Tbe First F fry Yearsof LP-Gas

An Ind,ustrytCbronologl
Chapter 1: The Dream of LP-Gas Becomes Reality
Ihis industry history was prepared by. the National I_pGas Council as part of the l,P-Gas industrv's celebratiop during 1962 of its 50th anniversary. Starting with
Chapter l in this issue, I,PGA t'lMlls
will print this
history in monthly installments during 1962.
Although the fifty-year period starts historically with
the cylinder installation at the home of John Gahring
near Waterford, Pa., on May 17, 1912, a great deal of
development work with LP-Gas was going on in the
carlier years of this century. For this reason Chapter I
recites events which occurred before the historic initlat
Installation was made,
'l'his
complete history is an exclrrsive 'l IMFIS feature.

this so-callcd"'uvet"gas. The lirm was nanred the Rivers i d e O i l C o . a n d f r o m i t s p l a n t a t S i s t e r s v i l l eW
, . Va.,
came much of the raw material fronr which the llrst LPG a s . c a l l e c lG a s o l ,w a s l a t e r o b t a i n e d .
Riversidew
, ithin a ycar of its formationin 1909,had
b u i l t n i n c p l a n t s i n t h e S i s t e r s v i l l ea r e a . s o u t h w e s to f
P i t t s b u r g h .T w e l v e n t o r e w e r e b u i l t i n 1 9 1 0 , i n c l u d i n g
the first blending station where naphth:r was nrixed with
the "casinghead" or "wild natural gasoline" condensed
f r o m n a t u r a l g a s .T h e b l e n d i n gw a s d o n c i n a n a t t e m p t
to keep certain of the r.rsefr-rl
l'uel gascssuspendedin thc
lirluidgasoline.
O f t h e n a n e s c l l ' t h er n e n a s s o c i a t ew
c li t h t h e e a r l y d e -

. . . rwo NEwBrrsofknowre<rge
wcre
adcrecr
ronran-]',il:ll"j}JJ,t8.tJ:*':T"'"T"1ifrTlt5']"JJl;*'j;

kind's store in the years that closed the nineteenthcentury and opened the twenticth. One was the d.iscovery
that a liquid fuel called oil nnd a vilpor fuel calle-dnatu r a l g a s w e r e p l e n t i f u l l ya v a i l a b l cb e n e a t ht h e s u r f a c eo f
the earth. Thc other was the news from Eurooe that
"btrrning
gas" extracted front oil coulcl be tiquilied 1nd
containedin steelbottles.
The years 1909. l9l0 and l9l I are red lctter ycars
in the history of LP-Gas that led up to the comrrrercial
ntarketingol'the 20th ccntury fuel. In 1909. LP-Gas still
I t d r e a m ,t h e p r o d u c t i o no f g a s o l i n ew a s a p r a c t i c a la n c l
profitable venture as more and nrclre "horselcss car|iages," as they called the early autos. appeareclon the
streets'
Discovery of new natural gas wells in the western
Pennsylvaniaand west virginia border region prompted
the formation of a conrpany to locate profitable drilling
sites and build processingplants, largely for the extract i o n o f n a t u r a l g a s o l i n et h a t c o u l d b e c o n c l e n s e fcrlo n r

C.,."ofof i., pa.. were respectively presi<ientancl sec_
r.et1ryi11sis.urer.
The vice piesi{ent w1s ChesterL. Kerr.
a fiitrt,urgn attorney, and the generirl superinten<Jent
r v a sA r t h u r N . K e r r . h i s c o u s i n .

Sconly Knowledge lo go on
Knowledge of thc nature and behavior of thc ilases
i r n d l i q u i d s t h e s c m e n w e r e p r o c c s s i n gf o r m a r k e i w a s
scant in the early days. But it was evident to all that thc
gascsthat rcfusedto .staydisolved in the glsgline were of
p o t e n t i a lv a l u e . I n 1 9 0 - 9a n d 1 9 1 0 . h o w e v e r .R i v e r s i c l e
haclto pipe this raw material of the futurc LP-Gas a safc
distance awav ancl set it afire. The llares. burning night
a n d d a y f r o m t h e n o z z l e ss e t i n t o t h c p i p e , I i g h t e dt h e
countryside at ir then unavoiclirblebut greirt ei.penseto
the new industry.
Perhapsthe news that a young
-had Gernrrrnof the city of
Augsburg. Herntun Blau.
invenred ir nrethod for.
n r a k i n g f u e l g a s e sf r c l n ro i l 1 n d c q n t i r i n i n gt h e n t u n d e r

Copyrighl 1961 by N.liional IP G;,s Courr:jl

fhe Coming of tiguefed

Gos

'Ihc
1887
first known printed refercncc
to the manufacture of liquefieclpetroleum gas was conducted in .'A prac'freatise
tical
on Petroleum" by Benjamin T. (lrew, published by Hcnry
Carcy, Baird & Co., I-onclon.
1890 Pintsch gas was introduced into thc
United States from Europe. It was a
compressed-not liquelied- gas made by
cracking oil and was a mixture of
methane ancl heavier hydrocarbon gases.
It was known as bottled petroleum gas
and among its uses was railwav car
lighting.
1903 What is believedto have been thc
first apparatus for extracting gasoline
from natural gas was built by Wiiliam
Fasenmeyer.He was joined by Sutton
l6

Bros. and l]rlmonds in commcrcial distribution of natural gas gasoline protlucerl at Sisterville. W. Va.
1903-t904 Blaugas, called the first bottled liquicl gas (as opposed lo compressed gas), was tlevelopecl by Hcrnran
Blau of Augsburg, C)ermany. It was a
mixture of permanent gases, liquid gas
and light fractions of gasoline-all produced by modification in the manufactule of illuminating gas from oil. Thc
light fractions of gasoline were rentoved
by means of a clcvice called "Anrylene"
coltrmn.
Manufacturing costs were an expensive lOc a pound plus the fact that the
consumer hacl lo pay freight on 7 lb. of
steel cylinder for every pound of gas.

Blatrgas was conlilinc(l rrnder pr.essures
of 7-50 to I.-s(X) psi. It had ro be
v a p o r i z e c l b y a g ; r s - f i r e db u r n e r a n d t h e n
conductecl through a series of liquid an<t
vapor regulators and reclucing tanks
tuntil the pressure fell to tl oz. Installation of the equipmenr cost 9200. so the
gas wirs used largely by lhe wealthy
bcyond the city gas mains. T'he first
Blaugas plant in the United States
slarted operalions in l90li.
Nine companies werc organizerJ to
rranufaclure and market the product in
the United States. two of the most
prominenl being Northwestern Blaugas
Co. of St. Paul, Minn., and Blaugas Co.
of Omaha. Nebr- Both companies survive
to the present time. although they have
long since been converted to Lp-Gas.

LPGA Times-Jonuory, |962

Pioneersin LP-GasDevelopment

Walter O. Snellino

Frank P. Peterson

great pressurein steelcylinderswas known to the nren at
S i s t e r s v i l l eA. n A m e r i c a n B l a u g a sp l a n t w a s a h ' e a d yi n
o p e r a t i o ni n 1 9 0 8 b e f o r e t h e h r s t k n o w n e x p e r i m c n t s
with LP-Gas were reported.
I n W a s h i n g t o n ,D . C . , a y o u n g n t a n t o b e c o m e a
founder of the LP-Gas industry was fascinateclby quitc
anotherchallenge.Walter O. Snelling,a doctor of chenristry who had receiveddegreesfrom Harvard, Yale and
George Washington universitieswas trying, on his own
v o l i t i o n i n h i s U S G e o l o g i c a lS u r v e yj o b , t o d c v e l o p a n
underwater cletonator for explosives. ln 1907 he obtained thc use of laboratory spaceat George Washington
U n i v e r s i t y .I n a w a t e r - l l l l e dp i p e o u t s i d et h i s l a b o r a t o r y
window Snelling tested the detonators he nrade for underwater blastingnecessaryin constructionof the Panam a C a n a l . T h e d e v i c e h e p r o d u c e dw a s c r e d i t e d w i t h
s a v i n gt h e g o v e r n m e n th a l f a m i l l i o n d o l l a r s i . ry e l r i n
carving the "Big Ditch" frclnrthe Atlantic tcl the Pacific.
The following year Snelling and others on the stafl
moved to Pittsburgh to set up the office that later bec a m et h e U . S . B u r e a u o l ' M i n e s . F r o m t h i s g o v e r n m e l l t
project cAme severalother men who would play promin e n t p a r t s i n t h e L P - C a s s t o r y . S n e l l i n go b t a i n e d e m ployment in the Bureau of Mines for a young college
g r a d u a t en a n t e dG e o r g eA . B u r r e l l w h o w a s l a t e r t o b e come a leading authority on natural gas and allied subj e c t s . B u r r e l l l a t e r b r o u g h t i n t o t h e d e p a r t m e n tG e o r g e

Also in 1904 natural gasoline was obt : L i n e d i n c o m m e r s i a l q r . r a n t i t i e sb y W i l 'fitusville,
liam Fasenmeyer near
Pa..
from the collection of condensation in
the natural gas mains. A year later, recovery was increased by chilling gas
pipe lines rvith cold water.
Edward I. Hanlon, later to become
prominent in the natural gasoline industry, joincd the firm of Heneghan and
Daly as bookkeeper. On the death of
Daly. the firm became Heneghan and
Hanlon. Hanlon bought a $300 compressor and shipped natural gasoline in
drums down the Ohio River to Parkersburg, W. Va., where it was mixed with
motor fuel.
1905 By

now

the foundations of

LPGA Times-)onuory, 1962

the

Arfhur N. Kerr

C h e s i e rL . K e r r

G . O b e r l e l l . w h o a l s o c o n t r i b u t e dg r c a t l y t o t h c l i q u i c l
i l n d g a s e o r i sp e t r o l e u n lf u c l s i n d u s t r y . A n d t h e p e t r o l e u n r d e p a r t m e n th e a d , I r v i n g ( ' . A l l e n . l l t e r p o o l e d c f l ' o r t sw i t h B u r r e l l t o p u b l i s h i n l 9 l 2 t h e l i r s t c x t e n s i v L '
g o v e r n m e n rt e p o r t o n t h e v a r i o u sf u e l g a s e st h e n k n o w n .
Into Dr. Snellin-uo
' sl l ' i c ei n l 9 l 0 w a l k e d a P i t t s b u r g h
n l o t o r c a r o w n c r w h o c o n r p l a i n e dt h a t t h e g a s o l i n eh c
purchasedwas evaporatingat a rapid and expc'nsiveratL-.
H e t h o u g h t t h e g o v e r n m e n ts h o u l d l o o k i n t o t h e n a t u r e
o f t h o s e d i s a p p e a r i n gf u m e s . T h e y o u n g c h c r l i s t s o o n
r e a l i z e dt h a t g a s e sw c r e c s c a p i n gf r o m t h e l i q u i d g a s o line becausethc stopper was repeatedlyblown I'ronr the
m o u t h o f t h e b o t t l e . E x p e r i r n e n t i n gw i t h t h e f u e l a n c l
c h e c k i n gt h e n a t u r e o f i t s c o m p o n c n t s ,D r . S n e l l i n gr c alized he hacJbutanc. pl'opane und other hyclrocarbons
to deal with.
S i n c et h e r e w e r e n o l ' a c i l i t i e sf o r p r e p a r i n gt h c v a r i o u s
l ' r a c t i o n so f h i s s a m p l e f u c l , D r . S n e l l i n g ,h a v i n g r n c c h a n i c a la s w e l l a s c h e m i c a ls k i l l s , s c t a b o u t b u i l d i n g a
d i s t i l l i n g a p p a r a t u s .U s i n g c o i l s f r o n t a n o l d h o t w a t c r
h e a t e r a n d p i e c e so f l a b o r a t o r y e q u i p n . r e n th. c b u i l t a
s t i l l t h a t c o u l d s e p a r n t eo r f r a c t i o n a t et h e " w i l d g a s o l i n e " i n t o i t s l i q u i d a n d g a s e o u sc o n t p o n c n t s H
. is work
b e c a m et h e b a s i s o f o n e o f t h e t w o m a j o r p a t c n t c di n v e n t i o n st h a t c o n t r i b u t e dg r e a t l y t o t h e c a r l y d e v e l o p ment of LP-Gas.
D r . S n e l l i n g ' sf i r s t g a s n r a y h a v e b e e n t r u l y t h e l i r s t

natural gasoline industry hacl been laid
by the experiments of William Fasenmeyer, of
Tompsett
Brothers near
-f
idioutc, Pa., and of Sutton Bros. at
Sistersv.illeW
, . Va.
1908 Natural gasoline development had
been extended by work of William
Mayburg who, in 1905, had purchased
a gas engine from Bessemer Cas Engine Co. to compress gas to obtain jts
gasoline content. Thereafter the Bessemer firm was active in helping the
young industry to progress.
Other important work was being done
by Hollingshead at Bradford, Pa.; McCarty at Bolivar, N.Y., and Gray at
Kinzua, Pa.
In 1908. the Reno Oil Co. built in

West Virginiu thc first srrccessfulcontpression plant l'or natural gasolinc prod u c ti o n .
l9l0
Researchcs of Peterson antl the
Bessenrer company at (lrove Ci1y. I,a.,
transformed the natural gasoline indrrstry from an cxpcrinrental to :r colllntercial basis.
1911 The first association o1' producers
was formed to promote the natural gasoline industry, brrt it was active for only
a few years.
At about this point development began to center around the capture and use
of the butane and propane gases for
which the pioneers of LP-Gas saw
commercial possibilities.

t7

tt::tj. gas powered enginesof his own designas carly as 1904. Later he obtained a German-madesteel fined to the men credited with founding the LP-Gas industry as a comntercial enterprise. and West Virginitt towns. He succeededin condensingliq'. Allen and sought him out.-. where he fying thc uscl'ulfucl gases.. Va. Frank Petersonhad worked with George Burrell of the Bureau of Mines on his gas compression experiments before Dr. Chester. but concluded it could 1909 at a plant where one of his company'scompressors not be produced in uniforn-rcomposition. F r o s f W .AJt.t t".* D u r i n g D e c e m b e r1 9 1 0 . S n e l l i n gg a v e Allen of the Bureau Mines a full report on his work to date. S n e l l i n gc a l l e d o n h i m a few days later. Arthur Kerr had been working t'rt -!arf^9-a.A r t h u r K e r r r e p o r t e dt h a t h e i!'t-tr'oS" hardobtained 200 gal.. N o t l o n g a f t e r .. B l a u g a se n g i n e e r sa.. On June 12.An employeeof the Bessemer had an excesssupply of gas. E n g i n e C o . About that tinre he also purchased for thc thatin thissamet""t ..W. Cabot' cylinder that enabledhinr to transport the new fuel easily who had invented a method of producing carbon black 1or denronstrationpurposessuch as lighting gas lamps. "predoninately and preeminentlya butane cut. Pa. however. investigatedthe possibility of preparing engineers Pcterson lirst encountered natural gas gasoline in a liquified gas from natural gas. l n l a t e l 9 l 0 a n d e a r l y l 9 l I w h e n D r .G a s t o h i s c o l l e i l g u e sa t t h e B u r e a u of Mines. to his cousin. K e r r s k e t c h e dt h i s p r o c e s sf o r u s i n g l i g h i h y d r o c a r b o n sf o Riverside plant.-Io"l.""r. While Peterson was busy experi!!F:' m e n t i n ga t a n a t u r a l g a s o l i n ep l a n t h e h a d b u i l t i n l 9 1 l -1#ffi$esi€ at Follansbee. P e t e r s o nh a d e x p e r i m e n t e dw i t h c l r n t eo f t h i s p r o p o s l l . In these first years. p l a n t i n S i s t e r s v i l l e ' g a s o l i n e ent. with carbon black plants in several PennsylThe other early ntajor patent was that of Frank P. Cabot asked Dr.X It is believed lJessenrerfirnr the rights to John L. By July -5. for severalnronthswith gasesand gasolineat Sistersville.a n d D r ." Since as 5ro.lj:. o n J u n e 6 . On one occasion a landlady would have no nonsense about LP-Gas experiments being conducted in her house and banished the mysteriously fueled gas lamp and hot plate experiments to an unused chicken coop. also.lhr ur. D r . Kerr was the one other man who knew most about n a t u r a l g a s g a s o l i n e .la or the Kerr cousins. Nothing further. Allen also said that Chester L. Snelling vania P e t e r s o nw h o h a d d e v e l o p e db y l 9 l l a m e t h o d o f l i c l u e to establishan LP-Gas plant at Cabot. l 9 l 2 ) . befclre the turn of the century. Gcldfrey L.Peterson'sapplication for a patent on his a n a i u r a l A l9l2 view o{ gas compressioninvention had been subrnitted(granted ing on ihe pipe and drum came from vaporizing bulane. method of distillation that would be rcquired for a patV a . L a t e r D r .'nt iA : l^. there were no known suitable containersfor LP-Gases at Sistersvilleat that time.LP-Gas in the industry's formative period. of a condensatethat he described later in a letter of May 9. S n e l l i n gw a s d e m o n s t r a t i n gL P . gas uid fronl the gas by packing tons of ice around the nlains and later used a heat exchangertype of refrigerati n g d e v i c e . The Kerrs told in later years of their struggles with c o o l g a s e s i n n a t u r a l g a s o l i n e p r o c e s s i n g ' l8 LPGA Times-)onuory. was used. '. Gray's piitent for making gasoline by the conlpression nlethod. of nretalworking jobs.. s i n c e 1 9 0 8 . 1962 . 1 9 1 1 . I n l 9 l l . But his -" curiosity went furthcr. The intriguing idea of liquefying was not entirely conlaboratory wils il wire-ennleshed glass soda welter "squirt" bottlc. "bottled gas" bccausethe only container hc had in his J u l y 2 . S n e l l i n ge n c o u r a g e da n d u n d e r wrote the costsof having Peterson'sinvention patented. n d p o s s i b l yP i n t s c hg a s He used gas that he had made fronl anthracitecoal.."1. his path had not yet crossedthat ol' Peterson Earua. 1928. he put in written form the necessary information about his LP-Gas tenrperature-pressure P h o t o : l m P € r i a lG a s C o . it is possiblethis production Sketch:ImperialGasCo was used to blend with the gasoline produced at the A r t h u r N . the Kerrs also learned of the great heat and extreme cold that could be generated by the new liquefied gas properties that were the forerunners of today's automatic home hetrting and cooling appliantrs and of even more spectacular benefits to humanity coming into use on earth and in outer sPace. In 1912. had experimentally liqfueling hot plates for cooking and perfornling a variety uefied natural gas (mostly methanc) by using liquid air.Jt. Snelling first heard of his work from Irving C.

ot' Kerby H.rr Md .d a y n t e e t i n gc o n c e r n e dw i t h o r . t h e l i t t l e s h o p o n 4 3 r d S t . l9l I lo organize the firsi LP-Gas producing and marc r nJ a n . L P .G a s b u s i n e s s b e g a nt o s o l i d i f y i n t o r e a l i t y . A r t h u r K e r r w r o t e t o h i s c o u s i n that he had produceda liquid that he believedwas liquid b u t a n ea n d l i q u i d t r i t a n e .. w a s i n c o r porated under the laws of West Virginia. U n i o nT e x a s .iro!.d th. 011 ot ol r. l 9 l l .i:r. Further discussions by officers of both companies resulted in the proposed merger on the basis of 7 rB of a shareof Allied stock for each share of Union.N a t i o n a l L P .r.. l 9 1 2 . l l . They had the Snelling and Petersonpatents. V:r. L.G a s C o u n c i l s t a f f . a nephew of the Kerrs. were made known Nov.t o! 9. 12. Snelling's little Pittsburghshop at 15 43rd St. tr. " P r e s e n l a l l h e c e r e m o n y w e r e i n f h e f o l l o w i n gd a y t h e t h r e e s h a r e h o l d e rm s e t a t S t e u . r.n 15. J . purt tglll Pdn.. 'produclna.were Frank Petersonand Walter Snelling. l l ...|!rd o.vhereobtained a supply. as secretary and treasurer.d u s t r y l e a d e r s{ r o m i h e M i c h i g a n L P G A : ( s t a n d i n g l . A m e r i c a nG a s o l C o . Robinson. O.6 tuy D." Although nothing had yet bcen published about the pererson.o.llrnA. S n e l l i n g . as a governnrent enrployee. F r a n k P e t e r s o na n d W a l t e r O . rnd ol ilor. LPGA Times-Jonuory.. 1962 . D.tr.O .n T. Continued from p.r. Clarence R..d b.gn.reLP-Gas or some. o f N e w J e r . L. O n N o v . s e y . a source of supply at Riverside. th. t h e d r e a n to f a n L P . The founders of the industry started on not much nrore than a very thin shoestringplus unbounded faith. P.but the corporate partnersfelt unable to nreet his ternrs. b y C a p t .Industryhistory was named president. O n N o v .E d Y o r k a n d ganizationof the con. lncoryorri.r.rrna p. rh. ln. a.rly f.E. Howard Marshall.. La.M i c h i g a n G o v e r n o rJ o h n B . i n h i s r o l e o f a t t o r n e y . f o r . American Gasol Co.ry. The merger is subject to the aPProval of the directors and stockholdersol' both companies.rt. vice president. !hd 50r.G a s o p e r a t i o na n d d e m o n s t r a t e di t i n l 9 l 2 Major sources for this chaptcr are lhe Antcrican (ias Assn. bt eih P.. F I F T YY E A R S L A T E R . had either produced son. c54rny d. Md 0l . L .TexS c h e n c ko f t h e S c h e n c kn r e a tp a c k e r I ' a r r i l yo f W h e e l i n g .bn.rrJ . Whitelield of the packing lirm.on.nn. P l a n s o f t h e t w o c o m p a n i e st o build a joint petrochemical complex near Baton Rouge. .I'il''-1T. 1 9| l . in addition to Kerr and the Robinsons.n .oryo. Of the 2. l.rt P. Look for it in the I'ebruary t r u c k t o L P .coid l]@S.rrd .la sdcr b. Fisk.ter..'1.nd &t! L .. S n e l l i n go n O c t . 2 8 a s l n c e b e i n gh e l d b y t h e c o r p o r a t i o n . new company or its product. McLean. rh. A n i n d u s t r y h a s i t s r e a l .n p^rty ot r. w a s v i s i t e d keting firm. o. .H e s a i d " t h e r e i s n o q u e s t i o n t h a t t h i s p r o d u c tt h a t I h a v e m a d e w i l l b e v e r y v a l u a b l e for some uses . Kerr. ! rr!r. He said he was interestedin linancing the company. p r a c t i c a lb e g i n n i n gt h e d a y i t g o c s i n t o o p e r a t i o ns u p p l y i n gt h e n e e d so f i t s c u s t o m e r s .![dr 11r. Allied's board chairman.rt bl. W. L u c a s .Illna pr!d:cr. t. rh.lb. D. .d b!_ lna.. Robinson.jt- O. O . and its LP-Gas demonstration apparatus. W a l t c r O . Dr. Schenckconverted a installation was sold. word sonrehowspread. o f N e w C o . has been announced by 28 rfri ! h. and J.. pro!1d.. Dr.L o u M a r s h a l l .r. The directors.rr. S w a i n s o n( s e a t e d ) K e r r . president of Riverside. W h i t f i e l d .nd DArt1. t h e n r a n w h o i n 1 9 0I h a d discoveredthe Spindletopoil lield near Beaurnont. !. a n d t h e f i l e s o f D r .r ..rt. A n t h o n y F . working with J. Kerr a full report on all of his work up to that t i n t e i r n d a s k e dh i m .tt L. lraht ti D.A l l i e d C h e m i c aM l e r g e rP l a nT o l d The merger of Union Texas Natural Gas Corp. In any event. T h i s c h r o n o l o g y w a s p r e p a r c d b y J o h n s t o n S n i p c s o f t h e Y o r k a n d t o g o o n t o t h e S t a n d a r dO i l C o .t h e b a l "Michigan s i g n so f f i c i a l p r o c l a m a l i o nm a r k i n gl h e w e e l o f J a n . P. G o w e r . . i n a n a l l .. I n O c l o b e r l 9 l I .t o d r a w u p the necessarypapers to incorporatethe world's first LPGas company.Kerr "::' 11"ffiil'il. w a s t h e l i r s t a p p l i a n c ea n d a p p a r a t u se x p e r t i n t h e ncw gas licld. Snelling. Kerr K e n E i s i n g e r . oroh &r. !. e.r16r sd! r thl. Chapter 2 of this chronology will tell how the first LP-Gas '|'IMF)S' C. and a young oflice and errand boy.000 s h a r e so f s t c l c k .2 6 1 s h a r e se a c h w e r e g i v e n t o C .. b e l o r c i n t e r e s t e dc r o w d s i n N e w Y o r k C i t y .rd. ) D i c k b e n v i l l e ... 18 lo@'f b/ sd ad.C. l i b r a r y . l 0 g a v e ('.G a s 5 0 i h A n n i v e r s a r yW e e l . S n e l l i n g a n c l I m p c r i a l ( i a s l a t c r t o j o i n t h e C o n s o l i d a t e cLl i q u i d G a s C o .nr.ni !. R o b e r l H a b e r m e h l . as. 2 2 .rr ol fo4.ll tor rn th. Snelling offered to underwrite all the expensesol' the new venture during its formative period. tranl 11rdr. into Allied Chemical Corp.t psrt. L. B u t t h c p r e l i m i n a r i e sa r e a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t o i t s h i s tory. Union Texas president.for c. Plrt.L o w e ..ytrdrlrl P!!!. and E.ylt.could not serve as an olTicerof the new company and had agreed four days earlier that his stock would be held for the time being in the name of Frtrnk E. ot rdt.-bo't1rd P. secretary and treasurer of Riverside.rpanyand its activities.v. ?.

2 0 ..H e s c t u p t h e c a b i n e ta n d t a n k s home <ll' Dr. hc hircd a dray.uarl Cbronology Chapter 2: Pioneer Installations Are Made . near Waterford. .!. tttSJ o h n W . "r' r'!/.TbeFirst Fifry Yearsof LP-Gas An Ind.back porch is thc first steel cabinet that replaced the Iiam Altdorfer was helping publicizethe Bureau of Mines w o o d e n b o x u s e d t o s h e l t c rt h e t a n k s a n d e q u i p n r e n to f under the direction of its director.'. PROGRESS seemedto be at snail's pace those first page article in thc Brooklyn (N. !.a m u n i f i c e n t4 0 1 a n h o u r . Firsf uses . ftlr nrany yeitrs seca n d t o o k h i s p i c t u r c . 'di !/.but just up the road stands i n g $ I 1 . loadcd a Casol outfit then in the shop. .as its birth..Dr.r^. 1 9 1 2 .5 3 r/. G a h r i n g ( i n s e i ) i n s p e c t st h e f i r s t L P .G a s i n d u s t r yu r a r k s the following day to Union City where A. F ..O n t h e To record the fact that even in that day there were t h e h o n r eo f t h e s e c o n dc u s t o n t e r E g o v e r n m e n tp u b l i c r e l a t i o n sn l e n . 1.. s/6' ort. F.1 .rdJ ' . a w r i t e r n a m e d W i l .' r.Eft.h o m c o f J o h n G a h r i n g . n . . hu. Gahring of carrieclan article by Dr. . .Ibr. Y o u n g d i d h i s i n s i a l l a l i o nw o r k 4 0 c b o u q h t a n h o u r ' sl a b o r .I t t o o k a l l o f 2 8 h o u r s t o g e t t h e s c t i n s t a l l e d lighting the larnps and cooking the meals in the farm and working. 4IJounq ) rr.n. .1/i. a few miles southeastof Erie. t a i n e da n d D r . T o d d . nrI t. T . 'fhe a r t i c l e a l s o a p p e a r e di n t h e I n d i a n a p o l i sS r r n d a y that they could have a gas supply just like city folks on ol thc sante clate and was widely copied by magathe natural gas pipe lines. May 12.I h. Hcllrrres.T h e s a n r ef a n r i l y o w n s t h e p o s s i b i l i t yo f a n e w s p a p e rs t o r y . P h o i o takenMay 11. for which the cornpanychargcd Dr. build the lirst dontesticLP. m a n a g e r h a d F .. undertook the job of in. Dombach honte at East Petersburg. uDpr- re nt.r. George W.1h'. Snell. r-r7.n r. T h e o r i g i n a l c e i l i n g f i x t u r e s t h a t s u p Holnres was interestedin Snelling'swork and strggested p l i e d g a s l i g h t s a r e s t i l l i n p l a c e . o f t h e zincs. five days before the first set actually was find .rro'. t h e C a h r i n g s c t . Paul Luthcran Church at Penryn.G a sC o u n c i l W h e n A .o .6eefting and lighling The lirst outfit was completed on May tt and shipped M a y 1 1 . r. Dr.'ra3. C o p y r i g h1t 9 6 l b y N a t i o n a lL P .But finally a Iirm order was ob. Gcrwig. .'.G a s i n s i a l l a t i o nm a d e a t h i s f a r m h o m e ( a b o v e ) . T h i s b i l l c o v e r si h e G a h r i n g and Wheeleriobs. w h i c h a p p c a r e di n n e a r l y a f u l l retary of the Pittsburghschools. E .' . Pa. .so m o nthswere the St. Young Hardware and Plumbing Co..tlrc country.. Potential customerswere hard to clay. Frl{r F37r" nlat b.) Dail-vEagie of Sunfew nronths of 1912.r! }tt'u1dm r-rl. Snelling on his nrcthod of septhe no longer existing little railroad stop of Le Boeuf aration ot gasolineby critical tenrperatures. \-3/u ht. ! . On that day liquefied petroleunr gas began s t a l l a t i o n .neor the gas installation.' Fr'. " ' _' r5l.':r^t!.6o io. S n e l l i n g LawrencevilleMachine Co. i s t l r e d a y t h e L P .S/al aud trade and scientificbooks ircross newspapers. N o t h i n g t o c l a y r e m a i n so f t h a t hor.. .r4 r" . r5 n. Other carly custonlersin Pennsylvaniain those first couldn't wait for the Gahring systemto be installed. Thc May issueof Nutiottal ItetroleurrtNev's Gas outlit l'or the lirst customer-John W.and the the looking likely until he found ir the street ancldrove down h o u s cf o r a p h o t o g r a p h . Y. and in the country they were hard to convince in operaticln. A l t d o r f e r f e l t h e t h e h o m e . rft. W h e e l e r . 1912. ! r.!/^' r r/6. *1. Henry S.

but he said his share of the $50.000 in return for 200 sharcs of stock each and the American Gasol Cg. Snelling by the Robinsons becauseit was along the railroad tracks and little boys kept the windows in a constant tinkle of breaking glass. L. the man who put the LaSalle Extension Course on the map. showrooms and warehousehad been Pittsburgh . C. The E. a full page Sunday supplenrentstory in the Pittshurgh l:'ost. 1962 23 . American Gasol occupied one room on the secondfioor where Dr. After consultation by the partners it was decided to seek from M. he placed on the table a certified iion {ealured blowcheck for $50.000 and announced that on beha'lf of an torch applicalions. Oil Co. Trees financialassistance of Pittsburgh who had been financing the Riverside Oil Co. Snelling. Snellinghad his office and additional space was used by his six employees. . Kerr.But the greaterpart of the building was unused. he did not completely sever his connection with the Bureau of Mines until that fall. De Bower. The warehouse building had been rented to Dr. to be found in the March TIMBS.No one else wanted it. but rented ^t 7440-7460 Finance St. lamp to light her way in the dark. the available gas photo originally shown as Arthur N. Snelling on June 18 believed that the company i : . rcsembling an old-fashioned gas Peterson was general manager of the Riverside Western street light. the Wheeler family and Imperial Gas Co. C. and vice versa. and many other newspaper items.000 was a great sum of serviccsthat LP-Gas performs today. . Kerr hastily conferred. An impressiveappcaring building housing the com. paint rernovers and 30 minutes to accept his offer to buy the company. This home was close lo Gahring's which is no longer inent display to a Gasol denronstrationkit built by Frank standing. Snelling. LPGA Times-Februqry. Peterson and C. lanrp on a pedestal.000 would be One writer. 1913.and the Century Co. fell far short of cnvisioning the many also voted to accept. L. thinking he was foretelling the miracles more than he ever expected to make in his life. Kert's name should appear under the and descriptions of the Gasol set. 25.But during that day American Gasol's office door swung open to admit a visitor-E.was lhe second SnellinginOften the ntagazincand newspapereditors gave prom. w was on a footing sufficiently sound to enable him to resign from government service. Benedum and J. Peterson.To the gas set was connecteda small gas Snelling.Major sources for Chapter 2 are the files of Dr. in Correction: The captions in Chapter I under the Kerr photos all was not as it seemedin the company catalog. It was a snrall suitcase containing LP-Gas cylinders not nruch larger than those used 50 years interested investor he would give the three partners just later for hand soldering torches. A man of few words under the circumEarly Gasol promostances of his visit. B y t h e e n d o f t h a t y e a r o f 1 9 1 2 . reluctantly agreed to sell the contpany in which he had placed so much hope and work. Wheeler home. Piclure taken al lime of gas insfallalion. By September. camp stoves. range and hot plate were more factual than the building. still standing. Kerr oi tonrorrow. as $50. The bright. dawned with no ominous threat that sunsetwould see the end of the first American or yet any promise that the inLP-Gas Company dustry would survive to circle the earth with its product and services. which had been set up by Benedum and Trees to handle Riverside's gasoline plant operations in Okla" Mirdcies" seen by firsl wrilers homa.s i a l l a t i o n . having equal stock the woman of the future would carry a suitcase gas voting rights. E. chandeliers. He predicted that money indeed in 1913. L. W. advertisements. Chapter 3. Snelling felt that he could no longer carry the full financial load of the new company. was given another chance to prove it had a salablcproduct. pany's laboratory. Benedum and Trees agreed to put up $10. Walter 0. carriesthe hisThere had been no rush of customersdespitebrochures tory through World War 1 and the early 1920swhen some of and catalogsissuedby American Gasol and newspaper today's marketing companies were being organized.Pictures should be reversed. prosperousfuture for LP-Gas seemeddim i n d e e db y t h e t i m e t h e s u n t m e ro f 1 9 1 3 r o l l e d a r o u n d . The day of Aug.Dr.A m e r i c a n G a s o l w a s widely known throughout the petroleum industry and by the public at large through articles by Snelling and Peterson in Scientific Arnerican. Although he submitted his resignation that day.

Many of the recorded events center around patent Godfrey Cabot built an LP-Gas plant at New management and stock transactions. corporated under laws of Delaware with authorFrank Petersonwent to Tulsa. wirs ingasoline industry. Lyons and McCarthy.000 as successorto Coneral manager of Riverside Western Co. but largely for nretal cutting. continued until l92U when LP-Cas was adopted A. Lane of Parkinson & I9l4 . THIS ERA OPENS after the initial group of inLane.G a sC o u n c i l L P G AT i m e s . Ewen.but the venture was a fiin this new industry: home installations. of New York with American Gasol re. D e n n i s O ' H a g a n a n d h i s a t contentwith their suburbanjobs. J . 30-3 l: Representativesof Consolidated 1915 novationsin handling and transportationwere recorded.at that tirne. created Early air-butane nrixes were called "greased a new lirm under the name of Consolidated Liquid air. and American Gasol Co. torches and metal cutting were a few early outlets. irnd John torney. L. From this point on LP-Gas history will be told in a They attempted to reorganizeby sellM. but nothing further is known of this reorganization Frank Y.t 9 l 6 Dr. Manufacture of this gas domesticuse. of Chicago a receiverssale of Consolidatedin Chicago. of stock. Consolidated. its A .s t i l l give " the Consolidated Liquid Cas Clomactive . Garner of Hope Natural Gas Co. 1913 The purchasersof American Gasol Co. wirs selling gas Blaugas Co.200 in cash to pay pressYork. J. Liquid Gas and forming Indusing Consolidated l9l2 Arthur Kerr built a large plant at Sistervillc trial Liquid Gas Co. F . Gasol expressingtheir perfect satisfaction with the J. 0 0 0 ) . Patrick Lyons and his attorney. Liquid Gas Co. thc ing obligations (the company was in debt for a pioneer producing and marketing firm. many years this Bradford unit was the only operSheehan as receiver. 3: American Light & Heat Co.M o r c h . Walter O.J. M c C a r t h y .D r . successorto the American Gasol Co. plumbers' nancial failure. E. 3-9: In a series of American Light and continental Oil Co. however obtained.. Oklar. there were 250 compressionplants extracting son are known to have paid their cash assessment narturalgasolinefrom natural gas. chronology of events drawn from countless sources. plus two or three firms which have since beconte firm had not discoveredany earlicr work in this orominent. W.S n e l l i n ga n d P e t e r time.Present were C. C o p y r i g h 1t 9 6 1 b y N a t i o n a lL P . Iield to nullify the patents. E. early customersJohn Gahring. This plant later supplied 1 O'Hagan. and Gasol interLP-Gas to ConsolidatedLiquid Gas Co. Va. F. met at Blaugas was still popular in those years before and Hotel Wolcott in New York City to discuss the point it selling for shortly after World War I. i n g h e a dG a s o l i n eA s s n . 1 9 6 2 21 . of Minneapolis. B. InAug. for Riversidc Oil Co.usnyCbronologl Chapter 3: The Years of Slow Growth I I I May 28: Wallace R.Tbe Fira FifU Yearsof LP-Gas An Ind.openedits first California plant. The big reorganizirtion." Gas Co. . McCarthy In May. Ryan offered to purchase a substantialamount LP-Gas outfits installed a year earlier. Pa.Apart from these Elizabeth. plant built by Sloan & Zook at Bradford. of New estsirgreedto put up $10. commerciallv practicablemethods or processesof few "new" nilmes appear as do severalcompanieswhich producing their liquid natural gas product irs well have for the most part passedout of the industry's hisas the product itself.. ollered to sell to the new company the Snelling Wheeler and Henry Dombach wrote American and Petersonpatents he had purchased. It obtained gan work with LP-Gas in cutting steel in the PittsLP-Gas from Riverside Oil and from a special burgh area. beceiving stock in the new company. At this s u m o f m o r e t h a n $ 1 7 2 . later to solidated Liquid Cns Co." The tory. Walter and for LP-Gas was that they kept city-bred cooks O . N. . built the lirst sucoutfits and gas around New York City for some cessful Blaugas plant.-500. be merged with Riverside Earsterninto the TransFeb. Kerr was elected president of the Cirsby the firm. In those years protection on the only known pany full . For J a n . LP-Gas was largely in the hands of developers. with $ l. Kerr. built the first insulated tank car for the natural Feb. Heat board of directors meetings. t h r c l u g hT h o m a s A . Snelling in the four Snelling and Peterson patents would 1 9 1 2 a n d c l o s e si n 1 9 2 5 w h e n I m p e r i a l G a s C o . as genized capital of $ 1.500. . . noted Chicago patent attorneys. purchased the Gasol-Conating plant in the East.Thomas . He contemplated barging the transactionsa few pioneers were exploring sales angles gas in large quantities. said that stallationshad been made by Dr. S n e l l i n g . 3 l : J . president of Northwestern effort..000 in stock. solidatedGas patentsof Snelling and Petersonat General American Tank Car Co. Locke.

J. meeting board of directors Apr. They called their company the P. Pa. The present introduced Butane as trade name for product. and I. Kerr . H. Mcas a Colonel in the Chemical Warfare branch of Nay who later engagedin the LP-Gas businessfor the U.) 300 miles away. shares of stock had never been issued. a can Light & Heat approved agreement of plumbers furnace and a soldering iron for produc24" giving Kerr license rights. high pressure tank barges which 1921. bought Blaugas tanks and cal Warfare. Dennis O'Hagan . was used largely as a cutting gas. so the "October 20.lvfor distriLutiorr aLout Januarv'lsl. Burrelllaler headed Atlaniic Stales Gas Co.6. Allen. worked with C. in the development of activated carbon as an abAt this time Roy Eichleay was spending much sorbent for war gases. 5: Special meeting of directors of Ameri"April derson also developed a pencil arc burner. AtvlIflIIAI{ [ASOL COillPAIIY PITTSO PtIJ. gas Charleston. Long Island and the suburbs. later declared void by the directors. 28. in developing a pumpless blowtorch. Liquefied Gas Appliance Co. Gasol and the two Kerrs decided to set up their own interests. Va.S. Most of the gas was sold for During World War I. because none was a stockholder as of the W. Gas chromotography. (This election declared void on Feb.. secretaty-4 uct. Anderson. One o{ the early paienls for processes fringing on LP-Gaswas this l92l docum e n t c o v e r i n g a r e c o n d e n s i n gP r o c e s t . B. It name is Natural Gasoline ProcessorsAssn. (This agreement line work. N. facturers was founded in Tulsa. N. ucts Co. is an outcause they didn't understand the important servgrowth of this work. Peterson patents owned by American Light & General Engineering and Model Works of PittsHeat. The late George A. and all three as dinear Pittsburgh. N. liquid from brought up date of election.10. Kerr proGasol's first customer. Lyon and J. The earliest printed LP-Gassalesmaler ihus far seen is Gasol's l9 l3 boollet. a modern gas at 259 a pound but all agents went broke bemethod for analyzing gases quickly. under J. F. Kerr . He played an important part Pa. Kerr. R G . in the development of the activated New York eastern Rockgas obtained agents in 1918 method of extracting natural gas liquids from state to sell its gas outfits for $150 each and the natural gas. At this and continof Pittsburgh Rockgas Products Co.. Oberfell. Garner.1913. ment of gas warfare.223' LP-Gas business. C. Feb. Walter O. meeting C. 9. l9l7 22 LPGA Times-Morch. B. icing end of the business. 1919 Light & Heat discovered that a supposed 49. Eichleay later him both at the Bureau of Mines and in Chemipatents. McCarthy .5.15..Gas tor TheFarm LlQuloGASlN B0llltl @ loR C0UTIIRY tl0tts Out6tswrll be rca. N. Snelling married Marjorie Gahring. tion F:.9. first in Connecticut and later in Ephrata. A. Burrell served metal cutting. G. Pa.298. C. J. follows: A. marleting chiefly in New Yorl and Pennsylvania. The vice president was I. L. 4: At a special daughter of John Gahring who was American of American Light & Heat Co. who had worked with City. Later they built a plant on Neville Island treasurer and vice president. 1962 . L. The plant was supplied by three rectors..) *1920 The Association of Natural Gasoline ManuHope Natural Gas Co. Snelling moved to Allentown. would be licensed under the Snellingof Sharpsburg. 3: The board of directors of American Walter O... board authorized issuance as of Riverside Eastern and Riverside Western com1916. Kerr." Shares previously supposedly divided as panies were merged into Transcontinental Oil Co.970 where he became research director for the Trojan Powder Co.298.000 gal. posed an agreement under which Rockgas ProdJ. George A. Okla. AnApr. Mcued to use the old name of Gasol for the prodNay elected respectively as president. burgh. After the war he collabotime and money pushing LP-Gas in New York rated with G. L. Army in charge of research and develophimself.

F. 3. ffifr. Snellingon Kansas& Gulf Co.FJ\tR R EI ' NI C ] I ] R A I ' ] O N About this time Tappan Co. at Rochester. 5l LPGATimes-Morch. 1918.*6'd'r' in . Kerr.hd bJdlq F-bic.d dd dc REruGERATION to. FVEL of the American Light & Heai Co. with Pyrogen for metal cutting and Pyrofax for domestic use. rd r(d@ . The first modern distribution ooint was at Greenwich.president.and all three as directors." I. tr ! nsr dr.-J. of Belmont.for non-paymentof taxes.he requiredthat RockgasProductscancel the patentslicenseof Apr. and Pittsburgh Thermoline Co.m bUE.This was the last notation Frank Petersonbecamevaluation engineerfor in the minutesbook until Walter O.t(@lq6d tfrn<trr r' h d. Arld ld hd Dbd 6 d hrltrni r.-t. McCarthy.St. Conn.sb qitur.@@6il $.db&lM w'Titffailillr"r UGIIT.6ttuIntr. 1919. container which the company made at Indianapolis.* #. Kelly started the term "bottled gas.tr'(*'1..*Y:$1t". James A. ilnuhEd USES OF FUELITE rrtd.. Feb. secretary.. The list of uses shownon one inside page (righi) would siill stand as a calalog of maior applicalions. who was vice president of the Rockgas Products Co.11 unro m Er ab. This was the father of the LP-Gas burner.1962 23 . The gas was sold largely to millionaires who wanted the convenience for their estatesand to hold their city-bred domestic help in the coun- tuqbtnthM' - &. Conn. 'n dlo *bbt B. G@r^e 'nd Ra' The Follnning Are lrchded. McDonald.bt.6no.lt'na-ivD.It reducedcosts of on Mar. in so far as they attemptedto elect C. McNay. McNay. Robinson. O.ANTOUS M. Anwg the Many Ptactical C. McDonald was electedpresident of American Light & Heat Company.[E!.. Kerr secretary-treasurer. N.d.295.6n. 1942.nF Ud tu di k lftt(.24. 'n rkldld'qtu'#'_ t.d &o [lLq Light & Heat Company (successorto Consolidated Liquid Gas Co. Whitfield helped the firm originate the 1001b. O.d Lil-'i-t'illq..ho-. Va. . 18.!.7h. 7925. N. president. built a catch basin burner at suggestionof the Kerrs of Rockgas Products who got the patent. in a joint effort with Phillips Petroleum Co. McNay started his own company at Coraopolis.ir Varh. and sold McNay Gas (wet).tiq d Bl4 hnE md kn.I. Pa. built a plant at Clendennin.treasurerand at its Neville Island plant. . Hope Natural Gas. F. Feb. where he remaineduntil his retirementin largevolume productionof LP-Gas. prinled an elaborale brochure in l92l lo promole the Fuelite brand.s F MISCELI.dRod|EE tun 'n uh#.J11 :iil.d lodtolrd * ".1925 Mar.for the reasonthat none of them was at that time a stockholder. 28: J.. Mass.Y.n 6rh6'of ffirtdrryld.. He was one of the first to sell wet gas. E.6 td. In rh i66(rlrE.l'liHml-#.6t $ lN rDIuMa H6r'ss. employed D. H.T. The front cover is reproduced at left. and American Gasol Co. d|!v*ft.d d ob.The directors refusedto approvethe minutesof the special directorsmeetingof Feb.d[d!ryJotkrF rohffirldkik|e d''tl |l r crrcnctv idu.dF 6r&{-6 th Hl'. Rockgas Products supplied Nugas in Connecticut. Carbide and Carbon Chemical Corp..@llrudf. The board also declaredforfeit the contractdatedApr.. (the one that directorsof AmericanLight & Heat had declared void).d rd $bL Runl Gurb lo& r^d hEE $r.eLrasth<h.dhtddE In th F. 24. &t1.:. 1922 Feb. becauseit had been enteredinto without the authority of American Light & Heat.. (later Union Carbide). at Tulsa.rrr"tnrcial U*s of Fuelite FOR UOHTINC PURIOSES l|ff od Cdnq $hL^ Dr|'nF F.fr-f. 11: H.) ofiering to buy control of the firm for $137. J. dab. was in business with a Mr. vice president. Meese to study gases in a tour of Europe. Small of the Nugas Co. lor FFdr.a New York brok.which profor Mid-Continent Petroleum Corp. Hendricks.. This led to formation of Superfuels Co.HFAT. production. 18: Delawareforfeited charter of Amerier. wherehe servedfor one year. 6: AmericanLight & Heat directorselectRockgas Products was making an LP-Gas ed N. try. reinstatedthe company'scharter l92l Union Carbidedevelopedthe first column still that had been forfeited by the state of Delaware which it called a stabilizer. htiq Fruil RlFft. and was supplied by Rockgas Products. C. N. 9'. with RockgasProducts.tlsa. N.d in Me fd NLh tu*.d Uu@-&hfte od hn& tuF O.John F. However. 1924 Frank Petersonbecame production engineer Thompsondevelopedthe stabilizer.. Rafferty and Harold E.8d elh. blend and regular gasoline and aviation gasoline vice president. Drake.. Feb. and installed a good many sets at Greenwich.d^dLEF€dh Pil6.W. presidentof American Condnued on p. 1.1 d $d &i5'3'&IJTtffT: k.kll[{hh'nt . This permitted \Okla.and A. L. ducedthe first sharppropanecut.. Rockgas. but later switched to propane and dry gas.1918.tr.*iff'n rl& &h6 hd* tulld'@ FOR tuliE POWER s r r6. Kelley. Mandeville.d bb B6. manufacturer of Presto-lite. t!tq: $d iatA-w-q'rm. fol' HFJ\NNCAND As A FUEL btd m. 1927. Other firms in the field included Fuelite Natural Gas Co. L."aomr Td(b Hshhr' PM6 d vuti. This offer of Mandevillewas never enteredin the company minutes book and sale was never consumated. u h Ado Rqhsl4 v.' AND tud lot ."u..yy. M. W. 4. wrote J.F.

higlt cvcr ollcrcd! Spaccwill be c c i l i n g b u i l d i n g s . Imperial developed the first successfultank-vapor domestic system. a stage to l l o ors' nlctl' nlitchirrcty tentatively h e a t b c s t plans l o r a y s . c i r c u l a r p a t t e r n . N o f i r r r so r b l o u e r s oereed to have the sign availablc to display blankct tlrc workitrg Multiple hcatcrs.. This first gas wirs purchasedfrom Santa Fe plant No' 3 of the.. ' l .RAY REDHEAT Continued from P.gronl. not the air. a n d l e s s . Keyser. To Mark FirstLP Site Pennsylvania . C .The Maryland-basedoperation bought Chaudane Sturgeon and Sudbury Bay' North in units Co. l . r o wa t t h c l o w c s t c o s t The site of the f'rrst LP-Gas installation no\'bcitrg nratlc itt the r r c on installed Ray gas Infra-Red hcating installations memorializedin a roadsidemarker to be p c r s c 1 'f t ' ( o f h c n t c d f o r 2 5 c buildings ol'avcrage construction y l t e ' M r r y 1 1' 1 9 6 2 ' 5 0 t h a n n i v e r s i t rd ""A. Other projects include .".. of Last year's net amountedto $396. a 70-lb' sharp cut' low lressure Rockgits.5c dividend was declared.666 on revenues 1960's' over $3.local buildings' u'ritc lbr organizationsin the lf you havc problenrs hcating indtrstrial iell the anniversary story to of a stateinfra-rcil heat lhat can bc information on Spacc-Ray " ' thc r.. ..also in January' Gas .w h i c h n r c i t t t sa l o w c r c o s t a speakers' bureau to pr.*tS hisstate the urging LpGR i n s t a l l a t i c t t tcsv c l l l l l .mounted I I I I I I I I I T implanted in the roadside' ' 6 1 :P u r c h a s eMsa d e P a r g a sN e t u P i n purA 30.h i sc ( ) s tc o v c r s t o r i c a l z r n d n r u s e u m c c l m m i s s i o n a g r e e d t o p r o v i d e t h ec o l d c r s c c t i o n s .ytvania l l o o r a r c a ) .R e dG o s H e o l e r s ' APPROVED SY I Nome - I AMTRICAN I GAS I AssoclATloN I . Ont. " leave committee's The marker is one phase of the 20 man o p c r lltl(rll' o f r u n h c a l c d . set up lmperial Gas Co' in California and Arthur N' Kerr went West to ooen the new area for LP-Gas. with Va' Falls. Ltd.fon e"nn. " s e n d i n f o r m o l i o no n S p o c e ' R o v t e n s i t yI n f r o .I-History SPACE.Revenuesshowed an8'3o/orise A 7. Inc' president McAllister. t)reson..434.. RockgasProductsCo. using a single tank and one regulator' The companyharketed a dry gas.N e vada. u public relitions kit and exploration ft' in most normal btrildings w i d e T V s e r i e sn e x t S e P t e m b e r ' installed for less than 25c per sq' a bearing plaque' The mirrker will be a rectangular with average heat loss' on a standard nototion on the lirst installation.Pacific GasolineClo.tlrcnrostcllicierrtcolrrftlrthcatpossilrlclilr. ' . W' has common McAllister also announced that Pargas quotation' counter qualified for published over-the Uses Naturol or Proponegos coRPoRottooll. for non-paymentof taxes' an unrisual method of terminating a company's activities. G19 Imperial of files Sneiting. Thesc tlraft-free 17' MaY on u p p c r c ciling arca rclatively Waterford t h c near thcy touch. Box 3485 I a t C h o r l o t l e3 .. Paulding's area with infra-red -ot committee Gahring home John former surlaccs lnd obiccts the of o n l y h e i i t site r a y s ttt" . the association's marker.o. the Processors News. htrng synlmetrically. I-PGA TIMES and the Natural Gas Assn..r"-ony and tools. tional conventton. N .488. I: st_r9r-^L1Y P.t- l Inlra-reil. The following year girswas obtnlneo from Standard Oil Co. . 23 can Light & Heat Co.. and Newkirk Bottled Gas.5% increasein net income last year and were Virginia West and chase of operationsin Ontario C' J' announced in January by Pargas. according to John Paulding' lays tlirectly dtlwn commissionalsc'r Space-Rayoverhead hcatcrs beanr infra-rcd The chairmnn' committee 5Oth birthday to stir ttp tltrst' at the nai n a w i d c . of California' For many years Imperial sold through distributors' shipping i C C c y t i n a e r sb y r a i l t h r o u g h o u tC a l i f o r n i a . Arizona and New Mexico' Thestartofwide-sca|cmarketingandthecomingofthe ttbig name" companies are recounted in ncxt monthts chapter of the LP-Gas industry's history' Walter O' Malor contributors to Chapter 3 -include Butane'Propane Co". lligh lrr' i l " o .

-5 when tank car shipments of propane were received. started operations Dec.). PressedSteel Tank Co.for lighting and heating" was issued. to Moline. t h e S h e l l O i l C o . Ford of Charleston. I n J u l y . and F. He worked with Thomas. With domestic sales patterns rapidly being refined. Union Carbide sued Phillips for allegedinfringementof its patent on the stabilizer d c v c l o p e di n l 9 2 l . Phillips Petroleum Co.later named LPGA. The minutes book was then found in a Minneapolis trust vault. entered the field with Skelgas ancl was among the lirst to recover LP-Gas exp e r i n r e n t a l l yf r o m t h e c r a c k i n g s t i l l s u s e d i n Brand narnes commence appearing with the support of professional promotion in the 1926-33 period of LPGas histgry. 1962 Philtips'early sales maker. had a lechnical slant in Sweei's Architecfural may not be {amiliar lo Calalogues. arrangedfor tank truck delivery to customersand provided a "one drunt" system for receiving trucked delivery at the customer site. both gas suppliers and equipment makers stepped up their probing of the industrial. W. By 1933 the industry had organizedits trade association. G. gained a realistic railway freight classificationand rate. refineries. Okla. mercury seal Iow pressure sa{eiy relief. At this time. W. Tappan Co. for "Compressed gas systems (including LP-Gas) other than acetylene.G a sC o u n c i l LPGA Times-April. Sr.Holzapfel and Barton Brown are believed to have been the first to b u i l d p r o d u c t i o nu n i t s . Shellanewas handled. Walter Snelling obtained reinstatementof the Delawarecharter of American Light and Heat Co.ustryCbronology 1/.. G. obtained his lirst gas carburetor patent.. Holzapfel started the Algas systems. through payment of all past taxes and fees. set up bulk plants to receive tank car shipments.). 17 . through company-owned depots.). from Lep.. Pilling. and discovered that LP-Gas seemed to be depression-proof. became interested in LP-Gas and turned its extensiveresearchfacilities to the problen.rsinvolved. 58. of America. pamphlet No.25 times the weight of the gas contents. of Monrovia. The first tank car of butane was shipped May 3 | for city gas enrichment tests and the first tank car fuel contract was signed in October. carburetion and utility markets. 1927 Phillips Petroleum "turned cln the gas" for a momentousforward leap for the LP-Gas industry. ir mixture of propane and propylene produced at the Martinez and Wilmington (Calif. T h i s s u i t w a s s e e n l a t e r a s a nrajor turning point becauseit shifted Oberfell's interestfrom natural gasoline to LP-Gas and led to the creationof the company'sextensiveLP-Gas researchprogram. It designedand obtained approval for specialtank cars (a plea made eirrlier by Rockgas Co. 1926 1' '\r' 'u As the leading natural gasoline producer. A bulk plant at Hudson. i n t r o d u c e dS h e l l a n e . Thomas played prominent roles in this work. The curiosity stage was parssedas major producers arrived on the scene. Skelly Oil Co. C o p y r i q h1t 9 5 1 b y N a t i o n a lL P . developed a cylinder weighing only 1. Frank E. Ohio.TbeFirst Fifry Yearsof LP-Gas An Ind. at Long Beach. later presidentof Century Gas Equipment Co.7 of a pound per pound of proPane. Illinois. (now owned by MarvelSchebler Products Division of Borg-Warner Colp. Calif. Oberfell and R. Key letlers newcomers are E. flexible hose.(Today the weight is only . LP-Gas was being produced by Snelling-Petersonmethods during the precedingyears. Paul Endacott and others in surveying the possibilities of nrarketingLP-Gas on a large volume basis. made the lirst concave-headbutane cylinders on the West coast. developed an insulated gas range to utilize the fuel more economically. Chapter 4: "Big Names" Rally To LP-Gas The tirst National Fire Protection Assn. Day & Night Manufacturing Co.Va.the Eclipse butane carburetors and the Roadmastersystems. Calif.) ti'-Gas po*"rbd the first train. The Associationof Natural Gasoline Manufacturers becameNatural GasolineAssn. issued about because it appeared that 1932. He worked with George Holzapfel of Richfield Oil Co. for the most part. developed a tworegulator vaporizing system in which heavy LPCas cuts were vaporized in a coil set in water..

50. R e r n a r k a b l ei n c r e a s ei n t h e u s e o f L P .50 each if much to popularizeLP-Gas.G a s s e r v i c cw i t h s p e c i a li n d e x e sb y t h e A n r e r i of the general consumer. 1924 376. was lirst to produce special propane rcgugasfor l6d a pound.p r o b a b l y f h e e a r plified vaporizing set for dry gas used for appliliest handbookon LPances. Other plants of this type were erectcclcluring the next two years. (predecessorof 1927 1.00_5 Suburban Propane Gas Corp. Calif. Union Carbide built the Iirst cylinder-filling plant in New York. Shell Oil Co. Ariz. At the end of the year tlrere were P h i l l i p s i n s t a l l e dt h e l i r s t b u t a n e . "Notes On Liquefied principal marketer. Pyrofax. was Year Gallons more than was marketed in all previous years. 1929.C a s b y Reliancc Regulator Co.641 1923 1929 Standardizationof fittings for cylinders began 276.Slandard Oil fornia. 1928 The first Bureau of Mines report on LP-Gas production gave thc following figures: l8 LPGA Times-April.recarburetion American Meter Ct). Kerr installedir comparableplant at E.08-5 Phillips and Suburban Gas Co. Reported production of 4.091. t t h e b e g i n n i n go f 1 9 2 9 The start of Suburban Propane Gas C'orp.899 introducc leaseduser storageequiprnent. and Rockgas radio advertising in California did sold for $42.674 gas for steel cutting irnd pre-heating. of California began test marf h e 2 . at Pontiac. This was an matic cylinder chirrging system and issued the important developmentbecauseuntil that tinte the first book on the industry. 1922 222.two under conL i n t o n .F u l t c l nM a n u f a c t u r i n g manual systenr for $ 125 to $ l -50.50 or $36. was taken over by the gas industry for gas enrichment. to $29. started manufacturing and distributins on the West Coast. The Phillips and Suburban l a t o r s w h i c h a r e b a s i c a l l yt h c s a m c a s t h o s e u s e d l e a s es y s t e m sr e d u c e dt h e i n i t i a l i n s t a l l a t i o np r i c e today.and gas to l0 to l2'l a Stanclardutility gas mcters were aclapted for pound. L a t e r .488 Standard of California pionecred Calol cutting 1925 403. sold a two-cylinder P c t r o l c u m G a s . ol' only one gas plant produced a butane-air carWhippany. gasolineproduction. can Meter Co. w o r k i n g i n d c p e n d e n t l yA. keting of Readygas in the Imperial Valley area.899 gal.l Centro. Mich. G a s .. puls lhe date of this display rvindow at Yuma. mirde the first sim1 9 2 8 . in June introduced the lirst LP-Gas from a Bastian-Blessing refrigerator. nole book issued in Phillips. produccd an carly autothis time uscr storelgewas sold.. Motion piciure lie-in promo- ihealre as early lions were popular ihen. " C h a p l i n .a i r p l a n t a t sevensuch plants in operlticln. T h e m a n i { o l d . was also working successfullyon this technique.522. tip and vent.l e s s Pyrofax advertising in Saturday Evening Post scales. R e m F y nb e r ? New York Blaugasand SouthernBlelugasCompanies went out of business. This put the systen. J. r t h u r N. and sold the Co. N. bureted gas. you boughtonly one of StandardOil Co.r within thc pricc langc L P . LP-Gas was the fuel uscd on the epoch ntaking world voyage of the Graf ZePPelin.522. a n d d i r e c t m a n u f a c t u r eA . Pure Oil Co. 1926 46-5. I n d . Prior to Bastian-BlcssingCo. T h i s s c a l el o a d i n g m a n ifold blueprinl cdme Servel Co. of Cali- Readygas mar- keter.836 to show benefits to industry.c y l i n d e rm o d e l s .) were the first to r 928 4. 1962 .

I n d u s t r i a lc l p e r a t i o nisn c l u d e d l l 4 9 r e g u l a t o r a n d W e d g e w o o dr a n g c . n r i x ( ( ' a l o l I n d u s t r i a lG a s N o . Three A l g a s g o i a d v e r t i s i n g v a l u e a r o u n d 1 9 3 2 f r o m t h e b u l a n e l a n k t h a t '33 lrains and of the four men at the table founded the National w a s t o o b i g i o i n s t a l l i n s i d e i h e a u t o b o d y a n y w a y .' was lilrrled with t-iquclied menced selling LP-Gas under the Stargasbrand. C a l i f . t G e o r g eG . About 45 such plants were in operation by the end of the year. Emerson Thomas. I t c c l n s i s t e d l n d . convention in Atlantic City. a c i rcular i s s u e d o f S t i r n d a r c l s The US Bureau The first undiluted LP-Gas plant using lt vaport r tilizaa n c l p r o p c l t i e s n r i t n u f a c t u r e . B y Bottled Gas Assn.i n t o n .t h e l a t t e r u s i n g t h e l i r s t c o p p e r t t t r t i n s . LPGA Times-April. comPctrolcurtrCas Assn. diecnsting.a R e g O N o ' f o r o v e r l 9 n r o n t h s . .G a s . was organizedby Standardof California to supply butane-air mixtures through piped town plants in Pacific Coast communities. b u t i r n e . . equipment started a trend toward uniform pracDelctt introclucecla new. J.c l e c t c dt h r c c M a r k A n t o n i r sp r e s i d c n t H The Bureau of Mines estintateda total of 55.92-5.p o w e r e d .l b .o p e r a t ebdo t t l i n g p l a n t sw a s o n c o r v n e db y M a r k A n t o n . . l ) f r o m t h c R i c h in selling Flanto Standardof California started n r o n c lr c l i n e r y o f ' S t a n d a r d o f C a l i f o r n i a t o t h c 4 l . c w a s r e .l . glass nrelting.. I n F c b r u a r y t h e l i r s t p L r b l i cs h o w i n g i n t h e ol' a Flan. c y l i n c l e r sw . tt i ' a i l e rf o r L P . F i i s t p l a n t s e . . h a d b c e n i n c o n t i n u o u so p c n t t i o n o f a c a b i n e t . N a t i o n i r l B o t t l e d G a s A s s n . t h e l i r s t . on a wheeled trailer. and A lotill of 123 tJS citics wcre served by reported that distribution had been extended tit l ains. .a i rn t i x t u r e st h r o u g h u n d c r g r t l u n cm all states. werc Bastian-Blessing's hanclbook of data ancl f u e l c c lw i t h b u t i t n e . t h c E u g c n c ( O r e . A n r o n g l i r s t c l e a l c r . Natural Gas Properties. H i s t s e l v i d e r e( N . They were Mark Anton. The {irst liquid propane cut from refinery tops. American Gas Assn. both of Phillips P c t r o l e u r nC o . Continucdon P.Inc. ) This grand{aiher of LP-Gas water pumps {or ranches was operaling p l a n t w a s t h e I i r s t c o n t b i n a t i o nb o t t l i n g a n d p i p c d in 1932. (later renamed Liquefied Pe.d c s i g n c da n d b u i l t b y G e n c r a l P e t r o l c u n rC o r p . n r l r d ci n A u g u s t . l n s p o . w a s p l a c e d i n s e r v i c e b y S o u t h c r n ( ' o t r n t i e st t t s t r p p l y t h c M o o r p a r k ' nlant. t w o 9 l .l b . O b e r fell and H. ith lirst installation l i r s t b u t r r n c . nrotor block testing.) that began its work officially the followingyear. o f t i o n Calif. c y l i n d e r s . undertook a progranr of M a r k e t c d p r o d u c t i o nf o r t h c y c a r : 1 8 . The idea for an LP-Gas trade associationwas born in a luncheon conversation at the American Gas Assn.. 0 1 7 .t i r l e s . but the publicity helped many bottled gas dealersto expand their operation. b y S o u t h e r n C o : r n t i e sG a s C o . sinrtllilieclfornr of l-Ptices and improved safety procedures. ) a u t t l n r o b i l es h o w . d i d n o t b e c o m ea f a c t o r i n t h e association. .T h e f i r s t m o t o r t r . G a s ruachinc.698 T h e L I S N a v y c l i r i g i b l cA k r o n w a s c q u i p p c d gal. 3 4 7 testingappliancesand equipmentand developrnent gill. L o s A n g e l c s . . a utility. then p r e s i d e n to f S u b u r b a nG a s C o .c o n s i r u c t i o nv e h i c l e sw e r e L P . Marketed production for the year: 9. 000 domestic LP-Gas custontersin the US. 1962 2l . i n c o n t a i n e r sn o t e c l . Inc. N. Spring-loadedpressure relief valve adapted to LP-Gas. ' v i n gu n d i l u t e d u t i x t u r e p r o p a n e b ' r t a n ei n s t r l l e da t M o o r p a r k .l b .$z t/ troleum Gas Assn. g a s p l i r n t . T h e f o u r t h n t a n a t t h e l u n c h e o n . t LP-Gas.r r pi rl l r n t s . The buscsof the [-tts Angcles Transit ('tl. t h e o u t l i n i n g izer system went into ttperation at Moorpark' f o r p r e s s u r er e l i e f v a l v e s N e e d L P G a s . of satisfactoryburners and conversion equiprnent N G A A i n t r o c l u c c di t s f i r s t L P . 36 1930 Fully automatic gas ranges itnnounced. R i c h a r d H u d s o n .ro installation was nradc at Northwest s t r u c t i o n a n d l i v e n r o r e b e i n g d e s i g n c d . a n d 9 l . "Degree Day Heating Book" published by National Trade Journals.Most of I7-5 plants projected were never built.G a s s p c c i l i c a 1 9 3I to change from natural and manufactured gas to i o ns. l r e d e c e s s o or f Lone Star Gas Co. First tank-car ntovcntent of butane-propanc and forging. Dallas. J . The gas lank can be seen at right. according fo Al9as.

r citles ln the Valley. started operations in March. orchard heaters l r n d c o n s l r u c t i o nc q u i p n r c n t . American Liquid Gas Co.. M a r k e t e d p r o d u c t i o n w a s 3 8 .00 Exchange Emptyfor Full Tank .00 ('harse tor tnstallation ol rank6 and adjtrstment ol aDDltances witl b€ hade on a tihc and nraterial basis. Servingsof 49 per mile over oil were claimed. TaDks may be exchanKed et El Centro or.. 36 By 1932 exporls by lmperial Gas Co. Standard Oil of California started bulk sale of butane on a direct basis. to East St. with noticeable reductic'rnin noxious exhaust odors and carbon monoxide content. 2 3 6 gal. farm tractors. 5 0 2 . LP-Cas provided emergencyfuel for the natural gas utility in Long Beach. LPGA Times-April.. This is Natrrral Crs and may be used tor th6 same purpose as GaB in the clty mains.. formulated suggested regulations for the storage and handling of LP-Cas.7. Parkhill-Wade installed a patented over-thefence. University of Californiir E.equipped three refineriesto manufacture propanc and marketed the product under "Solgas. '27. w a r n e d i t s m e m ' b"r.Franklin R..Complete With Gas. s e r v e dc i t y c o n s u m e r s t h r o u g h p i p e l i n e s a n d r u r a l c o n s u m e r st h r o u g h i n d i v i d u a lb u l k s t o r a g et a n k s a n d i n s t a l l e dn e t e r s for rural custonrers. Fetherstonwas made secretaryof both groups. 1962 !t d$! ! '{* . g a s o l i n e .. water displacementnreteredservicestation. ) .M. ( n o w C o n s u m e r sG a s C o .xtensionDivision an"Utilization of Liquid Gas"." the name of Bureau of Mines and Mellon Institutedeveloped a satisfactoryodorant for LP-Gas in cooperation w i t h P h i l l i p s f o l l o w i n g a n i n v e s t i g a t i o ni n i t i a t e d IN EFFECTDECEMBER sTH 1927. 9 3l .00 Extla Tank. SouthernPacilic Railway operatedtwo-car train on butane between [-os Angeles and Santa Barbara. In oth. N a t i o n a l E l e c t r i cL i c h t A s s n . N.range by Tappan. PHONE 825 unily" was a {acior in Inland Empire seems to have been pushingihe natural gas iie-in." More than l3 million families beyond gas m a i n s s t i l l u s i n g c o a l .$. at CarlsbadCavern. Texas. w o o d . D c t r o i t L a k e s G a s C o . (California) were under way. exportcd the lirst cylinder of LP-Gas to France. M a r k e t e d p r o d u c t i o n :2 8 . Ten years laler Gls who saw similar cylinders on olher islands were to wonder about "secrel w e aD o n s " . Phillips Petroleum Co..Complete With Gas. Phillips' products pipe Iine from Borger. adopted under the NRA program.. CompressedCas Manufacturers Assn.929. housing for athletes p a r t i c i p a t i n gi n t h e l O t h O l y m p i a da t L o s A n g e l e s . and Compressed Gas ManufacturersAssn... equipped a Texas & Pacific I{lt dining car with propane for cooking and watcr heuting. Calif. Parkhiil-Wade Co. in addition to those credited in previous chapters. 8 1 9g a l . by hardware deoler8. and Liquefied Petroleum Gas Assn..... against the rising competition from LP-Gas. Substantial contributors to this chapter were. The LP-Gas industry code.. 21 with LP-Gas for cooking and water heating... with Parkhill-Wade equipment. following an earthquake. M i n n .-. D e t r o i t L a k e s ... Louis. Many engines on the original line used butane.a n d k e r o sene for cooking and water heating. M a r k e t e d p r o d u c t i o nf o r t h e y e a r : 3 3 .. 6 3 0 .C A L I F . nounced il coursc in First two-piece propane cylinder introduced. affiliated for joint work on common problems. rather than explain what LP-Gas was all about. Sun Oil C-'o. t ' tt f 't t [' it ... "the bcst fuel obtainablefor cooking.LP-Gashistory Continuedfrom p.thus nraking service uniform f o r b o t h c l a s s e so f u s e r s . Construction canlps lclr Los Angeles Metropolitan Aqueduct and Nevada's Boulder Dam transmission line were equipped with propane utility facilities designedand supplied by ParkhillWade Co. in 1926 by the Bureauand AGA. 1933 National Bottled Gas Assn. and refrigeration.. Next month's TIMES will report the post-depression progress of this depression'proof industry which was well on the road to widespread consumer acceptance when World War II contributed both setbacks and progress.. recognized the prinrirry import i r n c ec l f m a r k e t i n g .. LP-Gas kitchen installed 7-50 ft.. Imperial Gas Co. NATURAL GAS IN TANKS ON RANCHESAND COUNTRYHOMES l'irst Tank. underground. These cylinders were bound {or Hawaii. INLAND EMPIREGASCOMPANY '16 NORTH SIXTH STREET "Gas E L C E N T R O .. 0 0 U g a l . Mo... . . 24... with largest increasein industry use... Lone Star Gas Co. LP-Gas was mnrketed in l-5 foreign countries in 1933.. Mine locorlotives on the aqueduct tunnel job wcre converted to butane.principally for stationaly purrping engines.. water heating. All cooking and water heating performed with 1932 propane at Olympic Village.

N o w . I .nclcouple operateclset'vicc virlvc in the lielcl. I n s t u l l a t i o nc h a r g e sf o r L P .one.w i c l cn.s o o n t o b e a p r o d u c t o f M i l w a u k c e G a s S p e c i a l t yC < 1 . Rcfrigeratecltrucks I'clrperishableswcre clevclopecl.p r o ol -l P .5 . t 3 . l . 1 7 3 . 'l'hotlus rc-clcctccl ltlcsiclcnt of H. l r t t p c r i i r lG a s ( ' o . llrcn. H. g i v c n h i n r t h c l ) i s t i n g u i s h c cSl e r v i c cM c c l l r li o r t h c sirnrcuccortrplishnrcnt. M a n y a n g l c s o l ' t h c c n g i n e f u c l b u s i n e s sw c r e b c i n g p r o b c c lb c t w c c n 1 9 3 4 a n d 1 9 3 9 . r v h i c h i r t t r i r c t c cul n c w g r o u p o l l o n g . ( X X )n c $ ' c r . A c n l i r r g c cul p o n i t s h o t t l e c lg a s b e g i n n i n g st o b c "E.lnlp. 0g 0a 0l .h u v i n g c l i s c o v e r c ci rl n c l c l e v e l t l p e c l 'l c r a s h c l i u n r s u p p l y l n c l i n i t i i r t i n gt l t c u o v c r n -l-hc A r .c a r rtyy p e s y s t c n t . Inclustry changeclover to spring loaded safety v i r l v e su r f u s i b l cp l u g s i n s t c a do l ' t h i n c o p p e r c l i s c s thirt 'uvould r u p t u r e u n d e r e x c e s sp r e s s u r e . B u r l c l l .P a . S. 1 9 6 2 . i r r v u r c l c cLlu t n n r c M c c l l l b y O h i t l S t a t c I J n i v e r s i t yl i r r .ntcrsonThontiis of Phillips was clcctcd s e c o n d p r e s i d e n to f N a t i o n a l B o t t l e d G a s A s s n .W l c l eb u i l t r t n c lo w n c c lt r p t i b l i c s e r v i c c s t i t t i o n i n L o s A n g c l e s w h i c h h a n d l e c lL P .P e r u . C o p y r i g h1t 9 6 1 .a c l c l c c l1 5 . C a l i l ' . A . t c l o p t c c l l r y I l o c k v M o u n t i t i t t c l c i r l c r s .a i l c l sa l l a c r o s st h c n a t i t t n . M u t L r l l L i q u i c l C a s u n c l E q u i p n t e n tC ' o .G a s i n d u s t r y .was made by Ilaltintclre A u t o n r a t i cS h u t .A S M E i s s u e dp r c s s u r ev c s s e lc o c l ef o r t h c L P .. M a r k e t c cpl r o d u c t i o n :4 8 .sll'cty hosc nozz. .W l c i ec l e v c l o p e cul s c r v i c cs t a t i o n c l i s pcnsing l)r. wcstcnt tcnttinal ol thc Los Angeles Mctropolitan Aclrecluct.G a s s u p p l l "i n s t a l l u t i o n . P a r k h i l l . [ .asy c o l l l c l n i n c l u s t r y .o n g .M o y . 0 0 0b y r u s i n g[ r u t u n ci n t r L r c k sc l t r l i n gc o n s t r u c t i t t no f C a jalco Danr. Enrcrson Nutionalllottled Gas Assn. began marketing p r o p a n cl r n c lb t i t a n ci n L . ( l c n c r l l P e t r o l c u r t t( ' o r p .G t r sI ' u c ls t a t i o n .5 0 . : 6 . a c l r t p t c c2l 0 o i l l i c l c l p u n r p c n g i n e st o o p e n t t eo n b t t t a n c .u n d . p r e s i d e n to l ' A t l a n t i c S t a t e s ( i a s ( ' o . i n a u g u r a t c ct lh e c k r n r c s l i c s c l t . lppointecl conln t i t t c c h e i t c l c cl lr y M c r c c l ' C i . -I'oronto Inrperial Oil's r e f i n e r y s t a r t e c ll i r s t ( ' a n a d i a n p r o c l u c t i o no f L P . c l e v c l o p c cal n c x c h a n g eL P G i r s s c r v i c el ' o r t r . .leancl "internal o r .12 'f h c A P I . Nltionitl llottlccl (lls Assn.q i n c c r s .t c r t t lc i t s y l l a y t t t c n t p l i r n s i n t r o c l u c c df t r r i r p p l i a n c c s . E.i n t a . Early nrarkeler used "modern merchandising. ( ' o l . .c o n d i t i o n c c l 2 l J P u l l n r i r nc a r s . t o r v o r k r v i t h A C i A o n i t t t l t r o v c l t t c not l g l s a p p l i anccellicicncy.o p e r l u t c c lc n g i n c s .a p p e a r e da s a r c s u l t o f j o i n t c o r n r n i t t c ca c t i o n s t a r t c di n 1 9 3I b y t h c A n r e r i c a n P c t r o l e u ml n s t i t u t e i r n c lt h c A n r c r i c a n S o c i e t yo f M c e l l r n i e r r lE n .s c r v i c ec a s l r .G a s b u s i n c s s c h i r r t e c !n c w h i g h s i n s a l e s a n c l o p c n e c ln e w n r a r k e t s . using l propanc rcfrigcrating systerl. p a y u r c n t p l a n s " a n c l c a s h . Exp a n c l c rvl a p o r s u p p l i e ctlh e t r u c k e n g i n ew i t h f u e l ." such as this gas- equipped bus parked in a Texasfown squdre. .5 .G a s d r o p p e d f r o m $ 3 . P u r k h i l l .Tbe First Fifry Yearsof LP-Gas An Ind.l t a gtca n k " v c h i c l ct a n k .G a s c h a n c l i s i n gA.a r r a r o l P y r o l a x . t s . A n c w l c i t s c l t l a n t o r b o t t l e s y s t c l l r s i. h i g h w a ya n d w a t e r . P h i l l i p s P c t r ' o l c u mC o . Thc first nrcters specilically clcsigncclfor LP( i u s u s c r v e r ep r r l c l u c c cbl y A n r c r i c a n M e t e r C o . 0 0 0g a l .A. C i l i l li t h ( ' o . 1934 1935 .G a s .a n d . P h o t o :L o n eS t a r G a sC o . w i t h l u l l u t i t o n t a t i c t h c r n t o s t l t i c c o n t r o l f r o n r i n s i c l ct l r c c a r s .G a s b y r a i l .f i l n l o u sn a r r r e si n rnarkcting wcrc t'eclingtheir wuy towarcl greatncss. w a s lirunclcclancl bcgan nraking plumbers' furnlces lncl torches. N a t i o n a L l P . l'arkltill-Wacle rllaclethc L P . The lirst "[]aso" therr.r r r yh i r c l a l r c l c l y n l c n t ' s h c l i r r n rp r o s r i l n r .G a sC o u n c i l L P G AT i m e s .ustryCbronologl Chapter 5: The Years of Pre-war Growth Whilc thc rcst ol thc nation was making a skrw ccon o n r i c r e c o v e r y t h c c l e p r e s s i o n . u s i n g W l u k c s h l t p r o p i t n e . s u v c c l a n e s t i r r t i r t e d$ . f i . a n c lt h e C ' a n i r l 1.v i s i o n c cbl u s i n c s : . L t c l .w i c l ea s s o c i a t i o n .a t i o n . PacilicGls ('onrpany. M l r k c t c c l p r o c l u c t i o n7 ( ' h i c l g o & N o r t h w c s t c r nI l a i l w a y a i r .O l I C ' o . . W r i g h t l n d M L r c l l e ro p e n e d l i r s t n r a r i n e L P ( i i r s s e r v i c es t i r t i o ni n S l n D i e g o .G a s ' g a s o l i n el n i l c l i c s e l . 0 0 0 t o 2 0 . H o n o l u l L rG a s C o . T h e I r t t c r s t a t eC o r r m e r c e C o m m i s s i o n i s s u e d r u l e s s o v e r n i n gt h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o no f L P .I t w l s p o s s i b l yt h c f i r s t p r i v i t t e l yo w n c c la n c lc o n t r a c t c cLl P . b u i l t a d e n r o n s t n r t i o n k i t c h c n o n a t r u c k t o c l e v e l o pR o c k g a sb u s i n e s s 1936 i n t h c l l a w a i i a n l s l i r n c l sa n c lt h e O r i c n t .c i t r r yc o n t a i n c r sh e l p e d t h c i n c l u s t r yn r o v c o u t o f i t s e s t a t eo r b i t i n t o n r a s sn t c r " w < l n c l c irn c l u s t r y "a i r h u n g o v e r L P .5 t o l c s s t h a n t i 1 0 . l s t o r t t e r isn s i x t t t o n t l .

is- New York headquarters. " ( . G . and w a t c r h e a t e r sb e a r i n gc o n r p a n yt r a d c n t a r k . the National Bottled Gas Assn. P a . broaclened t r a c t o rl l c c t s i n t h c l i c l c l . " A 2 ( X ) .c. 2 1 0 0 . 6 . O b e r f e l l . a n c l C ) p c r a t i o no f A u t o n t o b i l eT a n k T r u c k s a n d T a n k T r a i l e l s f o r t h c T r a n s p o r t a t i o no f L i c l u c l i c d P e t r c l l c r r rGt ra s . C ' i n c i n n a t i .5 2 . alter Verkanrp 2. t P. In an cllort to brcladenits field. {12 C l h u r a c t c r i s t i cosf i d c a l L P . O k l a . to build 1 0 0 a d d i t i o n a lf u s i o n w c l d e d t a n k c a r s f o r p r o pane.New Standardof California and lnrperial plants at Huntington Beach.n r i l cl. Mc. i n t937. a pasl president llotr!r xrrrito{l D .r"systcnts. i s s u c d i t s o a n r p h l c t o n " l { c s u l a t i o n s f ' c l rt h e D e s i g n . L P G AT i m e s .r o u isn d e x e s r c u c l i n gi n t h c r n r s . i s s u c cal l i s t o f a p pliances approved for LP-Gas by Anterican Gus Assn..Output per man increasedgreatly. a s t o i l U c l c l st o u B a y t o w n ( T c x . refriscratols. 0 0g0a l . Hamilton Manulacturing Co.Operators noted the absenceol' l i r s t a n d o n l y l . ComprcssccG l a s M a n u i a c t u r e r sa n d 'fhe A n r c r i c a nG a s A s s n s . then LPGA was lhe Jet's (below). Safety codes based on National Boarcl of Fire F irst autonrirtic changc-over dcvice for "two U n d e r w r i t e r s P a n r p h l e t 5 8 a d o p t ed b y T c x a s .changcd Twcnty-pound (propanc caltacity) cylinders ini t s n a n r et o L i q u c l i e c lP c t r o l c u n rG a s A s s n .P . 2 1 1 " 4 0r r r c t c lh a v i n g i L s o l d e r e cbl r a s sc a s e .r c e k n r o r eD r i l l i n g C o m p a n y w a s l i r s t M i d C ' o n t i n e n ot p e r a t o rt o u s e L P .Fusion welclecltanks gaincd in popr"rlarity. e l e c t e dp r e s i d e n to f N t t i o n a l B o t t l e d C a s A s s n . E d d y irlso made a collirpsiblefield range for cooking.r Franklin R. U s c o t l . case nleter designedspecificallyI'ol LP-Gas. F-ordMotor Conrpany installed a butane standb y s y s t e ma t i t s R i v e r R o u g e ( M i c h . Mills. s i o n e . National llottled Gas Assn.to maintain refrigerirtingtc-rnpcr'ature in sumnter and prevcnt freezingin winter. u n d n u m e .c l e c i t h e r n r sp.i n . introduccd the l . were equipped with air-operatedautomirtic shut-oft valves on cylinder charging scales. M a r k e t e d p r o d u c t i o n : 1 0 6 . No. [('(] authorizeclUnion Tank Car Co. vaprlr lock at 120 cleg. . b o b t a i l w h i c h P h i l l i p sl e a s e d the first of its kincl.5 0t o s y s t e m sd i v i s i o no l t h e i n c i u s t r y W . c o n t a i n e r sa n d t a n k s o f . Continued on p. I w e l l . secrelary. l" of sued by lhe City Jet.I n c . ) rclincry. in 1939 with ihis l. Calif. v i c e p r e s i d e n to f P h i l l i p s P e troleunr.M o y .o ( I was recomnlcnclecl for all pilots. This company A n e a r l y i n d u s t r i a li n s t a l l a t i o na. l G e n e r a l S l e e l C a s t i n g C o . "staff'. 1 0 0 % s a f t e ys h u t . M i c h i g a n . brought out thc lirst harclI n r p c r i a lD u n r u n c l A l l .p r o p r r npci p e l i n e l a i c l 'fexas I ' r o n rE . F l c c t so i t r u c k s a n c le a r t h n r o v i n gc q u i p n r e n ti n Arnerican Mcter Co. p l e s i d e n t . clrun. w a s s e r v i c e db y a 3 7 5 9 a l . "Philgas" introduceclrlnges. N a t i o n a l B o t t l e d G a s A s s n .o u n d s a n d g i rl l o n s . l n s t l ' u c t i o n .W a d ed e s i g n c da n d p u t t o g e t h e r t h e vertcclto brrtanc. l r o p a nner i x t u r e . M a r k e t e d p r o d u c t i o n : 1 . following acceptanceoi 2-5 cars previously b u i l t o n e x p e r i m c n t abl a s i s . C . 1 9 6 2 43 . 0 0 0g a l . K a n s a sa n d L o u i s i a n a .atnrclspherictemperaturc. ) r e f i n e r y . S p o k a n eU n i t e d R a i l w a y sc o n v e r t c dr e n r a i n d e r o l ' i t s b u s l l e e t t o a b u t a n e .(X)0 gal. . US Forest Scrvice fought fire with propane torches.1938 U n d c r t h e i n i t i a t i v e a n d g u i d a n c co f E l l s w o r t h vclopcd as portirble scrvice stations to care l'or L. T h e g d s c a m e { r o m a M a r c u sH o o k ( P a .i n s t i r l l c cilt s l i r s t b u l k p l a n t t t P o r t l a n d . A n d e r s o n .were conP a r k h i l l .C a s f o r d r i l l i n g o i l 'Iravelers wells . Fronf page stories were signed by presidenf J.G a sc l o t h e sd r y e r . pointed out tlrat the LP-Gas inclustryexp a n d e d l 0 O O % d u r i n g t h e d e p r e s s i o ny e a r s b e c a u s e" w e d i d n ' t k n o w w h a t c o u l c ln o t b c d o n e ..P . started action to changc its n a n r e t o t h e L i q u e f i e d P c t r o l c u n rG a s A s s n .J .G a st o l u e l t r a c t o r si n c r e a s e dr a p i d ly in ('llifornia. U t i l i t i c s D i s t l i b u t o l s . N i r t i o n l l F i r c P r o t c c t i o nA s s n .b u t a n c . Fetherslon. its scope to include thc entirc inclustry.P . caltacity for above or bclow-ground c o n t i n u e da s p r e s i d e n t . C ' o a lC o u n t y . in the Inrperial Valley of Clalil'orniir. ) p l a n t . V e r k a m p C o r p . Small backpack outllts were developed P h o t o :S u n 0 i l C o lirr backJiring by Ransonre Co. a n d troduccd for rcacly portability. 1I . A rf. Trap-wason trailers wcrc dc. . . 1937 W a l t e r :V e r k a n r p . Also introducccl eflected a nterger with the fornrcr underground w c r e 1 5 0 t o 4 0 0 l b . .Amerada Petroleum Corp. P e t c l A . ruse. Woodward (rop) and Martin ihe lale Walter Verkamp. P a l o n r a rO b s c r v a t o r yw a s e q u i p p c db y P a r k h i l l Wacle rvith butlnc-propane for domcstic use of stall anclto heat obscrvatorybuilclingsand of ices.G a s r a n g e b u r n e r s j o i n t w e r e c l e l i n c cbl y c o n r m i t t e eo f N a t i o n a l B o t tled Gas.a c a p a c i t y o f 4 0 C ' F H o l ' p r o p a n c . C'anadianPacilic Railway equipped l rel'r'igerator car with propane-opcratedtentperatut'ccontrol ecluipmcnt. LPGA's first formal publishing venture came "Vol. t o S u n O i l C o .A n t c r i c a n C a n a l p r o j c c t s . No.C .G a so p e r a t c c sl t r e l m l i n c d t r a i n .

v i c e p r e s i c l c r li tn c h a r g eo f r e s e a r c hl ' o r P h i l l i p s P e t r t l l c u n t ' g i v e n H a n l o n A w i t r c l b y N a t u r a l G a s t l l i n cA s s n . LPGA Convention at Oklahoma City elected J. Wo<ldwarclMaltin of Lone Star Gas Co' presi d en t . R o n c y ( ' o . distributors of agricultural chemical products in the San Joaquin (Calif.PGA. in a major diversification move. The transactittninvcllvesa conlbination ol cash anclPetrtllanestock t o t a l i n g a p p r o x i n r a t e l y$ l m i l l i o n . ropaneuscd t i i t n i n n t a n t r f l c t t t r i n gc l c c t r o c l e s P I ' o r p r c l r c a t i n gr a i l c n c l s p r c p a r a t o r yt o b u i l d i n g t r p b y c l e c t l i c w c l c l i n g . c l l 'A r l r e r i c a . Ga. is president of the firm.W a d c s u l v i r g e dt h e 6 0 0 h p p l a n t l n d i t i s t o d a y p u n l l l i n g w a t e r a t K e l s o . 82 . Long Beach.5 l i a d o p t e d b y O k l a h t l r r l l r . S t a n c l a r dO i l o f ( ' a l i l o r n i a r c c o r d e d i t s l i r s t s u l e so l ' b t i l k p r o .The presentllranagenlent will be retained.. Munzer. The hundred conversionsmade {or the firm burned 600. Moultrie. u s i n g p r o p l t n cs o l v e n tt o r e n r o v eu n d c s i r a b l ei n g r e d i e n t s .P . was highly satisfactoryfor some nine yelrs u n t i l a w r e c k d e s t r o y e dt h e t r a i n ..5 t ' 1 0 . 0 ( X )g a l .1 the City of Salina. Kans. I n r p e r i a l .History ('ontinued from p. O b e r l c l l . Hill MaYs.K c n t u c k y . Calif. ctlnvertecl a 1 9 3 6 F .r t c c l . l \ 4 a r k e t c cpl r o d u c t i o n :2 2 3 ' . J.C i a s .P e r f t l r n t a n c ew a s s o s u p e r i t t ri n f u e l c o s t s a n d r e p a i r c ' x p e n s et h a t t l r e e n t i r e l l e e t o f 2 1 0 v e h i c l e sw a s c o n v t . Los Angelcs.headeclby Wheeler Coberly. founder ot' the first conlpany in 1946. C ' . P e t r o l a n eB u y sC h e m i c a lF i r m Move ln Diversification PetrolaneGas Service.l n i v e r s i r lO i l P r o c l u c t s( ' o t t t p i t n v t l e v c l t l p c c l c a t a l y t i c p o l y n t c r i z a t i o np r o c c s sl t l r t r l a k i n g g l s o l i n e f r o m b u t y l e n e s . U n i o n O i l C o . C ' a l i l ' . A t l a n t i c S t a t e sC a s ( ' t l .Inc. Pholo: Standard Oil Co.. This operationbetweenSalina. LPGA Times-MoY. 1939 G e o r g eG . C'arnation ('onrpany. of Cali{.L t l s s e so f g a r l i c c r o p p r e vcntccl by clrying l'rcshly harvcsted bulbs' Fuel costs cttt onc-third by liring lllcat-curing smoke houseswith butane. Chapter 6 takes the LP'Gas story through the war years when the industry met a dozen new demands whilc waging its own war for recognition among the material rationing agencies. Inc.The firm has employed servicemen to install and service all types of LPgas carburetion equiPment.( i a s s c r v i c c s t a t i o n i n s t a l l e d in Moscow. 0 0g0a l . has acquired the three Coberly & Plumb companies. F a r m e r sH y d r a i a n eO P e n s Farmers Hydratane Gits. f o r t r a n s f e r r i n gl i q u i d b e t w e e n ancl storagetanks.s e l e c t i v er c l i n i n g o l l u b r i c a t i o no i l .H L r n t e rO i l ( ' o . establishccl the tirst LP-Gastrade ntagazine. 1962 .C a l i l ' ' S i g n i l i c i r n tn c w u s e s l t l r L P . recentlY held its grand opening. p l a n t . of California. M a r k e t e c lp r o c l u c t i o n :1 6 5 . Parkhill'Wade and the early files of [.announcedthe purchase. First installation trirnspctrtittitln l t ( ' i r t e r . in eight months. The Coberly & Plumb colllPan i c s . U n i v c r s i t yt l f C l l i f o r n i i t o p c n e dc x t e n s i o nc o u r s e i n b u t a n cP o w e r . ..p r o p y l e n e sa n d e t h y l e n c . In irddition to handling LP-gas the comPanYwill also serve as wholesale and retail dealer for Phillips 66 products.G a s . Vltpor l)ressuredillcrential systenldevclopcclby [ . A r k a n s i t s l n c l 'l'enncssee.000 9al.G a s : C h a m p i o n Spart Pltrg ('o. usetl propanc lirr liring ccrltnlics . r e p o r t c di n s t a l l l t i o n o l ' 9 ( X ) 9 u r c t e r e dc t l n s u t t r e b r u l k s y s t e n r si n l i r s t l 5 r n o n t h so f t t p c r a t i o n .. Jr. i n O i l built {or Sun li undercarriage.o r c tl r u c k t o L P . Substantial contributors to Chapter 5 included Standard Oil Co. 4. Petrolane president. S a f e t y c o d c s b i t s e c lo n N F P A P a n r p h l c t .in the June TIMES. P a r k h i l l . r l n c l t s P r o .) Valley. wilt be operated r u s w h o l l y o w n e d s u b s i d i l r r i e so f Petrolane. Marysville 1M-oa) J ) Ilt'cord-Jottt-rralmelted linotype mctal with LP( ias.for the Union Pacific RR.-J Photo: Sun Oil Co' propane when looks like a gasoline ri9 but it held 2000 gal' of T r ailmobile lank a n d i r a c t o r W h i t e l i ' s a 1 9 3 4 . w i t h a n n u a l s a l e sv o l u m e s o f about $4 nrillion. Ricc crop lossesin California preventcd by artificial drying. h a d n e w p r o c c s sf o r ..f o r t h e U n i o n P a c i t i c . / [ . A C A ' I ' c s t i n s L a b o r a t o r i c s a p p r c l v e chl e a t i n g l p p l i a n c e sf o r L P .. R. Mo.G a st h r o u g hd i s t r i b r r tofs. as a ttlonthly' l)ulttnc-ltrrtpunellew:. 2 0I . R t r s s i a ' sl l r s t I . ''Most saiisfactory fuel" wrote lhe user o{ this lractor converled in 1934 {or a Cali{ornia coniractor. and KansasCity.

Bach reelected president of LPGA. then went into a mixed climate of expansion and re3triction when the US entered the hostilities.. About 1.. Uses which furthered the war effort expanded." It cited the faster cookpressurefor operation of air-raid-warning sirens. The industry took on the job of installing standby plants in armament factories. Army adopted LP-Gas field kitchens for use where portability was required.000gal. IPGA Times-June. lb. Marketed production. In February. l94l The Japaneseattack on Pearl Harbor.000 customers. Cecil Gardner of Sehna elected president. Servel. broke out acrossthe coun1942 Plans for LPGA national convention cancelled try.000 promotion fund. National advertising campaign planned. Inc. Mexican airplane flew from Mexico City to Washington. Newport News Shipbuilding & Drydock Co.promoted by electrical industry. D. First year in which LP-Gas customerspassed the million mark. Pacific coast section of LPGA organized the Louisiana establisheda new regulation body. production controls curbed other markets.. Magnetic type constant reading tank gauge introduced by Rochester Manufacturing Co. By the end of '45 LP-Gas had received valuable introductions which resulted in tremendous expansion once wartime curbs were removed and consumer demand could be translated into sales.the US Department "Liquefied propane system for cooking. NBFU issued Pamphlet 90. Production of synthetic rubber from LP-Gas George W. 1940 ICC authorized use of deck-mounted containers to transport butane to Puerto Rico and the Virgin Isllnds. Bach of Skelgas elected president of LPGA. 1962 .. The government banned steel for cylinders. on butane. LPGA opened Washington office to keep govBureau of Standards published same Btu ratio. LPGA organized to combat the program. Stepstaken to raise $100. Dec. Liquefied Petroleum Gas Commission. stalled of Agriculture published Leaflet 191. tions dispensingLP-Gas. George W. saving time in coke natural rubber diminished. ernment agenciesand industry in closer harmony. baby food producer. and national advertising and promotion plan deFirst national directory of highway service staferred on account of war. changed industry plans for expansion to plans for supplying present 1. other similar installations followed in other defense industry areas. organized at a meeting in Birmingham. Industry employed "Old Stove Round-up" program to collect scrap metal for munitions production. Allis-Chalmers operated all new engines on propane for preliminary "break-in" period.. LPGA set up first Technical and Standards Committee to carry on earlier work of all officers and directors. produced LP-Gas all-year air conditioner for summer cooling and winter heating with one fuel and one unit. inAfter years of preparation. components (principally butane) became imporButane used to pre-heat coke ovens at Kaiser tant as military needs increased and supply of steel plant. New York City. Many 20 The spheressaved sleel imporlant in l94l-42 when Algas used lhis uniquelransporl design. Western Liquid Gas Assn. LP-Gas Magazine was started by Moore Publishing Co. of propane equals 635 kw hr of electricity. Propane tirnks provided instant and adequate Gasesin the Household. Gerber Products Co. production and producing more uniform quality. A rash of discriminatory ordinances.7.789.462.200 railroad tank cars for butane and prtrpilne in service. Minneapolis-Moline introduced first tractor to bc factory equipped for operation on propane. Alabama Butane Gas Dealers Assn.C. built 1200 homes for workers. ing speed with LP-Gas (88% of the time reTexas dealers and distributors formed statequired for electric cooking) and stated that 100 w i d e association. with propane for all cooking and water heating equipment. on the use of gas in air conditioning installations.852. Fontana.TbeFirst Flfry Yearsof LP-Gas An fnduary Cbronology Chapter 5: War Brings Growth and Problems Copyrighted 1961 by National LP-GasCouncil LP-Gas shared in the boom of the early European war phase. Calif.

Jr. War Department ordered construction of 400 new high pressuretank cars. Benz. Appliance sales were off to a llying start with new model ranges being 11own t o k e y d e s t i n a t i o np o i n t s . Ont. Marketed production. including gas appliances. 21 .156. Underground storage. Ceilif.. long. but left propane cylinders intact with no explosions or loss of product. Phillips Petroleum Co. A large number of trucks in the Minnesota iron range was converted to propane. Continuedon p. 1 9 6 2 usually buili in off-mains areas De{ense housing m a r k e l f o r L P . 675. and other 1943 LPGA officers reelected for 1944. was granted a leave of absence while on duty in the Army. A. at Bradford.000 domestic vegetable dehydrators.. seamlesssteel tubes. in 1950. Pa.000 gal. lo serve to the war efforl.000 gal. even where butane was still available. Inc.260. even in produciion large new markels coniribuling conirol days. He advised the industry to make all new storage tanks suitable for propane. constructed 26 emergency propane storage tanks by capping 24-in. president of Gasoline Plant Construction Co. Marketed production.000 gal. Miss Florence Jacob. Marketed production. elected president of LPGA. Pew was named assistantdirector and later director of the natural gas and natural gasoline division of the Petroleum Administration for War. becauseof its usefulnessas chemical raw material. Jr. Kotzebue. approved for Southern California. George R. for 12 days following the explosion and fire which destroyed Metropolitan Edison Co. Industrial applications were expanding in number. Use of LP-Gas by utilities increased 138% during the war.. Industrial and chemical consumption dropped and domestic consumption boomed. 1. of Houston. LPGA secretarytreasurer. and showed that enormous summer storage would be necessaryto meet winter demand. WPB authorized construction of 100. 13.was appointed acting secretary-treasurer.000. This was forerunner of underground storage program of LP-Gas.G a sw h i c h w a s e n c o u r a q e di n w a r l i m e . converted from gasoline to LP-Gas. Disastrous brush lire outside of Santa Monica. Calif.Frank Peterson retired from Mid-Continent Petroleum Corp.0O0gal. Louis Abramson. Central heating of emergency war housing with LP-Gas began to assume large importance as it load builder. On Dec. having reexamined earlier decisions and the priniciple followed by courts and commissions in other states. Walter O. 37 {ew planls cropped up.. James E. Snelling was appointed a member of the Control Commission for Germany. The Alabama Circuit Court. warned that butane is on its way out of the domestic market.. for outstanding accomplishment in the early development of the LP-Gas industry. Kerr predicted the industry would sell 5. Thompson moved from War Production Board to serve as chief of the LP-Gas section.000 tractors in San Joaquin Valley. The Hanlon Award was presented to Meinhart H. 1945 A Japan surrendered and all war restrictions were abolished. was not a public utility. Dr. Major Fetherston was assigned to the Service of Supply in Washington.233. Limited production of civilian durable goods.000 contract for publicity work for the association and the LP-Gas industry. Canada. Fetherston. LPGA authorized a 935. Farm survey showed 20.440. Louis Abramson. burnt dozens of homes.resumed on spot basis. ruled that Green's Fuel. N. Blood plasma for war shipment dried and sealed by propane heat. was a new Dominion National Gas Co. US Group. 585.060.. especiallyin outlying plants making war materials. his assistant. WPB announced that electric ranges fail three times as frequently as gas ranges. Hanlon Award of NGAA went to Frank P. Shortageof domestic fuel again became critical. to conserve 25 million cubic feet of natural gas a day. Franklin R. each 425 ft. Peterson. L P G AT i m e s ... Paul K. L943 1944 A dozen LP-Gas companies supplied essential industries in Easton. Additional storage of summer surplus recomrnended. All tank car restrictions revoked.) u n e .

without exception. Hadlick as executive secretaryand J.000 common shares represented the first Wall Street recognition of the growing LP-Gas industry. the most economical since l9-56. s t o r a g ea n d d i s t r i b u t i o n. In Chapter 7 you will read of the days of rapid expansion following the end of World War II when LP-Gas became the wonder of the business world."iui. In 194-5.LPGA SurveyShows An LPGA survey covering approximately 85o/o of the LP-gas-usingbus lleetsshows the vehicle count for 196 I to be at 2356. A s k y o u r U n i o n TexasPetroleumrepresentativeto show \ you how.276. a slight declinefrom the record 1960 h i r : ho f 3 .. QUALITY CHECKPtlIl{T Quality control at Union Texas Petrol e u m i s o u r c o n s t a n tc o n c e r nt h r o u g h out the process of manufacturing.History Continuedfrom p. 1 9 6 2 BUILDING TULSA.676.no LEu n r ENTERPRISE For more inlormqtion write 6ll L P G AT i m e s . was formed by a group of LPGA members who were dissatisfied with some membership and voting provisions as they then stood in LPCA's constitution. Q u a l i t yc o n t r o la t t h e s o u r c eo f s u p p l y m e a n s p r o fi t a b l e c u s t o m e r s a t y o u r p o i n t o f s a l e . h e r e f o r ec.64. men for the industry. T E X G A Sh a s a p l a c e i n y o u r p r o fi t p i c t u r e . OKLAHOMA on Reply Ccrd 37 . 3 m i l l i o ns i l l .147 gal. Major Fetherstonreturned as executivesecretary. Ernest Fipnin was electedpresident. was formed to acquire Mark Anton's Suburban Gas Co. f r o m f e e d stock to final delivery . merchandising and promotional functions was projected.F. and LPGA. Marketed production. . Factory equipped units represent 82.With the support of John Locke of Minneapolis and others. Suburban Propane Gas Corp. Major sources for this chapter were the files of Parkhill-Wade. except the miles-per-gallon figure. Pew of Sun Oil Co. White was employed as executive vice president. a n b e s u r e t h a t t h e p r o d u c tt h e y m a r k e tw i l l p r o d u c es a t i s f ied customers. A program of consumer education.. Howard D. Richard Verkamp as president. Texqas I LtN I o N ^TH:5*=. Most of the other items in the operating characteristics survey are also down. Earlier tests in cotton and sugar cane fields showed great reduction of cost of controlling weeds. the new organization opened headquarters in Minneapolis with Elwin E. 21 Flame cultivation expanded.000 gal. to train technical and . The Hanlon Award for 1945 was presented to James E. and the 13 eastern retail properties of the Phillips pe- troleum Co. . TEXGAS d e a l e r s t. Okla. The formation of this new company and issue of 590. which now stands at 3. 1.. down from the last survey total of 2425..LPGA resumed its national conventions and trade shows interrupted by the war.r. National LP-Gas Institute organized in Tulsa. The total amount of product used by buses showed up trt 32.) u n e .. showing the most rapid gains of any industry.766. BusCounf Down.4o/oof the lleet. National Butane-PropaneAssn. Suburban Propane Gas Corp. At the fall LPGA meetingit was voted to move the associationheadquartersfrom New York to Chicago.T.

exclusivelyto the study of the properties of natThe Natural Gasoline Assn. This was more econontical the casc. S u b s e q u e n t l yi n v e s t i g a ICC regulationsamended to permit use of fut i o n i n d i c a t e da n a t i o n a lp u b l i c i t y p r o g r a m w o u l d sion welded cylinders with longitudinal seanrs. new rnarketfor LP-Gits. marketingwith Mobil-Flanrc scrvicc tcl consumers 1948 Virginia Bcach (Va. the product had to be re-refinedto remove p u b l i c w i t h o r i g i n sa n d f u n c t i o n so f t h e p r o d u c i n g other petroleum products rnerging with the LPbranch of thc industry... Design included 80 tanks with a three months. described results of five ycars Indiana Public Service('ontntission stated that o f e x p e r i m e n t a lw o r k i n s t o r i n g s c v e r a l m i l l i o n the LP-Gas dealer businessbeirrs no relation to gallons of sunrmer surplus LP-Gas underground a p u b l i c u t i l i t y o p e r i r t i o n . lirst by nreansof an eduGas. 1962 l9 .L P G A p a r t i c i p a t e di n in depletcd oil lields.HowNGAA conceived the idea of acquainting the ever. C-'harles ject to the state's Corporation Commission conO.. Russellwas electedpresident. first ocean-goingtanker built especialblizzard which closed some mountain roads for ly for LP-Gas. headed thc Educational Committee of LPGA. Warren. c a t i o n a l m o t i o n p i c t u r c . 1 . T'allent H.By l9-50 LP-Gas was truly big busiNCSS. presidentof Warren Petroleum Clorp.. and safer than above ground tank storage. 3 8 6 . with 40 recovery plants under construction or projected. Cylinder deliveriesby airplane preventedhard1947 Warren Petroleum Corp. 0 0 0g a l . NFPA analysisshowed ten times as many lircs from electrical causes as from gas and that included both utilities ancl LP-Gas. when flood destroyed the pioneering in superfractionationand for esfor local utility gas plant. Use of l-P-Clasby utilities doubled in the year. s e n t e di t s H a n l o n A w a r d t c l W i l l i a n r K . Fetherston 1919 an Arizona court decided that LP-Gas is not subas vice presidentof the technicaldivision.C a s i n d u s t r y . Wolfe. 0 0 0i n e n g i n em a i n t e n a n c e . Marketed production.y e a r p e r i o d ( 1 9 4 6 . LPGA opened its new Chicago office with a M a r k e t e d p r o d u c t i o n . Frances E. t r o l a s a p u b l i cu t i l i t y . Fisher Governor Co. water hauling. 2. in recognition of his sponsorship and financing of a tremendousstorageprogram. LP-Cas-utility system..5 0 . 2 8 2 . Carter Oil Co. truck enginesspecifiedLP-Gas carburetionequipKenneth R. as executive vice president and F.000.5 0 )L P .) Gas Co. total of 77 paid membershipswith Howard White After a legal battle of three years' duration.TbeFirsr Fifry Yearsof LP-Gas An fnd. 1 3 6 .000 gal. s a v i n g $ l .R. industrywide promotion and systematic training. 0 0 0g a l . 7 0 . t i o n o f s a l e sc o u l d b o t h b e a c c o m p l i s h e d . nrotor fuel use reached 100.G a sC o u n c i l l n t h i s f i v e . built the SS Natalie ships in Montana rural homes isolated by the big A. Lang Motor Company's Long Beach (Calif.000gallons.2 . Developrrent of tobacco curing equipment opcnedup big. of America pre- 1916 LPGA Times-)uly. Automatic hone laundry and autornatic dishwashers welcomed as creators of demand for more hot water. received the Hanlon Award Petroleum ice to Rutland.5 million LP-Cas homeri and 763 million gallonsused domestically. the country.laying copper mains as inThree out-of-four orders fclr new Hall-Scott suranceagainstsalt water corrosion.791. installed an from Maine to South Carolina. M a r k e t e d p r o d u c t i o n . D. Ransoure was elected LPGA president. ment. There were 4130producing plants in 22 states.G a s r u o v e d into nequsing fields which a decadelater would provide substantialloads.nprovement as underground storage. vice president of Phillips LP-Gas distributors supplied emergency servCompany. At the same time the customerswere unleirshingtheir pent-up buying power which had been building through the years of wartime restriction. 0 0g0a l . t o t a l c a p a c i t yo f 1 . have greater nterit becauseeducation and promoThere were now 3.ustrl Cbronologl Chapter 7: Sharing in Post'war Progress C o p y r i g h1t 9 6 1 b y N a t i o n a lL P . LP-Gas Rcscarch Conrnrittee of the National which instituted thc sectionalservice schoolsthat ClonservationBureau publishedpanrphletson safe later proved so valuablc to industry men across o p e r a t i o n si n t h e L P . 8 O 1 .5 . At the sanre tinre this period saw the beginningsof such diverse facets of industry ir. W a r r e n . Socony-Vacuum entered LP-Gas east coast Kenneth Koach elccted president of LPGA. tablishing the first research laboratory devoted LP-Gas clothes dryers were introduced.209. Vt.) bus operertioncompletedten nrillion miles on LPG a s . Rice.

I t P .C a s . In Chapter 8 the industry chronology will be carried well into the 1950swhen the promise of earlier days was being realized <ln all fronts of marketing and technology. Major sources of events noted here are the files of I..C a s ( .882 in lessthan a year through the efl'orts o l B r a n d . T h e l i r s t L P G A D i s t i n g u i s h c dS e r v i c c L i f e M e n r b e r s h i pa w a r d w c n t t o M a r k A n t o n i n r e c o g n i t i o n l o r h i s c a r l y c l l i r r t s i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o no l ' t h c i n d u s t r y ..0(X) LP-Gas i n s t a l l a t i o n so n f a r m s a n d i n s u b u r b s . a unit of Georgia Institute of Technology under LPGA sponsorship.G a s a s a n e n g i n el u c l . 2 0 0 .5 9 9 .P e t c rA . A course in gas fuel technologywas established at SouthernTechnical Institute. Pargas Nef Earnings Rise The net income of Pargas Inc. L e e B r a n d t o l d t h e L P G A c o n v e n t i o nt h a t t h e PronrcltionC-ommitteewas ready to go into operi r t i o n a n d t h a t t h e l i r s t a d v e r t i s i n gw o u l d a p p e a r t h a t s u n r n r e ri n s o m c . Darling was electedLPGA president. has planned classesfor new dealersentering the industry. his post was filled by Lee A. T h e B u r e a uo f M i n e s p u b l i s h e dt h e f i r s t r e g i o n a l breakdownof LP-Gas sales. state fire nrarshal in South Carolinerand head of LP-gas activity there. T h e a s s o c i a t i o na l s o d e v e l o p e d a nrocJel LP-Gas cclntainer law subsequently acloptedin severalstrtes. Brancl of' E m p i r e S t o v eC o . M a r k e t e d p r o d u c t i o nf o r t h c y e a r w l s 2 . T h e t h r e e i n d u s t r y a s s o c i p t i o n s f o r m u l a t e da c o n r b i n e da d v e r t i s i n ga n d e d u c a t i o n a lp r o g r a m . for the first quartel 1 9 6 2 w a s $ 1 6 6 .A p p r o x i r n a t e l y4 . R a i n . A n d e r s o nw a s e l e c t e dp r e s i clent. Pankow died shortly before the first full m e e t i n go f t h e N a t i o n a l C o r n m i t t e es c h e d u l e df o r November. Portable crop dryers offered savingsfor farmers and summcr volunre for LP-Gas distributors. Chicago Transit Authority ordered -500LP-Gas p a s s e n g eb r u s e s u s i n g P a r k h i l l .PGA and the National Council.W a d ee q u i p n t e n t . an increarseof 41. Waldorf. 2A Conlributions 1o the newlv born National Commillee {or LP-Gas Promolion are showered on ihe then chairman. Through the joint efforts of LPGA.o u n c i l.5 6 7 .l n i n c r e l s c of 11. Dickert estimateshe will conduct four sessionsa year.C u r r e n tt i r s tq u a r t e ie a r n i n g s were equivalent to 27p per share o n t h e 6 1 6 . M a r k e t e d p r o d u c t i o n . N e w . National LP-Gas Council founded. Milwaukee taxicab 1leet of 279 vehicles converted to LP-Gas.G a s P r o n r o t i o n l a t e r n a n t e dt h e N a t i o n a l L P . D e c e n t r a l i z a t i oonf m a n u f a c t u r i n gi n d u s t r i e st o l o c a t i o n sb e y o n d t h c g a s m a i n s b o o s t e di n d u s t r i a l r r s u u eo f L P .G a sb y t h e p o u n d a n d g a l l o no l ' l i q u i d a n d t h c c u b i c f o o t o f g a s i n c u l m i n a t i o no f L P G A w o r k . Warren PetroleumCorp.5 0c o n s u n r c ra n d i n d u s t r i a l nrirgirzines.G Acso . S. lhe lafe John Panlow.trral gast-rline and LP-Gases. [ J 3 6 . Tractor conversionkit salesequalled nrore than 22o/o of the total donresticshipment of wheelecl farm tractors. 0 0 g 0al. at an early meefing of the Committee. built a barge for transportation of LP-Gas from Gulf C-'oastproduction p l a n t s t o p o i n t s a l o n g t h e I n t e r c o a s t aC l anal ancl lower MississippiI{iver system. 1950 Clonferenco e f W e i g h t s a n d M e a s u r e so f l i c i a l s a d o p t e d u n i f o r n r s t a n d a r d sf o r n r e a s u r e m e not l L P .500. . was electedpresident. 0 0 0g a l . GAMA and NGAA the N a t i o n a l C o n r n r i t t e ef o r L P .3 .5% over the same oeriod in 1 9 6 1 .Unfortunately Mr. G. Md. Dickert. the industry's trade magazinesand the firms whoseachievements are reported.m a r k e t eSrc h o o l s P l a n n e di n S o u t hC a r o l i n a Carl R. a 5oo/oincreaseover '6 l. . 0 0 0 b u l k p l a n t sw e r e i n o p e r a t i o n .J o h n P a n k o wo f D e t r o i t M i c h igan StoveCo. L P G AT i m e s .w a s o r g a n i z e di n t h e f a l l . E s t a b l i s h e dd e a l e r sw i l l a l s o be welcome.) u l y . S a l e si n t h e q u a r t e rw e r e $ 1 . 8 0 0 s h a r e so u t s t a n d i n g . T h e N a t i o n a lC o m m i t t e er a i s e d $265. 6 3 8 .G u s t o v a p o r i z c s i l v c r i o d i d ec i r n r ei n t o u s e . 000.1% over last year's correspondingperiod. There were an cstinrated 7. L P G A p r e s i d e n tD a r l i n g a n d m e n r b e r s a n d s t a f l s o f t h e t h r e e s p o n s o r i n ga s s o c i l t i o n s . 1 9 6 2 .m a k i n gm e t h o d u s i n g L P . L P G A a n d K a n s a sS t a t eC ' o l l e g cc o n d u c t e dt h c l i l s t s e r v i c es c h o o ld e v o t c dc x c l u s i v e l yt c l L P . 4 u 2 . using state regulations and Panrphlet58 as his t e x t s .

Baton Rouge. M a r k e t e d p r o d u c t i o nl b r t h e y e i t r w a s 4 . the year. d e r s w a s e l i m i n a t e d . C. Farrar for meritorious service to the industry in developmentof technical sttrndardsand the promotion of safety. Fifteen LP-Gas production plants with a ycarly M a r k e t e d p r o d u c t i o n r o s e t o 4 . Mabee was electedpresident. Inside the industry underground storage contributed its solution to the seasonalsalesproblem while increasingly successlulpromotion added new customersand new gallonage.ustryCbronology Chapter 8: The Upward Pace Quickens C o p y r i g h1t 9 6 1 b y N a t i o n a lL P . the ligure was bclieved to be as the help Phillips Petroleurn Co. consumer storage. Kerr and George G. crop dehydration. McLP-Gas accountedfor approximatelyhalf of all Allister was appointed LPGA representativeon liquids produced at natural gasolineplants.000.M o r e t h a n l . 1951 T h e N a t i o n a l B u t a n e . A new sea-goingbarge. O O O capacity of 5-50. in certain sectionsof the South and Council launcheda progran to promote adequate Southwest. in two years clf Council operation. T h e C o u n c i l p r o n r o t c dt h e p u b l i c a t i o no l ' s e v e r a l l a r g e e d i t o r i a l f c a t u r e s e c t i o n si n s t a t e a n d regionalfirrm papers. were added during gals. and the Bureau of Exline fronr its Borger (Tex. Anderson met with the FedICC extended lO-year retest period for cyline r a l C i v i l D e f e n s eA d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' sN a t i o n a l A d d e r st o l 2 y e a r s visory Committee on Emergency Feeding. the lirst designedex1952 Twenty-six producing and distributing companies by this year had planned or completed a c l u s i v e l yf o r L P .000gals.G a sC o u n c T h e s e l 9 5 l .TbeFira Fifry Yearsof LP-Gas An Ind..5 0 0 .) plant to the Chicago plosives. 5 5 y e a r s s a w a m e r g e ro f a l l t h e f a c t o r s that spell successfor an industry and during them LPGas virfually doubled its already multi-billion gallon volume. s t i t u t e df o r r e t e s t i n g . An LP-Gas demonstrationby McSix manufacturers produced factory equipped Allister convinced federal olTicialsof the value of LP-Gustractors.G a si n s t a l l a t i o nw 0 0 0 . Consunrerspendingcontinued high. the fuel for emergencvas well as normal houseMarked gains reported in the use of LP-Gas for hold use. tion of LP-Gas rnade by Superior Tank & ConA n e s t i n .The motor fuel market attractedsupport from both highway and industry truck makers. Emerson factory-equippedto burn LP-Gas. 1 9 6 2 25 . Foster N.The Council also published its Manufacturers of industrial tractors and lift fi rst consunrerbooklet. 379.V i s u a l i n s p e c t i o nw a s s u b International Harvester Co. Thomas and Peter A. H. Inc. The National LP-Gas Council secured and publicized ir statementfronr Secretaryof Interior "summer storagefill-up" by LPChaprnan urging Gas custonters.A u g u s t . 0 0 0 a n d b u l k p l a n t s a t 4 . which wirs forwarded to the ICC through the Phillips Petroleum Co. L a n d e r w a s e l e c t e da s s o c i a weeding of right of ways. the committee.. LPCA's Distinguished Service Life Membership went to Mercer C. even without the extra impetus of the Korean action nnd its econonric side-eflects.P r o p a n eA s s n . McAllister. . tion president. brought out the first production ntodel trucks Howard White. First dealer-ownedundergroundstoragecirvern cornpletedby General Gas Corp. 2 2 7 . r a t eldO % o f t o t a l L P .000gals.G a s .the requirement for retesting ICC cylinarea. w a s l a u n c h e dt o b e g i n s e r v ice to Florida and Cuba. S . s e r e e s t i m a t e da t 8 .G a s s a l e sw e r e struction Co. L P G AT i m e s . completed LP-Cas pipe CompressedGas Assn.000gals. Oberfell factory equippedmodelswere nrarketed. tobacco curing and irrigation.1953 t h e market. and Reo Motors. d i s c o u n tinued its activitiesand its mernbersbeganjoining LPGA. Several portable crop dehydratrtrsappearedon First four-wheelframelesstrailer for transporta. With the of high as 5g /r. ceived the LPGA Distinguished Service Life Railroadsstudiedreports of cost saving in llame M e m b e r s h i p sW . for engine fuel. total of 77 underground storage projects with an As the result of an industry study by LPGA aggregatecapacityof 246. L e g a t s k io f P h i l l i p sP e t r o l e u r lC o . 000 buseswere operatingon LP-Gas. T o t a l L P . 4 ' 7 7 .10of lVo Io 42o/r.. . La. T h e 1 9 5 2 H a n l o n A w a r d w c n t t o T h e o d o r eW . A Council consunrer survey showed that the nunrber of people in LP-Gas markets understand"LP-Gas" ing the generic term and what it does as a fuel had increasedfrom an average3".. trucks became interested in LP-Gas and several reArthur N.204.J. 2 15 .

Paul Shannon. The social group of veteran LP-Gas men was establishedby an organizing committee headed by Charles Russell of 'l-hernrogas Co.. Other organizers were Frank Carpenter. 4. The total LP-Gas water fleet included two ships. Rotation of Council presidents among producer. Gypsum Co. Jr.''s.G a s was rerdy to cool the post-blaslmeals. A minimum of 20 years of service to the industry was required for membership. The Council publicized mass feeding tests conducted in Chicago by the Chicago Civil Defense Corps in which LP-Gas cooking applianceswere "Dream used. of California. three dual cargo ships. "Ihe Hanlon Award went to Geoge P. krcIi qr A l i h o u g h e l e c l r i c l i n e s a r e o b v i o u s l yv u l n e r a b l e i o A . R.. Koach. It moved to its own quarters. Green's Fuel. then of Fannin's Gtts & Equipment Company. United Petroleum Gas Co. Evans. equipnrent and appliancemanufacturersand producers. appliance and equipment manufacturers and marketer segmentsof the industry was intrugurated.e n e r g y L P .| 26 ported that the LP-Gas fuel system was safer than systemsused with the other two major fuels. 3. and ended its previous public relations servicesto LPCA which had been in exchangefor clerical services.. and K. Council advertising appeared regularly in 50 publications to reach the small town. was named the first Council president under the new setup.S.r. Wolfe. D. Maintain a smooth balance among the somewhat differing viewpoints of distributors. Protect from future criticism any one of the participatinginterestswhich might be askedotherwise to assume any substantialresponsibility of nranagementas was originally asked of LPGA.. All areas of the industry were organizedto wclrk with local and regionaldefenseorganizations. Pew of Sun Oil Co. to rise to 25 vearsin 1964. Continuedon p. Fisher Governor Co. 1954 Use of LP-Gas for house heating nroved northward with the installation of larger dealer and customerstoragefacilities. The Order of Ancient Gasserswas formed at a Chicago meeting May 9. four propane barges (two of thenr sea-going)and one butane barge.000 gals. Cargo-Guard Co. led to federal certificationof LP-Gas for civil defense feeding and hospital operations and for its stockpiling for emergency use. Enable the Council to carry on its functions entirely through its own resourcesand make it solely responsiblefor its own acts. It also set up and publicized a Kitchen" at the National Plowing Contest irnd two all LP-Gas homes at the ResearchVillage project sponsoredby U...in order to: l. Verkamp Corp.The 1955 alomic energy-civil de{ense lests showed lhal large and small LP-Gas conlainers will be available to serve posi-atiack needs. then of Petrolane Gas Co. H.James E. Standard Oil Co. Lee Brand was oflicially commendedfor his four years of Council leadershipas president. . Johns-Manville. Norman A.932. Ernest Fannin. Md. Anderson. Total CounciI expendituresin the lirst three years of operation totalled more than one million dolltrrs. 1962 . Achieve a better organization. Marketed production for the year was 4. farm and suburban markets. Bunn of Phillips PetroleumContpany.:"ffi". around lhe bulk tan! is {rasmenls of a sheet-metal fill ISrj:tt"r M. K. Cerber Foods. Louis Abramson. the late Walter Verkamp..L. Trotter was electedLPCA president. A demonstration by C. who becamethe Ancient Gassers' first chief officer. Peter A. 2. McAllister at the Stall College Civil Defense Training Center at Olney.. the ICC re- fu.. J.. Ford Motor and many others.009. With LP-Gas servicestationsbecoming a ntore familiar sight along the highways. Inc. Pressed Steel Tank Co. The National LP-Gas Council was incorporated under its own management under thc laws of lllinois. Elintination of exhaust fumes was a rnajor factor in theseconversions.. LPGA membersworled on t h e e q u i p m e n l t e s t a n d m a s s{ e e d i n g p r o l e c l s .48 LPGA Times-August. Companiesconverting lift trucks to LP-Gas included Lockheed Aircraft.

irContinued on p. p. C. 51 LPGA Times-August. McAllister elected LPGA president. Superior Tank & Construction Co. and an LP-Gas promotion news letter was launched. Schulte. Sidenfaden was elected LPGA president. LP-Gas came into use for uranium refining.we are faced with the problem of describing satisfactoryfuels for those engineswhich are presently in existence. 2) more economical operation and 3) no worry of service interruption because ol power failure. McAllister of Pargas headed the mass feeding team. 1955 The 17. D. The Council began a "grass roots" public relations program including tailored releasesto Home Demonstration Agents. blast and radiation of an atomic explosion in the government's Operation Cue at the Nevada proving grounds. as managing director.2o/aannual gain in saleswas the largest in the industry history to this date and pushed the total annual marketed production past the six billion gallon mark. History commentaryby J.for the most part. Maior sourcesfor this chapter have been LPGA and National LP-Gas Council files. Wolfe. scale. Cook of Suburban Propane was chairman of the engineers subcommittee of LPGA's Technical and StandardsCommittee. 53 48 G o = z F o UILD SEVEREVERYSEVERE F i 9 . Marketed production for the year was 6. Jr. 90. More than a quarter of a million LP-Gas tractors were reported in use. 26 Continued from p.763. Pending the development of better LP-gas engines. all the itenrs were in perfect functioning order and ranges were used to cook meals for the test personnel. 1962 .125. J. are factory adaptationsof gasolineengines and this may be the chief reasonsince the peculiar antiknock sensitivity characteristics of LP-gas probably require features not now present in gasoline engines. Marketed production for the year was 5. A consumer motivation study conducted by the Council showed that customers preferring Lp-Gas ranges over electric cited: l) faster cooking with the hot blue flame. 2 E n g i n e s e v e r i t y r e s i s l a n c ep r o p e r l i e s o { { u e l s ( S O N } .533. D. made the first use of T-1 steel in the manufacture of LpGas transport tanks.5 PROPTTE}IE 50 Z PROPYLEIIE Z PROPANE 1006 rf. / LP-Gas containers. Kenneth R. in some areasthey were outselling gasoline or diesel units l0 to one. Next month's installment brings the industry chronology up to the 50th aruriversary.W..000 gal.Industry History LP-gasquality Continuedfrom p. records of the Ancient Gassersand publicationsof governmentalagenciesconcernedwith the atomic €{rergyand civil defensetests.9 afsu e l s .The significantobservationis that the lines of constant antiknock value have a substantiallysteeperslope than those shown in Figure 2. I A n t i k n o cbke h a v i oor{ L P . Such engines.? F i g . In Figure 4 we present our best estimate of the boundary curve (outer envelope) which would include all currently marketed products. R. LPGA TIMES published its first issue.It will be the final chapter of the history prepared by the National LP-Gas Council and publishedexclusivelyby LPGA TIMES.000 gal. lmmediately after the explosion. vice president of Fisher Governor Co.So let's take a look at the antiknock characteristicsof presently marketed products as related to their vapor pressures and see how they compare with the current ASTM D1835 specilication limits. All LP-gas will be upgraded somewhat under less severe engine conditions. Robert Borden resigned as Council secretary and was succeeded shortly afterwards by George J.635. C. PROPANE t 0 tI 40 60 50 z EurAllE SUTANE 90. l8 W. The reasonslor the high severity levels of some LPgas engines are not now apparent but there are undoubtedly a number of contributing factors.500 women radio program directors and radio farm directors. J. equipment and appliances were exposed to the heat. Woodward Martin. became president of the Council following the death of James Pew. more than 5.

Wolfe as Council president. R. Industry action started to obtain approval of a n u n i n s u l a t e dt a n k c a r f o r t r a n s p o r t i n gL P .b i l l i o n m a r k i n 1 9 6 1 .635.D.G l s t o b u r n s p i n ef r o m p r i c k l y p e a r c a c t u st o n r a k ci t e d i b l eb y c a t t l e . Among the "rrew" uses were those bringing LP-Gas into the power tield through such developmentsas the fuel cell and thernroelectricgeneration. acquired all gasoline plants of Gulf Oil Co. K.763. LP-Gas came into use for the miscible displacement of crude oil. In this process.A further evid e n c e o f a w e l l e s t a b l i s h e dL P . S n e l l i n g ' sp o i n c e r h o o k . D. H. 40oZ in small towns and 20o/oin suburbs.ardwersprcsentedto William H.u p h a d m u s h r o o n r e d i n t o a p p r o x i n t a t e l yI 3 n r i l l i o n i n s t a l l a t i o n si n t h e U S a l o n e . A.G a s o p e n e d a ncw nrarkct. B y 1 9 6I D r . Frank Carpenter was the lirst DSA chairman. succeededK. Charles E. Cotc. One headline read "How're Ye Gonna Kcep KW Down On The Farm After Thcy've seen LP?" The editor's comment was that LP-Gas is "the greatestthreat wc have today. Publicity activitieswere extended to rnetropolitan readcrs to reach the suburban nrarket. Tidewater AssociatedOil Co. Warren Petroleum Corp. LPGA Times-September. the more than two million dollars spent by the Council since its inccption in 1949 had made impressive inroads into thc electric marrket.G a s w u s s t i l l a " w o n d e r " i n d u s t r yb u t t h e w o n d e r w a s n o t c a u s e db y s u c h a s p e c t sa s " b o t t l e d h e a t " b u t b y i t s s e e n r i n g l yl i n r i t l e s sr n a r k e t sa n d t h e s t e a d yg a i n si n i t s r a n k i n gi n t h e f u e l b u s i n e s s . " The ('ouncil set up a new Dealer Sale. 0 0 0g a l . W i t h g a l l o n a g ea t t h e l O . Snelling'sinitial installation the LP-Gas businesswas still demonstratingthe vigor o f y o u t h .TbeFirst Fifry Yearsof LP-Gas An Ind. A National LP-Gas Council market pattern survey among LP-Gas dcalers showed that the current I-P-Gasmarket was approxin. L P G A p e r s u a s i o np a v e d w a y { o r o p e n i n g l h i s markef. to the futurc growth of kilowatt hour s a l c si n r u r a l i l r e a s . 35% in small towns and l5% in suburbs. 1957 LP-Gas accountcd for the major portion of cargo truck refrigerationunit fuel. A s p h a l t a g g r c g a t ed r y i n g w i t h L P .. These predictions did not anraze knowing LPGassers who were seeing the shifts in such economic factors as transportaticln. Undcrground storage capacity totalled nearly onc billion gallons and anothcr one-third of a billion gallons capacity was planned or under construction. plumber's pots. - 1956 Severc drouth in thc Southwestincrcascdden r a n d f o r L P .Dealcrs cxpectcdthe future ratio would soon be 50% on farms. 22 Domestic LP-Gas range sales were estimated to account for 2OVo of all domestic gas range sales. LP-Gas for tar and asphalt kettles. received the 1957 Hanlon Award. L P . and thereafter marketed all liquid productsfrom them.G a s C o u n c i l . LP-Gas is stored for future usc while it is being usedto bring oil to the surface. Sun Oil Co.with oflice in Washington.rately divided into 409tc on farms. H.G a s i n d u s t r y w a s t h e i n c r e a s i n gi n t e r c s ta n l o n g t h c f i n a n c i a lc o n r n r u n i t y .utry Cbronologl Chapter 9: Fifty Years Young C o p y r i q h1t9 6 I b y N a t i o n aLl P . New loads o{ recent years include in-hold and on-docl industrial i r u c k s { o r s l e v e d o r e s . local promotional programs. preheating torches and in oxy-propane metal cutting becams more widespread.G a s .C. According to a five-page report in Electric Light & Powcr magazine. Marketed production for the year was 6.939.and the spurt in promotional work . p r e d i c t i o n sw e r e h e a r d o f d o u b l e t h a t v o l u m e b y 1980. Vaughan.1 2 1 . The Hanlon Ar.by rlarketers and suppliers individually a n d c o l l e c t i v e l yt h r o u g h t h e N a t i o n a l L P . Dickson was electedLPGA president. 1962 .John Hartzell became the Council's first field representative. Walter O. and other selling tools developed to coordinate Council advcrtising and publicity into "grass roots" selling.000gallons.r. Talmage Lovclady was elected president of LPGA. Marketed production for the year was 6.sAid progranr to providc dealerswith printed informational and display materials. Suburban Propane Gas Corp.c a sC o u n c i l As the industry prcpared to celebratethe golden anniversary of Dr. Webber.more pipelines and larger road and rail hauling units .

1958 With interest increasing in 20.w h o t h r n 2 t / + b i l l i o n g a l l o n s . average increase of the preceding nine ycars.xchangeand Pacilic Coast Exchunge. although accounting for only a small pelrt of total B o t h s i z e a n d d e s i g n o { t a n k c a r s c h a n g e d . H a c h n r u t h . Tidewatcr C)il Co.1 9 6 2 . G a r d . industrial usase. 24 L P G A T i m e s . Suburban Gas stock listcd on New York Stock Industrial and gas utility plants relied heavily 1960 E. to Mc462.M u c h o f t h i s w a s i n r n i n e d built the first LP-Gasplant in that state. 38 1959 Petrolane Gas Service..tDige. A n i n c r e a s i n gn u m b c r o l a i r l i n e s w c r c c o n verting their industrial tractors to Lp-Gas. An LPGA directory listed rnore than 4. Hanlon Award winner was William F. won appliances. T h i s A C F 3 0 . M. LP-Gas sales reached the billion gallon a month mark for December 1959.Suburban's on LP-Cas to maintain operationsduring thc unsalt cavcrn storagcin Moab. Roper Corp. A f o r n r a l a n n u a l r e p o r t w a s p u b l i s h e df o r t h e l i r s t t i n r e b y t h e C o u n c i l .st.r. . Suburban presidenf W.w a s C o u n c i l p r e s i d e n t . L. electcd Council used in transDort. shaving cream and similar products expandedrapidly. Fagan was electedLPGA president.with other insertionsin Better Homes & Curden. pr-rrchascd Vangas of CaliLP-Gas sales increascd 3Ook more than the fornia. A h e a d q u a r t c r sw r i t e r and Western regional manager at [-os Angeles werc addcd to the stafl <lrganization. The use of high purity LP-Gas as propellant in pressurizedcontainersof insecticides.000 gallons.S e p t e m b e r . secretaryof the Natural Cas ProccssorsAssn.R c f r i g c r a t e d A.. sent the first LPGas to Alaska by barge. 0 0 0 e n t r i e s . Continuedon p. Sidenfaden ( l ) n o t e si n i l i a l l r a n s a c l i o nw i t h E r c h a n q eo f i i c i a l .p a g es u p p o r t i n ga d a p p e a r c d in Reuder'. Thc Council begrin sponsorship of newscasts A transport klading rate ol' -500 gal. a ntinute four times weekly on 400 Mutual radio nctb e c a n r c a r c a l i t y w i t h t h c d c v e l o p n r e n to f n e w work stations in small towns. F. one company was reported studying the possibility cf 30. Oberfell reccived the Walton Clark Medal of the Franklin lnstitute for "original and notable work in the gas industry.Frank DeVoe.000. Atnericutr Horne. "belly-botlom" hauler shows the new design.gressiveFortner. r e w 2 . t a n k c a r b y ncwspaper "Changing Scene" cartoons emphasizT u l o n r aG a s P r o d u c t sC o . icc.I n 1 9 5 0S u b u r b a nG a s b e c a m e f i r s l m a r k e l e r l o h a v e s l o c l l i s f e d o n New Yorl Slock Erchange.000 service stations and bulk plants selling Lp-Gas for motor fuel.000 gal.G a s C o u n c i l a n n u a l i n c o m ep a s s e d the half million dollar mark for the firsttime.P h i l l i p sP e t r o l c u nC t o.T h e m u l t i .200-mile Mid-America Pipeline was Marketed production for the y e a r w a s J . manager of LP-Gas salcs for Phillips P e t r o l c u n rC c l . 0 0 0 g a l .000 gal. Lowe. (water capacity) tank cars. ing the advantagcs of buying ntodern LP-Gas K a r l H . c a v c r n sn e a l h e a v y m a r k e t i n ga r c a s . Thc 2.000. Utilh. opened to stretch from Eunicc. M a r k e t e d p r o d u c t i o n f o r t h c y c a r w a s 8 . Outdoor LP-Gas lights bccanre increasingly popular. N a t i o n a l L P . S . Acceptanceof built-in LP-Gas rangesappeared assuredwith an 88oZ increasein salesover 1958. Inc. wcnt into servusually cold wintcr. Carl Sorby of c q u i o m e n td c n r a n d e db y t h c l i t r g e rc a p a c i t yt a n k s the Gcorge D. An absorptionair conditioner to add to existing LP-Gas forced air furnacesbecame available. N. T o t a l u n d e r g r o u n csl t o r : r s cl a c i l i t i e sf o r n a t u r a l Hanlon Award winner for ths ycar was Clarc g a s l i q u i c l si n t h e U .. a d v c r t i s e do n t h e A B C " B r e a k f a s tC l u b " p r o s r a n ra n d i n l e a d i n gm a g a z i n c sd. r e a c h e da c a p a c i t yo f n t o r e D . cars for r l r il r o u d t r u n s p o r t a t i o n . 000. Bone was elected LPGA president.5 3 . Conrmerce conrntendedthe Council for its part "grew" again with LP-Gas rail tank cars in the "Lick thc Reccssion"progran through its i n t r o d u c t i o no f t l t c f i r s t 3 0 . The Council's first "Win-A-Home" sweepstakesprom o t i o n . U n i o n O i l C o n t p a n yo f C a l i f o r n i i r . t h e y e a r ' sl { a n l o n A w a r d . 91 9 . storagccapacity totirlled nrorc than I 1. a new monthly rccord.00C gal." From a billion gallon year in 1944.paint. George G. Farnr Journul and Pro. E. president. E. R. 0 0 0 g a l .000 Prcsident Eisenhowc'rund thc Department of g al .

the contnrcrcial ntarkct wcre-llliljor ttlpics I'ttr the G r e e n ' s l r u c l c l i s t r i b u t o r sI l r c e t i n gJ u n e l l l . " E s t i m a t e so f 1 9 6I m a r k e t e dp r o d u c t i o no f L P I w o u l d l i k e t o r e c o n r m e n dt h a t a s t r t l n go r g a n l z a t l o n g a sa p p r o x i m a t e dI 0 . s o t a . A s e c o n c l H' Koach' stakcs pronrotion clrer'vntore than a cluarterof lt S p e a k e r s a l S a r a s o t a m e e t i n g i n c l u d e d ( f r o m l e f + ) K ' Union Texas vp. p c r c e n t .s t r i b t i t i o n . by tie-in advertising by a l l e c t t h c c c o n o l l l y i n t h a t t o w n ' l W i l l y t l t t r b u s i n c s s C o u n c i l n t e n r b c r p r o d u c c r s a n d n l a n u f a c t u r c r s . l o d e r n i z i t t i ( tdni." D. 1 ' . s y o u r t o w n g o i n g t o g r o w ' ?I n w h i c h c l i r e c t i o ni s i t ( ' o u n c i l a c l v e r t i s i n gl i r r t h c f a l l h o n r e g i v e . n r i r t cs t u g n u t i o n . M . F . a prttducer-tlwned firnl.P . J .a c l v e r t i s i n gt h' c s e a r c t h i n g s t o s c t h e rw i t h p u b l i c a t i o n so f L P . I'nl ntlt tt'ro nruch inPyrol'axGas Cclrp. .v i c c p r e s i d e n t l f U n i c l nT c x i t s P e t r o l c t t t n l96l M o b i l O i t ( ' o .Elccted terestedin it. w a s p r e s e n t c dt o J o h n C . O . G r e e n ' s n r i l l i o n c n t r i c s a n d i n c r c a s c ds t t l r c t r a f T i cb y 2 7 Union Texasvp. Dixie Pipeline Co. C o n r p l e t i c l nw a s s c h e d u l c d l o r i n t e r e s t sn r e i s n o t p a s t h i s t o r y .br lreezing therl with liquid propane. l ) c a l c r S a l e sA i c l i n c o n r co l ' t h e C o u n c i ld o u b l c d Hendricks o v c r 1 9 6 0 t o r c a c h a n e w h i g h r e c o r do f $ 3 . 0 0 0g a l . W .W i s . G r e e n w a l l . "LP-gas. Farnt ancl hontc plize givcaway contests' n . p t t r c h a s e cAln c h o r P e t r o l c u nC U n i o n O i l C ' o . be fornted within the frameworkof the LPGA to handle a full and powerful progranl on researchand develChaptor 9 concludes the LP-Gas industry history prepared o D m e n tt o i n c l u d en o t o n l y p r o d u c t ' e q u i p n l e n ta n d a p b1 the National I-P-Gas Council and printed exclusively in E 'I'IIlIES.5 ( X ) ' . W i l l i a m s w a s c l e c t e dL P G A p r e s i d e n t . s c r v i c cc l i v i s i o no f A n r c r i c l n L i q u i c l G a s C o r p . p r e s i d e n to f D u P t l n t : " l f o n e i n d u s t r y 'I-appan Co. ntttre cflicicnt qulrters in "Win-A-Home" swcepE v a n s t o n . p r e s i d e n l .Continued frorn p. T h i s i s w h c r c w c c l t n g c t i n t o Gas in 1962. R i t z e n .G a st l n t h c F a r n r you do cvery clly. Dr' C' E' lrvin W y r i c l . Every attenrpt is ntade through the LPGA stafl ollices to correct t h i s n r i s i n f o r n r a t i o n .U n i t e d P e t r o l c u n lG a s a n d O . B a i l e v . K o a c h .K a n s . was Council president.a n o t h e r N a t u r a l G a s o l i n g A s s o c i a t i o n t l f A m e r i c a o n e d o e s . Council hcitdcluartcrswas tntlved frclnr downto'"vnC'hicagrtto larger. 0 0 0 .5 . 26 i n a c l c l i t i o n aCl ' o u n c i li n v e s t n t c n b bcrs.t h c C o u n c i l a p p r o v c du s a g c g a l l o n sa y e a r . 0 0 0 t y d e a l c r m e n l . 0 ( Xg)a l . B . T h c g r o w t h o f t h i s i n c i u s t r yi n 5 0 y e a r sh a s b c e n f r o n l started c<lnstructittnttf its line frorrr E. M .raybe all right but care s h o u l db e t a k e nw i t h r e s i d u a fl u m e s . r e s i d e cal n d l o .w i t h b r a n c h c st t r M i n n e a p o l i a t o M a d i s o n . 0 0 0 . H . This n. Let nte make one quotation fronr Crawftlrd a s p r e s i d e n tf o r t h c y e a r a h e a dw a s A . o f s p o k c . G r e e n ' sp r e s i c l e n tp. l f y o u n e e d h e l p .l l l . .astTcxas to n o t h i n g t o r o t r g h l y l 0 b i l l i o n g a l l o n s . E . o m m e r c i aLl o a d G r e e n ' sD e a l e r sT o l kS a l e sC Join LPGA N o w! Industry Historl' ('onlinued from p.A n i n d u s t r yw h i c h b u r i e si t s h e a d i n t h e s a n d changcdits name to Natttral Gas ProcessorsAsso. O'Meara of 'fhe of the ncw fornt past is all ancient history. P . N .G a s F o r A l l I n d u s t r i a l a n d C c l t n m c r c i a l l o n g . D i e h l o f A m e r i c a n n o t h i n g b e t t e r t h a n a p e d e s t r i a ng r o w t h r a t e a n d u l t i MeterCo. . 1962 . p l i c a t i o n . o l C a l i f o r n i a p u r c h a s c ctlh e I ' u e l c l i v i s i o no f A l l i c c l C ' h c n t i c aC l o r p . K .2 0 a t S a r a ( X X ) . v i a sC o u n c i l p r c s i d e n t . itn rtwl'ulot ol trouhlu. l 3 y J'o nrakc the gencric name 2 0 b i llion o f r a t e a t t h c t h i s i n c l u s t r ys h o u l d b e s e l l i n g a c c c p t a b l et o e d i t o r s .w i d ep r o g r a l l t w a s p r e p a r e db y t h c h a s t yo r t a c t i c a lc l c c i s i t l nus p s e tt h c s t r a t e g i cc l c c i s i o nr e C o t i n c i l f o r n r a r k i n gt h e 5 0 t h a n n i v c r s a r yo f L P . G.T h c l i g u r e t h a t N o r t h C a r o l i n a .q u i r e c lf o r I ' u t u r eg r o w t h . grow'l ls it going ttl srilw at thc ratc forccast'JDo not lct A n i n d u s t r y . 2(X) M a r k c t c c lp r o c l t r c t i o nf o r t h c y e a r w a s 9 ' . i t i s n o t i n t r r y t t p i n i o n 1962. I-PGA Jd LPGA Times-September..b u t a l s o h o w t c l m a r k e t i t . O . c o n t a c tt h e s t a l l o f i i c e s i n C h i c a g o . M e r c h a n d i s i n gt h c w h o l c g a s l i n c a n c l c n l l l h a s i st l n I i .H . 2i1 s nd P h c r s o n .t e r n rp l a n s . "grass roots" salesresults. [-os Angclcs.l r w l r y g o i n g t o g r o w ' l W h a t a r c t h e t h i n g s t h a t i t t ' c g c l i n gt o was extcndccl 50o/. B a i l c y . ' G r e c n ' sp a r c n t l i l t t t . C ' l r p e n t c r . M u n z e r w a s e l e c t e dL P G A p r c s i c l c n t . Strategicclecisionsitrc ltlng-rantc tlr a n c l l .l f y o u r u n a c r o s ss u c h i t e n r sy o u w o u l d b e c l o ing the pcople involvcda favor by' c o r r e c t i n gt h e n r . Uses produceclclicctivc l .ancl declinesto move from its traditional nloorings nrust 'fhe l 9 6 l N G P A H a n l o n A w a r d i n t h i s d a y a n d a g e e x p e c tt o f i n d t h a t t h e f u t u r e h c l l d s c i a t i o n( N G P A ) . . 1970 "LP-Cits" more a s i n r p o r t a n tl s t h e f i g u r e w a y u p l t t h e t o p . a n o l h e r ( ' o . t h a l e ro f t h c d o c s n o t s u p p l yt h e p r o d u c t so r s e r v i c e sw a n t e d . I r l l .