dcomnry Hc w.. ,I", the undo of ,h. fu,,,rc, !,l,...
hlood pope H,dri.n L According '" ,ho most rectnt , romp",hon,i". . nd per.u.,i... intcrp"'tation of the <yele of paiming> thor rove. ,II IOu. ,,-. 11, of ,hc
ch.pd. 1'heooo.u, .. COt"! hi' chapd ." m'm()tial to hi. d.:od d.:rught<r ,nd
wir.:." A< intctus..", h< "h"", the Eo"em ",in" ' nd Juli .... Th"..
W<c1O Cili<;ian .. i"ts ..... 0 ><,!f",l du,ing Diod ... i.n'. ""T>OCUti()n. Quirirus ".,.,
the tnr.)",,-oId m.rtyrl ,on of Juli, ... . Their ";'4 w., known in Rnme hy
,be co rly righth century when ,he .. ints were in",ned into ,h. ",Icnd"." It


ki..oo ".


C II H . , H . . .

"""". ,lu, Thro<lo'... choK ,hem ao "",,h emblem. of and in..""""", f<>r hi.<
,,,",,dy <Iro.:u<d ..ife.nd .bu""e.
"The nonh .... U ..~ deocrlb<d >bov . h. brzo . nodfi...,., 1<t1'IC ...... r rq>r<_
..... , an ~ .u'...... n'
Rome was con,in"ing '0 praJ .... inuga. in ;pj'.
ofB)'W'u,.. poohi!>i,;.,n,.. .. 8u, 00'1 ,he ,.,."h wall there,;. I"'nicubrly ;", ........
ing K ..... H ... __ find l"hrodot ... himsoolf kn<ding and holding in his Iw>d.
....., _~ Iompo. He io ....... n In fton, of l ol;II" a o.rn' ch.iLd. and Qniriruo..
llwodo. ..... r_ ... ~, ,wO! b.>ck. ao if ,......,..j ,he.w--r. bu. arnWIy
..,.....rd .ht cruciIi.ion JaIIC .... ,ho OfIPO'i.. ..-.II aaou the mom. "Throdot...
... in other """d.. oppaIl"IlO O"i" ,,, ,ho ...w. of hio <lead wif' and __ ond
d""";", upon .ht inte,"""", of the .. in .. in the i..... h .. impolt3t>' '0
Throdot ... II "'" ......""ing ,t.. imag< of the "';n ... H. and
,hey _ wi,kin ,ho ,.,.... p""ur< fr.,,,.,. "IlIrodotu. .. hunonnS tht ~ of
Ct..;" wi,h hi> lamp<. proI:uhIy in imi,.,ion of ..nuI li, wpc.i . i.<o cdcbr~,<d
;n Rome durin! ,t.. E.a.~ .igiL ,.
Tht llwodo. ... chapel , ,""" ;" n'id.:"'c for ~ inr .... ity of ,he ""I, of
,J.,. .. in .. in Ro_. Thu. I COn"'" >gItt ... i,h No,d...".". ~u....." tlu, San ..
,\ 1..;. i\n.iqw . . . ~~ '<o,ifi.. '0 ,ht in,.""'ty of the cult of im.;gt::1 in



Rome. '"

I.. ccn,r.<l """"" .... "hin .nd ..

i,""", ,I._l"hcudo,... '''''p,d ''n: ~ '0 the Ih.roIogy of inl'''''''''n in quil' ,.. .... y>. The inel ... io" of
Pope Za<h.ry ...... y Ix taken.s an ind"""i"n
,h nWC)rk in ,h. dupd was
. c:c<p<;tble to the Ron"n ChUlCh. The p.inling;! in ,he ch'I"'I'r< bea,,,if,,1 .nd
m,'" h... I>n "qui,i .. when n...... T hey will Iu.. moving no' I~,
beau... hey ro,nme,no'''N ,Ktnt (V<nlj and "",min.n. prople. II,,, none of
tJ..... i.... g<. i. ,ulon"""", .
cl<>isnedli>r intimKy. Ind.:-td . ,t.. ,..hole cyck
of ",,'n,ing> .round .11 fou, ,..,.11. m~" bt gnope<l in to maluo .. nsc of ,he
disue.. d... il. of '''1 one pot;",i,,! within ,I>< cyck. It=. l"'.h.1" mo<~ fully





d", in ,"",iy d&hlh_n,,,,.,. IWmc, .,

Ie.,., '0


by wlut

>u,.,..;.n, ..... '" the ruin, ."d power of imos<>. Thcy .odorn<d, ,hey beau,ifitd,
.hey ..ugh .-.I ,hey reminded. llwy nude f"'W""'1UI poii'ical ... t<....," ... "They
ronfinntd the form~l..: God, Muy,". And ,hey ..... Iicit.

n..: Wtst in ,he !::Irly F.i1;h,h Untury

From tht "" ... em world '" ,hc eatly dccaJeo. of the- <ish'" :nlUry. ~""" from
Anslo-Suon Enp.nd.1Id Romt, ,J;~.t.o.,.,,. ,hcK""";'e oNy few 1'."1\'
men!> of <Vidcna ",h..h pt"O"i<k "'y inoi&h' ;n.o ,J.c pi:. .....ich i""'l;<O m~tn
hue occupied Of ....... pJpk 'housh, .nd ..1I,N abou, ' mos<>. While: i t _

..f. to OUW". on ,I\( ~ij of Ellmarit KnOg<f. in""n""" of 1.78 m&ru du,

m.",M>ntd """"",-f><... in a li, ..._1)' 'J< doru,,,,,n ..1)' '0."." from u.. pniod
710 1... "'" M ..ooingian world WlJ ri<:h in.;".w cldigi" .. i. mUIf also
be admiucd du, ,-;"Ullly ..... hing ,u""ivn. F", in,.'P"""""" ~ ~ reduced



'" cd...,.,cd CU<>'....,&..

P.... I .ho Dncon. "'110 . pon' """'" a..,~'. COlI" .nd ""110..,."..
I... Hu-y -1m. L-tIw"" 'n
eiFn" o.n,,,I)'. tdb on< JfOI)' .bom 11>
i ........, is in.." ..,,"1 fiom ,1._ cliA'nm, poin .. of ....... Tho otOI)': I>uI..:
AW.i. _ in oevn. "niP " 'lfh Kine Cun'ncpcn (679- 100) :and JID' .. dori.
ronllie. " ..... boo, 10 be ,aoI.. d by 1..",. Ahhi. relw.d .., uk. tho:: Iidd
beau......."""'" Cu"inqxn ', ooIdim 11> i.... ofS.. Michael on which. or
like ........... .,., which. "" ..... ...."n ~Iesi,nu .., .... kin&- ,OJ Tho Ii... poi'" 10
be made ... ha, ,h" is ,t.. only "01')' ~ke ,hi. ,n pour, ..,bn IonS h... "'Y. Ju.d
to. ,db ,he ...1e .. i,boo, rom"",n,. He P"<> hi, .""""'..... opponuni<y 10 doc:id.
if ,hi. si,,,,,.ion " .... "",m, 1 Of h;g.!y un .......!. The: >coon<! poin' ;, ,ha, I'oul
does provido on u.... mbiguow ,n,imOlly:abou,.n i.... .ru, ..... rudfo.-...,.
' hing ",hr. "'.n .i",. 1 oclolnmtn,. An ,..,1. w::u ... iokntly $WtlIn "" ,hi, i.,uge.
Th;, ."'mru ........ 10k. ,hr "'" O(,hing ,run ........ Id 'I'P"'" in. Ryun,;n. 00II=.
Tho .hird poin, i, li ,, 1e h."k. '0 wo,k <>I". h i. 00< poooii>k '" w'mi ... ,
from Pml" "'lIi ng of ,h. ""'Y. if AI.h i..... 'hr ><"" on wh ich h.l.. cl
,wo.n hi> .,.,h 0 ...-1\(,1\(. h" 101" in II,,: rAnk. of hi ".mi... n 'f'I'l.i,ion of
S. , M iclo.d ,h.. hogni u:d boa" .. of ' he i".. go on ,,-hieh h. hod ,worn hi,
" .. h, If ,h. ~"m .. I""'ibili,y;, '0 be .",.".iued. ,10." w< h.... htf unique
CO>t of,,,,, l.on>h.rd. "'(I)'ing an in>'llt of S., MichKI in,o h.... I... a f"lladi ~m.
Thi . "8"il> . ..,.,nd, llyun'iuc. If ,h. I.. ,.. I..... ibili'y i. '0 be ,h.n
we ha,.. h unique "'.. in ,h. W<$' of'n inugo ~,ifying . ~,h.n,iati"g, a
';'ion even ,bough ,"" " (1)' ...... 0M in ,b. 7Il00
an ... n, ,h. , .llcg..Jly
occw. ed 0 <am,,)" rlie . S.II 0 ... >T. known in llyun,in< _n;a, and "i ll
U'OJ' ~P "8"in;n ,hr \1:' 769. bu,.~ t1n." ... ed in 'M W... in "'" early





. .! , """n'!}' ...." . And..,., Ag><11_ odd kw ;""gh...

.boo, 8J'

B<pnnins in

t.. ........ hi> ....tory of ,"" buhopo of IU~"" frnm ,IK- bepnni"i\ of

tho:: ... do",,, 10 h" - " " .......... It is flOC .!w.p <y '0 ....,.\c 0'" 'w'dh....
canon ofioowion ....... d",ion. I wuh '0 cl ........... , ion to twO uporu ofll"
Ion&- mf<,wning 12k. Fim. ,o .he ..ndyi"8 lV"utud. of.n .nd
lU"oriaJu,. Agndlu. LlIb at
and ;n deni! .bout tho an;,Uc
,"" .",bbiohop> of RoW'ftlU.nd he t".,sh ......."10" on Opi6c .. 0 .... of .....
Agnello< ..110 ....0 ........ ,ha, migi'll br <igno of "'" .dor,uioo of ionogn. tha,
mis''' poi", m irons. Bill ,hen iJ Il0l. won!:abou, IIrun,;". ironocWn> in h;,


"""'' ..,...,raJ


Long ,nd .ub".mi.llrellmem of R:ovenru du,ing ,he <wo p<rioo., of Brun'ine

irollOCla'''I. Agndl".". In"'t t<Crnt " u.knt believes tl..........unch .nti
R<>m.n he ,",'"
"I"'" hy ,he f>cr thot ,he I"'tri.rchs of R.'CTtn. ftJ\Ulady <iJed ""ith the POpc$ (On the qutionl and thCTd"o", didod '0 >void
the whuk i!.;uc. ' ..
The ~ .. , of Agndlu", ',",'0 ,w,i.. an bt <btod 10 the period 7'"" 10 7."
bc.:a",", it ,.,1..<:1 to the episco".t< of John V. A dcsc:n hC"mit pl<>dod with
Ch,i" ..... '"1 <by ",h" He miglH.<how him ,he fom, <>fhi, ",arnot;"n."' One
<ligh' Christ ' ppcated,o him ,nd told him to go to
to the Iwilia PCTri
, n. '"lbcl'<." G,i>t .. K1, )'><I .. ill ><'< me dcpicood on ,he w.J!. .. I ...... in Ihe
!Ioh in ,h. ,",'o,ld ,'" lbc he,mi, ,",'cn'
,",'en, " .""nn . ><C<)mp. nied by
lion., ,nd on finding ,he im,&< "fell down prone on ,he g'O<tlld .nd, wrq>ing.
,doted ("""",,,;,) it." The I;"n. , hen killod him ,nd I.,CT all ,hr W<I'< buriod
"'ll",h. ,., Th. ,""",od "0'"1 ann", be d.. I, but i, doe> fOllow ,he W>ry
,:<>un'od in Agndlu'-, work. '" it ""y be: ia" Two men. one the godf.,hcr
of the otho" ,,000.1 kfute . n im.g< (p<rhaps. mosaic or f,coco) ofCh,i" wit"
,ppeoted wi,h Hi. 'ight hond extended. Th. im.g< of Gri" wu H. nkod hy
,m. ges of Peter ,nd P.ul , The god>on lent hi. godf.uh<f )QQ ..,Iidi ,00 ..1=1
Ch,;" ". " ."d ., ~""".. "ot i,foki",,,,,) lin
k>.u, whll. POlO' "." d P.ul we",
'0 funioo .. wi, n<w:> ("''''I , Aft .. ,ome ,im< h>d ~ .nd ,he I"," h..d
oot been rqid, ,h< lo,n prlYod be~ ,he i""g< ,h" Ch,i" good on
Hi> p,omi",. Th. recipient of ,h. I", n. then in t..r-o/f COn .... ntinople (.nd
hoving t..ted well io hi>< <k>.li ng>1 Iud d .... m, ,..tu,n.,J '0 R:o~nn>,
,nd rcp>id h;' debt. '" Both of ,h....toci .. depeoo onolde,. E...,e,n pnm,.ypes,
II i, difficull know how Agndl '" cam< hy ,hem, Pemap. 'h<y " .. ,e common
knowl.,Jg< in R.,'con . And in .dling ,he ",)!'Ieo. ~dlus i. unlikdy '0
",-ml<"pped the bQuoo..,i<$ of hi, fellow citi>.<n,' i""gin." inn . '" ~ arch
bi ..... p "f R. "" " n. wh" "",OOed , .... Roman Synod of 769 .. id ,hot "holy
images <>ugh, to be ,,,,,.wed b)- .11 G,;'ri1n. wi,h g'<>' di'l""i,i"" of
hono,. "". NC\lcnhde.., Agndl'" do><> not ..y
the im>.g< of Ch,i" wi,h H i,
'igh' "m ..,e"ded """indy gu'I'1n,eed debt1----O' did 'n)'tJti"g .I.., fOf 11...
m."c,_,od ,h. i.,,"1;< ...f Ch,i"" C~ th" "'.... adored by > dexn bermi.
doe< not. on Agncllu" ,elling. "",i.e .""h Jevu<i"" " ."1 "tI,,,, time ftom
.nyone elso:. S""'ter" " )'$ "one .hould " ot. an. inly. =UCr:ol< the impon. n
of ,he ,,",'0 "o,i.,.""
Th. ",odd of the A"gI<>-Saw" mi"ion.ry Boniface provideo > few mol'<
clue< .nd hin'>. Bonifxc kncw w\u." n idol ...... In hi, mi..;., ... '"1 <od..",.. in
", ...1 G<mun)- ,od in S.. ony he "pe><edly <n<Ounl...-.,J " 'h" h. ",11 ..1 idol,
,nd idola,'"I' '' He ocv<, rei!. u. in d.cuil jus, who, he m<>", hy ,h... word.











A, ,he Icuo. hi< "",d. arc probobly a,clo.lI. IUr ,he ~n I'tligio.... prxticn of
,he people> ",,1>00> he ."""'n"'....d. ",.. ..,... i.... n:Iy 'rue In< 8o<.i(""". uiy.tly
<>Ido. COfIl'tmpon.,. WiIl,bro<d .... ho al$o ... coun,.....! idol!. .nd
Frio... 8o<.if..cto Iud. "'.. p ...... oft.- It< m,y., du.k hi. I'W" con<anporIDn. H. <>nee.....,.. to hi, fnmd Eadhorga and..lud .... ,o..".j him. ropy
ofS<. r ... r'. qww. ,,"',i,tc1I in """ In, ... '" ,10 .. 1M: coukl ~imf"C hono. and
~ In< [h. _~ 0<"1""'" 'iWbly UP<'" ,ho C,JJn.ohy minded IO ..-hom I
preach."'" N<H. w, i, ..... o<riptulU "'''U''' in g<tId, "'" an i""E" of any
kind. ,ha, 80<.<1'""" rcq .... ,ed. Wh ... Aup<"'''''
and hi.
..,.. ~ irnaga.. 8o<.ir.c. did ...... PerNp. out in ,ho mi..oon..y..;!d. of
Gor ...."y"" raliud ,..., .ny .... of im., ,,-.. I,kdy '" Ix m.... ndcnmod. '"
Bode dncribc<. in Iovi", <loui. , ...
<mlxll .... mm[ of W...1IInoo,,,h .00
J"'""" bu. in .II ,... '"""',," of lIonif"",,', elIu"h ro..n.h,i<Ku ,bert " flO
......,"'" of pictUl'tS of .ny lind. Surely prudtncc .., ..., lI",n iconophobl.o-.
:II...."k h.... ",. abson~ nf .. idontt (rom ,ho.wm of8o<.if><eo....,. om....
remindc, ,10 .. ,ho WCf< iml'''''''"' Chri .... " commu";' ... ortwu<k .....
u"imp'''''''' .nd pe. h.po "".....
Ic:u, for. whik. Somnhi"l\ olIO ..... n'
fI'Qm ,ho ""'1'Cc> pc".ininS '0 Ilonif..: ... "",,,loy uf " .. n,ion. So",f""" ..... ,l ed
.. ,ho .pcci.1 agem of ,h. pttp.>Cy, H. had long. d.,.,kd, .nd h.. rn""iou., tkoI
ing> with C ..gory II .nd III. ."d Z"""y. "hny of hi, k"." '0 [..... pop<>
survive a> do "'m' of ,fl.i. k".,-s '0 him. lIooi(= .i,i,..J Rom. , ,im",,Ikmifa~ W"U detply .lnu.n..J wi,h ,he intCS'ity of ,h. f.i,h .nd ho roo<ed ""[
......y. quite ""''' fronl I'lgl-ni,n,. "n ....... r.. l O<n>i"n . Y., from , ... Bonif.. i>.n
...",ea i, would be imp<K;ihl~ '<) I.,," ,h., an i."modu,i< .,'""'("'''y ..;"ed.
AI"" from Bonif",.. """Id w. h ..., ,he HDtI~"",w ofhi. ki",men Willi
IWd .nd Wyn r><lWd ""i".n by Jiun.bert of,
found! by lX/ynn.but '" Bot,"""n 7U.OO 7'9 Willib.1d and Wyn ...1Wd
undertook ...... joulnry OCtoU Eumpt'. down 'hrough holy, """"" l:Iynn,ium,
.nd then on
lIo1y land br .... y of A>., />Ii"",. Som<1;mc in. prob.blr,
"'" ;boo. th. brotllon
,hoi, ,ok ,0 H u...t><n: '00 .....<'CO.ded i, in
""",id<,.bI< .!to..;1. 1lt" "'-"1 ""''' """[ " rik;"l M who[;[ d.... no! . . y. Tho
bro...... ";",ed tflt ,omb$ of ..... ny ~., figu ... in au"'''n hisrory ..... ,hqailed <HI holy men. we!> ... poi. ofSt}-ii',"" In tilt Holy Laoo
,hey .... ,ed virn.Wly.....-ry pIoor
Iud .ny amntion ..;th 0.";"', lik. llxy
~ in,., ... in .... n fdiQ: ,he , rue ( ............. of ,..., wi""
Caru..nd ~. elI .."h .. Emcu ,t... Iud onu. ulq;roly .......K'f<'II [IM: ..."'"
of JoItn the 1101";'" In 'h ................,.,ion ..., bro. ..........n'''''' <netly one
....... While ,hq- _ ... in Con ... n.inopic. ,bey tkcidcd '0 vi .. , Niac> ..... ~
,h. 1'1"" church council hlod b..n !odd . nd ,..... ,hry ot....-rv.J ,... pontaiu of


m. """"'" '" ""no ""





'0 [...



' '8'


c" .. no ,,,n.

.,,~oooo ,he o> .. ""il.'" B.. , let us back "p' bi,_ Th.
b,-mh." ,....:I. in C,.on . .. ntin<>ple. In f:oct. they .i,itoo thcre from 7'7 to 7"9. just
when icotlod .. m "'-.. 'u~ly "'Sing. W1u, i, more, ,hey , ... ""Ill<k from
Con.u"ri"""I. [0 Rome with papal . nd impcri.1 cnvuys. And yd. ,!.cy either
told Hu,,<bc:f<" nothing
Ocon""I ... ", 0'
..,m,how "~'l '" remrd
whot .he h.,..rJ. In . nr cak. the bmthe" """, "'" 'I.> know 'nY'hin~ . !,.m,
Ocon.! Of i""Dod... m. One dor; not loom from this 'ex' that w" . ny.t<Cb
[hiog .. i""n"do,m. On. km no.hing of ,h. """ ruion of im'W" OT of ,h.
p"oi,hm,m of i"ug< worsh ipc", 0= hoo" of no mi.. culo ... imoga. Thi, ""'y,
.g. in. be obliq", ~i<kn fut th< ..ther modo! . ,Ill'pisodic ">H'f< of Brun'
,i"e ieooocwm , Or i, moy be <>I:>liq".... ide"", Slll'l"",ing d,,: vi ....... of tho.!<
.. hob" wh" invi", u. '0 qu"",io" how wid"'prm im.g< v.",,,,,ion "",,,,,Uy
vm in the pt<.00 only ironocl .. tic pcrioJ . 0. i, moy be oblique ... ide""" /0,
,h, ,1'8''''' '" whOt:1. """'<tncr, j",' did no' no,ic< or [hink .bour [he .. me
,hi~ ,Iu, """,!flen did_
A"",her ,,",',k'. :tCCOUn, of ""'IS PIm.;.;!" mol'< n<g>tivc (Viden",,_ In
nin,h .""ntmy ... ipt from Ein.ieddo th.I'< i piIKrin, ', i,i"e"''Y fo' ,he
Cil y of Rom, .nd , ""Iker ioo of ,,,,oKriptio,," of mooume" ..1 inscription, [h ..
""'''' "iI) .i.ibl< il< ,h. d,y. '" Th. ,e;" of ,toe ;""""'Y c.o p,,",,,,bly "" ,lo,cd '0
,h, <iU"h """IU'Y. bu, nnnr probkn" ,mfounding il. I onl)' wish [0
d" .... en,ion '0 ,ht rae, ,h .. ..:,1)' 00<;<, in Rome I which cnl(m:l Rom~ ..
th< G.t< of 51. P~r' nd """,,,d th...,..,gI, the ,it)' h> the I[h, of lnj.n, does
. h. wmpiler of the itinerary m.ntion iJrutgc<. Th. ninth ",,,,p" on this tou' is A&"ho----now s.."to AS'to in S"bo'l'r>. 0' S. n... AS'" d.i Goti-,:rOO , ht
i,in~"''Y "Y' "jbi i~fK> P~~/i" Sc<. MaM. "" This itin.f'uy pt<'id ..
t..-<:I,.. rou,es ,hrough Rom. , I)o-,,:n, .nd <Iouns of ,hurch... nd .nciem mon_
Ume""'1( frnm tht t..,imon), of the Lhtr Po~Iifi<.u.'1 " .. know lIu,
<run)' of ,hos< churcoo Iud be-.utiful imag<> both .ncien' . nd""''Y,
Noth ; n~ i, "",,,,lIy I n<}Wn 'OOu[ ,ht in,'W".,r P.ul .nd M.'Y in s..nto AS' .. ,
W. will prob.bly n<vcr know why the .uthor of the in,ild" itin.",1)' ci>o
[0 mention them. Bu, the fo 'hat he me"';On' no "'hen
'hat [wnh.m
vi,it"" to R"me .... re "'" <>pct:i>lIy i,,,,~,l in [he <i,y', ",i"ie [<=OU","
ci.h forkSlhic Or fur <>al....,.,n'. P<Of'le wtm '0 Ron"", "i.i,
.,r .. im, . nd m.yr>, no' th<i[ im'll<>rmm ,h. Fnnkish world in g<n .....1 in the ... Iy drcooo of the eigb[h con
'UI)', 'Mre !urvi"", nei,h ... p"moblc: tim migl be colll .n icon oor
.n~ [.r."n to M1Ch . n imOW' lncn: .re nO "ofi.. of ""th. being $WOrn ""
imag<>. of J>>Pk heing o=ognibl, in d"",m"M .i,ion, bcc:ru,", ' h<y 1001=1
lik<, ,heir im. gc.o. or of im.;oSC' before ..... ieb propl< p")'<'<I, In fa, "<'Y few

th< "S bi,h"", who had





im. gcs of .ny kind rurvi.'. from ,h. arly ciyuh century. Some ...... n<krful ,mag......,'. pm i~ ,o boob.,
pl>> .. E,hrrmuh, md ,hey 1ft impmunt
to . n hi" ",ion' in thei, qllG' to undm .. nJ ... h.. o~< ""hoi.. h... ,,,,,<,,tly oolleJ
"cultut.1 intcrvloy"' in tt.. eighth cen.ury. ,n Bu. I .tn un.W<lft of .ny ""ufCC
... h;eh saY' th., p<Opl< prosu.tcJ th<mselva bc{",. , im,Se:., ", ~iS>c<l ,hem,
0' 'pp,u>docd tb<m ",i. h a,odle. ., ...1 ince"" .
There m. y ju;t I'<>$$ibl)' be:l 'ingle exception. In tbe third ye., of Pippin',


",ign. probobly 7.4 bm. if hi. "'ign .... '" d"cJ f", m h" p>p>1 """,,,"<On in
7H . ,hen 7j7. t now uni<lcntilUhk ploce alleJ VO<n'io. . . .ribc nomeJ
Gundoninu, produced. Gus",,) buok with imag... '" Compared wi,h. say, ,1.0
Trie, Gospel. produced.t Echt<m..:h. <Ix Cunodohinu. C o<rd'.<cem ch, m'Y
.nJ .m... uri.h. But !hcy do h." ..,m. intriguing ftltuta.,,
M~i"wl im.S. "S"'" th .. W>i '0 luve brigh'
in C. roling.> in .",
Th. M4;"W imag< of Ch,iS! i, H. nkcJ by (W() .ng<h lob.kd "'.,.'",bi" ," F.u:i"S
tb< Ma;"w, image .'" p<cu<lo.Hi.,..,nyn,i.n ...... "" tho Trini,y. Ci.." ,h.. the
d ..",bim of ,h. ark figum! in pro- oml anti-imOj;< 0'1>u.n<n .. from ,he ~n
ning ond &,v<" [hot the i..... g< of Chri" in m. j.. ~ ooupkd wi[h p><udo .
.Ie",,,,,,', Trini,.,;'n ' .... migh[ Ix ..,lid .ffi. m.,;"n of Ch,i,,-, full hu",:miry
.nd divinity .nd di.,.n, bill vag'" h" of ,he ddibcr.,"'n. Of Hie",i., one
oould finJ. pj, .. , ible oon,.., for thi' hook in ,he yeo ... j Ust .""md the """neil
of754. Th. F.. ~k> ond P'>r<' hod bccn in in .... '" cont"'" In the years f,on)
7\1 to 75 4 I() they ",)Old ho"" le.",.,j .oout ",..nt C"o.nts .. By..",;um. If the:
bool', d>.tc <.I""i 00" I", tc><l 7S7 ",,,cad of7H. ,h.:" ,h.." i, ""en mot< of ,n
opening fo. ,h. hook '0 he. ""I'""'$< '0 """n, &w,hpmen" in Byun,i"m. '"
TIx book" all1>O<t ( . ... inl~ 1>..scd on an .,Ilier model. I() it i, po<.Iibk [hot i"
m.... (o) wasJWCI<. like Irooophii<s in t~. F..... . .... ninS th.. im.S<> t..d .I .... Y'
b<-cn' p. n of t~. church'. tr>di[ion , Still, in [h born of CQrrobo"'ting <Vi<lena: it wuuld Ix d>.ngou. to ins;" on the Gundohin", Gmpd, .. ""idena:
fu' ,n <.,j~ F",nki,h '<Op<>"" ,,> Byu',,;,,< i,,,,,,,d ,,,"
111. w.., b<y"nd 11.0",<. ,h<",ful'<, .h.,..., 1;"le im<",,, in in"g<' " ,,,,,h .
,h... "'"' . ny con,,,,,,,,,y
,lxm. and nOl mIlCh
linle " ......"",,,
<leno:: f",
in which imag........ ,0>1 0' 1"''''<;'''';\' NOVt;,.. "";<Ie"",,, 0,
"'gu"'."" fru m ,ile""", .hould .1 .... ,.. Ix tl<'Otl " 'ith ...... m< .,u,ioll. Bu, in
[h .,..<o<m ci,cum . ... n= I [hink i, Ius b<-cn ""nhwhil. [" d.<>il [h. ,em1l'b hl.
"""""'S""'" of ...... h ,he "",my .-..onh [ho, do ,o",'i"" . nJ ,h. kinJ, of [hings
thot .11 ..... rccs ignore. Put diff.... ntly. the \'('.... rn <viden...Ion. would n.ither
signal ,ho, ",ri",,", h>t1b.,.., 'elision' on h,d bee" 1>,, ,;l\g on nor .0U.., ,ho,
'0 h ..,k "''' in Fronki,h Ell",!""
oon,,,,,,.,,y ""'.








C HAr'" 'HO"

'n.. enll>' for

.M rea']67 .n .M &Jot! F..~i";' A~...Js ttads. In part: "Then

the Ion! t.:inB Pippin in.M.1otw< ..... n.o.:...:.I ..ulelGonl'lly) held. gmllsynod
betwttn the Rom,,"" and 'M Grttb
the Ii00T Tnn;,y. 01" ( ",,,, >hou. 'M
' ...... of.M sainI" n.. oo-alkd .. .....uod" vtnion of ,t.. A ...Js is slightly
dilkkor: KA dnpu~ obou, thc holy Tn",,), .nd (...) .bout the i.....,.. of <he
sainu luvillft """'" bnwttn .... <2StttT\ and WDI<"m ct.u .....[.. ). d...,;. bnwttn
thc RDmano and 'M G<Ub, IG", Pippin. Iu<i", p.MmI rognMt an -.nbIy
in Gonlilly. held ,ynod COIIU'ninB dll> dQpu'~' "I" ~ ..mnp<i", .0 un_
d<nund ill>! ...Iu. i. pnl nn "'""" In ... ""'. -... of cl>d< CWO
",""",,,. The In,...! ... "'Y' OI"Ily .1.., Pippin, ......... I>< ,ji,"",nd ....... <01"1 .....
;"" 1:><",.." C ... b.nJ R.oon . ......... h"'h an ""Ir ......n eM ilyun.;"" and <ht
popel. held. >ynod 10 nplo< ............ 'iI:'ha, ;,. _ . Pippin _
holding 0
JI""C'''' >l4anhly. "",,,,,I ann....! ~' . wt.rn he dccid<d ru Ntn j, inlO. Of ru
.&l .0 i . rynod, <1cWoI. io.l mling. ~ origi".J ao:oun. IpCak, only of
"grn," (""'t"~ ..) synod while ,... ~ ,'(.lion"'Y' , h.. , .... ~ _ .., ;.ucm.
bly .... hich b<came ynnd. Grn. (QUid ...... " 1. 1)1< .... j, cuuld " .... n "i ml"'"
n.: Fin.lly, Ih. ",ji>pl" '" in .1>< {o."",. "' >nU.n<d.1I< Ttini,y "" im.g..
wh ik in .he '-'net i....... . boo. bo.h. The migi .... l . n ....I..... ~ compootd in thc
",.n figh' "'.... nd 7~ dIe f'C'I;...J .nnl h d". from.he I... yan of Ch.rlc.<. ",ign_ m",c rh.n twen,y y. . .. h., is. 8y the end of Ch. rI.
nugn.', reign .here hId Ix-c n fierc. """'..,.;on ...... ' im>!\<, . nd d .. p""""iun
"f the HnIy Spi';, . Ii indJigh t m. y Iu.. improved ,,(fi.,i.ol "'<mo,i.. of ,..Iu,
h. """ned.t Cc", illy.'"
I nl ... t uk .. Ie.. t th, ... qUdf~,n" WI", ""....!If ""'PI.. ned~ Why did .~.
i....., ufim>v> come up in.he Fnnki,h """ k! in ]67! WhO! is the meaning of
diopulC ""M Tn";,",,,"! An ....... tu the
ond ocwnd ufthcs< q .... tions .... m
to lie within the at ... n>cly ""'mplio;:" ........"""'" of dipiom.o." ini,i.,; ....."",,
"''''''e .ogether .Ire imp<r"l, P~' .nd f .. nu", cuum in the )'eat1 fOllowing
Pippin', holi ... <:oml"ogn' in .he mid1SOO. An anOW<! '0 .he .hinl quarOon
nuy lie in diplorN,,,, na ..... Of " ""y lie. bit later in """" <nObtt
......"ipulotion of .M hi"oOoal rca>nl
JUgtdy Of .....,....,.. tM judsmtn' ufh"'''''' h.. .J.."r> ~.ed amnins.
..... n dcviou.. diplomacy with Syun .. " .... In .he ", 7SOO the emp'" .t
.cmp<! ..... w i .... <0 win the popa """ 10 """" kind of cfI"on .pi.... tM
L.>mbonl ,Uf!PPIUU' of t.:i", Aio,yJ(. The Dj"Untincs ....,. ~ Iu", &lim""'"
<he~;,y ,ha. "" rop<., ..... ~ . tl>< " "",lor. (QUid be won.,..., .0 an
.n....... of __ kind. Ali...n. th.w ,..;111u,.. been h...,>hcaI rec:o<d. ....OIJbk





in Coruwuinoplt t(l ""mind tilt CUr""nt rt&m< that, in rht Ioinh ""nrury.....
pt""" had ...1;,,1 F,..nkUll htlp ,n haly. In .nyax. I'ippin .Ilil hinudf ,",'i[h
rh< popel .nd thtn <:>mpa;gn..l ,n ~. in 7H and 7)6. [0 compt1 ,h<
~ to h.nd .,..~, '0 p.>plI Rom. ...,;.,.,. m' ori<> which ,h< Lombard.
had! from ,ho <mpi",,'" lIonu.. ,he popes had ben> bying claim
fO . " ' - wcry bad. '" oom< dr<:adn. Pippin n:gatclcd ,h< lomtNt<l confua.ioru
.. havi"&co ...... ,I,. ~'. """"" .... As ripp,n W10 had"'8 for Italy fo, hi>
occontl Clmpatpt B)U",i... kption all..! on ,h< pap< in Ron>< and then
h<adal noM to m.o:e< Pipp.n. Tht Gn:db.. jooncd by. ~ <miaury. uik<! '0
l>b rxilln who", rhey levncd ,Iw Pippin Iud alrcody <..,....! th< AI", .".J
cntnal lomlwcly, 'The Brun""" en"")" app>",,,tly I'd. m.. rht pope >nI
doOne .11 h< "",,1<1 ..., I'"'"nt (""" m.o:e<i", ..,,1, Pippin. 0... of rhac
envoys. Gcotgc:.
to met Pippin, .nd oITeml him many ind".,...
m<nu to hand Of '0 ,I,. ....I... or B. ,'en"" .".J ",her ci' te> of luly. Pippin
,old ~ th" h< had .Irndy Ii..n ,I,. I,nd. ,,, St. Pc"" for tho ...... of ....
laint .nd for ,,," rcmi";"" ofh" ,in . G.otst t..:-adal for Rome and .lxn
ro Conotanrioopk w,. N,pb. ,,hil< ,lit ,,,ho' n,.rnllt, of ,he <klcp,,,,", J"hn.
,ruined in 'h< \1('<>,; h. """ "ill in Fr.nci. in 717.'"
Tilt onu)' in ,kr R.,.,I Fr.~.illt A~",,1r for 717 0;\1' .h.. "Empewt Con
.... ....'" King Pippin
,if... induJing '" o<pn." " n...., gif".nd
,ho.< who bro~gh, ,hcm, ..,;vtJ during. go ...,,1 .... mbly., Compiep,c. Of
th .. "rgan Mich.eI McCo,n,k k "Y', "M",. ,h. n .i mply . ymhol;.ing ' ''ptrior
tc.chnology.< "<pn "' "'k,ly ><cui" in>!rumonr ,,>I in
co'cmoni .. glorifying ,h mp<ror. h. O>l<n,.,;,;,," pr...,,, ..
,kr "''' 'ptr
king .t tho ....,.,bly of hi, "nruly rn>gIU'" ,ul\&cu th .. ,ho B)'UIltin<> CWTi..!
my;tl fHOU' by .ul>p1ying tho ..... n. '" magnify a n.OCtn, mon.",hy:'" IIranti ... rd.,ion, wi,h ,h. p.p.ocy bod Iwn .lmO>l unrtli."...Jly OOU' fo< """c [birty
)'tars. Brun, iu", .. ill h>d imp'",.n, in, .... u in .nd. bcaurc of scriou<
[hm1l> in [h. s..lbn,.nd An .. oIl1. f...... rat)<>'cn to 'P'''' in adv.ncing , lItrn_
A Fnnki&l. alli=u moy ....," h..... ruck II.... uthoriti<> in Con.uminop1c ...
I""'ibl< n.... " of .. ~li"n8 ,he " , ,,,,,,,,n in 1" ly and p<rh"l" <">'Cn of "Pf'i,~
the balance b..clt in I!yun,ium', for. Tht F.a.nJ.o.pajW ollw..:. " ... n<W nd
.. I ha,.. ju" .rp><d. ,....., " ... "",..,...,., fo. 8y>.>ntitIC bIcn '" think that tilt
F....,ko had any v~ on ,Ix porcn, ..Uy divtHY<: ... t.,.<, ofi"....
0 .... ,Ix ..... dtcad< It...... ....... f<>irly Ii-oq,..." diplr ..... 'ic cno>Un'C" bc....ft1I BfU'I,ium.nd the Fnonb, In adWrion to ,he lIIttting at Compi<&n< in
711. [..... 'PPC>' to ha,.. bcm cnntX'lJ '" ]lie. 7'J-N . ....d ]66-'1.'" M<Co,mOck thinlu ,jU[ Byun"... atm"" to .... n ,I,. Franko '0, ..... of rht
ltoli ... on< ,,= :ill",;ne and Auttpy ob... ... ,h.t. mlOCh to tho con>I'cnu,ion



,io" '"

of I'op< I'.ul I. Pippin rcbuffnl .11 "'empt> go-< him to tum ro ItaI~ or to
bring nnd"" p""'u,.,." b<>r on.ho now l"mb.,J kinS Dnidnius. '" It i> true
tlur PipJ>in had Dlhtr priOfitia in rht )"60<. He ..... '1' )=r f",,,.
760 tn 763 in Aqui .. ine . nJ then returned tltt'" fm m 766 rn 768. Bu. ~i>
r<fu.,l '" '<Sf">,><1 '" Pml', noq'''''''' for help m'r ..<II ~""C bc-cn ,<.tIt of
."",<>4u1 B).... n'in. In<kcd. fur UIUrp<" li~ the Cuolingim . rho
Bruntin.... mp of.pp.oval mu .. ~ bttn. weko<n< kgi.inu.ion. Som,.i<n<
in the 760<. 1'<<I,aps "ounJ -,66. Pippin K' iously entt. incd the pro>p' of
m.urying hi. daughter Gisela ." ~ [V. CO,.. .. ntinc V. daign.>red ~<ir'" If
,h. FFoink. knew o. co....J '''y<hinS .bo" t lI)"Un,in, iconucl ... m. thcn oth., gcs of. all"nu m"" h1,.. curied m,,,,, ...igh, . B". ,he
snun:<S. ""hKh or dmiu.-dly oant~ throughout thi> period . re ,il.nt .bou.
the "'pic ofim.gc-s the year of. nd the yea. befo... the .mod 11 G<n[ ;II~.
Thonl<> [0 Mid>ui McCo.mick, brilli.n< .,.lysi, of t,,... a it;.",IIet .." in
the G,Ja c,,,,/i,,UI. numh<:t1 J6 md J7. it is nnw p<>54ib-k fO form. much
ok .."
of wh .. hoppmcd "Gentilly .t><l why.r .. With""t en .. ring infO
. 11 of the <kt.ils of hi. rcronltruction of .... n". ht ..... the <>Sent"!>.
}6 .nd J7 ..... ,., d"td b~ .... i, edito,. Wilhelm to tho yeall 764-66,
In ,h;, ht foll~ Philipp J.m. O,h~, >< hol ... ""m<,;m<> tip",""" douL"



.bout th .... d..t" h", no one rried oerio",ly '0 Itogges' .hern.,i<>. 0" tire
ba.i> of Gundl><h', chror>t)logy on. hod "; F",nkiohp,ap,aJ-Srumine
diplomatic ini ..."i,.., in ,he)'d" 76~-,;,; hu, ,hen. Il"p;n ,he ~""" whid>
roud< Cen<illy Ay;n o~' of t~ bJ"" in 767. That .10"< need no[ ha"" .rotucd
""picion boa .... ,he,., h.d bttn fairly in .. n.i .... F,.nko.B).... ntint: =<Oun"ll
.inec 75j , But McCormick pe"tu>i"eiy ttVC .... [he order of ,ht let .." .. ><1
,i, ... , .. numbo. J7 in Ia .. 766 .ud n~mbo'}6 ,no pe,h.aps. Match of;67. What
i. mo,." he do .... Contill)' to febru. ry of 767. In ",h.. worth. MMnnick
bracket> ,,,,n,ill)' wi.h twO impot"'"' I." ... ,h>t. "'ge<h... p",,,;dc ;mp"rtom
d... iI, .rout th. 6", rcrordnl in.unce of the <oun'. h ing :odd,essed
W. now know tho, in 766 . n <mn...y t1u, probably h:od i" Qrigi ... in ,he
F,.nkish court . nd ,h.. nuy hoe bc-cn connected wi,h ,he I',,,]><>ood ",omage
all;'"c< = OUt lOr Byu".ium . Mo.""" .., ,,', how t ~" p,ap,al <n""r> ""COl
. I""g '00. In oddi.ion. we . ,., ",Id , h., ,1><: VOl'" h.J bc:en pr ... ing the Ryun_
.in.. CO<ltin,,.Uy ... n ,~image qw:stion . nd. ~.wly. w. heo. th .. ('.onSf.min.
V compbine;l ,h.t hi' .i~< being m i>rcpr<><n.ed by the Rfim.n .moori_
,; ... Ttli m~ ,hen <<<umed '0 Pippin', ... Im lot< in 766 .nJ ,ho ki"~
wroce '0 ,h. VOl'< .0 .. II hi",
it. letter numh<:r 17 i. P.u!". respons<.
From it .... I..,n ,hOt the ]><>pe gr.n'~ petmi"ion for ,ht mem",," of ,he




cmhwy '0 m.oin ...lIh Pippin ,h'oug/! ,ht win,., and fur ,,,," lin" hi. bi<hop;..
and hi. rnagn>'" ' 0 drN, bou, ..'hat I'I:<jlOIU<" ohauld be Kivrn ,,, tho 'nfu.-m .
,ion ,hey Iud~. I' .... m>bly. ,hi, ...... wf1a( ,!>c}. had In,ncd in Con
n.... foIJo-..tJ. di,pu'< ".abou[ ,ht i~of ,,," in, "V"" synod"
,I"" ..... an ad;, to. ~, .... li'" pn<nt........,Iy. Ai... ,ht .... mbly . .. Ie" ..
numb.. }6 indica,... ,ht I"'f'" op......F ...
ion <It ,be 0U<mIJIC of [ht,J.r..
lut.. in Pippin', I"""""'" brtwctn his propk and tho <TI'f"",,'...nd he [lunk.:d
Pippin lOt ....dinK him dtuiled R'COfd. Of ,hoot deb:",,, ~ Ict~ J6
..yo OIIly ..... , ,hey 'ou<htd " ,iI< ..... n,""""'" of ,ht o"ho'Io:;.. f>i[h" and ",he
holy ,Ddi,ion of ,he f.o' hm.M ''hilt ""~ bc .... nlP"'" to <ad '00 m..a.
in", , hest ~ wonls,
_rn pouibk '0 wg;ac ,ho in 76-.he fundi
mental "'uc .. ". ~ ..... wil< ...... ,he Gt'C<b 01" ,he R""", ... ad ..... cd .."".,




f.oi. hful'r ,0 ,he 'rICICfI' ,tadi.;"". of ,he mUlch. n.. I"'p:ol ddop,,,""y well
h>vr Iud in hmd ,II< I"'" ... ic ...,..." P"'I"'te<i in 7)' whilt ,h. GnUs "'"Y
h. vr put.he do..ic, of 71i un ,iI<
Only ,b. ou''''''", p<'fIIl;" '" [0 CM"
":' '''''I":.,,i,.. lig/!' on .. II .. fullowtd .11< .... mbly of Grn,illy.
McCo'mic~ hel"'''
,h" deb..c ~ bdd befor. ,he F.. nlcioh .I;,,, 1:00:.
a ....
wu. of ,II< m."jag< .lI i,n('<C wos .. ,he 'np of ,he 'gc",b. "t" pu' ohi.
1;,,1. diff... n,Iy. ,1",[. woul.J 10:. betn "" '''''''n '0 d."". ,,:.:olld'.. m.",,,
of ,heology . 10.... in 0 f"nki,h Vn ... J Ul<mbly ,h.. " ... i, .. If being held un




u,u. I' y . ..Iy in ,h. )'f" owing '0 ,he p,cning n...f.o go. on wi.h , comp,iS"
in Aqu; ;" . II,,, if ,h. F.. nlu ,nJ lIy,.n[i""" h..!!>ftn dr.ling ",roi,lIy wi,h
<och ", he, fo,. okta.l . n.d if .hey h>d "",ct\ far <no>ugh . lon8 in thei r [<I," ion
0 Ji.."". ""'MUg. .lIi'n. ,~ .. i, i, .. ry d,fficult ." "'1'f'O'" ,h .. ~ilh .. of
,hem pu. the ru,i,,;vr i ..... ,,( imitj;<>. '" ,he , .. di,ion. of ,he chmch. Of[ [h.
tobl . h 'i mply mUM h.... .....,n 1'.. ,1 1 !If hi. <n'roy> ..... 0 .hnat ,hi, i ..... on ,h
I""in. For. dc<:o<k 0/ ""'r< ,he pop<> hod bern worritd ~bom [he
F....1Wh oIi",men, "';th 8yuntium mTU bo d..maging to
;,ori.t in ........ in holy. hn.lly. R.oone ..iocd mipous is..... and ....,.
t<Unlf'<'l ",h.. """'kk,.' ....... The: n.",,,...11,..... d,d "'"
pt..c<....I. if
do 1>01 ~,. <1$. Ihffl- ""'"' 110 I'"dw. conmrl> brtwttn Con.un.
'i.... V and.he Fr.onk>.
If Brun,;.... l"tCOI"i,iott ~ .,.ncoivr 00 ,iI< F.. nk>. ,..... in the end
,hey mUll h.>'t ..... itn!
[hty onlly _"" , .... , <",.... n in tho Ii... platt to
I"'paI :o"- un , ...... bdWf. $~ .ht ,i"", of 00..... M .,e! ,he- Co..,!ing;..n
family haJ bttn roIlobor";"Il wilh mipouo official '" lIonifl to pc<>moo. ooouwJ <100:.".........J cK.;.., ...,......,..,.. OI'&"'iuli<>n. If lIonir- and
hi< ~ Willihrord opened "p ,..., dun ..... of mmmuni=ion bmr.=>

,hti, ,...



Rome . nd franc .. , [hen [ho>< dunn<l. w..., I<n""" in I'iwin ', ,ime by "",h
prom i"en' "'en". Ch'od<g>ng "f M.,." .nd h,I"'" oJ S" Den;" McCo'mick
.h...... ,h ..
~f ,he
who "'".., in""lved in ,he complico",d dipl"""""" oJ ,ho 710< .nd 760< turn up .g>in .nd 'g>;n, 110<)' w<re: old
h.o.nd . n..,. mull ha'e known jus, '"'hieh wues """"Id >Unet ,he m"" a"en,ion. The frank< who, >om;m. in [he 7<>0., re",ued [ho S>.lic Low wi,h i" ""'"
colW"Sxond Prolog ..." _re ;nd<l""rong;n [he f.oi,h"'.nd "un",;n,I by
"",,,,y." 110.. ,heme of ol(hodn.:y ""',,uld be oounJ.:J "S"i" .nd ' g>;n ,h' ... ugh
"m [he u,oIinym p<,iod. It m.tteted. 11>< 1"'1"" kn<w ,haL Bu" .. ill, who,
the h on k< kn<w Of cared .bou, im. ges 1!Tin<. "."'~ ,odmninc.
Tha[ I",,,,,, [he "f [h. debu bout [h. Trinity [h . .. uppoo.<dly took
1'1> .. Gon,jlly. In .ho pas' mos, och"I .... h.1'< ... uml ,ho, ,hu vgt",><n,
rqn<nll the fim appea"""" in ,,," W"" of ,h. fili"'ll con,ro ...",y. the
p<Oblem oJ [he p[<>soi"" "f <I.... Holy Sri,i, in ,ho fi"" pi"", and "f ,ho wo,d;ng
of ,I><
of lho ct<:o:<l in ,h ....::ond pb<:e. 'lni, i"\le 'ppea'" in ,ho Op'" CtttNi
.nd [h.,....... );,-dy con,,,,,,,,,,,y 0'.,;' in 808.nd 809 (,"which .... ...-ill rom.
in Ch.p''' I). In ,ho middk of ,he ni n,h ""n'uty Ado of VieM e bdi<Yed,
p<,hl" relkct;ng w;d"I'[cad bdicf. [ho, [he filiMt~, h.o.J bccn .. i..... in
767. '" Jlu, McCo'mick ro;nu "''' . ,he jilw.,,,, d.",,, h.d no, been odop,e<I
in RUin< in the eighth ""ntury-it wuuld not 1,. offici. lly ><lupll tht:te until
[he ""cly <lcv<nth century--and i, w.. ncv< .001',1 in ISyz.:on. ium. hi., ,hofore, ptetty h.,d to im. gine: pap.>lly 'ronsorcd wi,h Byz:ontines <>Y<:r
the filiMtJ<r in 767. [" I ><C IW<) p""ibilitics for apl>ining the: "'m<wh~t .noma
J.,.u rel"'" "f ,h< . "n.1.<. Fi,., ."d bt:.ri"S in n,i",j [ho, Co, .. ,.."in" V c,,",
ploinl .bout miSf<prdo<n .. tion. of hi iews. it could be thot "'me of the
Ch';"ol<>gic:>1 ",Aee,i"", fm m Hierei' .... re uid bt:fo.. [h" Fn"ki,h . ... n,l)It1
Iynod in .....y s..hllenough to h,,,,, left ht:hind onl)'.n .. igm .. ie tract when
,h. ann"'. "",reo ...[i".n down moreo ,h.n [wen!), Y<-"" 1>, .od rn-i>r:d """nty
or SO """.... f,., [h>< . [ r_~h. T,ini,.,;'t\ ",u, in ,he Gu,idohin[J' CO.tP<U
"p,...,n[ ",me IOn "f Fnnki.<lo response '" wI",
p<r<:<ivcd ,n he d"biou.
By..,,,,,in< Ch,;,,,,I"IlY' ,h,,, ,hi, ".,.. wouk! bt: " renWhe" N _$"",,,<1, .nd ba,ing in mind [hot the &pI FrIl~1fflh An",", we preoparcd in ,ho li", ;rut>na:
in do>< coIl.bomion wi,h Choclem. gn<. coUrt >t<>Und 7'1'>, ,hen i[ rould bt:
th .. the bu.i ...... bo", d.h..te "rb "'''''II Trin;'llu" in 767 is I. te, confection
designed '0 :uId hi.!Ocicol pr=dcn' [" ,he [heologicol ""no:tn. "f Ute, ,im . '
In 'urn. in the mid .. of ."h Ul<mb1r that ...... d" ling ...ith imrorunt
nl1t ..... of con""ming ,h~ Byumin... p. pal env")'> roised the issue
of inugco .nd po.. iblr '00 ,h. "'uc of ,h. Trini!)'. 0 . of ,he procasion of ,he
Holy Spiri' ........ y of reining the bond bctwcr:n the F.. nk<.nd the Byun_


",,,.,,,,,,,,1 "",II.;des




,Iu., hod i,..:lf been 'igh'ening fQ( more ,hm ,dead. Tmi,Q(w intctcm

in It.Jy wotc imron . nt


the roI"" . nJ ""ten,i.lly "" mplic;ueJ by. fronko-

Byun,ine .lIi'lI bu. tcligiou. issur< Wff. 'igniOOn' too.

The Rom.n Synod of 769

[firruogc> ""me up ... ,h.. unapcc,eJl,' in 767 'h<)l did no' hove '0 w. i, long to
he di>cu.,eJ .lI"in. Pippin dieJ in 768 .nd " ...... ucettdeJ by hi, ,wo ",n .
amb.nd c..~omm . The b tle. died In 77' but f", "'"t. th.)"<"O.rS thet< .....
b.d blood he",,,,," ,hc bro,h ... ,nd iniguo that retched .0 FIa,..,ri" l.ornban:ly nd Rom . In Rome i... lf. 1'.,,11 died in . he e..lf .umm.. <:>f -;(>7 . nd
fOf mnre thm , yc><
ci,y w ,he $"" olbitte, md hloody ""li,i(;>1 , ,,if.:. m
When Pop< S'ephen [II (768- 7') ~n.II) go, <u,. Vip On 'he papa<)'. he
calleJ 0 cltutch ""uncil. ' .k The rruojuti,y of tI ... council". ,itne ..... <fc"",eJ to
<e<rm 1luhla..nd fO propo>ing som< new ''llul.. ion. go,'em_
i"S p;p;1 dcai"" . Rut the ""unci l .1 .... odJ,<cd i""~",,. II",! on imp,..,.,i,.
del'll.,ion of Fr.m k. w ptt:><n<.
T he 4n<1 of ,he COtlncil <:>f 769 ><. ,... n.minN only in poor ,en . , The Lift
of Stephen !II in ,I.e Li/xT 1',,~tiji(41;, pnwid.. "'(0" of ,hoc b"ie ..k~.;I, .od
,l.en, OS wi,h ,I.e Roman Council of 7J t, On< mu" 'urn ro 'he H..driJfl'Jw", to
fill in few hl...,ks. T h.t< . t< ,hing< wc juSf do no. kMW. Of k""",' ,'cty im!"",
!'toly. V:'hy were F... ni.:s in"i,OO' """ore i~ .1 .... )"' mc.... '0 be. [>'R of ,he
.genda of 'he council 'in ,I.e .. rife of767-68 wos 'he prim. !}" iuue! Rq;a,J_
kss of whether o. not imogc: wet< On the Wnd. ftom ,he bq;inning, how
moch . nd cue<l)' wlu,. woo .bout ,hemr
The LiM P""'ifUali. ")~ ,ha, immedia,eI~ .f,.. hi. elec,ion . ed ron!ct: ...
,ion S,eph.n III ",n, Sergi"" ,h. It'rI'..aiffl'i., .nd 1Iom,nt'/"'01'-,n imp .... i""I),
hi&,> offieul-.o Pippin .nd hi, """ . In ,he m""", ime. I'ippin h.d .JiOO '"
~u, p.<><n.ed let .. '0 hi. <Ohl urging ,hem '0 . . nd "som< bi .... opt who
w<o'" k""",kdg<.ble \(tuI"") in.1I ,he di.ino ><.ip""'" . nJ dply kunN (..".tii",,) .nd widely a[,<.iencctl ~.i"i"'''') In ,he ",[.,. "f ,he I,oly can~",:' '''
The ~ge go "" t" $,iy ,h. ,. """neil ..... to be held '0 add .... tlte ac,i"n.
of the [>'[>'1 ""u.[,<,, Co",,,,n,ine. It doe> nt), . .y ,Iu, im,gc> wet< '0 be d"
cusocd. o.
,he Fronk> wetc ",formed "f . nr [,<"ding d....... i"n "f im.gc>.
,he Fflm lu theml"", in';',OO un Ji>rus<ing im>g<$. The p."'!;e ,hen
",mcs the F... "kbh bUitop. who wen' ro Rome .. ><I call. ,h<'n I.""eJ .nd
provce mcn in divine >c, ip,um md in ,he PlOP<' ob",,,,,,nc<o of ,he hoi)' ""non.
(","""",m ,4"",,~m em",,,,,i;,)," Gi,.... ,ho, delicate m.nets . uch .. ,he , .... ,.



", ,ha,


men' of . nUn ...ho Iud botn eketal pop< In qO>Q'iOn>ble ,ircumsnn,... nd

'he i"sti,utio" of now rules rot p'p.1 denions ....= handkd in ,he .::ooneil. nd
ind<l o;nn"i,U!al ,he ...."k n( ,ho ""'<neil which i, bes, .nd mns, (ully ,,,,u,ni,_
,al. ,hen i, m.y be rossi!>le to f<od ,hesoo na'em<nt> ,"""u"ho F... nkish I"'rtK;'
I"",s in 1 "'<JI specific woy. Th.:" is. ,I>< <mphui. i. Qn ,heir p rudot> .nd
""p<rien .nd on ,hei, knowlalgc o( sound anollial proct<!ut<. St<pt,.n. i,
...,nl>, ...,mal '0 b< " ,," ,h" h. g<>< Ilood od"~ bu, .Iso ,hot the Fr.nks WO<Ild
ur><!e""nd ,he lirulIion in Rome and sec 'hings the pol'i. '.,ay.
The rouncil itself met in ,hoc latenn Iwilia in (ou. ""OOn. 'I'tood 0''''
four W}" Arril " - '1 _ lIy cri'eri ... I i, . i>.c, ,h. di"ini"" of i .. I""icir.n, ..
g>g ... phia l nng< of itS . nrodce., ,hi, ..... p<,h.po ,h. mos, impomnt
Rom." cou"cil of the cit;l>'h century. ' " The fin' twO w Y'dealt with v.n".nt
ini. . r><! the ,hird wy proposed now ruks for .lccr i,,!> 1"'1"". D.y four
oddr<>kd im.g. Th. u,," f'(ffIriji,,,liJ "Y' that "d i"Cf<C tatimonin of the
holy ("h .... roncc,nins ,h. <aacd im:w:o of the Gnd and S iot J..'"
Ofilt . od ofM'<JI , I>< ""Iy. slo. iou . and ....... ,irgin mo,h., of our Lord, .nd
of ,he bla<! 'I""tt.. . nd .11 tho .. int> "nd prophro .nd marty.. ,nd ronfnorn-.
(KS. ,h. "formul>") "'ef< I>id btfO.. ,hat .::ooncil." In. teJ!, goes on '0 "'y
d .. ,.11 do< 1"'1'" ."d r.. I"".~ d ... , i.... ~ -'''' to bo: >.n.n.,cJ .t.... hey
.. t"Y<d mcml>ry . OO c.-oked rompun<fi on . nd that the recent .::ooncil. ,hat i.
Hinci . ,,'os <0 be .nath.,n,ltjud "/0. ""'ing down ..."cd irnagn. ~w Warning.
h<:>lf, ,he cdi'Q' ol,h. oo""il"" '<cords. belie"", ,Iu, ...."hing ..... lIy n ............. iJ
.ho~" images b<a,,,.. only . 'insk day ...... Jcw,tcd ,,, the '<>pic. F"nwm.ntolly,
h. think. ,h .. the Jeer ..... <>f 7)' "'ef< ",i ..
"ith ;"'t. fi:w =ptio" , tlu,
m: (.i,ly easy to opbin_ '-" In ,hnn. i, I<)f)ks ... ,hough, IfQm rho I'.pal poin' of
,.i<-w. im>g<;
not ,h. cri,ic:aI iSkl<" in 71i9. lni. n'ight otc:m odd if it ..."
p.pal .. p ..... n'.,i, .. who fO<Ced ,he i"e <>f im~ ""to ,he ag<:',w " Ge",illy.
1\.", it may b< ,h .. , JI ,he pop< .... "'ro
do "
,;me "" 5<1"'''''. B)-..n,;um
.00 F... n," .nd ';gn.>1 d.,rly ro ,h. F.. nks ,ha, ,h. BY'"'mincs WCf. he,.,.,ic>_
llt" .. i, otc:m, li~dy ,h" i, ...... ,he F"'nks ... oo bid im>g<S Qn , he .. bIc 1'<"
di<ru",ion in Rome. '" Thm: is additional ",,<knee: ,lut point> to ,hi< c""d "
.ion. Soortly be(Of. ,Il. Rom. n wun,il Lull of> "''''te '<) W... m"u,h ... J
a ropy of ikdi, 0.. Ik r""pk.' .. .... Miclu.cI McCo:midr.
"'r>. the timing of Lult'. lett<l is unli kely '0 be ruinciJ<n ..I.'" On. Qf ,h.
r-..nki,h bishop< " Rom<. Erlolf of LanS',,", 1'''' imo ,be <o.d kite. of
Grcgo<JI1 to Scrundin .. , in.n .Irc:ody imcrpob,cd "",.ion.'" It i. , ignifi",n,
,ha, I:n.nki ... bishop .ppc-. rcd in Rome: "'i,h .n image mit in his b.1l" .nd
,Ii.. ,h. ,,,,,, ,n quos'ion ..... . ,Ir>rn>rcd ,-."ion of leu.. <>fGrtgOry I. Pcrhap
... <ked t1... doc""i ng ..... f,itly .<tJ:nt. Ii..! ,.l.n pl.a: ,n F,.n,i . nd betokn.





J"""" ,,, rt<j''''''


a ccnain F',mkiJ. int<r~t in the whole iSlll(: of im.gcs_ Finally. 8i.ool' C... ,'llC
of o.ti . who hull:><mme ,h. "",h",, of Amien ...... , problbly p"""m in both
Gentilly .nd Rome. '"
Why would ,he F... nk.< h.... W:ln,e.l
images '''' the
r nhapl he",,,,,,, .he synod of Gen'illy whe .... .. f.. as ... e kII,,.,.. ,he Frank>
<<> the in,.ge ron."".....y for the fi.,;t time in an)' kind of official
.00 ,m,1I . nd Locil '0 .. ule ,
th" . f....11. hul dti, .. n a
wc<I~ bctwn ,he Frank"h and Brumine courts and ...... kn(1Wn. or ..." by
Ilmt kn(1Wn. to h.,.. o""ned a gop bctwctn p.pal Rome and COn .... nti_
n""le. Morro .. r. as I ,holl arg ... in mo ... in I..r ch.ptc .... rhe Fr>Olk>
generally did n", "It< SO I""iri .... "iow of irn,ges " Ron .. did ,Old ccn,inly
h.>d "'" worked out
theology of SKmlart. Thu Lnge roun<il. in Rom .
unJc, p' p. II..d ... hip. w"h Fr-",b I"""'nt. m,g1" h. ve been ..... oring to all
panies. The fr-mks gtH an opportunity to lc.rn in some .bou, ,he i"u ..
involved in .he imnod.,,;, di,pute. and [he pop< W1> .hle 10 p, ... m [he R"m.n
as< mo ... fl\lIy th." would h".. been po",ibl. at Gentilly.
What d,d 'he cuuncil .. yon the ,ubject af imag<>.' Fi.., of .11. it 'ppc>IJ
[ha, [h. pani"ic pass>g<:s ,dJ,,,,ed in 7J' ""'.. b.... ught fo .....,rd . nd affinncJ.
S<-oond. an .n"hem........ hUlled" ,he Co.,,,,,iI of H ...... i.:t. Third . (""'. ,,,-..11
birs <>f ,... imony "", .. .dJed ftom lIew source<: fwm a <ynodiul ktr of thl
Eastom p. tti.teh, .. nt [0 r.ull:. mOOcst ... mark fram Am!:> ...... <>f MiI,n pu,
in[n .he record by s.rgius, ,h. d ron <>f the patti.ateh of R:" .. nna: the intcrp<>la,ed Ian .. of Gr<g<>ry I menli,m<d .M," ",.j a tn, ,h.t. ,"ording to I....,rip... rupc Stephen him!<:lf con. tibUla!. In full ""rsp<criY<. ,hen . [he
rouncil of i6<J O:m! to ha"" .dded linle [0 [h. ongoing di"",.;"n <>f im'ge>_
111.: kClet ,,( the tl"", F... tcrn p>tti.,ch. hrinp forth no[hing ...... but don
.dJ '0 ,h. Western Ji..:""ion On< point thot had ""t betn , he .. beforc.'" The
.",hOl <>f [he lenet . fr .. ~",,'ing ,,,," end of j<.h,,, G'''I><I to 110< etT"", that
,.. .... did m.ny ,hing:< th .. ""' .. not w,itten do... n .n).... hete and urging [h.
po"" be "tad~[ in hi, dd;,n .. of ,h. f.i,h. ei,.. ,h. ""'Y of Al>g;or of Ed....
and hi, m;ra.;:ulo", imoS' of Chri". The IogK: of ,he p.... ~ """IJ ...,m ,,, be
. hat if $t>moone W<rC to .... n ,h.. ,h.llibl. did not m,mion then. well.
,he Bible did not mention lots of thing<. ,.. John him .. lf .. id. Among , ho ..
hings. p,,,,,,m.bly ......' ,h. imag< ,h., Jesus Him!<:lf ..", ta Abg.t. 1 nota! III
Ch.ptcr 1 th .. pri.dy this kind <>f '.-gum<",... ion " .", :ut.. nctd .. Nican. in
787. Th. Fnnkioh bi,ho!" "",,uhl h,,,, <""""n.e.ed il fot Ihe /;'" time in 769.
The I"""~ from Am!:>..,.. ,dis <>f hi, bein~ w""k and ,I<'<PI ... owing to f."ing
.nd ...rhi ...-ing' .i.ion of P. ul . ha[ he recognized to he ['.ul prcc"'ly Ix<au ..
nf ,n inugc ,h" h.1ud _n. t" 1d<> not Im""'a( ~notl'<f text like this from the








CHArT . . THO . .

'\1:'0' ., ,IW ,imo--unk&, P.ul ,ho ~' ...,.,. .boo, ,he .nsol Michael i,
,ok-.. nl--Ot.t, ,n.. bnic poin, and ,home ho~.~ f..mili., to WI by _ , 1'1><
in",rpnb,cd kt, .. of G'8"'Y i",u., 'N' im..,. .ne _ d><ri>Ilcd .. j f ,b<y
~ God. bu, dc.imi bc.::o_ lhoy bring God', binlt. paoioo. Of po.,. bod",
mind. '" n..... the: .. yo, GIt'fP')' 11m, Sm.altdinWl IWO >hiclds "" ___)
wi,h ''''''''' on ,I><m of,...... ~h<y. P.-, and P.u!. .1..... opin Ih~ i> nominE
_ . "JW" from .he dubiout ",'cmcn,
G~ .... , fOft'Kot"I. oct ..........
on shiclds.1td <hi> an afd:r .... 1m aoid.:. There KmiUR> .... O>f[lriOOUon of
Sttp/><n h.i......!f. if m., i> ....... ;, ..'''' Ali .. t.llkillA .boo. how .he ark. bku
of.1>< Ia.... and pltn wn (' 0 pn""",. thc: manna) wrn: ,I>< wodt of hwtl2n
Nrwl. and ye< """,hy of ... n......... , ,I>< tat .... on to dd.nd inus<> wbiot:h
.~ "I ... madt by hu"...... Prt<!iCIob!y. ,he teU thm ddrod,; .hinp madt of


m..... in .... m ",hid< ...~n.n,cd. Th. """"

good <1>mpIc but .hen on ". bond. ""'t>C, and oil. H...., Stephen',
poin. I ha. pcrl' oroino')' .hin" an .... ron...,,,,,",, to boIy pUfp<>O<> and
thu. bcwm. """'hy of. "'p"" hey could ncvn in .heir ..... nu1
There .f< two point>
in..J frum .1>< Rom. n J)"TIOd. Thyood said
l\O.hing new on .... ntrs of doer,; ........ ile in,rndu<ing, Of d<.:pcning"~ funil _
;"';'r of doun Fnnkiol' b1oh"l'" '" ,h. i....... involvro in ,he ;"'"'S" <on,,,,""
drno.o ....It.. hca .... i, ..

.. ci."" "'.

I'IOt ....


'0 ..........

..... y.
Th"", i. one cu.iou. 0 .h. di~" .. ion of in,.),'tI in 769. On. of
.1>< ",inor figu'" in .h. poli,i""l ...if. of 767"-68 wao p,ies, nam"" W.ldi""ft ,
Wh.n ,h ",ho.i,ie; w.n' looking 1<:>. hi", .hey h"und hin, in .h. "h"reh of
S.. , M"Lo ..I Mmy..... h. ["""'., )'.",h""". He wa> holding> pic.u", of
~bl)'."lkfor. j~"'l'in~ '0
",,,d... ,,,,, lh... hi. ><'lion OJ[ W.Jdi""ft, pon
,ignilin ,he ~>< ofim..,. .. p;tlbdi. in Ron ... ,1>< .. i . .. w"h<f. m"'< I'I,,,,ihlc
in.~rl',,"'inn (0 ron.idct.
m.inly W.Id;pc" ..... no, holding . portt_
bIc i"'"'ll'" b", ",d,., .,.Adi"8 ....,. pnh.", ",.",hin" ,he P,n"""'n icon of
M.ry. H. w:u claiming .. ylum .Ad '.,(",". '" .. hidl d.inu ~ .ummarily
ignored. The point ..
apan from thc: '"'')' of ,he Abps image. of the
im"S<' ,h ... mi,,~ blood Of ";1 (ttpon~ x...v., '" connection "';,h 7J' )' and
.... ~.>ehcropsita." ,h~ " ........ I><
at lhi< early d.a .. fo. mir.:ulowt
i...."... in Rome.
By7fi9. .I><n. the F..nko ,nd.he popes h.J be.... b<o.ogh, in.o ,he Mcdi,............. di....""'" of 'mage< .. t211r", pon ....... For ,he 1I'IOfn<11t, ;, sum...
hough ,he ByunUnei ho,.. <locI
,t.. occ- .......... potcn.w allico for
thc: F.anb Of" . . po/i,ic>I. m~iWJ' and ,hcoIopcaI >paning pann<rS fo. the
popes. Th.rdactwinn ofi .......... fu .. it had 1""'. _ pm')' bnic. No .ip"
had ye< 'pp""mI of a "",.,..I wi,hin ,he W".. iutlf.
"'~ af ,I><




n...p;...uc ....

Ea.rn 'l",m d which W2> d.ikd in Clupr 1 5ttml to luI'<" btcn r<pliomd
in ,h. \1:'.... "Ill., is. some kin,/.< of oc,ion .o""hing on imoges ..,.m '0 Iu,'.
bc-<n .. k.n in [he !"te i 'OO, in i l', ill , 767, .nd 769, In bt',",een there were,
"" Hod,,,,,,, 1.. t""in-"",y , I.".f'> f""" ,h. I~'pes 1(' [h "'1"''''''' . nd,h.
p",dtKtion of . good <1<.1 of ......wk, <om" of " ,hieh...., "" n.;nly pol.mical in
in",n. , 11m< W<'C' nm. C<)mnunding i.,ue .00 [hey Iud n<vcr .ltr>C[ed
the bnt mi..w and moot ronccned '"''[gi''' of the popes '" ,"" frankl.. 11ut
would chmgt: in th.I ... 71loo .nd ""rly 79"',

1'opc H.d"." I.n d the Dcfcnleoflmagcs

N f.r:u I an...,.> .".-.aed w<"tion "nly ""C< in the p'lul w F"",ki, h
",wl,t. ktw""" the Run,." S,..,....t of i69 '00 H.d,i,,,', in't,,1 I'par",,,,, '"
]1/1 f.... the Second c.,urtcil of Nica.:., ht .bout n o, in RonlC', i n ."onymou,
compile, prod"ced
;"'nophile Horilegiom . nd in n 4 or 771 ,h"
compiler, or posoihly SOmeone elso, rcvi,cd [h.t [<xt ",,,,,, ,,tu.lly, Either 01 both
of thO$< t""" may
I>ccn pl.ced ,n ,h., 1"11 I'b",.,.. .nd. as ,,'. S>W in
Ch'p'er ., .h.... ;. !"O"'ibili'J-' .h" Hulri.n .. n, one of ,hem. prohohly ,he
o"!>io,, from 770> to Con".nti""pl Iong "'ith hi..... pon .. to the ih,-itat;"n
of I""", ,nd ('An".m'ne ' 0 ."end. church <ooneil dding w"h ' 'Ill.
p.i n",king ,.... rch of, h.. id.n,ifo.,J
wlke,;':"" of m';mMiA '"
the mO>! likely ;.,uto< fo' the "",m.,," on con tained in Hod,i." ', 1<It
[0 . he Ea"crn rule" .00 , I"" in hi, lot"" '0 a ,.rlem.gne of ;"9).'' ' Tho>< kHe,.
provide.n =dlen. v:on"'S< point for ...... ing the ~utb"ri .. ti.. papal vic.... on on the ;-8os .nd 790S, lIu, tit. florilegi. ,1t<tru<1,... m.k<- no knuwn
'l'p.. ",ncn in ,he papal
/0, >orne ,. n '" ~liecn t'""
,h.i, ppa".
tion .nd tlKy do not 5ttm to h ..., ";,eul .. ed in the rr:mki'h realm , The pop<>
~OO f"'nlu dealt with (tIhet in'en, ively in thi; I"'riOO. the Frmlu initi"ed
new diplomatic COnt"'''
lI),mi"",. ,nd the 1"'1"" ""Hched ..... rily .. the
D,....",'"'' ",<oJ u,"< o. ""-,,It poli,icol ,,' ",ii".!), ,n"" " n''' S,iII, ""' .
word was "",ken
In p...,..",ing Had';",', "'~~ <.>" in"h'O i, i, ",-.11 m bet, ,n ",ind,h.. , on
(WQ .l<paw. ,,",,-,ion', h. apm>! [ho.< view< in 'PO"'" [0 initi .. i,'" by
othcr peopl., lnc .nd c.,""'ntin. im'i,ed him t<.>. COlJneil , con';dct im.ges,
. 00 CIu'km:tgnc "'''' him. long docum<n. [Iu, . [,.cked ,he W<)[k .nd cond"_
,;nn, o' II Ni= , Fo' p'oscn, purposes o"r d,,,,,,,,;no of Hod,i.n ', view> on
,mages will be confined '0 wh ...... a n Ieo,n from hi' I." .. '0 Iren. and C<.> " , untine.oo '[om the Libn I'cntifi<4Iil. The Imer ..,utCC ' I"'.k, g<""",lIy . bou,









C HAO'"~


dcvdopm<n" throUghOU' Hul.;'n', pon,ific, .nd it> inform""'n ><COl.!

widcl~ .pplicable '0 m inv.,tig,uion of .he pope, ..;.".,. 11>< forme. SOUK<
wu w.itt.n in i 8,. before Nit::lc:o. Mo""' .... ,here is no.hi"l\ in Irene . nd
Cons .. n.ine. in.i ... ion ro H.drian .ha. called fut . p;op.<n. on ima!p!t i. ' .. ..,n.~.
,he,,.(o ....
H.dri.n id ~ially "-N' ~' ....",ed
'0.<><1 ",run h. fd. n.eded )ing. W1xn. eigh' "'" "" yea", h. w,u'e ,he
HaJriltwn. he did SO against .he b.ckground olNiaeI ' , _ and in .he immedi ..c com<>., of ........ ivc Caroling;.....n oel Of( Nicaca, The H.d.i.num. aI'
"'~ in eighty-five ehap.en. is .0 cuct """"".. ' cit9>' ylivc ubj<ctiu" . ...
Nica ....' image do.:,rincs d<veiopcd a he F nki.t. COUrt. Th" I....... in ",he,
....,,<1>. i. I"" likely.o ,epre..,n. H.dri.n, "",,;idem! views (In im.ges 'M"
1"'1'''' "'e",rial and polemical """<gJI in > vct)' 'en.., .im.. i"n. T h" .. d ... ill
di!<u",io" of
kucr will .ppc:or in CMP"" ~ wile ,he >mou<1 of ,ha
itua.;"n can be lim,,l.
Th. gre>' !lUjo.i')' of .. rly med i"",l p;op;oll.".... rc rescript,' " ThO! i.,
. p. n fro m some .hoc,orical . nd often idrological in.roductory m. ttcr.nd .pi';
" ....1 do$ing m>.ttc
"'C m. y tty...d as w et.n .... . Ix: cor< of.he
Ime<1 con .. i.u... n,"'er>." ques.ion.
pope from ..,m. o" "ide
"'urec. Such I."", c-. ,,"'" be .... d . , 6""...1.."'.",.,, " of p' l"'ll"'li'1" Cc",u_
.;"1.,.. canon bW)'C1"S ofton g.,hcrcd up such SI;;ucmenfS.nd <>'1;mittd .hem
'l"'It,ru,ic>lly "' ... '" <= ,he '1'1'.,..,1\" "f policy, of p,edem, of Ii, ..! bw
Bu ha, w" late . H.d"'n, l<IIet.u lren< .nd COnst.n.i"" ...... ro he .ure. &n
. n....'C' to. Ie,." he h.J <.i....d. But i, does (tOt hav~ ,he distingu;.hing n"rL
of. fC>Cfip" It con be 'c>d '" fundamen 1 "',,,<men' by Hul.i. " of ~is
.... n';.1 viows. H,drian', "icws on irruogn ..c much in <vid<n"" in this 1....0.,
b~. he .. lkJ abou, ",he, key ,opiel mo. lr i. irnpon.n, nQC only,,, ... ,he full
F.lngc of i"lid add......d by H.drian bu M to note .he ord., in which he
.. i>t<l.nem.
H.d,i.n I:q;ins b)' aprcssing his ddigln ... h<- ".01" which B,...n.i~m.
rule .. "'C'" .. king '0 'c:s>re ilrulgn '0 ,heir o<ru.roml 1'00 of hono,. Hc.lIo
.. p.<>k:S hi. wi" ... ,h .. the .nc..,,,,, of ,he P''''''' rule,. h>d f.ll en inm
h,,,,.y. Th,,, he p... i.., VI .nd l",ne . . . new Cofl>{ nd.
n<w H~I.n .. , .nd docs ><> while ~mph .. ,Iu, ,he Ii... Cofl5uJUine .n<! hi,
m",hcr h.d ho".,m! P<>p< Sylveo,et. Thi, ",,,,co ., H,Jri.ns point of d<p>"uf<
ft>r di"lui.irion on S. Pet ... ,he pop< . nd hi. pn".;,..,,,,. he .bsolutc nett<
,i.y "f ,et,..ding .Ju, Rom.n Ch .. ",h . , .h~ ""'/~' omniu, <<<<",,,,m." .nd cI.e
obliga.ion fo. all Chri"i.n, '0
the "'powe,"'.nd '".mho,;,y" of the bilh0ps of Rom . '" Obyiowly Hadri. n ,..... up",. by 'he kmg..... <><Iing he ... y of
ironocwm, Bu. hi. 6.. , !XIic in add""'ingthi' heresy ...... osay ,ha, it ,c>uI.ed

'" ."um.







'0 ,h,


prinwilr from f.iluu in ,he Eo.. '0

.Ill< .".n,Oon ". tho poptS. It i.
~;"Iy in ,hi. 0>1"'" ,ho, Had,;'n ;tICo<pO",'a hi. fin, i-sc , .. ,. He ,i,,,,
,hor old >t"')' 0( eo.."ni. dlttm in "'hich h< ...'" S... 1'.... ond I'.ul. In
,he- ""')'. tho:: <tTIi'C"" .... mmot"lll'op< Sri ........ . ""'" ~ him. picrurt of
Pntr.nd P.uI. ",hom eo.u....."i ... immcd ... dy """""iud. Bm .h<n. th< Itory
SO'" on. S)~_ct Npliud Co...un,i"". cur..! him ofltprooy ..nd 1tHI..! him
on hi> C>fftf " ' . du,ilUl ..... of
H>drion ..... not ,dl this ""')' as.
p<O<! '" '''''&<'' bu, mhct- .....idmn II.. ""'- .nd tc:>ptCI th.a. is '0
h< """",dod '0 1'..... nd Poul ..nd to I'.. ct', vM::ior-1.< UIC> ohi>."ft)' ''''0''1.
110m hor SO'" on
y ,.... , under ~ pudana II... <hUKh has k<pt to ,he
;opootoIi< , ..Jitioru ro. oJl ,~crn,,,rieo un,il ~ ond eon...n,;"" (V)<d
inm h<rur. In ~y ,hi> place ,n ,ho let ... H.Jrian ,ita hi. oond i~
''''. tumdy C''W''Y', lot..., '0 Sttrn .... ~I~ "Y' tho, ",he ,,!be of pag>ru-.
fI.";n! On ,I.< dn-in<.mry poin,ed. an h< ,ut1l<d from ,he cui, of idols and
.nc ""un of demon . ius' .. au, d... ,,,,,,Wted f"", .nd _,hy pt<><hc:.
G'<"F'Y. bishop of ,hi. 'p4loli< _ ... iJ: ' ,,,,- ""'" 00 _ ...,... let, ..... an
a' 1c... . =1 by Lookin, or. wall ... ha. ,hey an_ ,.-ad in boob.-" In OIhct....,.-d Had';. n h...."fully 'um. ,I.< .. ory of Co",u".i"" ,nd S)'v=:a imo
proof of ,he 1"""'" of inugco '" ,nch ,I.< uninitiated ,nd
mak< .bem in'"
of ,be Rom,n
H ad,;'n ,h.n , u,n, '0 ,h ubi< ,,( im. go. bu... fin, in vory g.n.m
... y. Th" i . h. by. ou" ""i.. of 'I'<cifi.c dct.n ... ofim>ga witho,,' .labor._
.ion. H. ,ello how hi. P'~" goinS back ,,, Gre-gory II .nd II I h:><l rq><>t_
edly '''''''pled 10'0' .> '" ,bei. I""'''' pi"", of oonu, and '''']>1. H.
-","u. an be I"-i,,,ed ":>e<oNing '0 hi,'~ human fotm." He .. yo
tho,<, ,he.e i. Ch,i",y" (",,,;m,.~illll) ,here .rc i"'-'l'" and ,ltit
,hey.f< OOtKMM b~ .11 tht f.oj,hful. EV<tJ"' hc .. im>sa ""'. "vioibk "",,"," (,,;n.ilml ,...1",...) '0 nul<-< p..... n' ",he in_Uibk ..... ;C.. y "f God" (i ~,,;n_



'0 ..





IhIMr "'';~Il4'"



...... ). God. i" Ita,,,,,.

i> ......-.hip!

ao. >pi,;,.


IX'. mal<-< imago> ,Iotn.", }cow If>P<'.mI 0" .-.nh .00
'" p in __ "1Mr- ",f ,lot ul" ..... .., h~~ ... nl, .... 1<1)'. II", ...~ do """ <lc-ify ,,,,,,,=
inugef ..... .....,., '"Y:' God.....:k 1tWt . ali ...U, in H"OW1\ i-sc.nd likrn.:>o..
M~. God I""m .. ,.-.,I H,morif '0 h< honored ,00 &k>nh<-d by .11 soru of
... , ....... nd ,hinp. Hadrian (t)rl,inUQ by :..-gui", , ...... on ,h<
ont lund. it is nn'tt ,bt ...... trul au, of ..... ich i...."... .rt madt du., is woru.y
ofhonot . nd , ..... . on ,ho: othct- hand. GodII,.....-I{ comnund..J <nuln ......
or )ikmes.ocs." bt made. "Oh......., rnui ..... i, i>.o drny.1w:
" , . . . at< ..... 10 h< mod< 01 ~l . . ed. " If .... bel,.... ,...., "'" l.....-lila ...~
A.-.:d (.am Ioomin, al.",;I)' by ,t.. ..;r;h. of.he br..... "'1"""" do wr Joul>o:

citin8 John


.0 " . . " . ,,, . . .

,ha,..., or...vnl by &","'g or and ',,".n,ing ,he-I,kntoeMo ofau;......, Lord

and .1....inlS!" H. condudQ tllio ot<:fion
Ij, 16.


_.uwI '"


by c;unK I..ia!. '9

,I>< bea ...,. ..... God.

In'" Jbd.w. "'yo, io


..-hr .....

on<! how



VI" PJalnu 6, '9,

,ha, bea",y """-


Tho he-an of HaJ ..... ', HI""""" io bu,lt up "" ....... 00 ... ~ni"B papal
.... thori.,. and it. ......001 oC ,he- chwm', "aditlOlU.. Sam.
fat this .....1
ofin,npm'ns liaJri.on ', ............... fi.oon hi> ............ in.he- Inn i'Mnjiat/iL
Oflbdrian'. con,ribu.ion '0 II ~ian, me biog>ph<t ..T" ,imply that H..:;!.w.
""', h io ......,.. and a ....... "to ... "p..o.:d i ........ '" th<y .... o"h"
......... ~ in .t.. holy, a.""';" and .poo.<>Ii< Romm Church by 'h< "">IT;III' of
the .mpoura .and .he- ....:;!i.ion of 'h< ~ h,t..n ftom olden li..... '0 cht
ptaotn .... ' '"' ' ....d''ion had """ [... >r< of all d~ of i""B'" ftorn 'h<
founh , ....",)". Si_ .. bot [t.. prchrnilWia '0 .hot Council of Chaittdon
(41' ), the pope> IW horn ..anti", [M' >pma/ rok OJ kp.....and suardi.... of
.raJillOll. Wha, is ...... in HaJn..n', k"... i1 mrtcIr.ho: I"'\'<', ~
i"SJO (Of~llyon bthal{of ,ndi.Oon .. i, I"'tuintd to i..... 8u, i, m:or ...<11
bt tha, Ibdrian ...... ""i ........."i"g no, claiming:my ""'''' than hio pmlc=-



""" going Nck to Gr<"S<"T II ...... n q........ d 0'"'' .n,"W" ;tppc;utd "" dl<"
POpKY, Mril'," (or ,h< Ii", ,i". AI<
hi, .......1 f<n ... o f ;m_ .'"
concerned, ,hcy.", ..-h"lIy ... di.lo"ol, I",'P 'f'..,h. In .. go. d i"""" in,i,ibk
",.! .. ia. Ch,i" WI>. m.., ""d could ,h.m;,,,, II<" de-poe.<:d. Gud hi", .. lf e<,"'m.>nd.d i"'age '" b< ",.d. on
""calion . Ilc:.u,iful d<CQr.uion. o(Goo',
00u1<" ..e mta", of hOllorillg God . lin, .. lf QOt o( .. tling "P m.ri;ol.
f><;,urcd ri,.. to [0 Ilim. AI ,I,~ Rom.n Synud. of 7)' .nd 769 had dono. I lad ...,



,1,., i..,.ga.rc to b< ~""""od.


H.drian 'h<n .tt""hcd hio 1",.;",< /\O'ikgium ... if.u d"ploy ,... ""'1
Oft whidl'" t.. Itndy huil, up hi. 'rgumc:n'. '" Ibdrian', Anrile_
r;iun' i, "', .... modc:I" run ..;ning o,dy .!tou, .!o~n ""<a<'t nd while i.
bull[ ......nd even ""pond. ul_ <och p<>in. in "'" CI,I;'" >tions of cht
Ie" ... ;, dot; "'" folk>w , ...
onle. '"
pK>C:n"'ion. !
.n ohviou
in ,hot ....'ruction of 'h< fIorikpum ilXlf. N~ i ..




bnic poin...'" ....Iy gntp<d.

HaJrian !hili. from 1.11 Fotni rdl.",iom fO .... IIon.m with an in' ...
""'ns device. lic .. ,.. , ....."" em.""n, pruphe< ();Md. in .,."""nci", "'" Mm,nil of cht s..-ior .and Iii, inasna.ioft . .... rnod ~ .Iu[ Hi, "r..,." (some
IOrm of , ..Inu .. Ihdrion quoo .. , ... PuInu bu, somnimts IOrm ofjMu> in
'M Vo4fttl>') " xcoo:iins '0 ,hot d ........ 'ion of H i. hununity"lhwld be "",glu.
n.... hot ei'a 'hm< p...rnu (" .1: ~ \Ou' (ooe. 0 l.n<d. >lull I .....~: ..... 'J: "All
[be rich .monK 'M peopIe .... U...,...... i""" coun, .........~: 4.'" ~Tho ligl.. of

An >lid At< Tolk


0 lord.

i, l'igr>td upon .u" : in [.... , onkf) and 10110..$ "'i,h

nom " blcuro A"I""''''' ,I>< ""'" dUllnpilih! f.llhrf and bon,
[taCh ...: " Wha. ;. .t.. ilN&t of God <lIct"p, the: fa of God in wt.idI .1>< p>pk
of God ;.~ " In rICO . .. hula" Iuo,,, no, bc.n.bk!O U'XC" ,hu ~ in
",""".in", wo.k.. BUI H..Jr...,,, ""n of ,hou&h' u 110< diffi<'ul< II) ...,. D .;d
p!'<'diatd au;"' .
nun """ I. humUl r.a.nd God', pcopI< h3d
I<>n& been ocdunr; .... .. r...... of God . ....'" I> i .... of ,... F....... . nd
in ..... 'lN8".nd 1Ik<neu of God. H>dri>n couJd 110< irn'C.
j .... i6a,.", ofim ......
H.od.i>.n ohm , i":1 Grq;orr of Nyst:o twi, 1M ~n. cian"" is ,t.. familiar
on< about Gregory', WpInS <'O'C1)' " .... t.. ICe> .... i ..... of ,he: ~ and
.... ..."...j .... bI;.tw.d , .... ICO' of uYn.n~ brfoK on i""", _ ~ '0 ....
p""oryp<. 0...... U[""'" uouaJly "lin 10 !Wil [0 IN'" .hi. poin. bu. Hadrim
.i... on .... .. >di,ion. of .t.. . hurch wi, h rapc< o " honoting, .oorin~
and VftIo<1'>.inS" i,.,.. and on [h< ~ .",[om .nl'. inringchur< ..... H
.... n dto"" . nothcr ... f2C1 from !luil [0 ~(.>bli!b [he .........1 equi ... kocc of
",in.'" or wri".n ."'..... John Chl')"'O'lom ;. , ...... quotcJ twice in <<>nn<<tion
with impai.ol<'>. The ~". quUl.'iof, m.L:. [he point [loa! .ny h."" don<
I(> .n impcti.1 ;n>as< ..... u. lly mJound. '"~ ,h. O",PO"" and ..... '"~
i,>elf and ,he oond quo.. ,wn laY" ,h.. wh<n imporial imoS" <n.", ,own
<",,,'ds gift. , hem 1>0' '(j hollOr ,he bu, ra[h, . '0 honor ,he emperor. or Akn"d.i. i. ,h.n ci ,,.J foro,
,h., i, ;' I><>ibl< 10 p. in, 'h< Wo.d
,hOI hecamc Ah .,Id """",.I ,n
im.g .. help ." make ,he inois;hle
vi.ibk. A,hana.iu. il ,hen qumc.l '" ,II If.." .h., im~ con b< m..d< .nJ
tUlladc: ,he n"".,i,l. of .. hkh ,My ron.i" .... "'" import.n,. Amb."",
Milan and Epiphanim ofs..I"",~ ... ,hen ej.I '(j P"'''' ,h.. ,,-ben you h,vcan
jm>g< of".. empo"" )'OU do 110< 'hcrd>y h.... two e",I"""" ....
in ",.king
an imog .n CIt,;" Y"" do IlOl ",I;, I I.. humani.,. .nd d i,;nily.rnd 'h=l>y
c..... """ "''''''',. oong<.
of Il00< ... in H.odrian, Ionp quo,",;"".
"Y" [ha, nerythi"ll made in.'" n.".... of(;Qd is p><>d.
imag<" is <>II<
,hinS wh i!c "" ... ~iMTo. ... " " ... n .. ,h i,'!\ 01 .. <n,i!'dr . .... , th< "' ...;.J. of
...t.ich inur;a .... mode ... Itrdevan, . 0 ,he rapca ",,,, ' 0 ......... and th..
yow a>Un[~IWlCt.


""""'! ...



i...,. """'G'"


"'r ,ha,





i",,", ""''' '"

po ....... <q> .... n'I "" ,I><m. H>drian 00I'I_
dude. ..;,h.
from}<rom< uI'.Jo<ruI<m ,,hich .......a ,ha, God wm
m.nded M..... w moL: i",.,...
liadri>n........ . hnd"ort_r.i .. ;n'o ....., ....... In .... 6 ... and Ions<r 0;,;.,., he dcvclopo ... ",umen1 ....... on p>f'IoI.",horny...d ~;"'I ,.....i
<aT .Iut ,... <mp<n>n of ,t.. Ea .no..Id ............" oIT",,,,I ,he ...,m;t
,...:Itinp of,h< Churdl ond IN , ... poupk of God imo 1>cresy. In thi. """ion


of ,... In,... ;magn ... '"" '" ,h< fO<c. Any "'ray coolJ MY< bttn inYOlvod.
1M critical ....... wu luthofil)'. In ,h. scrond ...:tion of t,," 1m.. HoJ..w.
q""''' ;",." . Itt ..."h,;"n ." say ........ ,h~ lud,oriu. iy< pooi.ion on i~ oogh,
." be. G;ven
h . .... y of tc:>1>
cooJd h. ", bent ott<! by )'fIS. indoa:l



no r.-w.. ....11 In i" ,he ico""f'hik lIori.m w, AltuI<iIo btl......,. '0 ~

bent in 1M, K is perM!" ... opriti", that l-Iod';"n W2>..,
in hi> IV'8" of CIUlie>n . I I< ...... odcaie>n of ~ from 71' ...d 761.
M......,..".. Itt often noska. fO ci .. ,t.. ~ ..... _1<1 MY<: ",pcacd <V<"rt
on m. ","n .. Itt do<. rail<. The: o:umpl< of ....'" G~ of Nr- ;""ad of
&.a on Iyp<...d protO<)"p< i. ~ pd OM.
I "'""" ..... 1M ... ,bet 'P'...... thane.e. of the ...wnd >"lion of ..... Irttn
is in. critical ....y rdoted '0 ,Itt G, ..
Th.a, is. HoJ.u.. borpn by uri",
,M, if p>pIt in ,Itt Us, had po'" ..
,0 the """",, . nd hod xI<ncrwIcdgtd
.... , 1M """"" .,. ,Itt p .J ;"" of au, hen,ic .l3dirion. ,hen notI< of ,hex ,nri.
ble pmbknu would hal'< em<,p in ,h 6n' pIa. Bu.
did ign<W be>th
""""" .nd ,h. anc;'n. , .... hinp of ,"'" .hu..,h and .... fQlJlt. plungr<! in",
~y. T"'scrond ... , ion "f .... k'te ...."" '0 mr.o mOl.'" H :>d,w ICtUc
of ,he temll of .... "" ..y. I[e idrn,ificd ,he old Ot ri,,~ ...r l on i""'tjQ




in both ito lO.m" Th<~ . .. uW ... "" i ....... '" (""..,.J brn .... HNQ

.,.,< h... ""'

...." GOO .nd . ny im>g<: of Ch,i" "dcd 10 ",Ii, Iii. d",in< .nJ hurnan
na' ura. H.- .kn,ifiro Ih. prob[<nt of mat .. ialil)' . nd ,he dUl<ly ,d.ted ilOU< of
idola,ry. In hi> I." '0 r. ,..,i .... .." i ... n .. ,he .am. ci" ......he ,,". t" ,It"
<11\1"<>< "nJ h.. son. Ih d,i, n .. lJ ",,,licitly
he "', ntni C()ndemcu,ion of
,lL,u "'""""~ which w.., Ittld intprol... ly withoo, tho 1"".1> and illogi.


ally (i~).''"


f. i,ly n' ''CYoY ''''~ of t-t :>dri.n , ". "i,,;.: doooiCf

rnay be rnd ... carefully "nkut,.w St1 of inm"e,;"n. un ..h., "",i<ion; or

argum~~ .. we~
b< mndtn,ncd . , .he ..... COCIncil .11.. was g<>ing '0 b< called.
In ><1m. Hod.ian W=lni hi> aUII\C>ri,y.o b< rccosni...,j and he wan ttd ... luc he
,001< w be ,h ....,., mo,,,,,,,,,,
of iconocl..m to be dimin,u ed. If ,his
way of in'<I"J'Ii", IhJ,;"', I." .. i> <KI'I oII" . he nt ..1e., ,hen iii WU<fU and
rdat~ brevil)' rnak ........... point fft>OnIb/y ""'" . n... pope ..... no, png to
be d...... n in'o .....""..,.,.. ow. i ...... HoJ';"o . lUnd casu . ... <O$f'<'cri>..,
ligln OIl ,Itt ..,Itt ...00... po.ri ..", IIorDcgi. p<a<entul In Rom.- in HI . nd
769.'" Gran' W IlI.t .... _tceo Pfovide ......ith . ... ry im~ ...... of ...... t
_ Wd :urd dc>ne in ,I>< IWO Rom.t.n counctb. the fxt rcmoins w, the limited
... of ....,;.uc "'''_''' pO<nttd ...... raernble l.. oJ,.;.,,, , let... in ...pili.
an ....-.y. Iconur:I.osm _ noo rcfuc<d roln, by poin . I ~ .. _
told 10
"... bad; on ,....... th of tradition. Tho rda.iv<-/y ~ po ........ m n _ wn<ti.
til ........ n ""i"""'n .....
ttun .... of poin,ni ..;ea...... of the ~




of ,he i<onod .. t.<. Alw.~. ,hen. 'hr POp<' ",fu.. '0 '<};U< wi,h hrrc,,,,- 11...
,tlU"'] b)' the pop<',o dignil)' ,!.oi , opponrn" hy
ing thri, .in.~ full)' . nd
in n,.~ aplain tho t<L"i"" . b.."c< of apli.;, ".,.mrnt.< :>bo", KoIIOCI.,m
.fr [h n .. hem .. "I' 7jl.
It m.y hc ..... ltt. mrntioning ,he kinJ. of 'hing> H. J,i.n did not "'y. Hr
mrn,ionoJ no mi~lo", or "K,i"r Tr"". he m.n,ionrd thr
,h., prrminrd COn .... ntiroe 10 r<WSni,.., ,h. m,n he h2d on in hi. dr",m . 11m
I,. did in
..nrt< thr im.og<: i,lf i 1010" inrb.n t to ,he ory,
Hadri.n said noth ing about """t m><lr by IlUm.n
n .. only
time ,I... such ,tory IUmed up in R"nun IiO"rer
when ,he Ea,[,,"
""ri. rch, pm ,I., "ory of Abpr of Ed ..... on [he ubi. in [hr 760<. Bu, ,
kt, .. . 1,., .. ><I mo... irnporuntly .If"med ,h 1I<"gi>"'" of ,h.... holr East to tho
.",ch;ngs of ,h. ,i, "","eii>. Hadri. " cit<. "nl)' church f.,h .... no, hoS;<>s"'ph; .
cal t",t.< , H. "II<.< 2j; .nd
. bou, ,br deco""ion of chulCh .. bUI nm: '
mrn,ion' port. bl, Hr nn.. r mrntion, .n im. gr ,Iu., """ uord ...
",Iladiom or .. . ph)i>Clrry. l.i~. Gr<gnry IJ .nd Ih. ""uncil f"h .... in 71i;J.
Hadri.n "'Y' ,h." i!IUges Of, [0 he v.n,r.,ed . Bu, h. docs not descrihc ,he f",m,
th .. <ud, ' .n.... ion miglll tak< .nd h. d"" "'" .. ~ which i""'gn a" '0 br
,'.n.""ed. JUSt" "hoi .., Iu."" d<"",d ",min "ch",iry" in ,h. work of II
NiCK" "" tOO tbr ... i, p.lp.abkc ..... rve in 'hr vi .... of th ighth-antury








Thi, di"".. ion of Had,;,n m.)' condud. wi,h an ""..,,,',,,n, of wI. .. ,he
Lilxr hmlij(a/;' ")~ . bou, hi.> .nd hi' idr"'. Hadri.n w.<.< ,he
to profi' fron, thr C. roling.. n ,mp<>Si Pax Jill/iN, Khirvcd .f", Ch.tJr..
nugne. delini,i,.. dof"" of 'he lombard. in nj-'74, l1w: mo" immedi .., con
""'lucn", of [hi, ne'" ,im.."''' in haly IV><. rexc and prosprriry o"m.,chod
,;n", 1. '''';'lU;ty, Am:",lin~y H.d,;." praided """ b.lilding boo", m
Rome 'h" con,inued inoo ,he nimh c<n'my and that w,"" unriv:;oled un,il ,he
Rrn>. .... nC<. '" I ~ i, ,'il~ i, ,brltfor. filled wi,h de,.ib on hi, buildinS projoc-. .
If Gregory Ill,
in"'n"'. ferm. to drlibrmd)' undrrtakcn .n im>g<
c>ml""gn ... -=pono< '0 B)',,-,n"n. p",hih"ion" Hod,i , ",i"n ., little
mOl' dillicul! to ime,p"" , Hod,i." ', .il4 trnJ, to ....... tho valor of thr im>j;<>
.nd d..:o""ion. he imroducrd imo Rome. church",. I'", in".n..,. H.dri",
don .. ed!O Rom." church .. at leas, ,6j,ilk >'oi1> wi,h im.go .
to.1I the 'itl,
church .., deaconlit:s . nd ,",o"",,,,i... vei], ",ith cw<~'" H.
drcon[.,.j for ,11< pro; .. of God . 11 God', cllorch.,. botll i",ide ",d ",,,,id. ,IIi,
city of Rom.:"" H, in".lIed im.g.. ,i,h.. m..Jr from ,iI... ,h.... 01 ",ith
'il"" """'ing> in man)' pI"",, in Romr. H. placed 'v.riou. rrpfcxnmion,'
.m",m,ing '" ,hr.., hundred pOItnd, of gold, in S,. Pete,', (~"f"'w, H, pu,





inug<'l of ,h. Crupcl>-j .. ", wh" ,h<s< w<1'< i, to in'p' ... ihk to .. y---in S,. Pa"l'.
,nd S,. u,..",ncc, (o""id, ,h, ..,.11.). H, rd2$hiono:<! .n im>go of P'''' Mary.
Pc<tf, r ...1. and "'nd,rw ., S,. I'<t.< oo h, P'" r<pt<><nmion, of
on ,he d""" ofS, . P",I'. ,., \l;'h" ... find hrf<, in .I>on, i m...... J>f"ll",m
of dtw, .. ion . Givrn H>d,i,n', OW" ,..,;mo.,y in his I.... , !O If<n,.nd Con
,I,i." ju" wh .. W<" ough, "'p!. Th< ,nd;,ion Iud .1",,)"> pcrmi,.
,rd. i..dud <n"",,,,gt<l. 'hr roornm,,,, of
ho .... Now th .. he had tho
m,,,n, m do 00, H>dri. n ynd<nook th .. ,do'nm,n' on' gnnd $COIr. H, octrd
on , mo", ""j""ie l",eI beaUlt h, had ,h. pracc. rutbility . nd fi""oc;"1 ",.
""""'" '0 do "'_ Proud Rom.n ,h" h. was. Hadri ., ,,,hancrd ,hr branl)' aDd
.ppeal "fhi. city. Tndirion had <riumphrd." I.... , .. f.r .. ,har ,ndi,;",n ......
unde",ood in Ron ... Whef< .n ...... COflccrnrd. ,hot ,,,diti,,,, """, ,,"ighr
[Qck to Crq;ory I. Wh.,. R<>mc i""lf .......""""nrd, ,h" ,<adi,ion I'<.chrd
bad . millrnnium.





From Brdr to H>drnn. pcopl' in ,h. W.., took cry con,;,n, ... of pos it;"n.
on the topic of ;ng<>_I.",,~ em """r ,h<:ir ';<We". They can dici, compunction . Thry can d<v:o tho mind f,"m thi, "'mid tn ,he no. Thry can ""...1.
I>o"""'er in'p<rf..,ly, in.isihl, mii,i.,.. nl<y ,each. dpc-cially the unlm,red.
The Bibl< ilSClf .U!hn,i= inuV"_ 1...., i, an 'Nulu dill',f<n he!v....,n ,hr
mmer of whieh im,S'" '''' mad ,he p<nonh) trpf<:S<nred by tho inugr.
Hono, f"id '0 an imag< immrdoudy P"'<" 'n ,h. p<,.nn I" ..."tl. Art
m,kcs ,h. <".ito"m<HI braUfiful .nd if ,h .. ,nyi'onm,nt fuI'P'"'' to hr
ehuh . pi> of """hip. ,hen ,he braury .kl'< ;,. gift
Cod, ~n
. ncmpt to hol>O' Him . ,h.nbgi.ing_ lm.ges con I:.: .. n.~'rrd. ac.::orJin8 to
f"f"1 >ources. All or ,hi" i, will I:.: """,Ikd, i. m.tko.bly .imi),,, to the fi",,1
decision' of 'hr hom ofNicar.. In m.ny =pu. Ea., . nJ W.. r ""' ...
f." 'I"n in 787Th". aro .Isore"',,,n, ,imi!.ali,ia in W<strm ",. it.ts and ohurch couoci!s
,n 'hing> 50id r.o,dr 0. c.U!ioudy . od '0 mings 1>0' .. iJ " .11 . It
i. juSt p""ibl< ,h .. ,hr,....... some ""Iing ,hat .. , im.g< might confirm a vi.ion
h," ",h,,,,,i,,, mir;a,lu .... ,>t ..,ivc: imag<> maio . Im"" no '1'1'<""'''''_ l<n
ages do nO! "",m '0 h,,.!,..n usrd '" potlladi . Brdr mentions f"nrl p. inting>
hOlt (~hr"..-j .. only the Lib.T Ponlift<~Ji' d"",,, <>l'li.idy ",d ,hen ,~,Iy on
frw occ>,iOft~ Act; .. im>g... p.oilacli . phyUct,li<$. .nd pomohk p.nd,ings





An ,,><I An



were prob>hly leu prev:.knr in the F"" th,n here,ofore ..."mc<I. so F.... , and
w.., n,.~ "0' h.v< :.t:<:rn<Xl >0 difk'en' on ,h. <V< ofH Ni<:K:i.
In the \'('es, as in ,h. E. st, im.ges ... me up onl~ <Xa>i<>n.lly and even ,hon
did "0' !Cern to dnmina .. dilcuuinn. Modcs' flu"i", of :tetivity em Ix id.n,ili<d
itl ,h. U,. 7'''' .tld < .-1 y 7JOS . n the ]60< . mI in 'he mid-790>. Apm from
rhe oovious <:.e of ,he Co,"""il of HOe,.i" thi, "'plia,.. ,h. chronolOSJl ....
..... in the East in Ch'pter,.
The h..."l" burdon of Chap ... 4 will be to .hov,. hov,. uch limited "'w
materi." ,...." ...,.,mbl<Xl in,o '" huge. oonrrov<"y in rhe 7')OS"' ,he F",,,ki,h


The Franks and N icaea: Op/lJ Caroli


fJ/."""'" "" _ Jm.MtI

If" .... ~"" _ <f- J.., J.J/

i_ . " '"

""........... """" _"."jJ. ...Uif "" ~ ~"" "" _


" .... ""_ J _ "" ..~ m.. ..~ <fan" ......

... 011 .... w- _ ..100".,,. th."",-,_ o/hIwp &.h"-/J if
~ .... ,1. PO'

n.'''.........""..... ~"J:""""'" .. "" ""-.

, ... _ .. -'" 'h- '"'" ""'" "'-""'.

ThruJ..Jr viCM/o.n" 0,.", c-.Ji !I't~

SIIo"n, Af'rU nu Cl>clu.ion of ,ho prorttdln!l' at Nleu p<><>r Latin

t.. n,J.tioo of tI,. """oeil'. ,...,rd, ..",hod Ch., . Although Rom. mu>t
ha .. botn tho p ....... n...... fo, .ht do<umtnu ,hot ""nIC in." Owkn.'!;"
p<i< ....... it i, "'" ck j",t how,,, why ht rteeivol ,ho,n. H. ",n. tho rcmnh.
'" ""Pr of ,hom. TO ~ ;. ,,,,,,,cd wlUbon,,,.. AIeu'n . .... ho .... th<o ;0 Engbnd
nd he m><k ano,lIt. r.opy .v. ibbk. or !.o .,.!!"" 1>< ""ginal <XlI'l' " ........
mem"", ,,/'hi. <DUn cire". l'htndtM. lit ... ,ho b..hop of Orio'aru. Aleuin "'''''.
IOm<thin& in ""I"""< '" N""",,', _ bu, hi> ........ d. do no! IOrvi..,. Tltrodulf
pn>due<d nuun'.
r"'.IClly knoom II tho Lim Q,...u..i bu, now mort
cornnIy .,,,id.d ,ho
Q,,fi, &tu (Mfr. ~.,.,. The 1""'"'" dupe ...
di<cwso dot pJ>I ..,ion of ,.... 0,... and ..,m......i:lo " . ron.onu. Shonly :diu
the 0,... ..... """"Iud<d ,.... Frank>. Loy tli"" ...J dory oIikc..... mbkd
Funkfun....l, among ...... y ow, conJcm....t I[ Nioc.o in:lll odd ... d "",bip._
..... .....r. Thi.....1".. abo plocn Tltrodulr. """k in'" tho f'nflKWO-orl <mI,a!
n.. FnnL had nude oomc conltibu,,,,,, '" the ri&hth.cnuu')' imoge con-


troveny through the pmieip .. i<>ll of """Iv< h,"ki,h biolt"!" ill the Romm
Synod of 76<1. Bu, in the yea ... fter 769 thert i. no ..:.lid <'"iden /(" allYfunhe,
F... nkiolt invol,ement with ,he di;put<. A! I h. .. shown. 'he I"',iod frQm 'he
miJ760s t" ,he m;.j-;rl/<>s witnessed 1;"le diocu"Oon of 'm.ges in the F~. In
the 780/;. Charlcm'W'< embarked on 1 mmplicu<d diplomK)" wi,h ,he Brun,ines rhot I"r.lld. in ..... m .... yo the ",btinn, ... hich hi, f.,her had ..",.illro
with Con".n,inople in th. yea .. 716 '" 767. Like hi' pmJ<crs<or r . ul I. POl'"
Hadri.n ....... brmro ..
P""I""" of. Fr:ollko-Rl"""rino "'pp"",hem.n, ,nJ
hi< rort<crtlS prirrur'ily fucu!cd "n h. l;"n te"i<ori.1 ..... ngem<n ... Link in the
inten,,,ion.1 COntext. ,herdo ... help, to "' the .ppca... n of Nicoc", rt_
COld. in ,he W.., Of ,he ,ilUlendr n<-g>,i,o ".>CIion which rhe~ "",ked.
O tl< ",USt 'urn", the f ..."ki.h context /(" tn'ights into the F... nki.h tc:IC_
,ion '0 nyumiums ''l''"''1 of ico"""l ... rn. The yea .. 1><" ...... 11 '00'" 78\ .nd 7')1!
weI< fill<d with mili"ry 5OC=><> for ,he Fr:onko. Thi< ...... ,he ,im< when ,he
ruo>< .ignifiCln, of Ch"lem"I\Ms ""'tn ""hoi . ... g:"h<f.-.1 in ,he n.... ly emerg;ng
copi,,1 a, Mehen and began '0 producc ,heir mo" ..... ml< .nd impo""'" wo,ko.
The fi ..., of the be.utiful
">allu'"'tipts ,,c rt produced. <Om< of the "un_
ning :ochiev<:mrnl> of Carolingi.n architecmre weI< buil,. and m.jor 1<-g>1. ad_
mini""";,,,. insti' '''inn. l."d ..10",,,;,,,,,1 r"'m' we .... i""itll<cd. In this
j><1"iod the F... " ki.h world encounterro. in odop,ioni.rn. a .ignifiCln, home_
grown he,.. )" wh ich dicitro thrologd reA1ion of unprccroe",ro fervor . nd
rigor_ In ,hon . he ."i... 1of.he .~, ,,fU Nicae> .",t ,he ~ '.nkj.Jt fCSl",n..,
to them took in ,im< or inten><. dyn.mic . nd cr<.,ive aeri,i" ...



From NiCJea {o frankfurt. 787----94

Th. COu .... of ev<:llt> be'wt<n II Nic:oca .. ><1 the Council of F... nkfun i. <keeptively .... y to .eli. H.d,ian' en,'",... rt1umro in triumph from, rouncil (II
Nie>< th .. r<SIO'N ."de.... , ic:ol uniry, . fIi,mro rhe pope., nugi"QC)" in tho
ch,,h . nd .n;,m<d ,h< 1"'1'...... ,nc< ,,,, ,n"I\<" Th. "ffiei.{ ........d. ,.rNi .... ,
w<re placed in ,he plplilibr:ory .nd a u, in ,,,,,,I.oon ........ nt '" Chark"'"!;,,e.
Nic:><::l" ..<",d. ,,".t<: d;>Cll1l<cning'o t~e C.tuli"gian coon. Dcopitc h"ing
di"",....! im>gc> on .... n'ially Roman ,erm<" G<n'iU~ in 767 . nd >gOin ><
Rome in 769. ,he Fr.mks hod now como fO , ,u mnlia . Iong II'hOd> ,hcy in,i ...:d
th .. booh destroying .nd ,,-orShiping image> weI< forbidden. Cha'kmagn< "t
[W(I of hi, most t"'!ted tltcologic-.l .d" ;",,. the Anglo-Saxon Alruin .nd ,he
Goth Throdulf. to "udy ,he Nine .uta. The r"",l" of a prelimi"'tr)" Fr-ankiolt
....,.,men, of NiCll" I"'rcci"cd ,""o" mming:>. ,he Capi"''''''


,Oo c ....... ,O u o

...... n, to Rome in 79'. M .. n",hil< . ., ,Ite O>lm, l"htodulf con,inual '0 """rI<
ott his 0pIu c..t.. /Uti, ....lTi Sptt>Ju". . ",...;"" ai, of Nioc:... In 79) . .".
pos.>tbiy 794. I'""" Ihd,w Ien~hy .nd den...
....;..:non of tht Copt""""
~ awlo"'"g:n<. N~ Fntlkiol! pbn.con"nU<d .~.r.... nujor.
indeed uniV<nal, dourdo ".."ol. Tha, council. tht t..'JP'" and moM.U>piciow
ofCharlt""ll<"' lrip '" fot . ..... II F....!Wn and t..u..lkd lengthy "UJ>d.l
of ..:dc.i...ia1 an<! -w,., buoO ...... On .t... ..,..t.o. <ondoctft! in .1>< 1"'""_
of I'"~ lop........ I """""" .",boguow.. limited coodcmnarion of II Nic.oea.


1M immtdi:l., oIinmarn of Nieo<:a is ct.. n-. "'r>i&h'furwudl.SpOCl of tht

hmOl}' of ,hoot yeo ... Su, i. i. /lOll wi,ltou, punks. ~hdrian, ,n'...,.. 10 Nic.oea.
I'nn .he A.dopn... of .1It Rom,n Church .nd 1'.... Iht abbm of 5< . &.h.&.
lOlumcd in ,lit IUlUmn of 717 b,..inl lht _ of .he council I nd imperia.!
In,.... H.,jrian ~ ,ho _ ...,,01..1 in,o La,in ..,d pla"<I in ,!,. pap.J lib,..".
.. , a wonhy, pam. ".", n><nlQria.! of th, ..."hodo. fai,h:' A. ,1It.bbo! of ,ho


G-'o m" ... "k~mn,uni'f n( St. ~. P....e . . . . . .

c<rt. inly billn,u.!. h
""Y h ..., lxtn ,hi. >kill
.o",m.nded him 0 ... of .h. two 1"1"1 I<s>",.
to Nia<o ..Jun&,id. a ..,ry higl' I."king nocn,bn of the 1"1"1 .dmin;"",;"n.


Nevenhd .... ,h. Lo,in ,.. n<l" Kon ..-'"' hI.i.,.. and poo.orly don . It ..."' h
",m""n. wi. h
l<' .h. 1-1"1 roun, I ",oon. lnowllll" of C ......k.
""d gI.....,i.. on his d.. k p"l""d lh. ""..ion.' Why mu .... >killed
."",oIor " ......... ockc,I will neve, hoe no.... n. Un'!'. Pop< John VllI (87'~2) . Aruo,"';\U 8'bI",,""'riu. fK"<J"rM n<W I... in
;"n.' While Iho.

ro"...."w ...


,.nioo ..."',...,. intaC only (,."' 01 ,he original, HlwN vtrsion


afl", ill ,he wri, ings of ",nl< l).",,,1< ""'" . ;.1 iL Tho imperial 1m... vanished
",!bou, a '1"XIt.
Un<kr "'rntI\lu, m1M"';"'" <;, cunu toncn du. ,<ninn wound up in
Clurkmognr, lund,. po. hops as eMly .. 711t bu, ~bly. link I"et. An en.ry
un<kr .IIt ynr 79 1 in tilt Nor<hu",brian t ..,. A~....t. .. yo, Kin, CharIn of
,II< f",nb ><11 1>< .,.nodaI booIr '0 Briuin t1w had ...... '0 him from
eonotmrinoplc.M, W, will ""urn
n' , .... Owl.. .. n. the: hook
'0 Briwn. !'or hOW. " .. in,"",ung ro """ ,hot in Engj.>nd. ...,.,.. Chana,
doooe - U k Al< , ......... ..;."'.... ,hn-c ..... I bdi<f tIu., CIurko had
8"''"' h is doc"""",,, .."',.." from ,I>< ' mporial coun in ,lit Eaot.. N Ann

to."" ".,.....

to """,, mpon<Ini.o tht ....

f .......... n Iw u.o..n . he F~ do ,ndeed S<m"I

"""'king "',h In official ~ No

as if dt.ty _

_ott ""'03)'> tlr.r 01+,...


loin, ,10., , be F",nb

,hey we'" wotkinl> wi,),. 'r.n<b,ion ,' Why i, di.J
not <>ut to ..,rnrone " 'he Comlingian coun ,h .. a Brun,in' council ...,mld
Iu"" mndUCI...J;" ""'in"" in C .... k i, iml"'"ib\.
y. In ,h. m"-ldle of ,h.
ninth c<n'u']I Hinrm>r "f Rei"" [lut Clurlcs go, 'he Jll'l;l from Rome.'
Thi> i
c<""inl~ 'rue, but Hin<m.. don no'''y wh)' he fdi<>"C'<! this to
be ,he ."..,. h i. qui'e possihle tim Hadr;,,, hinu<lf forw:..dl [lor documen"
'" Chademas,\<. But it i.
iml'<lS<ibir ,h,It
01 in Rome n, ,hem.
10m<:<>"" who might have kn ...... " th" ,1.< F",,,Ju ""I<... ,h. prnrn' ,ime.
unlikely '0 b<: pk..<d ... i,h [he ' nuh, of Nie.c:o, drli""""i"",
If Had,;,,, him .elf ..", ,he J.xumrnt<. i, i. ,u",<i,inS tI.. t ""
>un-iv<> . nd ,Iu[ no men' ion of
d",umem. apl'"" in [he romin, F",nko1"1,,1 '''tTC>f>'>ndenc< p.....r.od in ,Iv: G>Ja G".lin~l. Pod"p> Had,;," >imply
... umro ,Iu[ hi> ond<m<mem of II ~ic><a would Iu,.. n>;"oo f ranki,h (fl .
Olr,<. All...11, ,he r",,,Ju had " ,;tncssed. drb.. .. "n imagn u c"ntilly in
767 nd "",Iv< Fr::lnki.h bi,h"!,, Md I':micil'''ro in [he IWman Synod of 769
whne ,he ,hen reigning Byuntine ironol'l,obi ...... condemnro and ,he , .. oc ...
'",n of imag<' ...... allirmro . S,ill . .. [he Op~J c.roJi and ruin .lJiro docu
ments drat, the Franki,h vi ... "n image< had 'hitted J .. m:ui<olly in
twenty y..... If HadtUn kn ... ,hi . i, migh' II< possibl. '" ''luo th.t be ......
nu' him .. lf rnl"'n;ible fur .. nding ,he NiC<nr
ro Ch.rla becamc he
did 00' ... ,n ' 0 .. i. up .leba.. wi,h hi lIy. fti.nJ. and pro,<Cto,.
S", did Uadrim know ,hii' And wlu, did ,he Fr:onl<s know
urn', ",ltc-fa<:< on irnagc>~ i. whct~ rhe nen" . flC. Ni""" gr[ "<']1 murky.
One can ""Iy
r""",nro $p<"cuLuion,. Th ... ,!,ului"". tum . "",,,.1 who
knew wh .... nd when 'hey knew ir. C harkmagne had . nr<rro ul"'n. rnaIf;,g<
.lIi.,ICC with ,he Byzantinn in ;81 when he .lIioneW hi, .bugh", ROIrud 'u
the young Con". n,ino VI : Thi, "'pg<nlen, W1.< !>mken olf in 'fi7 h... fOf.
frw )...,.. ,100 will b<rn r...., f""llKn' communica,io", ..rou, i,.
Wh .. i, m.... < B).... n'ine ruu"iu w .. XOI ro I:"mc;, '0 in"ruer ,he lU,u",
I'nn<n>.' In 786 lIyun'inc <n",)~ /Qund Clurl.. in "",rhorn whe'e Iv:
...... con'I" 'gn,nS '''''~" rh< I\c"~",""n ..n' ."d ,,;.-J '" gr' hin> ,,, ... 00 R.offUJ wi,h ,hem. He rcfulCd '" do su' In 788 ,be Syuntin<$ .tt.<I<1 I'rmkish
in"",, in .... "'h.. n h.I)', al!egily
by ,hi, ,im<: Ch.,k> had d./ini,i,.. ly











broken off [he cng>grm<m o Thi, ""]ue1l of ..... n" ><lUCS" ,h" ,here " .. '"
f.i rly C()n,i nuou< r... nk". Syun,ine C()n"'<t> b<twn 786 .nd ;&8. '~e very
yea ... whon Nicoco was hcitlg pl.""ro and .uo.lly took place. " An entty ,n ,he
Rop! F",n*;'}' An",,[' fur 7~ ... y. rha, in ,lur ).... CMrl<> s",mro S"inni",.
,k b""her of P,ui ..,h h""i,,,. I.."" In go ho"o<. He h.d ["",n c>pwtc.:l in
1",ly i4m .u.m,m."" ". k>ng ,inl< ago:' in . 11 probabilil)' .mid the d<irmishing

i" 788_ " If Si,inniu, we .. . . the Cuoling;.n roUrt, wit .." so ominent ~ ho'!a);<
h,..., bn kepi, fur ne>rl)' 1 ~<. he <:<)uld mY< been a .... I""bl.
10. wlu. hod bn going on in Co",u""I . ell.tlcs ."d H od.;",
wert in rtgular ron!OCI .hro~ ,he 7fios .nd Ch:ulcs h;m$Clf vi;i,o;J Rom. in
,87 _In 7fi6 a p>p>lleg.1fion <ro....J Fl>ncia on ilS .... y '0 EnsJ>.nd who .. i, hdtl
a ... rics of .:oon<;1o. 0 ... key "",mho. of .Iu, lega.i"" ..... Georg< of
0..; . ,h. bi,hop of Ami<tU who had resided tn Fl>ncia sin", 7H.nd who W>!.,
.u.dy. one of ,he I... li'ing J";,:ipan,, in the Itoman S)...oo of]6<>. I-I. rook! bn a ",-I"able ..... "'" of inlOnna.ion." Finally...h"La .. detC'Cl Akuin',
hand in ,he dr.n ing of,ho kg>,ine "'po,," of %6-" If, .. Don. ld SuUough ....
"'Ilt...ed, Akuin bee>",.. fUll .ime merube. of Clurlemogn., ro"n cirde only
after JU. and 00' fro m 71'" i. u......lIy ....,med," ,nd ,inee Alwin did indeed
m"", wi,h C""'W of Os ... in Engbnd in ;86. ,hen he tOO be ken .. a
",-1""hI<: info.nunt about< and p>p>laffaiB ",hen he ...,kd in Fl>nc;,_
Mich,d McCo.mick, prodigiously dWliled demon" .... ;"n "f the (.C<!u.ncy
and inmiry of u.,..Medi ..... "..,n "'n'OC" in ,II< ",.I y Middle Ages pmviJcs
~ mot< I"'.en.ial ron''''''. '' On. an malt< ,n ;mp .... i"" "'-'" .Iu, ,II I"n i..
in .h e lit< 780< ough, '0 Iu,'. known each ".h..', vi",~ and w:. ivi,i .. qui,.
fullr, And ye h.", ""'. C<\nf..u~>n ."",,,, h"w ,k F"'n ko 80' ,hci. ""py <>f ,he
Nicen< "cu, and .. riou. diffcrtn:! h>d .n"", bo:-twn tho 1"1,,1,.00 fnnki,h
_kw> o n images wi.h,m. propl. in <i.he. RDm< 0' F.-.nci. kn"wi ~S o. ad",;,
.ing .ha hOk diffcteneo aied .

mig" ""II


7 /",,...,,,1;'111 ~f'ht Opu> Caroli

Iln.Jl tQChcd ,he fnnkislt coon ;,. no, dear
ci'h." In.i>< p.-cf..ce 'Q ,he Op"i C",,1i The.:.d"lf cdc,. ,,,. council ,h .. " .ook
place roughly .ht )-ca,. ~."" ftm,n bell...,. ,Iu, .his .. mock da' a .he
ptef"", to 790 o. 7')1,." So ,h. ,h ..." of .h. ""ry em be picked up in Francia
. Iready goins on
in .hc dawning 7']0>. Some of ,he ...-o.k of .-cfuting Nicac.
fo. Thrutlulf h.d begun dnning ,he Op", Ot",/; under unkn<>wn circum'
, .. ncn. " But .he en.'!' for 7'1' in.he y..... An ... /s ci.ed abov",.)'O 'hat Ch,.-l .
m>gn< ",n' .h. ",fa '0 E"gbnd. E""" if we "'ppose ,h" ,hi, .,mock is ft'''', ir
d"", no. II u, when .he docum.n" were di'pa.ched '" Engbnd : ...." only kn ......
th .. the .."'",..,"'", Y"rk """,Ii,, rho.< '0 record .hi, infQcnu.ion undc. ,he
yeo. 7'1'. \Vhy would Ch. tI.mognc Iu"" <cn. Nicxa', te.:or<L. ,,, Engbnd? Be
","us< Alcuin, hi, mo ... ru,tft! advi ... and i".elke ....1 j. ck..,{"I1.""d. ,,"" in
Engl, nd d".ing .h e period 790'"9 )." The .. me p.~ in ,he V"'* An ... /s does

f.u.:d)' wh.t hapl"'ned when 'he


""r th.t Alruin submittctl lOme IOn of written reponlt to the Niet"e m.. eri.l>
b~t, unfonumtcir, th.t """U",..,,, va",,~ctl ~I"l "'" ..I" '"'' kroow ,""h.n h.
it, Wh Cfl he scnt i" if it "rivctl, 0' wh<r ~ it. "
.Ir..ady wu'kinS in 790 '" 79' .nJ if .. ",m. 1""'" ... ,,,dy
,he,,,,,ft., d", ....,nri,1
.re "'"
Ensbnd. what ...... Tltrodulf "'Ofk
in~ wi. h Wore AI"'tin', reu",' in 79J' It h.. he<:n .u~.ctl [hat [ho F,.,nk.,
.;<il'<'<i from Rnm. onlr of [II< Nin<
in [h. fi ... pl.",! ' AI,
,h""gh , .. I .h.1I .how in <It a helow, Throdulf"""",,,o h.1'<' miwoo ... :><>d
,h. ront<xt or",,,,,, or th<- ".men" in <i,. d"~, hi, .".. .... 11 le",i,,,,,,,~.oo
d ... ilctl ."d thorough .0 "'PI"''' on "gumo'" [h .. he nnHT h:td mo", .h.n
... m e" to wut\ "'th. Bu, =emly. in light of the York .nnaii,,, ..... me"t,
F"",m.n h.... uCW"tctl th .. Throdylf moy have wo.kctllO,. whil. ",-;,h ,he full
Niet"e ,ex . ""1'><1< of hi, ow" hdorc 'he fuJI
of r:Iocu"",n" ..... ",n,
.0 Airuin in Engbnd,.nd [hen one< .gain gnpplctl with the rompl<tc t<xt . fte,
Alruin ', return:" Thi, i. plm.ibk. Bu. i .lCcm' unlikely to Ill h.. the """,,',
prim.,y ' ..pond.",.o II Nicae. """'tid )""" been fon;ed to wo.k from Ott"....
00 tha[ !I.e only full
w'u om, acto [he 5a..
Li.d. COn
be ",id eonlid.mly .hout how [he F,.,nki,h "",un ",.
",cd fU Nicao nd the im.g< qu ..,i<>n in 790---'Jt. The identi,;'" ",d tOl", of
th.1.:cy 1"'1'OO".li,i... re nO I... i"'riguing ,h" [h. "",',,,,' ,hem",I=. Akuin',
idlOOlh""", 'l"rodulf, i. "",," He ....... Guth, I'<'*"P' fron' S....
gou>. o. m.rho from SO!"i .... "i who w" bo[n ,round 760 . nd who ,uddcnly
.p]lC>. ... in .h. Carolingi,n
in .round 790. In .ddi,i"" .0 '""'i'ing ,h.
Op", 0.",/;, he " ..,. superb bibli",1 ",hob,., giftctl thcoiop>.n,.oo.1>< fin ...
poe' of 'he C.rolingl.1" .g. h i. nO! ...11 ""I'."i"g ,h .. .., .. kn,ctl m,n
",me '0 a"rlem'Sn.-, """,ion 0' ,h .. hi, ulen" w.tO '1'I'1;c.J [0 ,h. rompli.
",-ted "",n.. of ,<>ponding to By"mtium, Th. probkm 1<>[ "'hoi . ... i. th ... "
(or .. i, known, 'Throdulf .ppe>red ou, of no"' .nd immctli"d)' , .."mctl.
l...ding col." ,h. Cuoliogl.1n roun, It .hould not bo: forgon.n tho. the .... d,
oW}' p lOS<na: "f Alruin ho,.., ... 0 . . ' .he rI~ month. of tho .ighth e<"tuty,I .. t



"'U,= ..







J"",dt .

An .. ,h. yeo, 79' ,h. web of ""ide"", gro"', rno", d,n"" 00, no "",ie,.o
i"I<'1""'" In the """""" of
yeor , 1'"" ;,;..,,,,1 .... .-..;on of ,h. F..."ki,h
court', . n""", '0 Ni""" W.H ><m '0 U.d,;'n in Rom . ,,,. Op,,-, Gz."Jj ..... !
r:v.n""lIy ..... mblctl in fo". hook< 'Q(.>li"g tlo ,h,!" ..... Th'I'",,'o,ioool work.
which is "'S'"itctl differently, Iw . ishtyr. .. <hap,"" in tWO ""ies, 0", of ';"Y
.~ ,pt<" . nd ,,,.. of ..... n".fi,..,. Wh.n .h<h.p, C....,I;ngi.n d"f,
,."hctl Rome, it "",oked. howl of 1"01<>1 , H:td,;,n [pOndctl_ he ... f, the
Hnl"'ns~_.o ",h" he ,,-,-lIctl ,h, Copi,."'" "",,",us ""Mum in Oil< of ,he


long<:>[ p' p.I I[eJl of [he <"Iy Middle Ages." Th CltP;III".,. i"elf does nO'
IUNive. ItS ,0n1<01S em be pa<1;.lIy t:OnSlruClcd from ,he ~P'"tS~'''_''' '!lu[
ii, [he pop< O[es .><1< ehap[ ,i,k .f"" .n .... her . ["j ,hen ,..h,m .I.., impliei[
or ClIpl;,;i[ critiCism of Nicaca ,ugj;<O,<II by <Kh ,i,k. Hadri,n', 10,, Ixp
.n un q.... tion; W.. ,I.e Cltpil~/""' 'fCO[i .. 0' "",..Iy , Ii" of 00j-"lion:ible Nic<:". ~ ,hot l"hcod"lf-and oo.h< .. ' _ hod ;d.n,i~cd and
wi,W t(' coli '0 ,he POI"", >II,n.ion? W. wililUm '0 [he .nival ofth. ~po~
,~'" ill. prob.hly, 793 iu>' below. For now. I men,;"n i, only .. cviden .. for tl><
Cltpi""/"" of 792_
As [hey WO[W 'hr<>U{;h 'he Nicen. """ ,he F.. "iIS m,d. who, mu" h.~
I:>n , d iStrrt<ing di.",.,ny . nd ,h, .....y ,hey rex,<II indi"", .. [hat 'hey wi<hcd
to .-001 p""ul, n5 ,he pope . S"nding nea, [h. heod of the Nin. m" .. ial
..... Had,i .... lei, .. of 78j '0 Con,,,n, in. VI ,nd l ren. UE 14-!8: ,h. H"dM"~,,,), Thi. let<e, ..... reod om during Ni= 's """,nd ..... ioo. Some ,,,,,.men!>
r<<t.ining '0 im.gcs ,hat ,he r .. nks <k<m<ll ""'" obj<ctionabk 'Pr<. red pI<',i,<ly in ,hi, let'. T he F.. nb had no desi", '0 .,,,,ck H"dri>n ",""0.>11)' SO
,hey uIop,I [he .ubterfuge of looking hard fU, references [0 [hesc pa;s>g<>
e~he,.. in ,he Ninc """'. "mally in /U"ti(} IV. nd ,hen ... i""cd ,he 01f,ndin5
I<moth to th ..
On a ~ """",ion, [hey ,i mply made vag,.. ,efete"...
wi,h"", 'p:ifyinS an acriD, Somimd .... hen H.. lri.n h..1 .ircd one ",. , by.n
aUlho. lhe F.. nks. tefred '0 , ",bsequcn, N;';'nc ,i".ion of. c<>mpl<ly
difl<-ten, 'e," hy ,h" .,me .u[hm. Thi. ,ook .kill , nd is . fi", poin,,' ,... Tftc,.,.
,J"lr. <:ompl ... ,00 imi"" .. f.. mili. rity wi [h [he ""'4. In o,her ..."<1,, Theodulf


h" """'"..

had no inten,ion of .. ",iho[ing d;=rly '" H.. drim who[ [hey
,ook 10 l>c dubious ci,.,ion nd qu<>[ion, blc ,cachinif<. " Th'" .s ,h. CIt".","'''
..... being dnf,I ,he Fnnlu knew beyond a dollbt 'h" they ."J ,he P"r<
di"'l>rted on ,he ' Ubjecl of im>gc< ,nd on ,!tc <,. idence tho, >uIJ l>c ci,<II in
d,ren ... of im>ga. Givcn [h. infU.m" ion .... mbl..d .00..- bout ,he nll m<ro",
con""".l>crw<-'Cn 10d .mong Co", ..",i""pl . Ron .... nd f .. nci>. in ,he ;110<,
i, is diffic"h '0 und, .... nd how , h. Frank. could fur ...." ..1 years, bad!y
mi<calruJ.,I ,he ,ubs .." .. "wi iml>Ol1 of rhe pope', ><-CCJ'"n.. of II Nic.ta,
Or. '0 ligh. "f ,1Ios< <:o n, "., ond ofGen'illy (767) and Rom. (769). "".hops
'he Fnnl< Iud "u' .I .. rt<! [heir own view> on inuga umil 'he 'ally 790>. Aftc..Jl. onoor of ,he pass::ogc< in [he
of 78j rei .... tl ci"';un' fro nl [h<Rom'n Synods of711 and 769 , The F...,,,k.< Iud .",,,dl ,he Synod of 769 .nd
,10 .. synod', sl><:ciiiaU y .... Airmed ,I>< 'nching of ,h. Synod of 7)" Onc< ,hc-y
$;>W ,he N;';'ne ""'4. h<>W<'Ve<. [hey p<~ivl. much more .. ,i"", problem in
Nic. .. "'mptehen,i"" defc"", of im,S" wonhip_ Th< nugoi",d. and ""h ...



"",nee of ,t.. Rnp'''IS~m may

botn st.nling to <II< frank<. bu, 'h<)l should
h>v~ been ... <11 for ,....", .:1''''11"1<1''.
Anoth., d<vdopm<nt in 792 .hcds ligh[ on ,h... n.ion bcJw"cn Huhi.n
.00 ,hoe h.nks. h ,h""ld be nored . hoowove" ,hot non< of 'he ,,,,,, n. ,,,,,ivc
'0,",= from ,t.. F~.t\ki,h world "'nt.i",. "",n.! .bour Thtodulf. ,h. C.pill<o
or , he 0,,,, C.roIi. From ,hose oourcet, :IS indeed from". b,e,
hiog"'phy of o,,,l<m'g"<. one woutd no' know ,h... discll.\Sion of imago w..
undt""'r. Th. Ino,;, inf",m1li,. ",uret, for ,he Y'" 79'''Y
whil. ,he king
..... , "';n'<"Iing (,h .. i.<. ,he winlf' of 79'~') with hi' <ou rt .. Regen,bu'l\' Felix.
,h. bi.<hop of U'l\d in [he Spmi,h M was rondemned for his .lIegedlr
d"bio'" ChtiSlologial rC>ooning. H" ror Iu, long been I.btl.d <.dop[ion _
"m." Suppooedly h. "",inuined [h" J<>u> W1.> .dopred ... .on by (;00 rho
hd"" at the mom.n' of hi, hapti.m in tho Ri,'" Jord," by John ,he B' p,ist-"
W. will mt Fdi. md hi. ",he","' EJip:tnd", of Toledo .go;n .honl). for
no ... i, i, imp", .. n, to n(~< ',..0 f""IS' the F",,,ki,h ",,"Cd ",.l. i, 'I're" th ..
..!optioni,,,, W1.> the ...U1 >criou, thrologial problem .[ thi. tim., .nd Fdix
......... nt to IW"", with Angilbert, on< "fCrulfl<m'gn<', mo" uu""d ",unscl_
10". The /&'p"",,,m .. ys pli'itly tI", An);ilbe" b'~"sht the C.,i.~".., to
Rom . '" T hi, p<rmi... oecure d", of 79' for ,hi, prdimi<\ary
of """k un
,he resl>on",!O N"" ... n,,'e i. nO .. iden fu, how long Angilbe" .....yed in
Rom . Siner Angilbert d id h,,. ron~.<t wi,h the pop< in the C..e ofFoIi., md
,iner on [hot m"l<r , h< Fr.mks,nd ,he pop< ,..." in p<rf"", ""ron.!. i, is. f,i,
h)"J,Qth"i. th., Anglibtn .Iso di",o..."j ,he C.pi,."'" wirh H,.J,i,,, . The ... i,
n<> e-id."o: to pro .. 0' Ji.ptoV< th .. he brought b.d H.dr;'n, Inpo ...... \1:"""
heleorned, who,
if .nr he hod on the pope. '" wlu, p<""",1 m~
the pope might ho"e givcn him arc .11 gon< beyond r;OV<ty. Wh .. i. mo...
em ful p1OloOpogrophial r.... "'h ......1. ,h.. Chorl.n,,,!>"e h.d with him ..
R.q;tn.bu'l\ virtu. lly all of hi, k<y Rom.n md BY'.. min< ..Iv.",,,, ""'" ",i,h
"'p<tie"" r<"O<hing back 1 d=<k or mo ... " Thi> di,,,,",..(1)' .Jds '0 the my.lnY
,urroonding ,he ,li'I',,<h of the C.,i'""'" to Rome. Did thi, group of wily
diplom." d.... i'" ,he ,<>1u.1 ~n.!em.i" tlt.>t ,,'" ",cd ,,, doH"" cri,;,ism (",m
Hod,i.n him, lfl If ,h. ,.."ful .pproa<h of ,h. UpilU"'" ...... Throduir. wu,k,
... we to .uppu;t th .. no on< hootheml t<ll ,h. ><mbkd "old hond, ' [ho,
",ri"u, problem Iw.I ,ti",n. or th.t they ".-elf 00 mfo,med but t<"COmm.ndcd
[ho, ,h. C.,i ",,,, be
The ,ceo rd. of ,he P"i, Colloqu)' of8,\ provide' du. ,h... hed. runh ..
lish' on ....en" in 79' ,nd ,hI will help to nu".. tlt< n. ,,,,,i,, . Iong '0 79;1.
The bi'hop> who ..... mblcd ., I'.,,, und ,he ><gi< of Cho,", ,ucceOr,
I-"<ti. the Piou. " .... addressing ,he n""'ed ou,b~k "f iconophooi. in B).,.n_







[ium . 1"h<y "y, .. fmi"g

,I., m....i.1 .,'"




[h. ~,.. di,f'<".' ,h., ., , m=ing of JOIT>O kind

fo[ Ch.rI.nI"!;".', .pprov.I. " Th.,.. [<c<>.ds :octwll)'

""""i. 1< [h. publi. d ....... ion wi!h [he CApinJ.r", [hal Angilbert lOok [0 Ro"",_
If ,h .. [ ..... mem is .. .-icIly
,ben ,h. l'I,blic =men, '"by ~im!<lf Ii....
Ch.,lesl ,nd hi, me""'
h.... ,. ken 1'1..... R<g<n'burg in 792 ,
Th. V. ,jcan manwcril'[ of [he 0P'" .hro, .ddi.iolUlligh, "" [hi, po.ioJ
",hik ck.pon ing ,h. mYSl<na d..., .urround i,. V. cicmu; La,inu; 7107 i. [be
:tCm.1 """king nunu",.ip' of ,he 0,1# c"rW_ h is ,,"'que due"",e",, AI[ho ugh thi. trulnu",[ip[ now u.:b [h.< p .. f.>c.. [he ol"'ning of book o"e , .nd ,II
ofbool f"".,," it .. ill displays a' k.., J,iOO ",,,,ccciorn.." Som< of 'h<lC .moun '
<0 no mOl< ,h' n ,h I"",io" of. I." .. Of twO within ingle word. Som.,.
[im"" how"",," whole P>"'SC', mnning '0 dro~n, oflin .., ...... e;,be, cro><cd
ou!, <,.. ..-d, or <r.<d . od replac.ed_ In g<n<r:oI 'erm' .... "''' -'"y du' ,be "edi
to,..." ""rtccted ThroduiJ. H isp>ni.m" trphr.<d p>M>gc<. odded rd.:crnca, 0'
IOn<r.! (. ndlo bon<ned) [h. [('X[" vieio", criticism._ F"",m.n di",.rns "
I.... , four h."d< .mong the cofT<c[o"" None an be Kl.ncilKd. Th. ovc.-.Il
im pcr:ssion """vryrd by the V" icon m~uscript i. of. "tram" rtfort .. tbe mrt
<>'<n if... F... man', "",[i,ulo", J<Se>l<h .. ha"e demon".-.,ed. l,..."I"lf was>fily rcspon,iblr f.,,- ,h. ,h.p< and ''11""",n, of ,II< 0,.... Sr,io, ...u<nti"n
was Ia.ished on !hi, work. Th. Vat ican manuK.ip< r<VC1h a major ,"'labor... ion
.",ong Charlemagne. b",in [rU",
In the margin. of ,h. mon u".ipt F,<Cm1" ~nd nd d.>cipbe,... " Ie...
<igh<y-on<. and pos>ibly <igh')'_d...... nor".;n T iron;,n ,hor.h.nd . In. further
twcntr-righ. cases .he detectS ,,idrncc fur ,hor ",i.tence of. note thot an no
long be rad. As. 'QUlt of. arch.> rebindi ng of [h. hook in tbe ni .... ,.,.n,h
ce~ "'')' ~ m.,,)' m<n. no ... Wef< sliced roW" of the !"g<>, Som< of
,h.m h" T kft ju;, hi"t . hat 'hC)' we" once th.""." That not .., virnwiy
,Iw>ys one 0' ,....-. ",btl!,.<uclt '-' M", b-... , ("rJ",&" P<~"" "'pi,n"" o. ""'''''
~,reco.d .ith [he ><;Iwl <eKtio'" ofCh"I.m>gn< OS .he .m.k was ..-..l in
hi.! pmcn or [he colloqivc """'io .... of hi. kC)' o>uni."" We m.y be ''''', in
Oth "'<>rd" .hat bo.h ,he "",rk ... whok .nd doten. "fit> individ ...1 . rgu_
rnen" had !h. king', rxpr<><cd apl'[o ... l, Indeed, [h. w<>.k .. "",ibed [0 Ch ..b
himSrlf- TiK W~"" of Owrkt RK~i"" 'M SrwJ-. foct oomrwha[ oo.rured by
the fo,,,,,,. ,itle. 7;' c,,~iM &x>1H.
II,,, "",he,, did it g<t hi. 'pprov,l? Th ..... icst
is '0 oay"'at Res''''''
burg." Th". i. no doub< tha, mch.n ......."<. """Id be .rue_ Ilu. i. n,>gh[ n.o,
be ,<>mpltte_ Th, is. wh.<n ,be
00 '" Rome it con ... ined ...
nored, <jgh')'.~"" chap .... in tw<) Sr. i", of ,i x')'.nd "...n'l~'-'. The ~<>I 0;"'1
,h.p'= of the UP;",,,,".t< no, ..... ngrd ...,d)'lik. the ~"t .i. ty dupt." of



up;"""''' """' ..


,he 0,,,,, bY<

i, .n ""~,,,II ,imil,n,y .nd both IOcw h.,.ily, in ,h...,
>cai",,,, on m. Uer< of biblic:ol in'P,,,ion. The c..,ilMt..rh >-ond <c.i"" of
dup'." [(co. , wide <:lng< of i.,,,,,,, in no ,)~m .. i. ord ... Ev<n,u.lIy m.>n) of
,hruc i..""" mund ,hei, ""y imo b.::>ok> ,h= ,nd fom of ,I>< Op"'. Book mm
Cin<>Ol be inro'P"""ed .. ,hi. point in'"
p><n' disc""ion bca.UI< i. i,
only known from ,he nimh-mmy P,n, "..,nu,,,,ip" n.., m.nusc,ip' mihi"
neith 'he eo,="ion; by ~ulf .nd o,her<
'he origin,1 1<,,, no, the
Tirooi,n 001<>. Bu, book ,h,ce .... mmy OO'<1ion . Ibei, few." rh. n book>
one .nd ""'" ind<cd. book!WO. ,he .hon<>, in ,I- Op",. i< ,he m"', m... i.ely
O>rf<C,ed. Book , .1 .... h", ,hinccn Ti",,,i,"
, nd fr"",," has been
abl. 10 iden'ify k,ur cases ,..I><'e ,hel"< "... , on , nme ,h., i, no longe' 1<1I'ble.
Th. poin,. qui,. ,imply. i, , h.. ",",k ""n,inued ,II ,he while on ,I><
,ha, ..... h w<>,k pmhably ..nded well i",o 79)'oJ f'OS'il,ly in,o 794
8o<h ,he
of .he o,..,.nd.1>< V.. ican m'nuscnp' rlO.ide evidence for
.... n!S in rh. CO",,", of 79) . Concc",ing ,he '''' of ,he Up'" ,wo poi", m,y he
m",k Fin'. ,I.< ",riou, i...... of ad"",ioni,rn. ",hid> fo' ",,..iou, ~fU Iud
ph~ .h",I" ,ciy n" .01<" ~i=>. imp<:! i""lf on
in >cv<n1 pl>eca
Such td".... nca m.y h,v< been inw'P"""od :II K<g<o,h"'l1 Of ....,y hav< been
inw'P"", ..d I....... reo,,!, of .he con",lr .. ion, on ado!""'.i,m .h......... k ph
Such rcfc,.n= m'gh. well ha,.. 1x.:n ;"","ro during .h. cou"" o( 79) o.
7'J . .. pl. ... wt:re unde ....... y (0 he Council o( " .. nkfull wl><<< .h., i"" o(
adoptioni<m li ..... I1) .opped .1>< age"'!.. Sond. in ju< few pbca in book
four .he i"nu.""" of Alcuin has bee" d<t=cd. ~ II is ,,0< irnpu<>ibk .h., .",ne
",m. nho.,.ion, Alcuih, kI. f,om Engl.nd hmJ ,h.,i, "'''y ''''0 "",,,k. ""e
.nd twO which arc 1>rgdy de...otcd '" cri,ici,ing Nic.'" bibli",1 rd"crcncn.
Almi o
him<clf . formidahk bi"'i",1 ",holor.nd hi' letter. or ."",il<. """'
b.u..J n. ,h ",ho.i.y nf ,h. di.i". ",.ip,,,,..,.:
poi". ,h" boo .. re
OlCmbenng i,
Ale"in did no. roourn from Engl.nd ",,,,I -", ..
the fits. h.lf "f 79j . Too. i. i, hard." belie'''.
Ch'fl<m'gn< would n.... h.o""
"",hcd ,,, h<" Aku",.. "',;.,., on ,,,,,Uet <I"" Iud I,...." J;>cu...,J '" hi ...... '"
.nd ,h .. Iud been "'fitt<n iooo" m""i"" If.>li<<
i..<1( ..... ,he ,..ork of.
gre schour.oJ , lfOUp< o( eolbhon.o ... Whil< we c:mno ...y for ccruin ju>.
wh" ..." g<>ing on in 79'. 'he
,nJ ,I>< m:onu"'fipt> "f.1>< 0,. ,.10 poin' ",
.... n.inued , .. i>ion.






,h. 0,,,,



it," ,h.






n" .....rrttion. in tI V..icon m'n"""ip' ..II .... 1... " ..,i... Eve" .1o""gI,
'''' con"",.
""""1,,.;,,,,1) ,,Iu ..... go: ,he Op", h.d ",,,,hcd ,,"I.<n Angilbe ..
d<p"'cd (". R.>",e in 79'. i. >:m, ~ Ie>. ,h.. [he V.. i<:>n>c,ip[ h..J noc
)"<' been begun. So on. ,rory ,old by ,h. m.nmcnp, i, ,h .. i, " ... ,,nfl.n


.n.ll,,~ 79) or ~.rly

in Frm.n, """ds,

bm<'<cn A"gilbert', d"J''"u"

,ht manu"rip' i.5 bes,


7~, Ano,~ ..... ory

,old by

lb.: i.5 a curious d.m.,,,,,,i,,,, in ,h. V.tican!Cl'ip' ... htr< prodUCli"" . .. nduds ,uddenly ,nd markedlyda:line. Up '0 LC li_e_. Lilni
Gm,uni. " i, "'.,. ,l.en ",lIedJ ) ,J! [h. scriptOriu m u.oo it< lin[ palm_
men, . nd .upplied fine,< ,n" tais lOr ""o;h d u r 'o<, .11 of which wt,~
""i"en in an <I<1\o'n' "", Iy auoli "" minuscule; ..-hen di""",ion of tl.e
ron",nl< ..... h<d in mi,"' .... [h ... wtl< accompli.htd wi,h S=' "'I<
Aner LC }-[J [he dUf2<,er of [h. K[ip' de,io"" ... hc:coming 1000<,
. nd roo ...... m"" of the initi.! . ... .<m>J1 .nd me.". hob .ppcor in
,I.e I"'",hmem. ,nd wh"le pog<> al< roughly <TOUl out. i.... <>d of
being ",refully < and rcwr'".n, .. before. II "I'pur> [... , ..,mc_
'hing h .. "'pp<n<d by which ,h-r .m<rprise .... b<ro hligilled. h", fI()f
h.lted. "
F~m>n h<1~ .nd I 'hink ohe mus' be righ'. , ... , ,h. "ri.,.,1 of ,I.e Rn,.",u",
>howed ,he Fr.lnb just how ",Mle chasm "'P"tated ,hem from 1"1'.1 Rome:.

The 0,,,,


brough' ,,, romploti"", '" ..

'"r n" V...

Lo ,. 7107 w rom _

pined lu.tily. wi,h"", ,he 0 ......1 polill!. lhc: .. 'uch could no' be "'hi to
, he I"'P<. 0' d' ... m,,, .. <d J!<" ..... lI y, "'i,h"", ad ...."i.,,,g .Jurp diiJ. be,...,.,n
the pop< .nJ Cb.rlcs. Gi,-.n the d& nri. 1 tone of 0,,,, ,.6. ,he ""'" rigorously pro-papal in the: whol. tr<at"' . Iongside many o, m.rh of rnp'
p,iJ '0 ,he POi> .,><1 '0 papal
,h. idcn,inc.,ion of
di,id. " ...
no douM disconc<ning but .n .d",,,isemm' of i, was un,hinkabl . w. will
n.....,r kno ... wh." /i""I. mi.5<d . nd co,,~,<d ",... iOll of ,he ap.u mig)" Iu~
looked lik. as. book, . nd "... anno< '" "',. ,Iu, .n of i" '<gUm.m, woold
h.v<: ,,""" "">cdr .. ~ "",",' [.-ad ,hem.
1.... Votic.n ",.n."""p< ,dJ. )..... n",her ""'Y, I" tbe course of i" ongoing
1p~ wtr< ' .... ri".n'~ condem" odop<'oni.<m , " I.. "~,, from
Eiipandu. ofTokdo.nd hi. fellow Sp>.ni.5h bi.hops .. pbin' ng ,heir ItlChings
'0 Charles . nd to dr. F.. nki!lt bi.5hOf>S arri.-.d in Franci. in 79> '" N )'" In...
ku." mme ..... !>ern sober ".,rning th .. Feli condem",,,ion .. Rr-geruburg
In N1,.... no, guing to ru,.Ft end to. serious doc,ri".1 qu.anel ,b.,
, he ' '''Y pc""n of ju' Ch,i ... ru:rordingl)', ,d'<ren<c< 10 Chri,,', con",I,..",_
, i,lily ,,,.1 Mel'''''ty wi,h ,ho Father. o. to Hi, bcin~ trn;"'s' "'" " """pi;"","
"",. ,ybtl), in,roduced into ,h. Op~,. It i. p""il>le ,h .. Akuin ,.... 'ommooed
from Enp.nd p[<ci.d~ ro deal ... i,1! ,no .dop,ioni<t 'ISU< fOr h. ,<n:.inl)' WfOl<
, 8'''''' .1<.1 on ,he .uhi<c' in ,he n.,,,, fow "",..." If ,hi. i, ,rue ,hon [hi, .rory



.....i,,"", .......


COIlnU ,..,ua1 .nd m>n~lCrip' NidCflCt wh ilt .1", """",ling how Thcodulr.
book "" imag<:> ...... """",irnn mA,......:cd by ",h., 1""'J'1 nd i.......
And ,1><1.;'.~"'" ory. B<au... it d.."" '"' ~ from book fOur i,;,
.. mo;ch. ",n'" ... ' m.nwcrip" ""'Y. b." tho:", it cood "'""'" ,,, "'_
if .... hod ,.... V.. ican nunw.r"pt' """"'n of book four """ ...,..1<1 br . bk
m. Ii'o<",1 m'ni"ri<>n. ,bo,.n: ,he .......Ktcn 10 ohio 1m uk. It
otnru .... , 0,... ~"l. whICh eti'iaud 'M cbu... of II Ntca<"> '0 un;'<n>Ii,y.
W10 OIi" .....1y me2fI' '0 br ,ho: 0,... . WI c/upt .... &0, th< <nd of ,h. b<Jok ..
_ ""'" k - n. ~. :11 . .. a cbopt ,hot by> oot new d>roty rq;ardins m.
univcnolicy of 'n..- d,ffn.ncn ~ ,100 .... <Iupt.n will br ditcu....-d
10.... bu, f<x ........ i,;' ""ir import.nt to uy that ... pI:rn. IQr F,.."kfun mn. in
uN, m. F nks ....... buiklin, a ' 0 be univ....! council.nd .hoi,
dclibcn, ..... on ,hi> rna,, found ,ho:i ....., i.. to tho: Opws. All of th ... "orin
ho:lp ... to .it\la,. tl>t 0,1OJ .nd ,he- ,m.- oon'''''""'y wi.h ... the ~n" of the
yar 791 .. pianni", (Onllnucd fo, Fnn~fU"."




11>< ",+0,,10 .i,u. ,i"" " ,,,ounding ,h. Council of ""mkfU" UU!1< 79~) i .....,
. nigm,.. ic. This i. '"'' d,. pl.lCC" fOr . full.unom.n, of ,h. p.obkm. ,u""Kmd.
ing.oo .he occom pli' hmcn" of ' h" cooneil." I ,h.II p!o h ..... ' ' ' <s. How
d id ,h. cooncil " ... , ,h. ,ubi:< of II Nico.. . nd of im'lId? \1('h" ""'" .h.
roundl , .......1
Cbo,lemagno, .. Io,io'll ,..i,), 1''-'1''" H-.d.ian? \I('h" ki"d of


council ...... i.?

in 79J 1'-'1'-'1 e'''"", ",.h.> wt ... "p"""'n,...! wi.h 8"''' ~ifu" n.., Ourk.
nugnt in ..... 'hwfi' '''n Gfrm. ny .......,Iy bcf",. ho: .... n' fO S' . tGlli:rn, in Wan
burs f", Chri ... ou....""""" .hen mo"ed r-,.nkfu" ...-he... ho: >p<n' 'M
winter of 7'jH. II.. F.... ,.......... (F..... n "'"211 lo.h od> oJ) . nd ,he ,im. ,Jo..n '0
,he ,......,a1 uocmbly of .11. !'rank> appo;n.ed "" Frankfun "" Jun ." 10 tho:
mid" 01 ,,,,,,- .... mbly <..""ho. k. ho:Id ""a, .ynod ;11<1...1;,,& " ,he bDhupo
from hi> ..i>oIc klngdom:' am)t<i"" to 0"" I0Il<, or ,ho: Hbilhops of <d,,1.
Ganuny. ond luly.M>mKtli", ,0 .""'..... n.. .)-nod "'2> held in th< procna
of the ~ icp'<> Throphy\a<t ond S,cphcn." I. iolikdy th .. thn.t ......, the
............ kp, ............., ....,h Charb 10.. '" ,he ~ ynr. But i, i>



D<W kption w'" ..... , br Hadri.n.

n.. 0,"' ..... already..-cy fat ><h-anced br 1.... if}- "The ~u. ohould

~ " .., a

prob.Iblr be- . ttribu,ed

'0 ,he I'"'JW ""''''"''1 ., . he <nd of ,ho, yeo . FtcettU"

<e>oJs tho: key ~ on

"fu '0 ....... bo. the en...,.. bi-oogIt. the "fu to

Cha.icm>&n< '" IOfttn ,ht blow." I ""od tht L"in ,he OIhe. w. y ...... nd.nd .. in
011 ,he con".,)', ,Itt to"..".. SO' ~fn from Charkmagnc. p.m.!"
,lti> was peKe offe,;n, on hill"''' ,n<1 he ,.al,=I
hio C.,i~ Iud ,Jw. ~ rep<i<.n in RDmc. Ie i, unl;kdy .... , p>p>lIcp""
WCK ,nipU"Il :obou, Alcnunnu ,n ,he- tare ... ,um" IooIung fOr a..rlemagnt
10M - . .... nn' h" h"", a .... J>fOit- PooNbiy they tn<1 him at S,A'~Iim.
01. mG", lik.!y ., F.. nkfu" atly in 794. AJ u..";"1 of 79-4 P"'1I'ased, and
.. ~,ioru '" ,he ......bIy .nd >unc~ of Frank/Un connnuni >fNC'<, the
Fronb now Jt- lOr am,n
Hod,ian had rcjecttd thei. condtrruu.tiun of
II Nieac-. and d,ci ........ 011 ,mar;<t- VOII don S,cinm bdiocval.
he """Id
01 .....,;"",. '" ,"'" 1i",,1 ..,., of ,"'" ~<bigncd ,,, bring i
li,dt n-. in", ti~ wim ,he p"p", vicwo. FrtmWI i> .l.q>licaI." Who, .....
~ ,he Franlu and .he P>l"licptd. the ap.s .....
has.ily conc:l...Jc.l and .il<ntlr lit..! ...... y in the ruraI.w.;....,..
prime . " n. .,,'"'''' lOt .h. eooMil of F..
JOys only !hat i,
w.. hdd '" condtn>", fOr.he . hird ,in ... ,he hcTay of Foli. The
di'r<'tly '0 ,he ""',h anoJ bUlw of
wik f ..,r><b.. A
u.a konoJ ,hen in'p<>ia,coJ in,o ,he <1,(1)' fOr i"14, ., in end, " The pocudosynod
of ,h. G, ... t... which .I"')" .... Id (,,' , I,. . cl_"ion of i"..11""
hid> ,I>ry
fal call ,he ..... ", h. was rejt<'N by ,he bUh"",,"" The I., tnioN ""f>;""
of ,he hpJ mdi,h iI~",," .10" .... n,ion Fel,,', cond.",".,jo", ' h<n >tid!,
"Thy,,,,,t ' '''''. ",h"""'.oJ _mblN 0 kw
ogo in Con ... n,inopk und ..
I",n. and h ""n c,n".n,i .... nd called by ,h.m "m o nly ,he ...... mh b",
~n uni",,~, .... <ai, asitlt by NCty<MI< .. ""mpk.dy .nd tot:oIly lU<bo ""
i. _Id nOl he ronsid<-tcoJ '" aIled ..... n,h or uniwnal."" N.i,h., of
,t-.... lOUIe", "",n,ion. Theodulf. Ak~i b. ,., ,~.
Th. ac.ual anon. of F",nUiJn ..... in pe<ftc. ocrord ..:i,h .he anrulistic
IOUI'U< i" on< I<ry ,t<p<'CI: Fc-li., ."Mlcmn .. ion ... nd, lin. Then crr.on """
odd, ..... im:ogn .nd Niea<a bu, Joe. >0 in . n ...""i>hing "-.y. Th~ canon
rod.: "n..- """"ion of ,h. '<"n rnod of the G...-lu, "-hidl __ held in
Con""IIi<><>pic fot ..... do< .. ion of imil(;< _ mt<t<d in'" the diocuWon,
.,... lind. wriftm ,her...... 'htr wbo do r'IOt I"r to ,he imoga of ,he ";nu.he
~ I<1Yict 01 ado ..""" as '" , .... tfuoi". Trinity ue bound by .............. 0/1'
>bow "",".ioncd __ hnly r.........." .-1y ...;..:.~ odon.ion 1nd ,",,'Ocr,
kolt i. and."... i" oondnnning it. ~" l"" 1.:0,;" OJ ....."'" bu. , .... txric >dopd
heK is <Yen ...:on .....
A, Nieat~ 8ishop
ofCono..."u in Cyprus had copIici,ly:and
eutfuUy oaid
i ............ "'" '" b. poid the I<1Yict 01 . . . .tiun p>id '"
the ...,.,. Trinity." Somcho.. his ..., ....." ..... ptblcd in .h"""",isoion,









movn ""


.,oJ ..





eon...n,i ...

I',"bobl), in ,he I"J<" La,in YC'~"" of .he _ dut CJv.rkm"W'< rca,.'<\!, and
carne ""' wi.h him in,ining .hat "1 rctti ... and emlmoee h"""l>bly .h. holy and
mO<. ",,,enbl. i"",go occording ",.he ""Mo<.,{ adowion ..hich ' I"'Y'o ,he
oon$u!"",",1 ar><! lifc_gi'ing 'Iiini'}' .~, Thi, ,"'ernen, w ... ",,-erd~ ~ri,;<i7;:d
by Throdu.f. hu, "" mo'" ..,. ...,..ny. ,h.n doun, of o,h ..... In ,he R"p"",,,m
Hadrian .ddr<tJ thi, p.a<~ by s>ying .iu.t .b. Grtt'" bad OtrugglcJ with all
. hei, might to men from he,<">y.nd .h... fu, , . wl vi....." on imag<>o on
houlJ (U'n 10 the &/ini.ion of .hynod as wh"k." H. did no< dirccdy
add...,.. the d\argc it\<lf. [>.rlup. ,h. Fl>n'" rta>Of!c-d ,ho. ,h i, one , ..,.m"",
would be _n by .h. papal ic-g;r.<> ., SO ou, "ndi.h . nd 00 indckn.ibk. ,Iu,
,hey would arncur in it> roooemn ion. If .h..,.. Iud lookc-d .h. f.ult), Latin
...,nion of ,h.,uu .h..,.. would h..,. been .bl. to <o. i.fy .hem!<lva .h .. Om_
".n,inc had. in"..-d ... iJ .hi,. A look
C,ttk """ mi);ht I..", ",. ightcncJ
them ""t. but no on<.ICc"" (0 ho .. wed. the C,eel "<I$ion throug:h all ,hu<
Y"' .... Wha he Fr>"k. gut. ,he"....... vcry q\".i~I .",,,-,,,mna, i,,,, " f "ne
.... ement all<g<>lly u".,..! .. Nie>n.. 11m "'''' of ,ho .m.. ingly amhiguou.
Lo,;n .,{ conon """,1 The las, d .... can be rnJ ... I did .1,,,,,<. ,,, ",,,,n ,h.,



one Mat.n>rn' . nd "ne ,,,-,,men' only. """ "" II", ,he panici[>l.. in
,,",, .nrc""e.rc plul>land <oulJ be ,id .. , nominoti ... 0' """"'.; .... either ,h
uhj<c1> '" d,. ohi.." of ,he "'" ' erb,. ,,, adjccri ... modifying ,he holy
father! . lu t;. ,he hi.h0l" .... mhl<d >< Fr;rnkfu". The dOl,'" ,",uld be rnJ as
... j:,;...., "fNiocac. ",," "'Mft." It i. hard '" beli<v< ,I"" p. p>II<p"" would
h.1'< accep<c-d ,h., . " the ambiguiry innoccn.?
Some dues ,,, .n .n' '" ,Iu, 'lues,ion 1>','" memioncJ .bo""." '111.
k4pl f",nwh An""". "hith .. ",.J el<> .. in ,im. .he <v<n" ,hey <bc. ihcJ.
m... ,Oo,,I ""Iy ,h. <<In<k,,,n,,;on of Fd ix. Lo.<I, at .
th .. s;mply Cinno'
be dc<wnir><d, someone in'apol 1 > , .. temen' ,,-j.h '1>'0 fundomen."! cIe_
me"'" Nica", ..... , " I""""""ynod " Nieaca was f.lsdy ",Ikd ,he .ICV<n, h."
w. also <ow .h.. tloc ~i.d anrul5, which <;ctt>inlf polol-dl,. F...nkli.,,, br
!!O<'<I !W.n'}' )-.." bu, of"n ,"ppl~ ",lid in(orm.,;"n (or ,h" .... Iie. pe.iod.
j<-ctcJ ."y n", i.", ,h .. Ni..-.<>. ..... ,he ...."nch "",,,nie>! couudl of ,I"
dltlh 0' a unive",,1 co~ncil , T_ mh .. annalis,;c SOurcr$ .Im .n: ne.,ly ""n_
,em"., ry wi,h FranH"" .Iso ,""",I wme o( ,,,= .h..... ,.""ies. 111, /Anth
Ann~h "",l e ,10 ,n'n,ion ...11 of Nieaca, im"!le<. 0' .be Gr b. provide an
unWlually long, .I".ill hrip'ion of Fdi,. ""ndem n1<;"n . nd call F"'nk~,"
un;" ....,. "",meil ."
M"Xi""",,," An ....1r do no. ",II F..nkfun " n; ....... I.
t"" like ,hoc /bqt>/ Fr.mti,h An_Is, .hey . nume ..1< all ,he 1'1.. ,h.. b"h"",
Cime fro m, even add ing 11.,.><;' '0 .h, Ii" . 111" ..-.""", .1", u,.. ,he ,...,..d
pi<t>dorynOO" fo, Nieaca .nd ",jcc" numbcring i, .. ,he- .lCV<n,h rouncil, "





Pulling lh ... di,!,' '':''c >QUrttI l<>g<"thcI pclmit<. kw infrrtnccs . bout au

tbotitati .... Franki'h thinkins, They ,hem.dv.. ,,;.,oed Ni",,".nd .cfu~ ro
1 i[ bec..Jled ">n'enth" or "uni""... I," But thcydi<l n'" go '" for .. '0 I~" ,hi,
"i'ion on 'he remrd ., F"nkli,1'l in ,h. p' ... n~ of ".".) kptcO_ At I.,..t
. hey did rwt do .... if un. si"""' m ;" ,..,ding '"
h,,,,,,, ph"-ling of
,, 1"" of ",lOon two. Gi,= th .. .<orne "r the bc;, mind, of the F... nki,h
wo,kj h.d boccn .ddr=ing 1M ing< q ..... i"" .nd )) Nicao. for some iQur '"
~,-c )""""' nd given ,Iu, .. Ie:o" "nee .nd m.ybe twio:
image i..... ,,~
.. guro out in Charlemagoc', ptence. i, im li"k odd ,lut '" mw::h eflOn
pruduC<'d .""h mode.. "'01" .. F.." kfult . nd ,h., 'k 0"" ,.... .., q uiekly
fOrgo".n , Bu, ,here,.... n"'" t" .void . n OUtright b,cak with R<.m., I>y
looking du .. ly at how ,h. F",,1cs . nd 'M pop< dodgtd ,he inug< qUC>[Oon, .nd
by <om!",ins ,ki. ''''"tmeht of lho, ' I><cilic"''''' wi,h ..,me ",k. iuc> ,Iu,
W<rC tkn being dilCU>Jcd by the Caruli nsi.n .nd pap.1 COUrt.,
will bc ,bl.
[0 ICC more pri5<Jy how [0 un<kr<t.nd wk .. tk i""F <on'"",."y~" in ,he
I>rger ft-amcwu. k of the hi"o!}' of ,hi, p'llicul" ('<riod
Lal<' Sttlioru of ,hi< ch'p'<1 ""'ill U'c:t, F"nl;trp>p.l I.,ion, in ",,,,. detoi1. For now, I wi.<h ,0 fucu. (On ,k yeo" I><:<w:" .f..:o<" 790 ."d 79~ .M If'
I"ok doly .. ,h<c twO i.. u<> ,h .. ""m< ." 0\11 , "<n,ion .I.cady. Ni<>c>
.nd ><lop,;oni,m, .nd ,h.n ",..Jd 0'" more i",u nomdy [he p'<lS>Km of the
Holy Spi.it_ Tht ""')'1 in whieh the iss'*<> weI< tt".ted in the fOur 0' fi,-. yea ..
Ilnd~, "",jew illumin ... cach ",hocr, hdp [0 d arify the ""'y:l in ,,-hieh Charles
~nd Hod.i." deal. w;,h ,k problem ~ by Nica.o> . M .Md I,gh[ on [h<c
wo,k of the Council of F"'nkfurt ;,self
Kigh' .w>~, one roin[ nero. 'I<r>ti"" .nd ex!"n.ion. We ","W
in p"'l"ring ,h. C.pitwu .. T hcodulf .nd hi, as""';"'" wc'" c"'m<iy careful
no' '0 ."rih,u. [0 H ulri. n himidf mr ltol<m.nt thot they ml<ndctl to
Obvi"."ly they did n", ... i,h '0 p,o....-.kc '" '" impugn ,he orthodoxy of ,hoc
pop< whooe .... m [hO)' WC'C "",king, O f""' .... tbey did nut know, .. k.SI nOl
In de,.;I. wh .. Hod".,, ', =ion wo" 'd be umill..c in 79.1 or pcrluJ" ",'Cn
'-'"Y in 794. We Iuve .1so _n thot it i. ""'!' diffirul, to discern octu..J ch.nges
in ,he
of [he Op,,-, !IU[ ..,c,e <><=.<i""ro by Hulri.n', 1"1. But"" can
look., otb .. lCC,ion' of tb. Op,,-,. ",n,. of ,,-hi.:h ouy boccn nni,he<l in
79' when the Urp;"'''''' ",as compkted but I f...- of which Ivt defini,ely
co"'posedl .... in 79' 01 in 79.1.
Seve ...1 tino<:< in ,k COurst of
Opus Thcod",. . i,h., <"ed d ir<aly 0<
. lIuded indi,<Ctly [0 [h<c Dm~", G<"'sian~"' . work composed ..... ,,""k,. in
nlUl)'.nd long "",hOlro to POJ>< Gcb,;u. I
north",n holy in ,h. early
(. 9>----96).'" Thi, book ,.... .. Ii" of
deemed .00h cn ,;': .nd 'OIhoriu[i"".










a!ks<d1y by!l~ .ut"".i!)' of tM l"'f'<.1Iy \U.nin~ (0". number of (ima ~'M'

'" bun""" the rdilbili!)' "f hi. own v~umo:nu o. '" mack 'M c.m.ibili!), of
Byun';nnel<imonia. Thcodulfimrh",lr ~ '0 the pafW oundmI" ~
i,. aruin 'rony Mre. " ' -. 0,... , ,6. ,lot ""'" . ;,;.......,Jy pt<>-papal ch.pIn
in , .... book. did "'" 'Pf'<"1 ;"
c.,.l~!.'" and Iftm. "'" '" Iu .... ben.
n....dull'. """,k in 'M Ii... 'n'..." . ... h, ,ndu,ion in "'" Ii...! vcniooJ of "'"
aall.." n..ompk of ,IK ""Ol'<.nd impact of ,lot ptOCI!SI of
~ ., ,IK c-,tinpan (OUn , Tho:doulf. an IMri.ln Goth. Iud ~,
""My ."iludt ,...... ..1 on",1 p>p>I J'OWft ,lid 'n' ........ ';.".. Tau .... , _
Spooi .. ;n tht ~rliaI . . . of tho: odopoiooiol con."... ny berny ..... pm< .r:wn;o.
Rornt." I I.......... ....."ion. 'M flOP' in ,he: p~
tM 0,-., 'n",.d "" ,... rW<' .nd ,.,.".,...,bil,.,. of"~ k;"I '" look
churd! and;,. fai,h. At tho CuolinJim""'1t ,~ ...... >I.., VI
of the k;n!', I'"""'&'.i_ bu, ... 'M ...... ,im . , """.ofoJ fIin~ ,1>;" authentic
,ndi,;"", "'.... from IWmc .nd Iud '" be Inmnl .nd implcm.... aI in >II
I"'"il:>lt casa. In "'" ... th .nd >eV<n.h anwria. tho F.. nk>, >I,hough br no
mea ... hooIilc or ind,IT.nt '0 1Wmo:. .lid "'" Iu,.., this ....... oiu'l' p<fcq>rion
of ,h. RomN:<""rcdncu of tl>< (,1th and ,hutel,." h .... m. '0 n.. ,h.. i, ......
tho Anglo-S "" mi..;.,...rin and ",hoI.! ... ",h" maintained e~"" ....:>CUt;.,n.
wit h 'M Ca.nlingi . .., goi .. g .igh' bo.:k to Cl".k,napto'. "'''''1V''ndf.. h. rif>""
pin 1I. who .Iowly ..... t ... rely in,inw,cd ,hi, Ron,." p<nJl"<'i .... inro
thinking,.: lie Ih .. '" it m. y, .... ,",n .... ,h., whil.
was hoing compo<!
ll>rodulf him .. lf hod 1 M'''Y resJl"<' for R"",.n tr.Jition . if not l\<co...,,;I)'
for tl>< aut ho.ity of 1M re'glling 1"'1><... hil< ",,,",,,, .. COI.Irt hod pco(ou" d
J ........ ion t" p>p>1 .u,ho.ity.
Thi' i""" of how '" dnl"';,h Ro .... only.rne. in the fi .., platt 1>:>_
of.n agr-olcltcndcncy in rh. ochol.r>hip "n ,hi'p<riad
. ith tM 0,..,
or ,n ..."nd f .. nk(un anon ....... jc:>I ;., ...,<m..... ufChariemagno'.
t;on of tl><dmrth and of,,,," p.pacy. ~ ofhi. Iu';ng humili .. aI
,I,. pop< br promulgating a",,,, ....... in 'M pmi<1IC< of hi:s Itp,..... 1l>csc:
~ .'" ....,h""'i .. i<. W"h .... - . . ,hey .'" o<, ... l1y oo" ....t .... <d by the
0,... it""f 1nd br ,,,," ""hok COLt"" of ..en ...utr".",Jing F.. nkfun. Bu, i, ;.
imporun' DOl
toO fas ,n ,Iot~" dirtion. TlUI is. """ can"", ugu<
,ha, ... Ioral "'n of , .... <hu"h Ourl<tn.<t\n< Ndcd dawn " ....... the: pop<
jnfotmood him of,nis ditoap<"h,,,,. F.......... ,hink>, fOr ........ pI<. tlu, ctwk.............. di.....dal from ~publi"',"8 ,.... 0,... ... I ,hink i. i. ha,d '0'" ju..
"'- tht: work modo, Iu ... ben. diwcmin;ucd in the: Ii.., platt. II ~
4~ qlW"l" .,.."... .n fftt"""", odill"" ~. lOIiot in ,he: incompl<t. Vatia:l





"",10. "'"
n.-.-.,..J .......

,h. 0,,,,




"' II"

lIWI...mpt nd 44



,I.: r.n. nunusaipt. CJr:my. "'" boo!< rouId "'"

' 1<

CN. . 'U , ... U '

h... been 1'itJ ilI'NI d,,,,""",ed widely. I.. wealc 'nanlUCripo ,,...ji,;"" i< >bou,

.. '''''''IIi .. ,Iu. or the unq .....,;".,abIy imponant and ...tOOri...,,,,, Council of

FrnklUn." And __ it .. minded of famous Ii ..... .,. ta ..... y &.....Jf 0< fA
" " ' _ '" IW61f1.. .. !tidl an: ...... kly ...ooed by .......ning copia. Th< lin:ol
.=ioo of.1ot 0,... .... CIu,~'$ na"", proudlr uod prominmd)' on irs
Ii", P'fF in bcau.iful ..:rip<: ~INCII'IT O PUS INlUST'RISS I.\t I E'T EXCf.Lu:..vnSSIMI SW Sl'crABI U S VllU C'l IIOU . NlFrU DEI REGIS
EST. - 11IiI iI ,lot only ' ....., ... from CIu~. lo:mg ~gn ,h", 1:><:0" 10 ..
~. H. Iud no u".n,ion of humili,n,n& .ho pap< uod ho did not in """'"
"".......i .. from ,ho (0<1'''''=1' CIu,k ....... and H.dri.n did not dcaI .... ,h
net. O<het "' .... y. and wI, ........... ) popn did ..... )'Of h" .... :and rm:1y ..... o
claimed. ,ho ri~t 10 in,poK
ill in ""wna- WIu. ,ho Ft2I1b wan,,,.! /rom
Rom< "'.. kss ,1>0 'mit" of.1tt cu, ...." pop< ,han ,ho :w......... ,hal th<y wt ..
adhering f.ithlUlly 10 ,~. living Rom.n ..,\";,,.,."'
'I'M n..,,;.I. ""i,1o ... hkn ... 10.,.. I>n dc.Jin8 p"widc on in .... ""11 1",.
'Jl'C<.iv. on the ,d.. ionl bt,wtfn ,Itt F.. nlu ..Ill ,h. pup wi,h r<:Ipt to
dogm.,k ........ , On tI, "nj' of adoption ..",. ,he.. w-. . co'''pk1. 'gt<'<n><n'
0" ,h. hal .. poin' ,h", I'oli . !;Iipond .... 'n,1 ,lori, fol io,,",," .,"". wrong. Coo!"
...,ion in d.>ling wi,h ,hi, i"uo ...... ~.'y. But tho i""" WU no' hrought '"
Hadrian ', . " on,;"" in tho fi"t pi .... by ,t.. F.. nb, R.:.,h... Had,i." <=i,,,.!
""'... in tho mid'7Soo di=rly f""", .nd he wro to tlte Span,,,, bi,J,op.,
dr.pit< hning .,. li,,10 KCU .. ' . infotm.,ion . to .. jut .. h.t h. had b,n.,J of
th.i, "'>ching on ,h. lubjr-ct of 0,1$,', ""vi", IJo:.rn "_!,j,,,,,;' .nd h. rrf<:rrrd
in gct><,:d .... y '" ,t.. doc ....... of ,hot: Council of Epb .....
hod <X><Idemnrd
Nestori ...... It...,.. ,Itt 1:.. n4 who ...,.!ly
,t.. k.od in comh..ning:adoption.
i1m. Fdix WU .pp..n<n<kd and intort0l'''".!'' b.c 'h<nO .i ...... In ,I>< runup
'0 F.. nkfun ..,.,'em major 'tnti ... _u ...." en "P' .... ..Jop<_ ....... Akuin

,hei, ..



comr--! .......:ol..."b tihi>.,...n "",in.. the odoprioni .... in addition ,,, p~

paring Ck"lt",""",'.In,.. to 1M SI""'U, bWq.. :and, pem..p... th.lnter of
th~ F.. nlOoh " " ' - to SpaIn. AI,hougt> the ....... Franko-I"poi ronru,rcnce.
it 1ooIu .. .t.ougt. ,Iv: F.. nlu tlot""""'" real!}" tooIt ,ho: lad i" OOIing .... ,10
..Jop<ion.. m. Su, ,~io ...... he. inltip"", 10m'
Ff2I<kUh .do,...... ,..;,10
flomc,. JoI>n c.....din' .... brill;""l)' "" .nco".! tho 0C1'IIa1 te",h.inp of oM ad0ption;.., !Tom ,Iv: doo:,ri" .. :ucnbnl ' 0 , ...... by ,lot.. onus-u.s. H.,Jrio.n. ..
"",rd. ocruotd ,lot adopt_; .... ..-. hJ impl ..... ion ,h;u. br dn.i]rd "'$" ...."t.


of ~irs of Nco,i.onism, \Vhcn the Fronk.!.. .nd Alcuin in l"'rticui.or, od

dfOkd .ooptionism thoy "e.. 1 it ....S'io . kind or Nrsrori."i'm. It would
l>< inre"""i"g '0 know if ,h"
i"dtp<ndcnr in,dk<w.1 ..... 1,
I<mpt to COme in'o line wi,h Rm",m. p>p>1 t.. ching. Ei,her ""')'. the hcic ]<vd
or coopc",,;"n "m. in. i",><1.
We Iu"c 10 th:u on< th<- ]' ",nks .nd the p<>pCI. on the hroodrst
]"-,,,,ible .ding of the .. Odenee, .grtl to di .. ptt. Neither fin.Jly impo;cd
"cw 0 0 the other. There i, .noch<-. C2>< "f the "'me kin.! from roughly ,he
",me I",iod which yi<ld. a lik. cond",ion. Th" Ii ... ch'p1er of ,he C.pi,.u"
C2>,iS',I ,h. profa.ion of f." h wbi.h T. ... iu, prol>Ouncrd .. N"=:o becom.
he .. id ,he "'Hoi)' Spi,i, ptoccW' from ,h" F.,he, th~ulh ,he Son" (emph.,;,
:tddl). Hod,.;,"'. rq>ly, 0'>< of ,he I.:"'S"'[ in ,he H4po",um, defend< ,he Brun,ine ro,i,i,," " " [he .uth",i~' of numerouS p. ";,,i< <i .. rio",." A, >orne point
rhe Fr.,"". h.d i"",,,ed ioro ,heif fcc; .. ,;"n of ,he .rood- ,h e '"Nin'> Crtt<!
w., "O. yn ,i.I o. <'Y<:t"f -kb ... ,ion of Mo----,he w",d fiNINf'" which pro-ducecl ,hi, ph..,,,,, IX Pal" filioq., p_Mi, Spi,i,,,,
In ,hi. f",","


or ,n



.he H oly Spirit pn><<<<i. nor .hroulh the .on hut fro'" [he F:uh., "nti
Son . b" ,nd Wcs' ho,h :u:ccp,I ,h. '"<Im,hle p~n'" of .he Holy Spiri'
but ".irul.tcd .hei. umk" nding diffel<ntly. Rome ~ no. ""op.I .he word
fili"'flU .nd did no. do SO .h. dn"'nth century. " Thcodulf. mconwhil<,
rq><:t,eJl)' ,,1'2dt<.1 ,ho: Grco:b f,,, 0 f."I,y "n,kr;""J,tI~ of ,h" ....", "'1 doo'~n". "

There ,be m." .. ICS,I u",il in 809 """ne;1 ..... held in .h. fr.>nki,h
" 'or(d bea.u>< ;ome Ft.nki,h Fnonkl on .h. Moun, ofOli,'" n.., .. lem
Iud hom <ri,i<i>eJ by G"",k monk> rOf reci,i"8' c ....-d w"hfili",!1U ,n i,. The
fr.>nlU,h mo"kl wrote to I'opc Lc<> III, ,,1=1 him '" .."k the m>ll<,. ,nd ,old
h,m th" ,hey Iud h<>-rd fili",!", reci[ed ;n Ch>,ktn'gn,,', d"'pel. Le.) tn<rel)'
I<fe, red .h.....
the F.. nu Chub. " ..... hi. CUStOm, .sought >od """ivcd
'he vi ...... of .........1ofhi, mos, "Ii.ble t heologiC'-1 ><Ivisc". Scv.:r.>I ,....,i"" we",
pt<p>m.I defendi ng ,h. F.. nkish .... ion of ,h. crtt<!,n.! of the ,heology 'h"


ulI<I<,prdcd i, .".1.

d<"" ..,;.,,, .... , ..,,,, '" Ron", '" "'et"I"

'0 1........ <1< 1".-,

of [he <;01fln"", of ,h. C.rolingj.n "iocw, " Leo would no. hudge. In o.h ..
_,do, ami =Iy "-' in the i.... go conlfO".,,.}', th< pope .nd th. Frank grtt<!
.n di"'ST, N<i.her ,ide im]>05':d i, .. lf on ,he o,hcr. Thel< weI< ,10 ch .. gn of
hefCSjl. Cord",ll<btion! 1".... ,1_
Th" .. compo,;;on' an l>< dm"" out, little mOI<"''' to make: ,hem "
deor .no telling .. """,ihle. I", u, ,hink b.o<k '" ,he leu., w"lfcn hy Ale";,,
.nd Jr.>wn ftom " .he .utho,it~ of ,h<- di,'me scriptura.'" Th .. migh' Iu .. bn
a >'Ct}' pc",,",1 I<.ction b y him
the Council of Nic><>. Bu, gi"cn Akuin',


fom . """"ea;"". "d ;"""Ivenl,,,, wi,h 01 .. leg;o,;,,,, ,Icc"",~ of :;!I6. ;, migh,

havc b<-cn. mOre '" b officiol pronouncement On behalf of ,h. church in
"gI:t"d. Th<fc w 100 thc C.pituJ,m, prelimi .... ry ,nco 0' ,he o.... li"" f",
<>nc. igotou. disru",;"", on onc 0' nlOn:: occ:L<io", ,n the FlOnki <h court, .nd
,he 0"., i,...lf. If the "'.... i>.l, I"'",i ... n, '0 ,he con,"""''')' . ... "~ in
, hi< w.y. the" they rom"" ... f."",.,bly. in oo.h qu.miry and circumll''''''''' of
roml""'ition. tn the setS of ,,<>ti>n produced hefon:: .nd .fie, Fr,,,,kru,, in
conDC<,ioo with adoptioni.m and .round 80jI in connecrion with the fili"'fw
n,. way All",,, W.""i"sJu>If pri"rnI tho F",,,kfutt ",..
on the MG H
crcota.",,, of optial iIIusinn. Tl:ut "~, on. find. in hi> lition ,i. coll.o<>.1
'In,i..,. or 'pi><l... nd ,hen ,he ""nciiUr canon. " 1bi< "1'1'''''' to b< . closed
group of m.o"i.l. rd""""t ", annn on. and creota the imp"",ion th .. a nOn
cwo, deoling with Nic.<>, i, fimd.rn.nall) diffa,nt . poor... ~kcr $<Im,how.
Vc< 'W) " ""u\lC'lip' "f the Fr.n kfi" , can",,, ,,,,,,.mi,, 'hi'l>oJy of ",.......1 .. _
",<I)'" We. mingholt printed it . nd only twO man .... rip.. at""b even one <of
,he , .... ,i>u. ,h.:" of Pmlinu. of Aquile;'. '" the c"'on~'" The =",;'1. prod u<cJ in 80<) at< likcwi<c n....." " , ,,,m; ,,ed .. , dosed group and ofio" <In .... t
' Pr<" in m. nu",.ip" cont.inins ti>< canon , of , I>< council of8O<)." V~ in
thi. w.y. ,he Frankfun "","rial, do not ' ppear to "ight the i"",go: qUQrion or
tit< Opus.
Ch,,,lem'g"" .nd hi, <km>' ...,.;>e;.,.. K<rn '0 ha" had 011. """''''ent
n""hoJ for deoling "i,h doctrin.1 problem . \l'hc""", , p'"N.m W>$ .. " " " " .
eml. it W>$ brought to Cha~a <tUition, H. thon <ummoned tho people
",hom h.e h.eli.,...,.j '0 he moo, cop,hl. of d.,ling wi,h ,he i"" . He . 1><> nmilied
Romo th., probl.m h.J .nn . nJ .pdled o u' his pl'n! for <k.tling wi,h il.
Work ,11<" p~. of" llong ....'e<>.l fron ... im ul<on<'. Two dues in
,10: F"ml fi .., m,,,,i;o.l . ..... ,,1 how ~n~1 d""";,,o , wo" " .:hcd. Fi .... COnon'
on nJ ,wo .. f ~",,,kfurt we ... i",ued wi, h til. following ,h'l""'i,i","'!\";



Conon 0,,", '",n",i"imi pat"" ___con,ruli..",,,, "que . _.

run," C,h~ mos, holy f"h.e" <:O ,,'~'" and . <ibre'')


unon T""; ".. nc<i"'mi pat"" nomi ... conm"""",n' "quo . . .

mndcmpn,,,,,runt" Cour mOl' holy f.,h." ___ dcopi .nd ___ ""n_

Tlretcaft ,1.0 <li.pusiti,.. I.ongwge oith.r 'b, .... rnpon<i biJit~ h.etwttn ,he king
. nd ,he .)"OOi", or <I.e mrib",,,, action '0 ,h. king .1,,". Tw<> =mpb will
. uffice:

Co""" f """ "SUluit piis.;inlus oomnus OOIm

Io.d king <1-.1").

ro;" ("Our nlOSI


Co""" SiJc: "S""'t"m <)l' dumr"lO...".. ...."",a synodo" ("It was

da:idc.l hr the: Io<tl king and ,.... .....


Lone >gO Han, B>rion wndudo:d .h.. dopn..ic '''lID WCK boring ind<pon_
dend,. dcridal kpIly hr ,h< boobopo.. .. .,. &cond. in t .... Fr>nkfun doooKr ,~
io. Ie<= cl
to , ....>h "'.hop!.. prob"bIy "".",.n hr Aku'n.'"'
Charla ,db ,h< bU.hops ,hM 'hty .... 11 find in ,III. inleT II.. onhodol Imh:as i,
loa. t-n .... oWt' hr c"'" >po>t<>lie ,.... hno. k<pl "r ,.... <hutch. and now bid OUI
by hi, m.... H. u'll"' ,t..m to ..u.,.,.., '''' i. H. ,..... ,ells them
","", <""I'I<il from :oil ,ho .. cal utldo. hi. conc rn! to dio<a .. ",he: """.
u... nimitycl .....,..,...:' H. npially .mplwi... ,ho,),. ..nt """,",'0 Rom<
th,ae or rour ,i..... '" In,n ,,ha.
on ,ho nuc, ..
hand. II. conducld hr ..ri ng ,ha, .lthough .1>. Sp:rni'" ~ 1u...,.pj><2k<I
him . ,hty m ... ' .... u.yd It> ad),.,. c" ,he un.nimity" ,h .. he h... dioaw<:M:!.
H. uy. ,h.. he h.oId, ... ith ....1)" .ffort cl my mind. wi.h all II ~,...,.. "f
n.y ..... "., to the t<aching> cl.1 papacy and ..,( . he anco.nt church. And he .. ,..
tha, he: h.oIds " without duubl" to wha,ev..
will ~nd "ti,,... in the boob
tha, ... nt from .ha, IUS"" .t..liti<>n." Thi, ....~rlr lik. II ..;"',,', j..dS"t<nt
,0 F..
"'''0'''' ,h. ch\lreh , ..die> .ntl decide> and Charles
:ulh.rn to and ."fo.. ,h. deci.i"".
The 1.0" >1ion, t>f
&v<>~,~,., ill .. , ,,.,. the Jirlom:uic dim.... "''1'
w.U. Ali h"'ing """"'cd pag<
page of. long d<.IC"Un'.n, 10,ing t),.
FrankiJ, .ri,iei.m. of II Nic-.... , H><.I.i ... 1'1. ,.-...1 ,wo g:tmhi.. in d .... ing. f in. h< pni..-d a.rIco., ,he "official"' .... ho. of the C4!"Jl/,,,,. for ci' ing
the kt.Cf of G,,,&,,,,. r '0 Scmou. of M .... il\n. 'n... k.,,, ..... ci,..! in ,he
C4p;tflf4,. b.. , in. Itu",,",..! fuhi<>n .h~t omi lt..! G..-go<)'' t~h;ng
didaaic value of im""". Unde< rnI by d....i1,. H.odti.n pr.ti..-d 0..00 for
"'IIP,od ,,,-,, ,hi . ~d thi, ~. _


,J.., ....





"k("" .





. . ,,,

,<do,", ....,


Ow... real v;""" and

tho ..... of ,ho u,,,,,f4,. rdI<'CI..! tl>< "'"" of
",ben ..."hid> 0..00 could ..(ely .>b.ontlon. '0.... Had.i... Did t/u, if ..... By,,...Ii.... did "'" soon ',""un f ..,.,..,k dodoion "" ,I>< _"Cf nf hi> "'" p.>trimoo .... pt'O""inao. and t<V<tl ..... I>< m<p<, )'ft deW ... ,""'" IKmia. H. hdd
out ,he Fnnks ..... hope
,hty m<Sh' )'ft .d"ev.. r..,... the: P"P'"' condnn... ti<>h of ..... Byuntinc:>, if"",. "joe,;"" of II No.x..." \10'. will "'" in ........
dn:W hdo...
,Iw. pfUtlcn' """"""'""'" ..... 11><.1,;"", .......... n'~dy ,..I ....
bIe to
Franks. For ,I>< pnwn . K io C1>OtJ&h to .... pIt.a.iu t/u. on .... "1'1<







, .. ,,, 10 0

lund. tho ... "'... no Nl"urr in F.. nko-pop.ti


om,ion. b<< 0( <l>t iJTUP' 'lues.


tion .nd. on 'M

Iund.1"'J'<' and Fnn'" could """"'
.nc! pn;... _h <>III<, 10 tM hip hea,~.... ";,holll >grr<i", on .... crythin&
Fin..dly. dotn, who, "'" II", Fr>nkOIo';" o(F,,"Uun? Th is not an nty
'I ....,"'" to an."'"". 1".1wic _I'M _IOOC .....,...rily be btougIIt into rdMion
10 """ ............ 1". f'<'W<do of published by W.... minglloff .,..
~n,itkd Y"uJ.w F"......fo_. As 'M an.wiotic oouras ""y. ~
htId.t Fnnkfun. r;cn<nI ~... mbl, In ,II< mid" of ",-hid> """" ....., . """ftciI_
N."..,..I1y OIl .... mbly iwurd caplruUneo. booictlly k&iJI,o.jq documm. di
rid.d in.o cIupm ........",inJ.o. ..II<"", III< ~ """neil mutd can<>n<.
n..: docu"""'" ...... Iu.., tl>crn oWl with purdy ~ nu."",
..wi dotn tum to ~ ''''y of bOIh """,1... and <"Cdo:. ....icaI buoi ....... These
hybrid rrwnh .... """ ullprra-donll.n .11< CaroIin~" ogt' bu, F... nkfuns do
Om ullu...wly ",mpla. foo II", pru<II 1<t ... Dy only ,ha, .. 'M prodllCl of
gonomJ .... mbly I'... nkfu" , cn.ICI""" " , woold anai"ly ",pea' to ha ... ,lot
... mp of "ffid. 1>wrO'-.l.
W. lun !ln ,h", 'M 0,... .1><oI",el, . tfwc.J '0 ",n';do. Nicoea .. uni ...
,..J .nd rrfus<J .0 <nu ........ '. it .. <l>t _ "d, <CUm<nkai eotJrtcil of tho eh,,"'h.

h."" aJ ...... n ,''', I...... "'uo<a. in kto~;nl i><ad 100> N~. I;~ ... u., ",JU,...j
'" coli i, "ni..,,,,,I.,, O<\.",h. He.e we , hw\.l odd th no "'lOra call. F... "kfu"
,h ....... ",h councIl, iltdC<"d. the
eo",in ... II, """e ... '"
It" council< (Ni a Jlj. Conlt.n,inopl. )81. F.p hal" ~J" Clul~n 411. Con'tan,inopl. 51}.
Con ... ntinopk 610).nd i",i", "" .. ria. lii.hful FcrnkUh ..Jh... na II> ,hose
council . E""" ""hen .... bn.f in mind ,hI' 'M fi ....ix umenia.] ",uneib only
p><l ... Uy ..,quirrd whal ..... might call "numlx""" ... ".., ,n., within th.
chur<h ... ,..hol.. i, look .lon8 Ii",. 10, N;"". II '" ,rc'; i,. uflici.ol nu",bcf .
00 ,Il.. m.ny Chf;"i.n ,rodj,ions, C$p<C;"lIy in til< Em. ,*",1 onc o. In
... he, of'M ...... n counel"- .. ,he Konun C.,hoIic .nd Onhodo. world ...... ,U
ally onum<",1 ,linn. i, i... ,ik;ng .h", no "ccurncnical" ew", _ ..-Ie fo.
Ft1nkful1 ." Do.. .hi, mean, ,M""""", Iu, .... """ftciI ..... not ccum<ni.:aI;



,/u., ;, ..... "Iox-.,"?'!

It UO<d '" be orx...d contidcndy th .. tho F....... ~ ' 0 oo:q>I Nic:oc,,',

Wnmiciry bcou",
II<N ;n';.od." bccau.. "each and ""''1 PO" of
,,,- eh"",h " had nO< t-n """wi,..!.... Thio view is tlUC". bu. ;, io only hc<ioa


of 'M ' Nth. 1"'.tnriM, diu,"", hod buij, up. conciIju theory tko, Iud bod>
" nial " .nd "h"""", ..,I" d,mm .." .... n..: >Cffoal """" in...hod .u,hori...
,i. ><prod teach;." ,Iu, tndt..d b.dr. 'hmush tho ehuh
to ,lot
Bibk. n..: hot, .......I _ .....11. '<f"U<nI.,x... and ~b,r ,II< ~pa>"''''
dl y~ of 0"";""
(} Akundn.. A",ioch. eo.....lHinopio.



RoIIl<') and .he thur.:!'Q .he)' .. ~n,rd." In lhe Opa<S <>lie find. ~bund.m
~ that l'hcQJul( ...... COn"" ..,.. wi'" ..... " of tn.... pu;nl> of "i<w. He
co","ntly ,ckr. '" ,ht 8il ... and ,ht f.. ~ "'nually .ho."}~ to orgu< tlut , ....
FI2f1h. Ind ..... Iht llyunt'n ... ale , .... '0 , .... " ''mial'' mdi,ion. ln
orip ... lly inl<nd<d '0 I>< ,I>< 1"""1. ...... or~ o_I~'K>n ,,, ,ht ...... k Throdulf
tpdlN "'" "'hy II Niaeo (;QUid ..... boo O><np.u<d ,,,I Niac:a; ,he)' .haml only
.1>< nan>< of ,he pIoa .mrn, ,hty ...... All of ,It .... <on ......Ion>l. ~ i>
_hing new, 1>0 " . Sitbn! d<tt< ... F..nlcioh inuodUCIion of m. ptinci
pia; of ,""".i.M.,..j "''' . On ,h .. """" ,he FI2P ....
ctny ~
odd",,llud [0 I>< .. udit-d c.ucfully. fuUr 10 > ."",, "dod ind<cd <><a>rd ..;m
,he ..di,ion. Thcodulf 0 ... ,h..,.. tlm...ach "'v !>ibid ~ ..... bar on
mi> thtrn<: n.n..loniMu P ' , " Su, ,....11 ,hi",,; kp ....., which;. good"'
(4.8. 4.'0. 4.11) n<! ',IoI>n 4. ' ... lId ........... "'et)' 'Pi';" hut U)' ctny 'Pi';, '0
.... if thry ... of GoJ" (1.17. ,.16. 4. U). Sum. ~n ..,i<< ~ dcmonThrodulr. ~ommi" ...", d""'.imi .... '.,.,. In 1. ' 7 he obj<rto to .I.. ~i ...
I;"n of . pnugc he doe. "'" k"""" (",p, Gt<p>ry of NY"-'.nd A)" it mu" I><
,cst"!.ml .hen he <ita k Poul, i".",ing
hc thu. 1Ct. """'''''/''", In ,.11
he A)~ [I>< G......... houlJ h, " in"<>'i~'I" wh.t .;,ch p;tn of [M eIluh
though, ,I""" 'nt.g... In PI h. in,i", on t.... no:..J to "di. rimin"." .mong


,"""'P, .....




.ign. In ).16 h. I"",J.. ''''<I "It" cl, "'''0'''''' if ,h.i. ;.. fO"" ..ion h


been romp:[f..! 'Fins, ocrip,,,,", In 4.1 he p"",idc detaikd . n.l)"i, of . letter

of S,. Sym""" S,yli, ... A look .. ~ ... m.n '. ;,>de' ,,"d.....d, "",.d, . , ;"""g,";.
n l.roJ"lr. pr<fc.en. '~''''''l~.i. '" ,.". will [.....1 qui,. d ... ly
hi. ""going co ncrrn fot , ..,ing d .. tJU.It of .ny I'",),,,,i,ion i..,,<><1 of """"y
ICC<pt;n~ i. bro. .... it I<'<m. 10 I>< "IJ.'
Bu. Op~14.11. ,hc I.. t ch'l't<l in ,he ....,rk II i, nuw ... n..h.. cun in,. bold
new <)""><i.ll [10""'Y.
cIt'I"" iutlf;. bncf .nd il> k<y >,ion m'r he q_l:


I( ,h. hi>hopo of",,, o. ,h.... p"",i...:a rum. '''IIfth<r. aim'" wi'" ,he
hody oflnching found in , .... oncl<nt ao"""' . <><1 "",obIi,h..,..,. roin.
of ,aching ... dosrn' ..... ich 00n ..... d,Vg< from 'M OOa.i"" ul "'"
.nd..... f.,ht", ,,,", ,he I""n, ' he)' .... bli>h .. "".hoIic and a.n ind<cd
he called un.....
oI,hotagIt i,..-.. "'" eoub)j.n..J by "'" biohop.
of [I>< un, ... ,...) _.Id . ........,hdcos i, """" "'" d,,'c rV from m. un;.....,
... f:oith.,..j tOOi.ion. \t'. kn<no> ,,,",, ,hi.1w ~lIC1Idy ~ in
m.ny po ... ,of Iht "",,1.1 . ... . i ".n"'......,. "",,,,, mjUirnl. fOr many


(;QUncib ..........." hdd .h.....go ion, ,I>< hoIrChurch i. bod!

drfrndcd and "rm&,I><...d."

On ,It.- bu;> of ,h" ..."men., .n,1 irod~ on .helusi. of .he wh.::>1c ..gumen.
d"",lopt<l in ,lte Of"" ,he e.ed,,; h.d r=ntly dcP<'"ed from
,eachings of
.he . nclen. f hen md ,herefo,. ",Iu, ,hey did wo ..... i'her a.boli. "0' "nivc...I. Th ...... nial " 'rgumen, in ,he Op~, i, leli much '" 'mi,!ui~' had 1:><.
,!"eo,hed i,. Bu, 'he "I>oriron,.I' ''l)" men, h.u b<cn .1t<~1 ,ignifi""n,l y , Now
,he pcn,ord".rc lef, ou, of .ce.",n,. Ei,her or both of twO npb""ti",,, "'-')' I:><
,de.-.n'. Pe,h.pI ThroJulfh.d "'me "~cni""I" <="""io" bou, Hadri.n .nd
T..... iu. (md '" we "",11 .1<'< .bou, Nicaei, kg. from ,he F"",.. n pmi.",h.)
'" morb< he ,eoliU<! ,h ,he Mus lim CO""...... of .he """"mh cenmry Iud
perm,nemly ,Iu".m:l ,h. pcnt.m:hy. In ,he "''''''''' ci":um,,,,ncc> ~o m.y I",vc
doub,.,J ",hher ,he J>OIl'" could funaion .Ione .. " ~'.... rn I"'"i>rch" H,ving
Ief, pcn.uchy ",i<i< .. 'he ''',,''u,< of" ho"wn,.J'" I<gj.i,nuy, .he Fnnk. fUrn
.0 ",h .. migh' I:>< ""lied a '"Iocolly hori"",,,I" .heory , .... , tcq"i,,:<I. 'ish' bond
[0 ,he vertical throry. In o,he[
when 'he "bimops of ''''' or
ine"," come 'og<thcr .nd 'e""h ",It.. ,h. Quholic Ch"",h h...I.... ys '""sh',
,hen ""h.,<,,<, ,h.,.. bj,lIop' 00::0011'1;,10 ...... 11 .nd ,",Iy """,lIoli," .nd "uni
VCT$'J." ~'. neeJ '0 be., in minJ ,hat ,he annalistic oourccs strcs>e<l ,hi, vc')"
""J>t of F"nkfun "" did CharlentOj;l'e>
,he bisllops ofSp:t'n . " "'ri<Ty
of r<''I'le from diff.t<n, I""",;"ru diocuod im>&. ><lop.ioni.m, .nd [h. fil;.
"'11K. In e""h i,,,,.n,,,. according 10 ,he emeryng "lew of ,he 7')00, ,he Ff':tnkish
"".io", W~ uoi~1. ThW!. rod oocr . gain, i, i> 00' ." im pon.n', 'eolly.
whhe, ,h. 0,... ..... in ""',. .1<0.1< "'publi.n.d."
",hich i[ ""nrained
repr<>e:n,ed 'he most "P-'o-4o tI,i oki,,!; of
F",,,ki,h ""urr




.1,,, '"



Of'" Cd",/; NW" A Summ.ry.,f lu Cont.n('i ~"J 0'1\'''''''''on

In rhe ~ .. I:><tw..," Nic:.ter .nd F"mktUrt ,h. h;oJ .n opportunity
uke .[()Ck of wru.. had b<cn don, " Nicaea, '0 rt:~ec, 00 ocver.ol .moW!
dog",-"ie i.. u, to deal " 'i,h the popc on v<ry .l<n,i, iv~ " nd con,...,...."ed pmhlemo,." ,hink .bo", ,hei, pb", ""ithin .h, church . nd '0 proo"",. ,<m.. bble
book. Th., book is , ,,,,nning ><hi""emen. in biblico.l e' rgn'" pcoCfra.i"g
[hrologico.l """"'men' of. whol< of m,reb,.,J p,obl .. n" .nd ,he ~n,
W.... eto d;",,,ui,m of." .nd aes,he,ic< .<in'" ,o'''-I''''y.

TIt. Op.., i,. work of dcq> learning ' hat rcopond.,J in 10'"'';'''' do"il .0 .h.
of II Nieoc . It i, .I>o" polemie of whi .... h<>t iotcn,ilY, The au,bor . nd hi.


opponuni<y 10 ~t<, ,h,', =m to, "inu.II)' e<<y'hing

<oid .nd done O[ Nio:=o. Here;" "pre",n",[i,'C .. mple of [he kind, oour
no,es ""j[h ""hich Throdulf scored hi' ",,,,,,,rous ron'posi,io,,: .b:!u,d, childi,h,
dderiou>, dememcd, dcpnvcd . f,,,uou>, irnpnukn[. inc:m[iom. L.ugh.ble. mirod_
I..., ob,u ... P"ve .... poind ..., mh, rep .. hen,ibk ridiculou,. ,i.ibl., .iU)" ",u_
pid. upeKiliou . nd u",I<:.. To b.: .urc. [he 0p"' g"'ppb. rigorou,ty .nd
,cnaciou,.]y, p..gc . ft .. ~c. wi,h profound ,hrological problem>. Bu, onc muS!
wonder abou, Throdutr. rhetoric of di'pu ..,ion. Wh)' i. hio IOn, 00 bincr. '"
.. kn,t..,Jy ,ktt""c"'ory! Th"""h,lf .... acid"lou, in o,h., w,i,ing:;." p.,hap.
[hi, W1$. person.1 qui'k N "" will_ in Ch.p", 7. Cb...d iu, of Turin .nd
Agob ....] of 1.)'00. Go,h, like Throdulf. cuukl.l .... writ< wi,h I"'isoncd pen . It
nuy he ,h.. . """",.. Ii" in Vi,igo,ioic Lotin rould d,,,,,,,;,,. whcth .. O[ no<
hru"l inyC(.iv<
di>!ingui,J,ing ,h.rac,.,i,,'o:. Nev.,,],..]...,. o~ gelS th. imp"",io" ,h morc i, invol,-cd hen: .h.n merdy ,he ,ofu ... ion of one or mOJ<
.rgom<n.. wi.h which ,ho .u[ho' di~re",. One can ... "'hy W.h.. Sch",,,>d,
called ,hi, work . "poli,ical ,raa. "" Among Our tal ... an iml"'rt."t one will b.:
=P' [he im<j!ri<)l ofThrodulr. 'heological """""tn" ", dis""", hi, w.y "f
<.bli nS wid, ,hom, ...d, .00.,.< all. to u"dem.nd ,10< poli'i""l dimen.ion> d..,
.... !fused hi.< ,,,,,,,i,,,.
Wh' ''-' <f kind of tcx' Th<odulf w",t<, ra'[ och<,J."hip fo" .. me [0 . . k if
llr .....I"lf >c,..aJlr ""de",ooJ ,h. m.."i.1< '0 which h< w;U =J>Onding, ~'<
10""" . heady "",n [b., Thcodulf .... ""mpellw work wi,h. 1""" L.,in ''''''''
J.[inn of ,he Ni""ne ~"". The i, d",>c<: ,h.. , fo, ""me ""riod in 'he very
~.. Iy 790<. he 10",1 only 1:><""<
"cody. prohobly hi, own. There ar< only.
few ~ in tho
,ha[ krod .upport '0 [he '<gumo", ,10 .. 'llrrodulf n,,",cr
had more ,hao e.. rae,," Th"", <;ORarn .,:,e,..1
wi", .. Throdulf >m' not
unde" .. nd ,10 .. , .. Ni" .. , O.. roR [piplt.niu, "'.,. fotc<d
'<od 0"' ,i><
1M"" of Hie .. i. 10
tho NiCC!>< f... hm could mcd i, wi,h ,heir ohi<:<.ion,.
'llrcoJ"lf "',"''-' >urnim .. to h.Y< .uribu,w Hi,,<;'" ... men" dirccrly to
Nic:>o . The", >t< "'" ''''' m'''r ",d, cas.. and beau "'C do no' h;,,,, tho had
La,i" ,<,,, f,om which h< ...."k,:J-hoW<'V Ions h< w",k,:J wi,h i,_1 [hink i,
i. J.ngcrous
Thcod"lf mi.underst.ndi"gs ,h., m.y bc<-n
prump'w by hi. "",,-en, B< ,ha, '" i, m.)', mhers .uggcs[W ,10. [ [he whol.:
h. di,1 ,,'" " " de ..... nd ,he Rruntir><
a"" .. ofThcoJulf". "gum<R' "'ggo:>f>
.rgomen.. com.i,..,.j in ,he Nicene """,,,b .nd th" hi' pmbl<m. m.y be ."ribunJ,,u.. ble ei[hcr to ,,,,,,,,,,1 "i'm of the ""~. to ptni"'"' f,ilur<
... nd ,h. Gck di>tinc<ion b"wn p.-rui:y>t";' .nd "''''... both of which he 01
hio IOU"'" regularly read .. """'~I;O, .od to. 1\<oe.. I1)' 10"", of ,hwlogi",,1
IOphii"",ion '" ,he W<$' '\L:IO pl'C'-.ilw in ,he F... , " If T'hrod"lf ,imply did

...oci"", m'''''!














no . o. cuuld nm. uMelS '~M wh;" ,,~ \OKl., N;"'ClI . hen i. /Oil.,..... ,... , ,Ile
p<>lemicaJ .i<.! .,f I,i ....... ,k ",ould "ill be of ...1", '0 hiswri'M .nd , ... , the
O".,i. <h" ...< S"",,,,,lmft would prinuq in . ny in'(f~, .. iv.
"heme_ lIU! if Iltwdulf .."jly did .. nd ..... nd " .... , b,pf'<ncd " Nicac. then
.he p<>li.ial p<ru of hi> ","Ork , .. ume .ignific.nct dons-ide ,he 'hllogial,
.M Throdulf, bbon provide u, wi,b. p,<gd look in,o ,h. _rld ...reaMingi>n lcorning md culmre in .he 790>- A good ""'I i, ...",k. h.re_
K=nd)' (W() distinguished Ryumini" .. M.. i.... f nct Aclpy aM H.n.
G<Oog Th~mmd"M' younge. Fren"" ""h"b . K,;"in. Mi .. . h..,,,, duh
<kv>.!wing blo .... to "most <"cry o.<pcct...r the tndit;"n.Uy invidious compari.
oon. befW<'Cn hi. E:...tcm "'ntern!""",i..... ....'. h,, ..,.,n .I,..".jy
in .hi, .wdy .Iu, in bo,h f.... te'n .nd Westen, ." " Ik thett: ...... "'m,id"",bl.
'mbigui,y coflC<rr>ing ,Ile u<c of prodtyMfis.M ",,,n,,. vnu-Tali nd """",,"'.
A, NiCK. ''''' ,he"' ...... ",me .mbigui'Jo in ,he 'pplio,,;"n of ,hese ".m, .nd
in the o .... rvation of c..dUl distinctio", bet'olon ,hem. J<>Itn of"", h:wJ
WOf!tcd om ,he differences in con,ide ... bl. d... ,II.." , ... wi,h '" many of Jobn'.
ida,. his contribu,ion on ,his "'1'i<:. .. k2s. hi, d.. p pbilosophie>1 ,,!)Um.n,.
tion. " .. , neglected at t-.:iCK>. On ,h. on. h.nd. , hen. ,h. E:.......... good ""'I
1<>< co",i><." , "" ,hi, iml""""" '''piC ,h,o" h,o. u . .... liy bee" ... umcd . On ,h.
oth., b.nd. nd .ogor<ll... of wh.ot ,,00.1 on tbe p. gcs of ,Ile ,,,,,,,la.;"n .Iu,
Th .. >d"lf ...... 'caJin!\> otv<:r.1 p..... "... in the
.bow .... , Throdulf did
und.m. nd ,he di"inCTion. He .imply fel Iu. ,he lIyuntin .. f.iled '00"",""
it." Throdulf ,1<0 saw .h,o . .... oy biblic:tl ~ addOC<"d .. N""", ""re i.relev:om
,he m. , ..,,, hond." \X'e will discus> hi< CUg<fie>1 in'e""... nd ...... ogO ..
i"" hd~w. bt" f~, now we mu.. in,i", ,I.. t he knew tnaly wh.. """ going on
in .he <i ... ion ofScriptu, . NOI'. Throdulf understood pc. fectly well wlu. \'nO
"i..... ""hen. gy. R.. il of Ancyn .,111 ThruJo<iu, of Amorion <onfcs<M 1 f.ti.h
mention .he ferni .."'n of .i..... he fCSurm:'U)n of ,h<
in imag bu. f.tiled
dead . .."J life ~,la<'ing lOp", J.6j. T he F",,,ks understood ,he dilr..en~ b.t'oIon bonming a pc""n .ad honoring .0 iaug<, they Iud wdl """bl;,/
vi ..... on ,he 'ifCUm .... ncc> "nd., which
could be .,id '" be holy,
a'"J '~'"Y kit .h.t 'he G. ks h:od ,00 unen c.-.......d .h< Ii ...... Fin. II)'. beco ....
of ,h. ,cl.,i.cly ,ntenloe diplomaq of.he 7\"" and 760.. nd hocousc of ,he
Fnnl , u"<I<,,,<><><I
di ...",.. iom . , G.:n,ili)' in 767 . nd in Rnmc in 769.
I"u,i.n th""logy ,-ery ",.11 a"d, ap:... from fejecring its i<<>nocbsm. :oau.lly
emb",ccd. ~ d.,.,1 of i. In both Eas. and W..t. i....... II Niota tha' ...... ",
",.; hIe <=<>I",ion.'''" All'in .nd og>in , ... O,..,oI'j<Cted to the i" trod, ... i""
of" nt)VClr;"'. "., Th< " Io .. ,i,," of i",>gtS "'.. cc ... inl)' ;,reh novcl'Jo' and Throd"tf under.;,ood .hi, pcrfectly _II. The.. is onl)' 0 problem if 0"" ,uo;:umbs ,0






...' '"'I' <uuw "!'U ~pIIl 'nc>j "! '1I1>CWO,. ,110 iu!-'9 ' diI""'I <Wd"'f'
~"""!~':>R> l"o "! '! ~"!11"..wo >11'1' <a>od"'P >If',noop-~, ........... "'"
"'l"I.14"J ><P l ' """II< :>"9''''~!-> "'lL " ""J """" "! ,~w."" puo ._~,
P"""'" SlfOO<I'" ...... .u.!~'NO >p:>q "1.u.1~' 'P!'"" .mol.,!' JO , ... wn"""
In,!'~ <II In! >p:>q ~:>Q p""!uwp .... IOU""" '"'I' ,~, "!I 'IXJ " 1
...,><1"'1' .u.'q' PU" ""'pill " ..."10. >r>""l ~_ JOj ~ "tld Iru~KI .... ' "'I'
,w_1! "" u>,." WOj ~ ........... '''I'''''I'OOj "':I JUI[E) ......'" '1'_ ... ' "':I
"ord "I' '"'f' P"P"p"<O"'''ow '! ,,~, """~ 'l"ru","'J .... p 'l'V "'I' y. fK""'

JO '1"'"

' 1'IOj

1"'< ........ ~ . n.,';! "~.) '''''J .... ,1' .. 1 jQ '''''1' ""':I ""'"1 9,,!-'"'I

'..........<Kfd...... JO ~ 0 '''ids Jlnl"""U '''''J '1"""1 01 ~~ "I' "1

...... '>pi''''

' Y,,!I~Wwnf

M'u.>p "I"~' .'0

"'I' "u"",nlIJ. "'OW!.HI ' JI"po.>tUJQ'~I"'" "t ,,' >f'1I1>Jd
, ~ ',(~U!I"<=V ' p"'"!Jddo API'!" uq IOIi ,.~ >iftI>W II<J:>AO "! "~I -<os
0' "'J w .... ""'!' '! mq '''_'I''n I! Jpn! , ..,." "1' J! II )Q" '! ' I """!"""!p
I"!"'''!~ JO 'P"" m""'A ", '! w"'J ;\I.P!-'-' >1J!<h u.....p .... Y'u ,'0111 >Y' JO
'U01I "'!"''''''J'~' P"P!""d .... ~ "TI"Y" ,(u,"" '""" "'I 01. '''!I!w,) .I1. 1>!"' '0"
"U"o:> pur '''''!''''''''''o 'nl:)"", "! '''''I''I'u", " ! p"
"A> ... tIj



"u,wj" J lI0w, .11"0 ~ >!~NI J" ~"'.. P"' ""!ld wO P"" ilu"l o '! I~"O "'I' "'''''->\1

,ndo "I' /0 iU"'~IS HfJ.


.. dP""! ~J" h!~,>w"" 1u.uJ "1'"'1:)

!=!niJ 'P"".,un< ~,,!~u":1 "I' '~P"I HJI""W!~ J" ...!'........ """'If
.U<O ."''"'1:), ~"'Y'" ", A..oo,!i<'" " ......... p , ... uo",y 1~~~q<ntH ".
"! 'f">M '!H "1''''0 ....... '"I J! ~ iu!~.><k ~ Jlnr-t.L "'11 ."'" "'l" ..... w 1
"'II """'I" 'iluPlI'" ..,.. >Y '"I'" "'>Ul\ '"I '"'1' ""!odw ..... ,u>l":l""" "'I' IJO'I"""
'JI"p<U\U JO 1JO!' ..... wns ~ '" ~ "'OP""" " .... l,y" .. , 'vr:>mI""!P"~
"'I' JO pu> ""'''' "'I' .. ~UUlll<O .~, ... ~ns "<t "'"'1 IJM'I ""'"
JI"f"'U l~!1 ~, ..,,' P'" ''''!f'''''1''''I "" ~ ~I"u' JO PI"""
" .......... Jf"l! """"!N '"'I' ...,. "'I' U! "J!I I""Ift"'U! KlJ -II poq "<t
P"Y AmlUlO ~''f8!> "'" 'tIj' 'w f'U<' -n. PW"'II'U ... w """>1"1"" p" ........'"
n! w.~ Pu< """"!N II JO IJO!I<llllUlnin: .Y' JO a",," "'I'''~ poowopun
1.!!ti"J ." 1'1 "I' JO ""I,no "'I' .",.... l\I' ...[O[H '"'f' <>pnPIJOO Odpnv
"liY' J" II' """'IJI"f"'U
....JJI. "'I' U! """"'~"n ..'>",dw<o ....... ''''''''lI JO ""!~ >If' Y'!"' "'"'f,;d
'pU" ...." "'I' u! ,u>J 'lint. "11""'" ~ .." ~ ~,.,. .".... "'"'f .... 'V
"pmlf' >q' U! ",,!,!p<l1 rru>-,!"n I(i!...U.... put ,~. "t ..... Dinu! J" .""!'
..,.w., "'" ,0 .UO! .... OV" "'I' '"'1' 'J:I> -"I' '" DQoN II l ' 1JO!'~I...,,,,nin: .>II'


<><>!N Pu< "".. ~ >Ill.

C.',i'.I.0" ..... not only. p,dimin. ry d..f, bm .1", tlla, i.. o'Pni.,,,ion .nd
con,,,,,,, pro'o'ide f.w clu ..
Th.oo,l<,lf. inn,i"", frn ,he cv~'wl 0,.."
Whcn ""d><d co"f\OlIy, the Op.., """,.b. tighdy ""'tl'OlI..1....t " " "'" ",!wI.:
Iogia l 0'8'IOil,.. ion [hl<,ugh booh one ond <wo. Book [hrtC is kill [ighdy ,[fUC
,urd, .hhO<lgh I. i, IOler:obly co"-'rem down [h",,,sh ,Ilapre. I'our=n .nd,
. h.., lhe.." ofi" m..enal i. comi".nt with whot Pf<cro<>
""... n... ,ly lIr>nge<! . Thi. ,i.w.ion .o:;o.d, well ",i[h F."",n', derminoti""
that thc '1 ..... liry of walk on thc V.. icon m.nwctipt I<mo;n.... high level down
to },I}, Book fou( i, much Ilard.,
unde"tond. The" i. It<)
d eIopmen' o[ p~on in it, M.ny uri" ,opia had been dnJ, wi,h p[..,iously,
Ofn ,he chore." in book fOur =nl only [0 expond on a problem .J, <>d y
d~, Flttman', .""Iysi. of the lmgu.g< in thc OpMI as a whole demon
,,1O[n pc"lI2>i.dy [ I u [ i[ i. fundam.nully lbrodulf. WOfk. Two hypo[h<>a
may he offcrd fu, the r"", th .. ,he second !..If of book ,hI<'< ."d ,11 of book
fOur ,he [igh[.nd [,.,n'l"m 0'8"n;",[;"n ofbool<> on nd [WO ""d [h.
fin[ h.:tlf of book [hr= Fint, the ."Iicr >1ion.,.nd c<pi.lly boob Onc .nd
<wo which dcol
dirII)' ... i,h hiblial ~, ""')' t..", betn cumpo;cJ
while Th..-..!"Ir .... d ,he full [<>-, .. hi, di'J>O$>I, or et.. ..,uh<d
from hi, h intl "'" th,ough ,hc Nio:nc """ Win .,.",f"Uy, be:f.,,,, ,ho _
" -Cl< <cnt to EngLond (if ,bey . ually .... ~. ", ,lOt< ,he hiblial ~&<" thai
he "'.flIro to 'rg"" .bout, Sc.:onJ, whcn tt.c full <ct of _ " -Cl< onc< >goin
.,..ilable in 79), Theodulf l>es>"
wo.k more wirh p.. ri"ic P"'''''W''',
thwlOf;icol con",,,.., ..... 'nS '" do wi,h ''''''8''', .~d "I>fed problems ,ho, ~11 ~p
book.< [hltt.nJ fQu., Or, os. mrollo.,. to thi. 1""'ibility, .n.. Throdulf h.d
m. ,ked ou' tI,e mol< poni<ubrly theological ~ for discuosion .nd had
hoeg,," dr:>.f'ing hi, ''''1'''"'''' fQ"ch ;"11<, ,he &'"""",m ~" . nd ",nJ.rd
fNid ... 0 fin.l o,dcri~g of d,. 10>, ,hird of ,h.
In ,urn, while
be: ,uin th ...... ". , .. dins. book ,,~ ittcn by ~,M, ~;<cd by 001, ..
u~id.n, 1";"" pcrlups conu-;bu,ro 10 by Alm;n, ow. inly .rgued ove,
.igorou>!)'" kos[ once 0' twice .. [hr COUrt, and .ppro.ed. by Ch.rI.m.gne
himself, W< "'~"'" be ,ut< , ....[ we know jus< how [h. work would ho,,, looI<cd
hod i, bc-on fini,hed with ,he .. me .i,,;" .nd in,dlec,ua/ preci,;"" wi,h which
it h.d betn bcw-m,





.. ,n ... '''l!''






The ,"'/""" '" book 0 ... " ' " ,h. ,on nd in,rodoccs ,h. m.jor [hem .. of ,he
work os. whol . 'o, God gran" rul. to ,hose ... ho will p''''''''''' uniry and dcftnd

the foith. Ptopk ..+.o de"... from r=i>..,J ,f'3dition....+.o.1wK\on ,he f... hm.



,.00 refme to 'e>ell ,",'Iu, ,hey ..........""". who

mel .mbi,iou.. Solnt ~'f'I :ago dlf Crtdu held """ncil in 1Ii,lIyn;' "bod!
...yill""'ly .Dd '" indiw,,,,i,..,c i"'~" (r. 99) ..i>c... " 'h<y .boIiohni
iorup PU' up Iiw ,... >do<nm..." of chun:.....nd fOf the corn ...."''',.'ion of
<hinp don< hy ,,-,< in "'""". ,i..... " (p. 99). Itrndy they Iu", Itdd _'
council <Yen """"" .... n ,he fO.~ Of><' boa".. "E... I)""'httt. ",-t.nhcr in .,.....
<>rP of <Ii,i"" ","",un: Dt in ,ht wm of the holy f:othe ... wbcoo:va
they fouDd ...... n'ion '" i....,.. ,hey ,u,ncJ i. in." a j~. r.,. adon<ion"
(p. too). " We. ~." ThtoduJf ..yo.. M.",cont<n, with th.prop/><u. =nvIi<u. and .pl>Il& 1II'f1""p- .nd .'" imbued with .he lDching> '" the .,.,IWXIOJ:
f:othocn....!to de. "'" dcri ... in d,.j, taCh,n" from tlu. wbich it ',he .... y he
,ruth. md ,ht m.. (John ,~.6). ''. ac'pf ,h.... holy and unittnal .ynod<
..... ich ""'" htld by ,he holy ond ........ bk f.,htn '0 deal ..; ,11 >-aric' y uf
hernial .."",h, and .... f<'jcc. II! ... rb.J novd,io .nd "upid inven, ions. .nd
not <KIlr Jo "'" ..... . re.;'" 'htm bu, we ""Iy
_It fil,h a.
rynod whidt
.... held in the .q;ion nf lIi,;'yn;'" on . (eoun, of ' M 0>0" ' o>p.udrn, t~i,ioo
of oJOIin~ im>g<>. n.. 'eu of it> w';<i"g>. I.dtin~ in <Iotj<><ncr and ocru<. h..
~ed u." (p. '0'). H. cond.odt:< hy "yin~ ,h. , h ing &ilth.rcd d", eoneurrena of ' he biohop> in ,ht " kingdoo> g",,,,1 ,,, u. by God " m<Odulf 'Jl'<"k.
in G arb', ,..<n.) ."d hav,ng aucmbl.d ,ftc, , ..,in",ni.. of ,h. ",rip""", md
f:a,he", W<.I< (On'pd led '" objm '0 ,hi. heray coming fmm ,ftc, E,." ' 0 ,he
W"", .. Ch."I.... coOlp;t'" hi", .. lf '" I) id in ,h. nro:d '0 P'" to flight the
eo,np. ny of ,he "';"ked .
IIook """ op<'n, by picking up "II< p;trti.rul.. ,hrad in ,he l"'fou, ,he .....
luvin, '0 do wi,h God', ,,,,d,u,;"n uI
of .. h" P"'!'<' rule, >houkl
he. a...p..n """ ,n (oor'" dlOw from ,he Ie" .....-hich eomtantinc and Ir<n<
.... , to H..Jn.n in ;I\ ....nd ....d .... , he ,ule" on ..n.. uI rd. ,od grounds.
0.",.., Of><' i. add,......J '0 t~ ...Iffl who .. y ", htoogh Him. God ... ho
wi, h o~"''' l'h<odulf .. ~ 'hi >Wt of onmi. ignl uroganot and





"Y" ,hlo, "'" C..,n, .i.uIa , .... prin<ipl< 0' hun"li,y. Th<y 00 "'" .wi"".he
<lu<m ,Iu, ~t .. God from " . 0 ..;,,). he .. ,.., ........ dated '0 Uttc' ...cIt
... , ......... H 1>0
Ion& d,lICUMioo of ,ime f<I Mp"''''''' tlu, God and
the Grb .... nor. 2J it _"', a>tIt<1'llpot;.ria and a ~nur boon on rh<
nrioua meaning> .nd imp/iearion, of H_.M(,"'" .... i'h "). In chapt ....." Tbrodulf .nxb a ...K ....... ' hy .he- G....... dut .. boca ......... """"'. h;, s/ory He .....
w. . No, lhrooJulf ..ys. ,hei ttopncc f"O"<>
they vdt only ......
own s/ory. M.,...,...., ht conllnua, if.t..,"", won.hipin~ '<rUt!'" >nd wd<i~
'" im...,.. ,lut """""iT< on m. ..-hoi. . huw. hen they Ole nor ...."..,ipi~ God.





CMAn . . r OUt


no< following )110,

Aid He w.. the ""'"Y, the tfUth, .ncl the life," ~n.J
th .... fu ... the,.' .... root "",king the glory of God, H. pfm'ida. tidy discu"",n
of wru.t . n imag....nd 'I\"in ""me gnom .... r lessons .nd "Arctions on the
meoning of """oJ., Clup .. , 'ht tadles ,It< "'"Y the 1I),",in..... f., '0 thei,
Ie"".. C'Ji,..tu.") .od 10 thcn ..clva Cdi""il Ckarly Throdulf docs ""t rccog_
ni .. he,. ",me perfcr;rly , ,,,di,io,,,,1 R""",n clurn~ry prn:r~, H" ..lees [h ...
a ptOSi"". to mran th .. ,h. CteeL h.... the t<m.rity 10 "I""t< ,hem<clvn wi. h
God, '" wi[h [h. god,. Am id ""'... s.. mm.>r lessons, Throdulf ..yo th" i, <'"dIe<> ar\;ty" ... ,1 "Ro',,"," "'[''''''''''n '''0'' ,n>.J' .1.....,010. ,ruI;'ion." Chlp ..,
fou, .nocl ~ in the impe ... II ..,,,[ of 78j ",ncr. ,he rul." .. id, "We as!<
your parnity, .nd eop:i. lly God ..b." Prcdic.. bly, Throdulf w<s , hi. ro
me>n th .. the G ...... k.s, in .ddirio" 10 king ""'I\,n" .i mply dv not k,""w how
begins with
to .. Ibbou. God. God doc. not "",k, " T hroJulf .. )~. So the
.<e>,iog coooenlll.>r;,," of llrunrium', ruk ...
H.-ing "" .... ed r" hi, ..[i.f..",ion rrun the Byz..;omium, rulcr t< un~[
'0 ........ , Throdulf ,urn, ." four ,,,,o,ir;",,,,1 ch.p[.... (1-j-8) ,ru., kuI him on
from. m. jot ,hem. in the ptrf.~ to .h. ""n...1 ,,,bjrct of b<rok 0""
,he int<tpr<lOliOl1 of ,he Bible. Ch.p .. ' ~yc mu.s ,he ';mpk poi", th .. Scrip' .... mu" n,,' be inrc'P""e.l willfully, m~" "", be .ub.'ertcd '" d", ,,~, of d ..
momen,. Th ... i. , ,ndi,ion of in'<lpn,.. t;"n th .. m,,,, he .. ricdy oo.ctval
C h.. pret , i<, which W2S n,,, 00< of Theodulr. origin.1 on<>. ..... our the . rgu_
m.m ,ru.[ on all difficul" dispu'od man",. Rom. m,," be ",.ulted. Onlr thOk
"ri,iog> tru.t Iuve ba:n .pprovro br ,he popes or th ...." fuund in .uch boob
.. Gd.. iu" lHt-w,~", .... '" be conouirro. Peter P'eded :ill the ' po"l<>. Throdulf .. y> ..-. rhe hi.<hop of Rome pm:cd...11 orh ... "0"'. jero"'., "no of ,h.
~t .., of ,he <h"reI> f.. he ... did "or h.. i",. '" ",,,-,,,I, I'op< 1)''''1<u, .nd
m"", .-.ccntl) Pippin getly sough t
on m",.", of ....,"hip. "nd
.ft<. Cod ru.ndcd It.Jy to "us'" ..... h...., rnlUlted H.dn.n on [h . .. me problem" In.1I [hinS" [h ..,. of P.,.r m",. b< fOlI"""ed. eop:i .. ll r by '" who ho.,.
ba:n givcn by GOO the ",t. ofC.ul. Getm.ny, l!>.Iy nd ,IK Suon .
><ven inundue<> ,he Ii.., bibli",,1 p.... gc cxplicidy odd...-.I by Thcodulf bu[
001 >0 much to refute. particul .. lin. of imap, ...,ion .. to <:>ubli.<h lIN lin.
of in,e"""... ,;"n. ' [l,codulf ""mm.n" on Gencoi, ,-,MC '"For God .... "," '"
in hi. own im.t;<, ...'".o ..y th.t ,hi. Scripture mW< nOt be un<kt"ood in.
li",1 selll< '" havinS to do wi[h inuga wh.o, in, it ,hould be .. ken in
",iri.ual ........ Th.n Thcodulf .ites Ambrose', tr.. ti!C. 0... Failh. to .how ,hot
,he oobl. inrerio, of m.o. rhe IOUI. bc.n [h. im"!!,, 100 lihne of GOO. 11.
")~ ,h .. rhe "",I bc." in iu<lf . ",,,.,in inug< of ,he T,ini<y in ,h .. i, is
"" n,po<! of und ..... oding. will, .nd m.mory: '" F", juS< .. ,h. Son i, s.n<",,;1


Rom., .cl"'c.

from "" FUM . mol 00, of 1M Fa,Mt aoo'M Son p~ tM Holy Spirit. '"
"" .~ "'ill i> F ... ~"I from un<l<"wklin5'00 memory p,,,x<'i> from t~
"",," (p . ,,). Man .. fu"h('fmot~ .11< i"""F ufGod in I>i> n.........,.. f().nd
dupby of r:odIy vi"ueo--Ic1>,.. j....;u, .......f>tt. mildn ..... "ncrno.ity. mcy.
"l'I>>dulf ...." ci,n AUf;U>li ... ton !>ow .ho ..,... <an be ~ ond """'.br ~
Ofl .Iiltma. ' 0 God ,,'hilt dtJuning from oi".nd .ab.ondoning in fOJm<'t likf() A<Wn. 10k con1inue> wid, Augwti... ~,ion ,....., "" liknlc:u
...hid. .hr Son bean K> .be I'.d... i. ditf....." from ,II< likrnno. tIu., the hunun
ooul CUI bt2t '" God. God, IIoul..nd vin ........ l"'Orpornl. llItoduif iruioa.
and III< C.ocb ar . ....0". ,.. j'u, bern "";,h .... nufxrufft! .hinp;o. ....... is
.,..;th '111>ea. Th,. pn>vid<> Throdulf in (hopt'"
"";.h an oppununity ' 0
dioctm i""'S", lik........ nd j,w"y. II. bdk>-c> ........ It.. GICd. ,hi"" , ...... f()
be .....,.i>l1y jui..",,,, bu, .hey mUll be d;"' ngui.htd .. """"......... 'Y'hing
.. hid. i. >J\ imag< ... lih1x:l.l
"'"tf)1hing ,ha, ;, Ii"""" .. an imag<
.inc n imag. ~r Ix'" Ii ........ bu like ..... ofn I..d".n im>g< and qui
of,... i>oth an ;m... and 0 lih ......... known .0 Ixk j.wity'" (pp. 146- 47).
To <I,i ...."" .b>c",.. p<>in< TI......J"lf si ..... on ..... n'pk: " Evny <f;I; is
.i mih.
",hr. <go in "" f.... i. i. an <JQIi. 8u . .....nid,,. <'GIl. in "" fa,
OS i. i, .n egg. is .imil..." hm', egg, b", i. n..... nh .."", "'" in im.;a" """""'"
i. ;., no, .. prco>cJ by i. nd i. i,"", i., "'lu.1 beau.. i, i. , m.II., a"d co .....
frOlll. dilf....", ki".d "f onim.I" (pI" '47- 48) . In >il"tt, Thwdulf "')~ ,h.. ,h.
Bibl. mU>l b< noad """"'lly. ,10" tI .....fa, gui.d. '0 "'...,,' fading i. ,he
Rom.n , ...IiI inn, ,h.. IU""t\"' <tOO'N by ,h< C rttb .Multl Ix .....0 .pirim,lIy,
OS ,h. f.. h.r> h>Y .100'" . nd "'" li.... lIy . nd ,h i, j, e,;,"",ll" undo,,,and
wh .. ;. ",<>nl by imago in fix
1'1>. l la,in...' forth ,h. ruk,. h. "')~' we
CUI now ru,n 10 >(rip'u",I .."", qUotN by ,h. C"",b. 1.." <>fhi> ruin .-.quire
.mplwi . n.. >piri,,,,,1 meaning i I..... )'> mot<" i",I"""o' ,h.n 1M li ..",1 and
,,,," "ndc",.nd in.
fNl(' . ". . . .1'" '" dM from ..... ' m",,, be in~,
..;th ...ha, ,It.. fo,,,,",, ..... ,,. oIT<>dy,..


I.", .....




n......, """'..." ' ..... ptn. (,.,_, u) e';l ;";"., 'f'O"N, Okll~men' ......
""&C> ,h.. ,Ix Nice ...
quor<d in <kko .. 01 Im'l\...... W. -.:l nollUmnurizc _ h " ... h<roo. 1t"";11 be ......p. to si... r... cnmp .... ond '0 d.ocrib<
llu:od"If'. i,ial It, ........ W. <an _l,...,..ulflQl ...... ~ ~ .. i,h "" ....
and .haflO.. ptO<ftding book by book lhroug, ,II< Old Tc...rn. .... So Ix
"""""" ." and ..;.n.... ,.....n.. quo<N .. Nicar. ...... , Ah ...... m xIotN ,he
p<opI< 01 ,Ix und (Go...... '),1) and .h., Mooo.dor<d Jnhro, the prin. of
Mid.... (E.odw .t.6-7). ~( . 01", "'1' ' .....1Jacob did no( adoK p ..... ""'" {Gcncsis
47.,..,,,) .nd ,ha. o..n... did noo.oo.., Ncbuchod""'LUr (Doni<! ' .46). 1I'''r>
......, JacoI:t bIcucd plw<uh bu, did no. ....... him (c.....u 47.0) .nd ' .....1


,a c.... ".


N.,h.n', ""..... 'ion of D.vid io "'" 10k< , .... ><lo."';Ofl of.... 'mage ...t l1x-odulf.
'OPOOI< '0
ci ... ,iolU >howJ 0 ... of lu, w...:,.,io,ic .....ys of......tUng. Fif>C .
.... .:on,.ruh on ..... li, ..a1 ......1 bu, .. )'> ,hoo ...... C .....1u so< i, '""""& n..., is.
, .... ...'nlup" of on< ra- fo, ........... iI. ",",B of'apI Of """",.nd h.u
.b.oIu!dy ..... hing to do ....... -t,'p .., things ,hoo, la<;k m<W<me<o'. ooicc.
or ...... ( p _ 149). It ......"
r.... Ll7. ~""'" 1"'" b.oth.<,.~ and quipo
dw. p.,.. did _ ..y ~ ... bmi, )'OUI'JtIf lo", im>gl':' AI for , ......orics of Jacob



.n<! Ihnicl, he ..,.. d.., he an_ ~nd ........ in I .... ~I<btew or in.l<"""" (i..",
..... \'ylp .) (W '1'-1'), "T"htn hr U)'> lhool Jxob did _ .'odot. . pluroah. hr
"bIcsocd~ him, difl"nml ... ins ahOfllthn . ........ baidto. ......yo.. ........ if .... had
ado=! h im he """"Id ""~ dono. "' .... , of hummty ..... 'O!a' p<.-cro.-.., 10<
,.,..,.,J,ipins imorp (p. Ill). Tlott!, .... ""'" un, ,.... Gr<du uuli word. in th.i,
of .... .oc,iptulO-. 'hcr ozeh.1"flC' ~ fo, ~ O><I ,Ixy ex<!..nil" ...",.... for ~. W..u.n. ...u.... ..-N!'''''' (PI'. 'I>-Ij). AI for N.,
.h... .......hip,ng Ij Kings '.IJ). he did Ih" .. . mark of.-...p<CI ror.
nun pUc.,.f in P"""" by God. H . ,hen <il". on ,ho poin,. P.uI (Ro ..... ,p)
......111"""-" co",.. itom God . O><I Ti, .... (j.,) "n dlC"eed for humbk ",bmio.ion. In 01 .... ' w,,,ill. I.. ,.11. ,he G,,,,,1u ,hoo''''oy COnno< rnd ,ho word.
.... fo,.....m .nd do "OI know Iww '0 rnd ,ho Old T...."'.". in liplt of ,ho





H. 'hm ",.",ion, )",,,1.', pi llow "on.,

t.....,.. he .noin,..! i, ... ,;,k
(G.""" >S.n_,I). J""ob', ""<'<Ping " ..' J<<ph'. co;o, (G."coi. )7.j>-)4). hi,
.doting ,h. 'ip of Joo<ph' ",ff (G.n ..i. ~7. ),).n' . nd ,h. "of)' of Mosco and
,h. bu,.n "''1''""' (Numb... 11.1"""'9).'" 1"hwdu lr, c.i, of ...... ~ga
lake o<v<n l fou ru. H...,.. ,h., J",,,b', >1011< h ,h,.., Infl. of m.rni ng and
,h non< of ,h... uthotiu ,nug-t>. H. N,.. ,~., ,t.. " Of)' of Jos<ph', roa,
p ... 6gu'Ci tho ...,.. men .. . ...1 ..... , .he b ... <n ><'1"""' I'fdipuo ,t.. rrdtcm ...
,..t..... an ..... If be """" WI,h It.. mind', <J"" ("'i~"""1J KoJiI'). R,,' .... oho
,ho Cr<du No. "'Ying , h.. Jacob PU' )oKph', co;o, ,...." hi, ..,... and ki>oaI i nd
"" ..yi~ .h., J-.b ......hipl ,ho lip of Joo<ph', lUff in"tad of ., .he foot of
hio hod. 'llooooJulf"""", ,he G...,1uo "" "mutib,ing" tho Scrip<ll= liunl
...... ninp .... """'" <t>OUBh. he btl ....... bu, ........ <1 of i,,'.'1' ......""" is poooibio
if d... ''''' IS quot~ ilKOfR'Ct",. AI fOr- joooph', coa,. ho sa,.. ..... com if tho
""'Y we ... -....'" ,lot -...y ,lot G_b .u it, 'hI> ........Jd .....,. "",nl .... pen.... '"
hu ...... XI"", by.
bd;.."..t his boIoo<J - . '" bo"" bct-n &vo..d
by bns... 11K IS...,. """". Iw "")'flUng II) do ""... i~ mud! .... wi,h
kiuis Do" ............, '" , ...... . M.... I"" up hi, bnun "''P'"'' II) oK .ouk-bi ...... Thnloulf ..yo.. bca .... tho lin,.,..... ....,... no< .. fUns enough to place- th.i.

f.,.... ""'"

hope in ",hing. not ""n" (Rom.n. 8."..). The bl">ltn "'I"n, i, .. lf "'os m"".,
of indiff<tcnee: Ha.dci. h
des, royed it.
,imes ( t9. 10) Th..ooulf :tdcl,c<sc<I ".t<ment< . bout tf>< Ark of
.00 i" cheruhim . Th..ooulf "'pc-:t" in =h i"""nee 11"" ,hd<
thing> """e r=dc on God', CIIprn>! .... nd ,h .. they Clnnot f>< comp. mJ
....;,h im.s<' m:td. h)' h" m.n . He .1", "'Y'
,h. A.k . od the ch.",bim ""''''
oe.e-.:! ... . . mo" holr pf<Ggur.. ion of fum" my"e.;.. (p. '69). In chapter
M,cen Thcodulf d...1s .. length wi,h ,h. ,ypologi ...1,ignifianee of ,h. cherubim
.00 draw. hcavil~ on Augu"in" Qw>'i~'" "" ,IN I/,p"",m, Ipp. ,6<;/-7)) . But
his funodamtnul poi'" i, ....11 <:<prasc-.:l in ctup''' nin .....,n ; We.... ho folio ...
.he dead lett.. bot ,he living .pi.i'. ...-ho . f< no. ,!.c c;"nal but .he .piritu.1
1,....1. who h.ving "i'e-.:! ,hing; IC<n com<-mp"'t< .hing; no' IC<n .ejoice in
h,.ing w:cpte-.:! S""'" mysccri .. not only ,han int"ll"' .... hieh lad.1I mY"'I)".
bu, .1>0 grc:ot< r.J mo,e di"ingoi>he-.:! sign. of mY'tc';'" than .hOk ubku
0' """ eh..... bim (pp. '9J~) Chap'" lWCI1'y aI", co",.;n, Theodulf. fi ... ,
""",.ine-.:! a ttack on l'atr;',ch T.,....u. wloo ",oold "orne in (,,, rcp<">te-.:! "'"g""
Ihing> in 'he ... Iy ....-.;"n. of book ,hr. This time. T..... io' i. criticized
l>e<:au .. !.c was n!.lhcd '" quidl)' from
'he ck.ial ..... "";,ho", due
e-.:!uc:,,;"n in ,h",,1ogy .nd .he p,i ... hood
he did nOf know .oy hencr ,h.n





,h. '0

.0 lead hi, I""'PIc in.o ,h,lOoli,h "",.hip

of mat .. i.1 .hing;.

Wi,h chap. ",,,n,y.,h,,,,, Thcodulf in",!;"",,, .<C,ic< of /if, .. n ch, pt .., .

running d<>Wfl to 1.8. that deal " 'ith the pulnu, Thi' .<C,ies ;. broken onl)' for
,.,0 ",-b i<h . mong <><1>< hings. CIIplom .he d iffi,,,,nce I" "wn ""ing .od
h... ,;og.'.,J for ,heprcfa.~ book ,wo_ In .11. n,"""~lf ""I"'nd, '0 oa-<n"'''n
.<pirn: psalm ~ .... quo,ed at Nicoo. " " W. nee-.:! no' go th,ough them . 11. bu,
we m'r oboe",e ",me of hi, technique> fo, interp,eting .hem, In citing .he
p.o.alm "'...., q u,m ed ;n ,I>< HId, .nd in ci,i ng ... 1><, ' ...., ""hieh b"",....,j
hi' quibble:< 01 rtn.t.tion . Throdul f wed ",,1m ,'et<ion' from me Mou .. bic
.n,iphon' l)". Th i. discovc'Y h., ,eI... n..., to .n)' u nd ......,J'ng of the .. XI of
.he Op~, b,,, was .1", , 01';0' ' ' '01' ''' in F"",m",', ,I"mon,,,,,,ioo tha, 'Ihc<~
dulf .... , in f.., .1 outi,,,, <>f ,he Up"" "


1hcodulf de.l,....;m , hc ",,1m, in much ,he .,me "")'

I>< ok.1I " 'i'h
,he o,h .. Old l .... m. n' P"""-g<O, for\e. he >gain urges 'ypological rtad
in g<. \I.'lhcn .he Greek. cite 1'.. lm 4.] ("The ligh. of )'OU. coontenmcc i. 'igncd
upon u"). Throd"lf ..y>. ~ .. " ,h .. ,h. "I igh, of Gnd'" i, ,he Son of GOO
'hmugh wh"", it ;, l"""i),l" ti> have. gli",p'" "f dii"ity , B"t then. he ~ on,
the ligh' of ,I>< lord .igne-.:! upon", i, "no' ." I>< ","ught in materi.1 i"",g<O
which lack. like ".her,i. light. but in .he !:>.anner of the <IOU hccau .. "''''
!u~ :w:ep,<:d b.p.;,m ,h ..."gh ,he m.,., holy How of ,..oi",i"g ;n,p"""'" 0"


CN . . . . . . , , " "

our ro,.hads" (I'. ,,,1. In Otll<, ...... d. II<- .data ,hio ~ '" tIK gcr.unrnl>
and denies ,lut i, ha, .nph ing '0 do ...ith 1m,*". Similar i, hn "..,.tm.", of
I'Alm 1\.1 ("1..00:1 . I h.v.1oved til< baury of)'OU' I>owc "): "The IIous.. of the:
Lord io o<rordins '" llkpy ,II< dr.urclo. otO:I<dins to anasosY.
cortIing to t~. 1M ...... of man" (I" ....1. H. "Y' , ... , IIous.. of God
m.... bt und.........d <pint"'!ly. PIOI m.......IIy. Som."..... l"h<odulf :oJ,..... '"
m<DpIror. Wh ... ,IK Grub ci t< I'Alm +-I.') ("All tt.: rich among the: pcopI<
haY<, ,.,.... F..t.-") n..oJuif SOY'
nomi"lllO do wid> im>geo and
,Ir.< " fro" rekn t" ,Ir.< .pIr;.ual .eochi"ll 01 ,Ir.< dr..uch .nd Lh< " rich"
........... who Iu p"ftl "" to foIkrw.t.: 1.01. Lik.wio< ... hm Lh<
Grub bring fDrw:r.,d I'~m .,.u r' You 1\0"" lUll,..! my ,oan in.o jor"). Th<orllilf inl<"fJ'ft'. th .. ~ ~Ur "",h .h.. !<"an "'"*' tht p.;tinful_
01 ,hio li~ and jor mUM hc:aV<n. Occasi<>Nlly Tlrotodulf ...... ru. ""f"""<S '"
Gtftk pAlm in.. rp ...... "'" '" p<O"idc: Ieuoru on 5"'m""".nd dioquioi.iom ""
.rope< ...J f;gura of If''<h. 11><:1< pod PI often .. ril;., ,t.. radrr .. pomp<><U
. nd Arcas<ic. bu, ,hoy ............ tIK .uthor, purpooc of .. plaini", .... hy .ho
Crub limply <:In"", be 'rus.t<.!.o tIK Scriplura ro<m:Ily.
Aj.bouglt t.jO begin> ...;dr pt:olm (iutton . hio duple< .nd 11K immali_

heo.....,. '" ""-


,h" "-

,wo ......01 'Il><udulf ... ki~ d vi rl><ro";a.!I"'''"''

in ,IK miJdlt of his .".I)1io of dr. llyun'inc p!-Ilm ci ... ion. in Inc IU"'. In t.jQ

.,dy fOllo"';n! I'",fo<c ", bovk

"Il..oo.ulf ,akes up 1'..1", 47.9 CA. ~ ..... hom! to we Iu"" on) . II. fim
<>boo"", ,ho. ,hi. ho. ""'hing '0 do wi,h .. on,.",foctu,t<.! im. g... .nd .,b w","",

,hoy h."" ..... It.<:lfd I"lfiucN. proph .... '" 'I""tI.....y .ny luch thing. . Whot
.... h.-c hc"d ... "",,,.1 " hr "-Y'. "w< ,...;11_ .. ;mm",ul," (I" .).). W< ho,"
" heard"' aboul ,he coming .,( C!r.";" in ,h. L>.w .nd " .. h........ n
in ,he
conGo.p"'u, For ,ho fir... im ,hen. Thcodulr.",. .... rhen .. ,Mot....;11
..... ,Iy I..., in ,It.< Op..t:.he ou",. iorj,y of"'" Sc.ip'UfCO to imap. But. opin.
n.codulf.<1'C'" .h.. tht Sc";I""ra. ny ..,.;1"" ..... mOl"],."~ IJJ!'iu."'
lbc Prwfon.o book ....... Y' oimply ,hoc. MoYing brough, funh ...J c:omho"ed
",n..>g<s ,hot ,I><y ci .. '0 prop u p thtit v.mry. now -= mwt contin ....
:odd mort """~. and th<n 'urn to "'.... 0p,n;"". of ,ho holy fot .......
Alt.. drvooing 1.1 '" '0 odd"kono] poalm Clution .. TI>codulf turru to
.h.... m<>'" Old T........ n' pauaga ..-hich. t.: in,;.... poo>< &cp opirinul
..... ninp Ind 1\0..... nominl~' 011 .odo "";th;rIUgQ- In c:ommrnlingon J Kinp
7.'9. """"'" s.:.komon ;. ~cd '0 1\0,.. put im>geo of OJIen ...d lion> in tht
T..... pk, hoe"Y' """ ............. by If>( lUng M"I)l'" Iigu .... ...d .... rej. thc:i<
...d __ ....... ,har ....... "'p"'",i.iow odontioon. vrIoich ... can_
PIOI discover ....... ,,, 1\0 ... bHn i ..... lUtcd br
proph<u. "P"',b. ...
opoo<oIic mcn (p. '14). The I . . . . . . hoM thc rypo 010.,.;,. .nd sip>ify tlu. H.



......' ,nookn,.


woukl all ,,,," >JlO',b wh". in ,hoi, p,onI mini.,'Y. would dUplar ct!m...
"'" K<nd..,..,..of """ . nd "nco ......... ,h<< ...... o(1ion . \"/10 ... ,h<G,crla
quo<N Can,ida I..J4 ("Shnw .... ),"II! r"",,") Thmdulr ..)'1 II...
i ..... rinul
toO! c.otpot<:>land ,,,,", Cu"icl .u. wOOk .&.. '" ,h< dll",:h .. <he.".... ..
Ch, .... \II:'hcn h< ",n,. '" I....... ' 9.'9 . 1lon.- .. ill be an oJ ... in m. lmd of
Eg.".~) h< ''P'''' ,Iw. ,hio i, proph<qo abou, ,h< ",IIin, of ,h< t'""iks. ,,,,",
II", proph<cy ..... fulfilled in Ch,iM . nd
tIx ~ mWl Ix in'npm~
~";';....,/i"" .M nor . ~,~ This lonl...n.. afbiblial p .... ,.. then md;



with M,,,,,hcw PI (~N",,,,,, do ""'" lish" ",nd... nd PU'" undtr. bwhd")

..-f>m, Theodulf~ ..
,hislw ..... hint at.1I to do wi,h i""F' bu, tIu.,


i, do.. rck, ' 0 Chri... nd to ,h< apo<tlc. H" I<n, into ,h. ,..,..Id to

rod .... Hislish'.

In <umm.l)'. 1'hcodulf ocann ,hot G~1u of fail,ng '" und<nrand "'"
.nd ......"rial ..,ifica of,,,",, Old T.......... ,. H. , ......... dy :atXUS<S
,........ of h,.inS p<JOf. <v<n ' hild, .... und.nunding of ,,,",, Old T...,m.n,
hcau>< ,kry '~l" .... n.
,..kt li",,,I1)' """"gcs ,fu, most """ undcr.cood
>piriru.dly. alkzorio.lI),. ')1"'tog;nll),. Apin .nd '&,in 'Throdulf <I,,,, .i,,,",,.
N.... Tn"m<n, Of Pil,ri,,;.
or booh. , h.. ~ til<' """ .. n.. of , ny
Ji ... n Old T""'m<n' ...... (Kooion.Uy h (ft:\Ou bcwikk,m.n,. of,.n h< i.
" . ,kly .."""ie. _,.,im.. h. is lik n illll",i.n' JC ......
wi,h ,low
pupit but his Io.o,i...,..n. 1"f ,ech"i",... of ' 'lum.n,. ,ion i, .1,...)'1 ,h...m.
""i,h 1.1) ,[,h><lulf " " nl ... h. p'omi!l in 'h"
to !"u.i"i, "', ..
ci,~ .. I"ic-.... Hi.
O"''''pl. p<'mi,,~ hi",
n,,1to numh<, of ",10,..1
point>. ~I i, .. ,h. ' 101)' ' h" Pop< 5)1'''''''' h,oush' im. get' of Prt .nd Pml
' 0 Con"' n,in. 10 ,h """ rould I'KO\In'" .h<m .. ,I,. "1)' ligu,,, It" had .....
in d.... m. TIIi, Pil"""'!..' P""'II" i. Oil< or ,,,,,," ,h.. "".u.U), dori....! from
H.dri:on, k,m .nd which lock< on)' .. ("",nco '" il> ",iJin. H. Ic.d< .. ith ..
b.uic point: " \1(' ", of... rnmp<lk<I " 'lOy in ,hi. OU' >p'io! "...,tit on i""gc><
,,,,", i, i, "'" IOrbidJ.n ," US '0 ~ .... ,h<m. bu, '" odo<. ,I><rrt. nor mu>t .....
.hrink from -'"I .... m ..
fo.. <hu,dta. ur>O<;, is .do... ,ion which
;, "..,.. in ..... n........ ",-<, ,ul""mdy ""p<... i,;.".," (p . )y). TIo"" he p " on ' 0
.. y ,h.. SyIvnr.. brough, d>OM' PIC"'''' fo,. eo.."'n';".. '0 look .. "'" '0 adore.
I-k ..-i>hcd fo,. ,hot .....
'm>Il\u ,h< 1'0.-0, .. hom h. had ......
in h" dJnJft>,. ",. 1"'1'" did 10 ' 0 ......... ,,,",, <mpcror', mind from thin&,
koown ", ,hi"", unknown . from .hi"l> ";>ibk to ,hint' ;,.. i>ibk. fo,. Com, ... ,
in< was
at <he kwI of v;.;bk ,hins>- 11.. prot:aO " ... r.. hn like-",
Ccttu.un,in< from miUt '" ootid fOod. em.. nly S)"........ had no in .. n.ion 0(
d, <he ......,....,.. fn)n't invisibk 'hinp '" .tsibIc 0 ..... ~"in.lly. l~u1f
..yo. i, is cbnK<"'W .0 d,.w tcsIimony (rom doi. "01)' btou>< it io "'" to be:
~m ..ict!





.,...0< '"

",U "....




found among the approved books "i n the book of blessed Gelasius" (p. 261).
After his long preoccupation with bibl ical tens, this story gave Theodulf an
opportu nity to signal several themes that would be with him th roughour the
rest of the Opus.
Chapters fourteen to twenty of book twO contai n Theodulf's rejection of
patristic texts cited from Athanasi us, Ambrose, Augustine. Gregory of Nyssa,
John C hrysostom, and Cyril of Alexandria, with a chapter on the Sixth Ecumenical Council (2.18) in their midst. He accuses the G reeks offaili ng to understand
the texts and of citing the m inaccurately. His (Cnu al point, as always, is that
these tcxrs bring no support to the adoration of images. The Augusti ne passage,
incidentally, is the only citation of this father at N icaea and its text cannot now
be traced in any known wo rk of the saint. Having some knowledge of John
Chrysostom, T heodulf voices a doubt that the opinion (2.19) cited by the Greeks
could have come from this church father. With respect to Cyril (2.20), Theodulf
says that he does not know the book in question. Chapter seventeen is a particularly revealing one. The Greeks had cited a passage from Gregory of Nyssa and
Theodulf says that his life and teaching are unknown to us. Then he says, with
Paul, that everything m ust be tested to see if it comes from God. H e continues
by saying that he is not sure if such a passage should or should not have been
brought forward but that, for now, he plans to leave it on one side with other
teachings about wh ich "we" are ignorant. Moreover, he expresses contentment
with the Latin doctors whose lives and teachings arc known to us and with the
Greek doctors whose writings have been translated into our language. H is specific reason for rejecting this passage may have been that he could not trace it in
the DtcrtNlm GtMsianum. In T he fathers of the Sixth Counci l mentioned images
depicti ng John the Baptist pointing to the Lamb. T heodulf dismisses this as yet
ano ther ite m in their "accumulation of triAes" and he also complains abom the
appalling Latin of the text he has before him.
With 2.21 Theodulf rums away from his direct critique of Nicaea's patristic
citatio ns to what might be called systematic problems. In 2.21 he rejects the
proposition that it is against the Christian faith to refuse to wo rship images. He
says that it would take him TOO long to enumerate all the instruments that bu ild
up the fa ith, that Strengthen the love of God and of neighbor, bur that no
matter how long he went on, he wo uld neve r get to the wo rship of images. No
ancient text supporrs thei r position and the Scriprures always say that God alone
must be wors hiped. When they bring in the worship of images they do irreparable damage to the worship or God. Every form of cult, he says, is strictly denied
to images. He concludes that he has no intention of saying whether or not you
ought to have images for decoration and commemoration, but that if you have

. t..nt i. conno. b. for >do".. ioo. In , .n Th<Od~lf add= <lirectly .ho ,ory
.opi< of memory .h.. t.. h.. '" oftcn ... H.... )~ .h.. he Jo:x::o no. W,n'
.ny<>n< '0
hi> t<m"k5 "" memory luck t<, him . Wot<hip. h. main ... in .
con only b. in .<pi,i nd in "".h ; i. con n""e' t.. cor""l. Tim. imag<> are
m.tter of indiffa.n<.o<. II".. r. i. "". .hi"S to them f", fo" of ""to,;"n
.nd . no,h., to ~"" the m fo r Ir",: of "," one thing Ii" ..-iii nothe, for
r><i; one .hing.o look rO keep from f,,'S.tting God . ".1 hi, ni " " ",<I .n",h.r
thing to look '" ...0 rem<mb., ,hing< don.. . (p. '76). He
rh" ir i,
~",",Iy d<mcntro." ... y rlur y<>u h,Y< ro h.Y< picm m '0 kp from forge tting
Thcodulf u",," ch.p.... twcrny.tht: '" twcmy-fiY< .., I.y down .t.. .pus
olie .raJ i .~>n. He begin, wi,h hi. only ci... ~>n of Gregory ,t.. G,."r, Iw '0
Serenu, of M.""ilk . docum<nt .h.. w nor cirro " Nic>eo but rrult did
aPf><>' in .h. C:pir~"''' . nd RponrMffl. Thcodulf uS<:< .hi, let ... ' 0 build .. ,
argument .h... on imr<=Ne lOrhori.,.. Gr<"gory forh>d. h",h rho dcotructioo
and .t.. """",.i"" of imaga. O"pr." tw=ty.four . nd twonty.five then d",w
heovilyon ",,,1.0 ,h",, .h .. God alone i,.o t,., worshiped .nd rh ... t,., gre>"'"
of Ch";"iani t)", .... h... .. id no'hing ...11 . bou. imag<>. Throdulf .ho uS<:<
.hi. oppo,mnity.o .. y . h.. . he kind, of'. or roken. of mpr. rhat ....
poid to li'ing prople "e not.o be cqu1[cd bonor. paid ro m>nu~urro
and;ol", .0 say .h.. if .h. af'O'.l refU>! to b. "",.. hiped i. i, inco""".,blo
,h" thoy ""'old h,ve
..J tI "",,,h,p of , hoi. in"S"
Ch'ptcn twc:nty.ji. ro .hi, ty dC>"tlop .p<ci~c .opio in w.ry> ,h., i re """",1_
' nS "n"" h Th .. .,j"I'. ,lee!"", "" ."",n, ."d rl'<fo,Oc<.I ,],ill,. n.... <h,I""". in
brid", untquiw,.,.Uy deny ,he poo"b;[ity of d",,,ing cornp"i..,n, bcrwn im_
ag... nd ,t,., A,k of .he Covencn' (>6), .he cueh.,i" ('71. ,he ero .. (z.lI). ,""",red
,...... 1> (i~ ) nd.he Sc,iprure> llo). It i, odd rh .. ,he .ubi< of ,di", did not
come "pin .h', ""IlI<n<.o< of ch.p,.",. Rdia figure pmminen,ly in n od"lI,
dioc~ .. ion. in book, .ht: and /ou<. and .hi. ,,ould h... been.he lU.u,..1 plKc
'0 inr..,duo: rho ' ''Pic. Throdulf did >dd . rhitty_fi ... eh'I"<I.O book """. hut
it ' '1!ucs .h.. the un.h .. itablo .owonJ .heir paren" ,nd . n>tors
when ' her ",II .hem hcr",i",. In '"y <:2."'. rhe eent ....1,ubi' mart .. of clup ....
tw<nty-'" ro ' hirty i. t~ ~ut< inromm<n,"",bility btlW"n imag.. and
ot he' obi..:" ,h...... .. PUt ' n,o .... id.nee .. Ni=. On m.nyoa:asion, .Irudy
in tt.. O'M
. Thcodulfhad put hi. logieol power> on di'pi>y by through
Ni<.o<ne .rgun... n" ,,i.h ,..,w ,like 'rilogi.n.... ,. Ho ....J t"'<t """. it> .h i, .."t~)O
(..,6. '.'7) bu. the "'ill whi"" h....lly pu" on di;play in rhc<c pag<S i, hi'
knock 10, d ...",ing coOl!""i",n. rlur .,. ".eurie. iron 'c. ngry. ,,,rhally adroit.
,nJ J f"VU".ingly <1f..:,iv< . In ' l"',kinS of rh. Ark. fo' .umpl. he "l"' i.






commanded b~ the '-0"" of God. not In",,,,,d by doc ..,jfi", of SOme ani ...
h1l i. "'>" huilt by. holy m. ". nOf nude by ..,m<body o.her, !lu, i, <k.iva!
from 'he I'~~<f no, fron' paint.r. ,t.., i, had mY'tc.i<:>. '"'" ",1,,1>. In di ..
c.... ing .he e"d"fiS!. Th..,.!"lf ",.lIy "'>1m. '0 hi> ... k. Firs. he , ... n, .he


difl'<"o>cc be, ..... " ,t..: e"ch.riS! ."d im~ Th." toe "Y' 'hot bt..d ""d "iroc
.",mf.::,.ma! by .he ron...,<",-,;"n o f.toe pr"", wherea, imag<> rcui", no
ron"""""'n. l'hcn he ,,,n, hi, comb.>. of rompari""n" ,toe Lord romnund<d
ro cat H i> aesh .nd <lrink Hi> hlooo. nO' ' 0 .dore inugcs; ,toe ~h.trist p<>c<sa
,I>< >pin, of God, an irnW only ,I>< skill of ,h. I"'im.r. He .hen concludes .hi>
eh,!,," ,",'i.h , b.>rha! ques.;"n: If .h"", who do not .....,.. hip i""ll'" "'ill .11
pc,,,,, , ",Iu, i. to be said .bo",
childn who ..-t hap,i"d in ,h. Lord
but who ha", no. )'Cl h.d dunce to "",,,hip .n im>g<~ In .puking of .he



"",0:< ,Iu,

.ro. l h""!"lf
.toe devil """ oonq"cta! by ,h, cro<>. nO' by .n; ,h.. h"nu.n' Wen: tal:n<l by ,he cro, no< by . .. image. In 'he eh.ptc,
on _tal <1,. in addi.;"n to "'king .norh.. "" ....1 '''';pc at Ton,;u. Throdulf ..Y' ,h...11 'hrough ,h, script ...... on. fin'" ClIp/iei' ,es,in",ny
n~i'y uf "oving ,....1. dedia,a! '" .he d; .;roc cult hu 1",. on ,h. cun,rvy,
(Ie ne-.-cf find. > ""luiI'Cmcn. <I,. n im.S" I:>< ".00 in ..<via:>. h<ry.hin-g con
I:>< done wi,ho", 'nuga. lie "Y'. bu, "o.hi"S wi,ho .. , ,"..d . The "0 ,,1 Him
..1(." hi, w." $upp<r. <o<>k up a cup. no< an i<n>g<. The prophet (lso;'h 1'.")
,h,1 no< " y "Be y"" d n yo" who corry ,he im.ges of .he I--<><d"' but .. Be you
dcan. you who "'tTY 'he """,I, of ,h~ Lord" (po )0. Chap' .r thirty i> .h.
longes' i" ,he 0,,,,, .... nding some """''''y~. Jus ... l"'..,d "lf .nda! I:>ook
On. wi,h > "'''m.n'
'he suJ><.i . .. i,y of he,. ,ing-which by im p~<a''''n
me"', reading- .o sccing. 50 ' 00 here, cl<:>pi .. ,Ite .",W<m , hirty..,ne.
!Kl on. in h... udien", will
'I"'>dulfbrings up. he volu me ofhi, mu,ie SO
""f 1(,tg<1
i,n..,,,,, . nd .Ite s<:nptu"", . t< .bonlutdy in"""'p.",ble . H. "'"
a c","",no.lo of q"iek. p',nehy ""n'p.ariso,,-,- as hefore. r .ul did not "y
' l ,i) '"Whate-.-cr i> p.a in, .,.j"
'" Wh.o.,e-.-cr i, ,,riu.n ", .nd h. did not .. y (.
T imothy ,.,6) B<Vfi}' pi""' '' bu. B<very sc.ip.u"." />1"", dOd
piun: bu, ,h. [..,w. And SO on", sre'" leng,h. Near ,he end of ,h. chop,.r,
,lie", i rom p ison ,hat;, d",wn" much grea'" I'ng,h .nd ,ha'.I<rVd" ,h.
grea, .umm.. io" of bnoks uroc and 'woo Fim TI,roJ"lf repco." tl .. , im.gcs.n:
wi,b",,, mJ"'cry. IiI<:, ..,,>e . ..-..on . nd kgi ';n>uy .nd ,h." hc g""" on to " Y
th .. ,he Bibk J><'<"'" e-.-crytbin-g
one need o 1m"", h..."ry. poetic m<"n. ,h, rul .. of gramm ... doq"en",. 'igh' reasoning. . rithmetic. music, 1;00""t ry. " '''''''''''1. H,c>< ,loi"S'- . U ,he libe",1 .... "'" n"1 Mtc .... not .lw.Y'
pro,,,,,,, Ii.. rally or",ly. but .hey .t< ,het< iu" .h... ,ne .nd e n he di,
"".na! hy .he ft.d.. wi.h .he fight >piri".,1 di>I"',i,lon.










I'rt[." 10 booIt Ih ..... ~noonc'" Th.oouJr. i~!<~lion to

how "'" N""'n< (.. hen ..... r><lontd ,he f.. hen of ,hoc church. H. 00a Ihi> in
boo!< ,h .... b..... in realiI)'. ,hi. boo!< ;, In. cosmdy o""niud ,han boolu Me

.nod twO. nu" i.. l"hcodul f wi,h _largt 'hcolosial p<ubIcmt. with me
opocif.c ,op;.: of l'Iin,en ond im.,.. .nd ",id "",her "'" o(f.ul.y compui>o<u..
Bu. he.oo include:. .,i,,,,ionu of
P""""I!I'" tho, mi,;I" ba.., fi, bet.., in
boo/< ,....." ""TIt oboocmo,IOf\' .... .,......t.. _
com"bm" mout
""" of ....~ lik.- ,hooc fOund ao: ,hc !:><pnn'", ofboo!< ont. funh<r com ......"
"" "'" unmi:.lbiJil)' of Byun,i ... _'on, and 0100.., ............ rondom wpic>
d.., _ both bani to tha,"""cri .. and difficult ,,, G,
to identify
ochcmt in boo!< ,hon.
The G", duprcr of boo/< ,It .......1"""" fi"" """" lone. iJ a proIn<ion of
(.i,h. T...... ,hi",,:ur .. matbblt .bour i,. Fint. Throdulf'. "'i&i",,1 dr:ili. p ........_
bIy of p...,u".;.,n. dr..... n ffOr'll
(.,he .... r><! V<I)' much in k<q>in8
,,';,h hi> " .. cd in.. n,ion of adhe"", '0 I'"","i. tnching. >nO .nd r<pIx<
";<h ...,, 'Jt lin", Ionl ,h.. i profcsoion ,hen believed '" ba.. lxco Jcrom<.'
bu, """. k_n .0 ba.. I>c<" f'".... Sond. ,he eh.nF OK"" ro bave b<rn
<><a>ioncd by. <lni .. "''1'''''. ' ,e" ,h roukl be tnJ ... n npliei' ,cfu ;.",
o f adop,ioni,m. The [lOin, of.1>< inclusion of. prof"';"n ...11 "",m. '0 h.v<
bn '0 ..",bli.h ,h. C.,oIin"'''
Ma. In oth.. ""rd . cvtf}1hinS tbat
prtadn ,he pro&.$ion nd .hen tv .,.,hing .h.. fullow. it. J>U" urolingian
onh""""1 "n."",iI.hly on ,h. cord . lIy in'pl""ion. the pcnon. ,,hom the
C.rolingian<.re ,".ba"ing'" un""hodo .



,..t... '" ..


' 'In.

T..... iu. hod com, in for d irca anJ pc""",,1 aitici>m . I... dy in 1.10 and
bu, in J.l Thcod"lfft.ycd him. H. ,,"uOC> I..... i". of ng in>cnocd "'"
whole jd,." of "",.hiping im.~ '" d,.. .... uen,ion ...... y from hi, own irrcgul..
~""',ion from the
,,>I 0 .ht p.. " .. th ... (. poin, ...hieh ht hod .I.....ty


mod< in ...0). Th.n Th.oouJf'l""''' 1'",1 Oft .... ba. kin<! of.,.....,.. .hou1d b<
~cr. ncopioyt . "....." l p,oud nun . nd on th~ ox-cd for
due,"", I, lim.... hy ).' . p.). ll,>dulf ",..r.cluda " i,,,"
from Greptl)' ,I>< G .... ,. f'-' lI.k .... ,he:
fOr any "",,.or or
II. .ny bisI>op-co ba,.. ~ through .II ,he ccclniasrial grad<s
in d ... onIer. In ).J TIorod~lf B''''' ,I>< ...... of and >or> .ba, . ......
~. '" iI "'" ... <prioi"l\ ,ba, pmon like Tlt.a.iw ......Jd ... m;""nd<nund
I>..i< O".U.WO ,lot V<I)' kind of ,.-aching. by "'" wily. ,h., _ ..pdlcd
.... , in "'" Optm"l\ 1''''' 'Wn of fa"h Iw- ht _101. in o/Jt-rin8 hil ~
.. NO<.. .. y tho, ,he ~loly Sp";' p<UCft\J. from the Father ""-Kh rhc Son.
In .....y. T..... ,... ;,. a foil txa....c ....."'... ,hon "' cig'" .I. deal wi"',~
.nd .II "pi one: of.hem 0.61 deal aplicidy wi,h T"ni,arian ;........ For CUm

chosen;u. bishop.

,cachn- do.,



plt. in H n...odo<c of Jc'u .. ~m is ~n",k<d (Of _ undcn<>nding the ....

... mity of "'" F.,ho, .nd ,h. Son. In )., T.rui ... o:omt< "ndot. fi", apin r.,.
.. ying .... , .ho Holy SP"" ;. twtm",,,,,, (I"n. ",lau",,) of.t.. Fnl><r and Son.
Ruil of AhC)'n d" ... &n . "..,k;" J-' 10. ""';"11 m.odt.n ao::epIobic """,fasioo,
but. mer ...... odding ,.... he .... fai,h ;n ' ......nd tdia without taI""~
.bOII, ....."ilKa.ri<>n. ,hot r<miuion of ........ ()< the IDW~ of ,ho <blln J.7
Throdolf bWts ~ ... of Amorion lOt bci,,! sikn' "108"'00 abou, his
faith in ,ho Trinity whik a..... 'ng ..1 ..... ta. . ndl prom;". and I 0<'0<;"'. 2nd
nploody '" .ho ili#ttw
I ..... i....... (p. )&7). CIuptct tish. ,hal In .......,. haI . J.I ." -'"' cnnsist of I.,...,.......,. and an anti-pr<>k.>ion. The
is mod. "I'
of "'"' bod .nn'''''';''n .1>eoIov pu. on display
by thr Clfth. BUI ... to "".n :dmody in tho 0,.... Thrododf uk. Irp<lItcdIy
how .n,.....,. an <Omrun' f.i,h in ('.od with fai,h in ' ' ' ' ' ' and -...-t.cK =)<>0<
Iw n"tt mod
inur;n .'" 00 ... wo..l>ipcd.
Cluplo .. ).9 and ).10 """,,,i.u, .sm.ll Oct,... . . Pu'f'O'< i, k> mah two
reb.", poin .... Fin ...... '" ....y ... nuny mot< .. ro .. 1.. t1ting in .he Ni;: ..... bill ,t.. is no tim< '0 find , ....... 011. This milY>' ... an tIpljci.
COmmen' OIl how Thcodulf ",kN .." . ~i]e,J ..r.-r.n to his non-<oo,inuous
'""" t<> ,he ...... ceo. 5.:.:onJ ...... ,. n,,,,.
of 8 yun.;"... "",I .. hil;'1.
II, ..""P Th<Odo<. (> "'" i<\nnifird) OOm\U
~<JQ in ,ud> ~y
.. ''' '''WO' ,h .. ,hey '''' co",i"ooo' ......" in ("'" ,hoy com. fro m 'WO <n.; ,ely
Jifl".",", rulm . I,low...... , ptd"" i;: .h;' ,n. y ... m. i, .. rvcd Thtodulf wdl ...
rhetorical dop,t" ..rt ft()n. , ... 'hovlogieol d",,,,,;,,i,,,.. con'.'nro in ,h. Ii....
igh. of book ,h...,.
Ch.1rl ... dn"n '0 /Qu""n cotU< "u" ... . " ""k OJ> ,h)-'nod of Niaca
i"df. Ch..p,er e ...... n rq' .... n .. 0 .... loy c~men' in Tbrodulf. otip .... . yno><l.ol
.heoty I:>cfo", .h. i""J... ion of 4.1li oI'f...... i" bold ...... in..'1' ..... 'ion. Httc
TI.ooiJ .. lf AJ'> 1h.1, il wa> .... h fQr N...... 1<) ..... Io.cno."U' people fo< ""I WOf.hiring ,ntagft ...n..n no cffo" had Iw" m..!. 1<) dct,"""i ... ,ho .,.;".... of "e><h
v><l cYn"f
of ,he: .:hurd.. (p. mI. He ,hen 11''''''' ........ .,.""",1 advice:
\II'hen. b",,"', ......... I"'" him ..,."""y nd thrn ornd, othc: ... or .... ybt
_'';''1\>. So.Icp ..,,,,, ~ h.1"" Iwn >Cn' '" ""'W>boring churcheo '" O<>Imd
0......... Ih.n~i"," ..". """'... f., ...... <houId Iu"" ~.o ,t.. ,ach;Ap of
,he- f.,~
of d..- churd<. r.,he-, tIu.n ,ty '" imp> 'M' novd and ....,.... <HI C>'fl)'O"'" rik. If ,hoy had ........... to JIO<I<I <each."@: ,hoy
......Jd ..... !"n ","""td ' 0 .....teo. and ottapon<ib!c" <uuncib.. a..p..,.....-dw
aHHin .... 'n 0 .,mib< "";n.
,he- C=b:uc c1wriood for aso::i"'ll..ox
lUnd ...... nd paci<ntt. '" not boldin, , ..... ''''''''''"' ond fo< >paki"f; in
diootdtft.d w'y. H. lrp<lIu dw ,...... ..., .ight .... J'> '" call """""ils ond <>H"r=





= ",.."

,wv """'"



m,., """ .....

n", 'ime


Franks and



issues for them to address. But of their council he says, "J ust as light from
darkness, life from death, sight from blindness, probity from improbity, purity
from impurity health from sickness, so their teaching differs from the teachings
of the holy fathers" (p. 380). It is amusing to watch Theodulf administer a
tongue-lashing in the midst of a discourse on kindness and patience. Chapter
thineen remrns to Empress Irene for th~ first rime since the beginning of the
Opus. Theodulf expostulates on the reporr that the Greeks have perm itted a
woman to teach in their midst. H e must have deduced this from the imperial
sacra because there is no evidence that he would have known that I rene presided
at the final session of the council in the Magnaura Palace. II I Then he helpfully
provides a disquisition on the "proper" roles for females. Chapter fourteen provoked Theodulf as "divos," " diva/ia," and "cortgnam" already had done. That
is, he objects to their saying rhat they "cooperate" with God and that God caUed
them into council in order to establish H is will. Predictably, T heodulf calls this
arrogance. He then gives a short lesson on the rhetoric of persuasion so that he
can conclude that God, who is omnipotent , can not be persuaded. Besides that,
God always said tha t He and He alone should be worshiped and now they are
introducing the novel idea that images are to be worshiped, so it is perfectly
obvious that they do not cooperate with God. Surely their foolish synod will
not make God change His mind.
Theodulf uses chapters fifteen to twenty-one to establish particular instances
of bad BYLantine teaching on images. Not all of th~ chapters in th is section
seem equally relevant to this main theme. Moreover, woven through [his senion
is another powerful argument: Rome is the heir of Babylon.
In ,.20 Theodulf criticizes a ciration from John Chtysostom on the meaning
of the story (4 Kings [9.35) that rhe angel of the Lord killed 18),000 Assyrians.
Chapter twenty-one challenges the authenticity of a Story that an image of St.
Polemon prevented someone from committing adulrery. As with his earlier
treatment of a, to him, dubious story from Gregory of Nyssa, so tOO here Theodulf says this story can not be found in any authentic book. ChapIer sixteen
takes up one of [he oldest chestnuts in the iconophile repertoire, namely the
argument that worship conducted before an image is referred to the person
whose imag~ it is. Theodulf's rhetorical sabre was especiaUy sharp {his time:
"Do the saints, who on their merits were able to rise to the heavenly kingdom.
and whose images they then plan to ado re by irresponsible devotion, solicit these
superstitious or irrelevant honors? Do they permit themselves to be adored?"
(pp. 407-8). H ad the saints been keen for honors while they were alive, they
would nOt be in heaven now. They enjoy the l ord's honor, of what other kind
have they n~ed? Many saints spurned honors while alive so how can anyone

.". eM"",_ . ,,~.

bd~ tlu.t they would ~ ddigltttd by Iu.vinS their ,~..Jottd! SiOtt im
.,.... ~rc nut!. by ,he ,,"h,m, of V, .... ond, ,~.efuu, .."". arc bnuliful ond
..., ugly, how do they know "'hich ones ~ ...-c like the .<ainu .hey
wf'P""'dlr rep ......,? Arc moK valtUhk imaga moK """'''1'''hono. tlw! bs
valuable ones! How frn.-m. cu> devtt<1OII b< .Iu.. io "trXttd by the >kill of ....
uti>! Of , ... val ... of .... m.. trUh in. pinu...? If.n i.... ;, po<>tIy rrudr, Of is
m..x of ""'" .....crUk, dcta " dat"", .... devtt<ion? aup... orven...... drew
........on, ion <allier ,n connocriort with FnnU'un. I. io th< on< in ""'Kh Conoanrinc of Con.w.... >ll<vdlr <lid th .. tho ..............ip ...... to b< paJd to
ionaga .. to tI... Tn n;',_ a...1""" "P''''''' t~t> E."himi ... of Sudi.. .. hoot
........ l'h<odulf ..,.,.. " only o.Iis"dr ..... tIu.n Con.un';nc'.. ~ he .... nu to
pbc< hio ..t.oIr hope 'n inufp. Chap'''' lU.......,n. 6....1y. is a ....diN bit of
irony in which Thtodulf a,udJ ,... Greou IUr rm.tins to MOLl. holy ornpoura M
and :o<b ,"'m jw. who: ... ,hey SO' ,1>00: "'''p'U' <I ond ""'r thty
""",..., wi,h ,... OM< Crtoyon .I.. wel,
l! io .....1".. M'tt .. , ~ , which ... r.d. ...... hc..d of ,It.. group just
cliocwocd, ,Iu.. "I"""">ow ,"'nt.e. f ", tho: Ii"" bu. "'" ,It.. w., ,ime n.-lulf
he", <n"",n, ... ,he "'u< <>f im!""';'1 ' .. uga. Ite writ .. "ag>in" ,hose ""'" ..r'"
wi.lwu< n>minlS ""'.c<. Wh ...h<y .. y i Iu, .. h<" in'p..' >1 ''''''IS'''' 0'"
b.,mght into' ,own. 1'<"1'10 Utel ,hem , of, .... ... i,h andl .. and ;nco".., '" , !>ow
rc>p<Ct ,,, ,h n,I"'IO" l "1l u. i, " I"',fo<tly kgi'im ...
b< in .hu.d,,,,
pie,u ... nf je., .... M.,y, . lId 'h< .. i"", Be.. in mind ,h.. Throdulf will ~
,he '"refe",n,i,l"' 'rg""",n, in ,Iw "''' chap. Fur now hi. targtt i, diffet< n'
.nd ....Iw.y..... pu"",um i, with .h.'u of ilOny and QI""m. 11~ ..1' .h.
G""ko mUl' bt dlunk. or r.i<k. If.... -"y> hq ot< goin~ ,,, take arg~m~n"
fn>m ,h. COIl" or ,he forum 'v ,uppon imago """"'ip. then why dorI . ,hey
tok hem ftom ,he , .... ,... 0' glodi, tori.I,Mws? Nowhere, in.h< s<.il"ufOS.,..
we inHrucrM ." wo ..... ip in.. get "f ,Iw nnpa<>" .., I,ow do> ...~ ~ from imp<' ;.,]
iflU&<' '" rdigi<>ul on<>? They claim ,tu, 'Rq "",""ip.he en,I"''''' in his image
boa ........ ann<)! be Crt'Y"""'''' bu, how = rh.oy ...""hip Gc>d in on i .....
<iD<.I~~ is Crtrywl>ert.nd
bt.:l"",m.mbtd in a paniru .... pIact! Gc>d',
I"""~' and ~ ... '0 b< ..,..,g., in pure ...d pieJua mindo nor in picrurcs.
'The only propI<,,~ tu,~"..... ,.",.. abou, "'M acoool d> .. war ot< ,Iw fubyIortiam
and the Ro...."., .nd perlta,," ,... poopk conquom:d by ........ n..x kingdomo.
n....dulf arrinon,.", k........ to """" '-n copoci>lIy ptonc '0 th< ......... p of
idol.. 'Then. parophm.", Orosi .... Thcodul( .. rikl to tho hun of ,be: maner.
" Fo... ,lot h...or ... ..y. tlw Roman Em"; .. ~ .Iot...-t.ok inhniunu of
1bbyIoon nd be ............... ......, .in~, .. bcrwttn ... old f,nher ""'" ""'"
a1.....Jy, hi,
>nod hi. )'OlOnl ."n. who Iud ""'" ,.,.. ""Iuired ,...


,Ita, ,''''''



'M Fronk..n.! NOcooI


power of domina,ion, m"''' ..... '1'2lIlmlltcd by ''''0 0100 kingdom.- .. rut"'"

Wt i. Maoodon and Pm .." (p. 404). T he O>m'II, of Chri .. u.o..ld """" ondi,
co",'11 ..u .ucIo
AI ,lit !wi" of _,-oIic ,<achi~ ,he", ;. no I'<>llOII
'" ... .., .do.~ ,he inuga nf dad kinp. Cauin "'ins> arc implil .bou,
Owkmagnt ,,;,uolt ,(>WHI! B),um iu m in book on'" ol'<"ning~'" aitnl
I I II'<m >nd Comt.n,;"". In ,h;' ch.f"ct ,he full fo~ of .h" St-tncImfr begins
' 0 ct>IC'fII'. 1X'hnI 'M . . - . dr....... f..,m 0..".;.... bou, Rom<', bring the hei.
'0 Ibby\o<l w:u,nJ ..... i.. a..rlcmagnot, ptocna., ><ribc rKOfokd hi> IUC,ion: " \l'oodtrfu~"


a.ap.... twrn.r-...... .., ,h"'y ............ ;1IU&"> undo,~..J djlfc.rn, ""..t,

inp. Wi,hoo, .n.. rin, ;n.o ct>dku quibbi<> .bout "Thtodulr. in ..."ion. in til ..
lOCIion, it an .....rdr ....., lit odoJ~ ""n...... on the """ ...11<1 .nd .he
authmticity of ",ilk""" >boo, '. . . . on ,he ... t.c . AI .. the <t>tl of book rwo.
"Th.r:udulf $pin ...,,1In ... uf..;n".., .nd dTmM corn"",ioom .. the .nd of
book .h..... He oJ", oflt .. ",,,,, of II .. n_. d.... ilcd. con,i<kt<tl .iew. 011 . . .
nd .... t..,ia.
C ... p .... twrnty ....... Ind .....1I,yh. oddfQ4 In ;"'1,10 di,,!)', In <I...
fOr",." , ThcudYlf)!Of bi. ronf,,1CJ in ..-..tinS h" IOUre.,.nd i.1mN!tcd <I..
Creek. for .. )'ing ,II"
Fa.IIt, had ailed poin.en piow ... lItn """"II)' i, h.d
been, ehw'eh f.. h,., lIid",p N iu. of A",.~ . who hod .. it! ,hi . N...'enhe
I.... The<>Julf ..iu .. Iu, i. uni~ue .1,011 h,.11 of.he I"'n .,. Why i, .he.n
of.1It painte' ",me piou. ,h. 1I ,h., "f .h.
""ylp'o., brOIl fO"nd., .
ng ..""., "0"""""'". woodwotk~l, farmer. or maker ...r '"J"hillg d..-:' None of
.h.... m i.;n .nd "f ;".If piou. 0, impiou . ol.hough , hei. I'...."' ;..,"N. may
Ix ei.IIt . In ).1) The<>J~lf udda .h. l""I""i,ion .h.. "pic<ura do no. ~"II''''
die, .t.. ocrip'ula." A, .h. pbilwopllt" haw: .. id. ocrunIinS '0 l1.rodYlf. paim.
en can load .t.. vi....." from 'ou, h '0 f.l$clwod, 01 from f.I ..1oood '" .ruth. "They
Cm poin ......, ""', 01 ..'ha, ~r ..... ........ will be. o. n", ....ill be, ....
con po;n. nuny .hing> .h...... no< in ,h< Scrif"ura. 1X'!u, do ,hoy
..k<. of pictur.. of ,ho .. nh and .1It 1C1, Mc( ,he ... n &nd the """"' ... hu'lWU~
Or "'nd. ond n"""k~ Or """"'" .nd Ro-..1 1I<a.... SehI"U'~ """,...... ""'"
of t~;" ....dy "'..., ~. ron,raokIion 1><..-. M.ny ' hings round in the "rn;ngl
ofd.. s<n.ib .... ""n'..! bu ..... "<II fuund .n,...herc;n the lIi1>k. H~ Thoodulf rccira a long I;" c( mJ"""'" K<nd. I"'in,;np ..nidi Ix might I..."'!I<'CR.




'" he-mI .bou., "r ...........,., .. l liol>asic arg<>tn<1I, nuy Ix iUffitnl up in h"
own......u: '" In ,he- ..,.;"' ......10...,;, "",h,"II .iciou.. "",hi", i""l'Propri;t.~ .
.-hin, imp" .... ..."hi"l\ fabc. n<rp< pcr""fIO . 'h.n .M hQIy ><riptu ... mrd
......, .,.;cUd poopk Wd <If did, in ""n""Po ...,........,. thtt. .... nwoy tII,Itp
,10..... I'abe. <If '''''WroprU '' (p. ~. H. con<ludn br ..king how con ,My


.Iu. ".he ",in'N> >Iww ,.Iu,....., , ..:nl~ura <or"!

How do)'O" <kpic"

"" "'1nlS '" know, Dno'.f<)oomy 6.... "He.. 0 1..-...1, .It. lord )'OUr God is
"",,"1 (p. ,,",,). Con'~'''Il wha, ,t.. LonJ Iw i> ,lie- work of...,;..... not or
P"iM'= .. P,.;n ..... ~ in "'".. way .... i"ll .t.. "orin of paso nenu back '0
mmIOf)' bu hin", W. art only f'<"C"'i....d by.lIt .. rua tJtd btoug.. forth by
"",rd. .no compf><ndcd "'" by ",in,... bo" by ..,.;...." (PI'. +"-H).
aup... "'"eft!)"-IOw ........ ou, nI" pba- hen. 1t;UJU<S ...., imap art not
Iih rdia. On< mo&h' "-,,, a:pmcd '" ~nd .lIn..m,ca <ovrtcd in "'" "i"&