Victoria Fromkin, Robert Rodman & Nina Hyms. 2007. An Introduction Into Language.
United States of America: Thomson Wardsworth.
1. Ambiguity: kouyuuyuo’ id nombo do kiwaa o boros toi ko’ frasa di kiwaa lobi mantad
iso rati.
2. Lexical ambiguity (ketaksaan leksikal) nopo nga kouyuuyuo’ di nombo do kiwaa o
sokuang-kuang do iso boros dii kiwaa lobi mantad iso rati.
3. Toilaan tokou kokomoi do ketaksaan(ambiguity) leksikal om struktural nopo nga
popokito do rati nopo do isoiso’ ekspresi linguistik id boros nga owonsoi mantad id
suang (contain) om nogi struktur do sintaks.
4. Compositional Semantics.
 Kooturan sintaktik nopo nga popokito (express) do toilaan di mobooboros
kokomoi do gramatikal, struktur konstituen, pionitan do panandatan om

mogisuusuai po.
Kooturan semantik nopo nga popohompit nogi do toilaan semantik kaampai

no katapatan, rujukan, entailment om ambiguity.
5. Kooturan Semantik (semantic rules).
 Kooturan nopo do semantik nopo nga mositi do sensitif kumaa do rati do

monoroiso’ boros om struktur id kinoyonon do boros dii.
Kooturan semantik I: Panandatan di nowonsoi mantad do subjek NP (noun)
om iso VP (verb) nopo nga kotunud nung ilo nopo subjek NP nga morujuk do
isoiso’ individual who is among the members of the set that constitute the

meaning of the VP.
Kooturan semantik II: :The meaning of (VP V NP) is the set of individuals X
such that X is the first member of any pair in the meaning of V whose second

member is the meaning of the NP.
6. Anomaly nopo duo boros dii kiwaa o rati nga au milo do piomungon tu aiso o rati di
7. Metafora nopo nga kouyuuyuo’ id nombo do kopiomungan nopo do boros nga
popohompit do kreativiti om imaginasi di akawas montok do manganu do korotian.
8. Idiom nopo nga kiwaa o rati di pointatap om rati nopo dii nga okon ko’ compositional
om kopomogunaan do kooturan compositional id idiom nopo nga kapangasil do rati
di kotoimpuirak-irak toi ko’ ii au logik.
9. Semantik leksikal nopo nga roitan nogi do rati boros.
 Rati do boros di ogumu (panandatan) nopo nga fungsi dii morfem id suang

There is a fundamental difference meaning do rati boros miampai do

semantik leksikal om nogi rati do panandatan.
The meaning of most words and al morphemes is conventional; that is;
speakers of a language implicitly agree on their meaning.

Metonym is always employed by the news services.  om ii no komoyon do ‘semantic features’. (mantad ponoriukan do puru linguistik.  Decomposing the meanings of words into semantic features can clarify how  certain words relate to other words. Homonyms. unmarked (relational opposites). Sokiro do haro boros dii au tokou oilaan rati.(homophones) same sound. 13. id nombo do ii nopo nga kakamot id pomogunan di ‘otopot’/real that it refers to). Semantic features are thought to be the conceptual elements by which a  person understands the meanings of words and sentence. Semantic properties are not directly observable and their existence must be inferred from linguistic evidence. Sinonim. Pionitan Leksikal. 11. 12. 10. Teori do rati.  The words that describe the relation often end in the bound morpheme –    nym. (the semantic features interact with different aspects of grammar such as the morphology or syntax.  Sense. Thus. Hyponyms  the relationship is between the more general term such as color and more specific instances of it such as red. rati nopo do boros nga ii rujukan dau. The meaning in the most sentences must be constructed by the application of semantic rules. Semantic features and grammars. miagal ko’ ‘the assassin killed Thwacklehurst”. pieces of information that the speakers of a  language agree. same or not same spelling but  different meaning. Upa semantik (Semantik Features). red is a hyponym of the  color. One source of such evidence is the speech errors or ‘slips’ of the tongue that we all produce. ogumu o korotian dii owonsoi id pomusarahan tokou.  Reference/Rujukan. The semantic properties that describe the linguistic meaning of a word should not be confused with other non-linguistic properties such as physical properties. antonim. Metonyms need not be a single word. . Polysemous  a word that has multiple meanings that are related  conceptually or historically.  intended utterance and  actual utterance (actual).  properties that are part of word meanings and that reflect our intuitions about what words mean. Marked. Metonyms  a word that substitutes for an object the name of an attribute or concept associated with that object. au tokou orotian ilo komoyon do patod boros ‘assassin’ om mantad dilo.

Negation is a particularly interesting components of the meaning of some verbs. Count nouns can be  enumerated and pluralized and may be preceded by the indefinite determiner. that makes up part of the meaning of nouns. -ess. uglify and so on. kill. . Semantic features of verbs: verb can also be broken down into semantic features. ‘female’ is a semantic feature sometimes indicates by the bound suffix . Semantic features of nouns: the semantic feature may be shared by many words. For example. “cause” is a feature of verbs such as darkens.