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University of Alberta - ANSYS Tutorials
ANSYS is a general purpose finite element modeling package for numerically solving a wide
variety of mechanical problems. These problems include: static/dynamic structural analysis (both
linear and non-linear), heat transfer and fluid problems, as well as acoustic and electromagnetic
problems. Most of these tutorials have been created using ANSYS 7.0, therefore, make note of
small changes in the menu structure if you are using an older or newer version.
This web site (http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/) has been organized into the following
six sections.

ANSYS Utilities
An introduction to using ANSYS. This includes a quick explanation of the stages of analysis, how
to start ANSYS, the use of the windows in ANSYS, convergence testing, saving/restoring jobs, and
working with Pro/E.

Command Line Files
Example problems solved using command line coding only, in addition to several files to help you
to generate your own command line files.

Basic Tutorials
Detailed tutorials outlining basic structural analysis using ANSYS. It is recommended that you
complete these tutorials in order as each tutorial builds upon skills taught in previous examples.

Intermediate Tutorials
Complex skills such as dynamic analysis and nonlinearities are explored in this section. It is
recommended that you have completed the Basic Tutorials prior to attempting these tutorials.

Advanced Tutorials
Advanced skills such as substructuring and optimization are explored in this section. It is
recommended that you have completed the Basic Tutorials prior to attempting these tutorials.

Postprocessing Tutorials
Postprocessing tools available in ANSYS such as X-sectional views of the geometry are shown in
this section. It is recommended that you have completed the Basic Tutorials prior to attempting
these tutorials.

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Introduction .....................................................................................................................................................9 
Starting up ANSYS .........................................................................................................................................9 
ANSYS 7.0 Environment...............................................................................................................................11 
ANSYS Interface Graphical Interface vs. Command File Coding..................................................................12 
FEM Convergence Testing ...........................................................................................................................13 
ANSYS: Saving and Restoring Jobs .............................................................................................................15 
ANSYS Files .................................................................................................................................................15 
Introduction ...................................................................................................................................................15 
What to save? ...............................................................................................................................................16 
Printing and Plotting ANSYS Results to a File ..............................................................................................16 
Printing Text Results to a File .......................................................................................................................16 
Plotting of Figures .........................................................................................................................................16 
Finite Element Method using Pro/ENGINEER and ANSYS ..........................................................................19 
Step 1. Make the part....................................................................................................................................19 
Step 2. Create the FEM model .....................................................................................................................20 
Step 3. Define the analysis ...........................................................................................................................22 
Step 5. Creating the Output file .....................................................................................................................24 
Step 6. Importing into ANSYS .......................................................................................................................24 
Step 7. Running the ANSYS solver...............................................................................................................25 
Step 8. Viewing the results ...........................................................................................................................25 
Command Line Files .....................................................................................................................................26 
Generating the Command File ......................................................................................................................26 
Running the Command File ..........................................................................................................................27 
ANSYS Command Groupings .......................................................................................................................28 
ANSYS Command File Programming Features ............................................................................................31 
Two Dimensional Truss ................................................................................................................................33 
Introduction ...................................................................................................................................................33 
Problem Description......................................................................................................................................33 
Preprocessing: Defining the Problem ......................................................................................................33 
Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving ..............................................................................................41 
Postprocessing: Viewing the Results.......................................................................................................44 
Command File Mode of Solution
..............................................................................................51 
ANSYS Command Listing .......................................................................................................................51 
Quitting ANSYS .......................................................................................................................................53 
Space Frame Example ......................................................................................................................................54 
Introduction ...................................................................................................................................................54 
Problem Description......................................................................................................................................54 
Verification ....................................................................................................................................................54 
Bicycle Example ...........................................................................................................................................68 
Preprocessing: Defining the Problem............................................................................................................68 
Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving ..............................................................................................73 
Postprocessing: Viewing the Results ............................................................................................................75 
Command File Mode of Solution
..............................................................................................79 
3D Space Frame Example ............................................................................................................................79 
ANSYS Command Listing .............................................................................................................................80 
Quitting ANSYS .......................................................................................................................................82 

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Plane Stress Bracket .........................................................................................................................................83 
Introduction ...................................................................................................................................................83 
Verification Example ................................................................................................................................83 
Command File Mode of Solution
..............................................................................................96 
Verification Example ................................................................................................................................96 
ANSYS Command Listing .............................................................................................................................96 
Bracket Example .....................................................................................................................................97 
Preprocessing: Defining the Problem ......................................................................................................98 
Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving ......................................................................................102 
Post-Processing: Viewing the Results ...................................................................................................104 
Command File Mode of Solution
..................................................................................................106 
Introduction .................................................................................................................................................106 
ANSYS Command Listing ...........................................................................................................................107 
Quitting ANSYS ..........................................................................................................................................109 
Solid Model Creation .......................................................................................................................................110 
Introduction .................................................................................................................................................110 
Problem Description A ................................................................................................................................110 
Geometry Generation .................................................................................................................................111 
Command File Mode of Solution
..................................................................................................120 
Introduction .................................................................................................................................................120 
ANSYS Command Listing ...........................................................................................................................121 
Problem Description B ................................................................................................................................122 
Geometry Generation .................................................................................................................................123 
Quitting ANSYS ..........................................................................................................................................131 
Intermediate Tutorials .................................................................................................................................132 
Effect of Self Weight on a Cantilever Beam ....................................................................................................133 
Introduction .................................................................................................................................................133 
Preprocessing: Defining the Problem..........................................................................................................133 
Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving ............................................................................................135 
Postprocessing: Viewing the Results ..........................................................................................................136 
Command File Mode of Solution
..................................................................................................137 
Introduction .................................................................................................................................................137 
ANSYS Command Listing ...........................................................................................................................138 
Application of Distributed Loads ......................................................................................................................139 
Introduction .................................................................................................................................................139 
Preprocessing: Defining the Problem..........................................................................................................139 
Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving ............................................................................................141 
Postprocessing: Viewing the Results ..........................................................................................................143 
Command File Mode of Solution
..................................................................................................144 
Introduction .................................................................................................................................................145 
ANSYS Command Listing ...........................................................................................................................145 
NonLinear Analysis of a Cantilever Beam .......................................................................................................147 
Introduction .................................................................................................................................................147 
Preprocessing: Defining the Problem..........................................................................................................147 
Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving .......................................................................................................149 
General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results ............................................................................................152 
Command File Mode of Solution

..................................................................................................153 

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Introduction............................................................................................................................................153 
ANSYS Command Listing ...........................................................................................................................154 
Buckling ..........................................................................................................................................................155 
Introduction .................................................................................................................................................155 
Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis .....................................................................................................................156 
Non-Linear Buckling Analysis .....................................................................................................................161 
Command File Mode of Solution
..................................................................................................169 
Introduction .................................................................................................................................................170 
ANSYS Command Listing ...........................................................................................................................170 
NonLinear Materials ........................................................................................................................................173 
Introduction .................................................................................................................................................173 
Preprocessing: Defining the Problem..........................................................................................................173 
Command File Mode of Solution
..................................................................................................181 
Introduction............................................................................................................................................182 
ANSYS Command Listing ...........................................................................................................................182 
Modal Analysis of a Cantilever Beam ..............................................................................................................184 
Introduction .................................................................................................................................................184 
Preprocessing: Defining the Problem..........................................................................................................184 
Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving .......................................................................................................184 
Postprocessing: Viewing the Results ..........................................................................................................186 
Using the Reduced Method for Modal Analysis ..........................................................................................190 
Command File Mode of Solution
..................................................................................................192 
Introduction .................................................................................................................................................192 
ANSYS Command Listing ...........................................................................................................................192 
Harmonic Analysis of a Cantilever Beam ........................................................................................................194 
Introduction .................................................................................................................................................194 
Preprocessing: Defining the Problem..........................................................................................................195 
Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving .......................................................................................................195 
Postprocessing: Viewing the Results ..........................................................................................................198 
Command File Mode of Solution
..................................................................................................202 
Introduction .................................................................................................................................................203 
ANSYS Command Listing ...........................................................................................................................204 
Transient Analysis of a Cantilever Beam.........................................................................................................205 
Introduction .................................................................................................................................................205 
Preprocessing: Defining the Problem..........................................................................................................207 
Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving .......................................................................................................207 
Postprocessing: Viewing the Results ..........................................................................................................211 
Command File Mode of Solution
..................................................................................................216 
Introduction .................................................................................................................................................217 
ANSYS Command Listing ...........................................................................................................................219 
Modelling Using Axisymmetry .........................................................................................................................221 
Introduction .................................................................................................................................................221 
Preprocessing: Defining the Problem..........................................................................................................221 
Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving ............................................................................................224 
Postprocessing: Viewing the Results ..........................................................................................................226 
Command File Mode of Solution
..................................................................................................228 
Introduction .................................................................................................................................................228 

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ANSYS Command Listing ...........................................................................................................................229 
Advanced Tutorials .....................................................................................................................................230 
Application of Joints and Springs in ANSYS ...................................................................................................231 
Introduction .................................................................................................................................................231 
Preprocessing: Defining the Problem..........................................................................................................231 
Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving ............................................................................................237 
Postprocessing: Viewing the Results ..........................................................................................................238 
Command File Mode of Solution
..................................................................................................240 
Introduction .................................................................................................................................................241 
ANSYS Command Listing ...........................................................................................................................241 
Design Optimization ........................................................................................................................................244 
Introduction .................................................................................................................................................244 
Preprocessing: Defining the Problem ....................................................................................................244 
Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving ............................................................................................247 
Postprocessing: Viewing the Results ..........................................................................................................248 
Command File Mode of Solution
..................................................................................................257 
Introduction .................................................................................................................................................257 
ANSYS Command Listing ...........................................................................................................................258 
Substructuring .................................................................................................................................................260 
Introduction .................................................................................................................................................260 
Expansion Pass: Creating the Super-element ............................................................................................261 
Use Pass: Using the Super-element ...........................................................................................................264 
Expansion Pass: Expanding the Results within the Super-element ............................................................270 
Command File Mode of Solution
..................................................................................................272 
Introduction .................................................................................................................................................273 
ANSYS Command Listing ...........................................................................................................................274 
Using P-Elements ...........................................................................................................................................276 
Introduction .................................................................................................................................................276 
Preprocessing: Defining the Problem..........................................................................................................276 
Melting Using Element Death ..........................................................................................................................278 
Introduction .................................................................................................................................................278 
Preprocessing: Defining the Problem..........................................................................................................278 
Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving ............................................................................................280 
Postprocessing: Prepare for Element Death ...............................................................................................284 
Solution Phase: Killing Elements ................................................................................................................285 
Postprocessing: Viewing Results ................................................................................................................286 
Command File Mode of Solution
..................................................................................................288 
Introduction .................................................................................................................................................288 
ANSYS Command Listing ...........................................................................................................................289 
Contact Elements ............................................................................................................................................291 
Introduction .................................................................................................................................................291 
Preprocessing: Defining the Problem..........................................................................................................291 
Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving ............................................................................................299 
Postprocessing: Viewing the Results ..........................................................................................................301 
Command File Mode of Solution
..................................................................................................303 
Introduction .................................................................................................................................................303 
ANSYS Command Listing ...........................................................................................................................303 

............................................................................337  Introduction .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................333  Command File Mode of Solution ....................................................337  ANSYS Command Listing .......339  Graphical Options ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................312  Preprocessing: Defining the Problem................................................................................................................................................7 ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL) ...................................................................................308  ANSYS Command Listing ........................................................................................................................................................................................................319  ANSYS Command Listing .......................................................................................314  Command File Mode of Solution .............................332  Postprocessing: Viewing the Results ........................................................................311  Viewing X-Sectional Results ..............................................................................318  Introduction ...........................................................................................................................................................................................309  Postprocessing Tutorials............................................................................................................................................................................................................................327  ANSYS Command Listing ...................321  Preprocessing: Defining the Problem ................................................330  Introduction .........306  Preprocessing: Use of APDL ......................................................................................................321  Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................324  Command File Mode of Solution ................................................................................330  Preprocessing: Defining the Problem........................................340  ..................................................................319  Advanced X-Sectional Results: Using Paths to Post Process Results ..................................................................................................................................................................306  Introduction .............................................................................................................................................................327  Introduction .....................................................................................................................................................................................308  Introduction .................................................................313  Postprocessing: Viewing the Results .......................337  Introduction ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................330  Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving .......................................................................................312  Introduction .......................................................................................321  Introduction .....................................312  Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving ................................................................................323  Postprocessing: Viewing the Results...............................................................................................................................306  Command File Mode of Solution ................................................................................................328  Data Plotting: Using Tables to Post Process Results ..............................................................................................................................................................

Working with Pro Engineer A description of how to export geometry from Pro/E into ANSYS. Convergence Testing This file can help you to determine how small your meshing elements need to be before you can trust the solution. including a quick explanation of the stages of analysis. Saving/Restoring Jobs Description of how to save your work in ANSYS and how to resume a previously saved job. and using Pro/ENGINEER with ANSYS. ANSYS Files Definitions of the different files created by ANSYS. Printing Results Saving data and figures generated in ANSYS.8 ANSYS Utilities An introduction to using ANSYS. how to start ANSYS. and the use of the windows in ANSYS. ANSYS Environment An introduction to the windows used in ANSYS ANSYS Interface An explanation of the Graphic User Interface (GUI) in comparison to the command file approach. . Introduction to Finite Element Analysis A brief introduction of the 3 stages involved in finite element analysis. Starting up ANSYS How to start ANSYS using windows NT and Unix X-Windows.

Preprocessing: defining the problem. here we specify the loads (point or pressure).e. the major steps in preprocessing are given below: Define keypoints/lines/areas/volumes Define element type and material/geometric properties Mesh lines/areas/volumes as required The amount of detail required will depend on the dimensionality of the analysis (i.9 Introduction ANSYS is a general purpose finite element modeling package for numerically solving a wide variety of mechanical problems. axi-symmetric. be sure that your local drive has space for it. a finite element solution may be broken into the following three stages. 2D. contraints (translational and rotational) and finally solve the resulting set of equations. In general. as well as acoustic and electro-magnetic problems. in this stage one may wish to see: Lists of nodal displacements Element forces and moments Deflection plots Stress contour diagrams Starting up ANSYS Large File Sizes ANSYS can create rather large files when running and saving. heat transfer and fluid problems.7 . Getting the Program Started In the Mec E 3-3 lab. Postprocessing: further processing and viewing of the results. 1D. Solution: assigning loads. there are two ways that you can start up ANSYS: Windows NT application Unix X-Windows application Windows NT Start Up Starting up ANSYS in Windows NT is simple: Start Menu Programs ANSYS 5. This is a general guideline that can be used for setting up any finite element analysis. These problems include: static/dynamic structural analysis (both linear and non-linear). 3D). constraints and solving.

10 Run Interactive Now .

such as file controls. Input Lindow The Input Line shows program prompt messages and allows you to type in commands directly. Note that this is somewhat different from the previous version of ANSYS which made use of 6 different windows. Toolbar . graphic controls and parameters.0 Environment The ANSYS Environment for ANSYS 7.11 ANSYS 7. selections.0 contains 2 windows: the Main Window and an Output Window. Main Window Within the Main Window are 5 divisions: Utility Menu The Utility Menu contains functions that are available throughout the ANSYS session.

More push buttons can be added if desired. but it has the advantage that an entire analysis can be described in a small text file. Main Menu The Main Menu contains the primary ANSYS functions. This method follows the conventions of popular Windows and X-Windows based programs. It is from this menu that the vast majority of modelling commands are issued. while the versions appear different. The first is by means of the graphical user interface or GUI. The second is by means of command files. Graphics Window The Graphic Window is where graphics are shown and graphical picking can be made. the menu structure has not changed. It is usually positioned behind the main window and can de put to the front if necessary. organized by preprocessor. solution. general postprocessor. design optimizer. However. The command file approach has a steeper learning curve for many. . Output Window The Output Window shows text output from the program. It is here where you will graphically view the model in its various stages of construction and the ensuing results from the analysis. This is where you will note the greatest change between previous versions of ANSYS and version 7. such as listing of data etc.0. ANSYS Interface Graphical Interface vs.12 The Toolbar contains push buttons that execute commonly used ANSYS commands. Command File Coding There are two methods to use ANSYS.

General Models In general however.. When point loads are used. In general there are no real firm answers on this. more elements) and then compare the results with the previous test. it is necessary to conduct convergence tests on your finite element model to confirm that a fine enough element discretization has been used. These elements defined by nodes and interpolation functions. Loads and constraints are applied and the solution is then determined. Governing equations are written for each element and these elements are assembled into a global matrix.13 typically in less than 50 lines of commands.e. It will be necessary to conduct convergence tests! By this we mean that you begin with a mesh discretization and then observe and record the solution. For information and details on the full ANSYS command language. it will be necessary to try a finer mesh yet. then the first mesh is probably good enough for that particular geometry. The Consequences Finer meshes come with a cost however: more calculation time and large memory requirements (both disk and RAM)! It is desired to find the minimum number of elements that give you a converged solution. loading and constraints. This approach enables easy model modifications and minimal file space requirements. it is desired to minimize the number of elements. The Problem The question that always arises is: How small do I need to make the elements before I can trust the solution? What to do about it. however. we actually only need to define a single element per line unless we are applying a distributed load on a given frame member. If the results are nearly similar.. but for a larger model. The tutorials in this website are designed to teach both the GUI and the command file approach. and thus calculation time and still obtain the desired accuracy. it will only slow the calculations down. this . specifying more that one element per line will not change the solution. Beam Models For beam models. Now repeat the problem with a finer mesh (i. consult: Help > Table of Contents > Commands Manual. many of you will find the command file simple and more efficient to use once you have invested a small amount of time into learning the code. In a solid mechanics problem. FEM Convergence Testing Introduction A fundamental premise of using the finite element procedure is that the body is sub-divided up into small discrete regions known as finite elements. For simple models it is of no concern. If the results differ by a large amount however.

for example. .14 would be done by creating several models with different mesh sizes and comparing the resulting deflections and stresses. the stresses will converge more slowly than the displacement. so it is not sufficient to examine the displacement convergence. In general.

solution. Your model will be saved in a file called jobname. There are two methods to do this: 1. etc) that you previously saved. you will at least be able to come back to this point... boundary conditions and any solutions. o This will restore as much of your database (geometry. Or. In that way. the name of all the files created will be FILE. If you specified a jobname. To save your model. It is a good idea to save your job at different times throughout the building and analysis of the model to backup your work incase of a system crash or other unforseen problems.out Output of all ANSYS operations (text). start ANSYS and select Utitily Menu -> File -> Resume from. o In the ANSYS Launcher. Very often you will get to a point in the modeling where things have gone well and you like to save it at the point. 2.db Database file (binary).15 ANSYS: Saving and Restoring Jobs Saving Your Job It is good practice to save your model at various points during its creation. ANSYS Files Introduction A large number of files are created when you run ANSYS. frame.db. Recalling or Resuming a Previously Saved Job Frequently you want to start up ANSYS and recall and continue a previous job. loads. If you started ANSYS without specifying a jobname... This file stores the geometry. and select your job from the list that appears. frame.. select Interactive. This is what normally scrolls in the output window during an ANSYS session.err Error file (text). Frame again with various extensions: frame.. and specify the previously defined jobname. frame.dbb Backup of the database file (binary). frame. where jobname is the name that you specified in the Launcher when you first started ANSYS. then the created files will all have the file prefix. select Utility Menu -> File -> Resume Jobname. Using the Launcher. say Frame.db. o Then when you get ANSYS started.* where the * represents various extensions described below. if you make some mistakes later on. Listing of all error and warning messages.db .log . select Utility Menu Bar -> File -> Save As Jobname.

db file. You can pick multiple items.. select: . you need only activate the resume command to proceed from where you last left off (see Saving and Restoring Jobs). Depending on the operations carried out. rename it first so that it does not get over-written or added to. Select 'File'/'Save As. If you plan on using ANSYS command files.16 Logfile or listing of ANSYS commands (text). This file contains a complete listing of the ANSYS commands used to get you model to its current point.. Once the ANSYS has started. Any other solutions can be done in the same way. What to save? When you want to clean up your directory. However. When the list appears on the screen in its own window. other files may have been written. while the second is a scalable vector plot. Plotting of Figures There are two major routes to get hardcopies from ANSYS. Select 'Elem Table Data'. That file may be rerun as is. or move things from the /scratch directory. 2. Preprocessing and Solution data can be listed and saved from the 'List' menu in the 'Utility Menu bar'.0 Quick Image Save When you want to quickly save an image of the entire screen or the current 'Graphics window'. For example select 'Nodal Solution' from the 'List Results' menu. then you only require the . it is often desired to save the results to a file to be later analyzed or included in a report. Listing of all equivalent ANSYS command line commands used during the current session. from another ANSYS run.. to get displacements. Save the resulting list in the same way described above. This file stores the geometry. 3. then you need only store your command file and/or the log file. 1. what files do you need to save?   If you will always be using the GUI. The first is a quick a raster-based screen dump. etc. starting with an existing log file. or edited and rerun as desired (Command File Creation and Execution). Stresses: instead of using 'Plot Results' to plot the stresses. and the jobname has been specified. boundary conditions and any solutions. 1.. and choose what you want to list from the menu. If you plan to use the command mode of operation.' and give a file name to store the results. Printing and Plotting ANSYS Results to a File Printing Text Results to a File ANSYS produces lists and tables of many types of results that are normally displayed on the screen. These files may contain results. etc. choose 'List Results'.

To save some plots to a file. 'Monochrome'. Load your plot file with the following command: file..g. Display wants 'plots.'.pic'. or HPGL for example. they may be saved to printer files of various formats: 1. then n could be any number from 1 to 5.. To do this. Now issue whatever plot commands you want within ANSYS.. to be later printed or included in a document or what have you.frame. 'Landscape' and 'Save to:'. Press 'OK' This raster image file may now be printed on a PostScript printer or included in a document. you will normally want to select 'Graphics window'. enter the following commands in display: .pic' (with a period). If you plotted 5 images to this file in ANSYS.0 Better Quality Plots The second method of saving a plot is much more flexible. Now that the plots have been read in. Then enter the file name of your choice.pic'(with a comma). but rather they will be written to the selected file. you must first 'redirect' the plots to a file by issuing: 'Utility menu bar'/'PlotCtrls'/'Redirect Plots'/'To File. Colour PostScript: To save the images to a colour postscript file. you have a couple of options: 1. Decrease the size of this window.: frame.17     'Utility menu bar'/'PlotCtrls'/'Hard Copy . You can put as many plots as you want into the plot file. Type in a filename (e.pic) in the 'Selection' Window. Display and Conversion The plot file that has been saved is stored in a proprietary file format that must be converted into a more common graphic file format like PostScript. In the window that appears.. 2.pic if your plot file is 'plots. When you are finished plotting what you want to the file. You can display your plots to the graphics window by issuing the command like plot. a large graphics window will appear. redirect plots back to the screen using: 'Utility menu bar'/'PlotCtrls'/'Redirect Plots'/'To Screen'. but takes a lot more work to set up as you'll see. select display from the ANSYS launcher menu (if you started ANSYS that way) 2.'. This is performed by running a separate program called display.. shut down ANSYS or open up a new terminal window and then type display at the Unix prompt. 'Reverse Video'. Note that although the file is 'plots. remembering that the plots will not be displayed to the screen.n where n is plot number.. Either way. because it most likely covers the window in which you will enter the display plotting commands. Redirection Normally all ANSYS plots are directed to the plot window on the screen.

HPGL: The third commonly used printer format is HPGL. 11.18 2.2 /show. the postscript image will appear as blank box. you set the postscript color option to '3'.pscr plot. 7. 8. Printing it out: Now that you've got your color postscript file. which stands for Hewlett Packard Graphics Language. for display will overwrite the files the next time it is run.n Note: when you import a postscript file into a word processor. as above. A way around this is to print them out in a black and white postscript format instead of colour.hpgl' extension. 12.n where n is the plot number.eps' extension to indicate that they are encapsulated postscript images.n Final Steps It is wise to rename these plot files as soon as you leave display. This renaming is done at the Unix commmand line (the 'mv' command). exit display by entering finish . the postscript image will appear as blank box. Each image is plotted to a postscript file such as pscrxx. i. 9. Note: when you import a postscript file into a word processor. You can plot as many images as you want to postscript files in this manner. The printer information is still present. besides the colour specifications don't do any good for the black and white lab printer anyways. you only require the plot. This is a compact vector format that has the advantage that when you import a file of this type into a word processor. 3. but it can only be viewed when it's printed out to a postscript printer. pscr. where xx is a number. For subsequent plots.pscr plot. what are you going to do with it? Take a look here for instructions on colour postscript printing at a couple of sites on campus where you can have your beautiful stress plot plotted to paper. and then issue the other commands as before 6.color.grph. To do this. the HPGL printer files could be given an '. You may want to rename the postscript files with an '.color. The printer information is still present.hpgl plot. but it can only be viewed when it's printed out to a postscript printer. issue the following commands: 10. overheads or even posters! 5. Black & White PostScript: The above mentioned colour postscript files can get very large in size and may not even print out on the postscript printer in the lab because it takes so long to transfer the files to the printer and process them.3 /show. 4. pscr.e. you can actually see the image in the word processor! To use the HPGL format. A list of all available display commands and their options may be obtained by typing: help When complete. starting at 00.n command as the other options have now been set. In a similar way. /show.

Too much small geometry will cause the mesh generator to create a very fine mesh with many elements which will greatly increase your solver time. if the feature is critical to your design. For this model. Also. loads.19 Finite Element Method using Pro/ENGINEER and ANSYS Notes by R.. . by suppressing them in Pro/E. Model units are inches. mesh control. This is a model of a short cantilevered bracket that bolts to the wall via the thick plate on the left end. Toogood The transfer of a model from Pro/ENGINEER to ANSYS will be demonstrated here for a simple solid model. These are fairly easy to figure out once you know the general procedures presented here. the interest is in the stress distribution around the vertical slot. Make the part Use Pro/E to make the part. analysis types will not be covered. the plate and the loading hole are removed. as are the cosmetic features and rounds resulting in the "de-featured" geometry shown below. The model will be constrained on the left face and a uniform load will be applied to the right face. Some cosmetic features are located on the top surface and the two sides. holes. Model idealizations such as shells and beams will not be treated. you will want to leave it. The figure above shows the original model for this demonstration. A load is applied at the hole in the right end. Step 1. chamfers. Of course. So. You must compromise between accuracy and available CPU resources.W. many modeling options for constraints. Things to note are:    be aware of your model units note the orientation of the model (default coordinate system in ANSYS will be the same as in Pro/E) IMPORTANT: remove all unnecessary and/or cosmetic features like rounds. Several edges are rounded. etc.

Defining Constraints For our simple model. surface regions. This is how you will specify the directions of constraints and forces. all we need are constraints. curves.20 Step 2. idealizations). Model is already selected for you which opens the STRC MODEL menu. The MEC STRUCT menu appears on the right. The Current CSYS command lets you create or select an alternate coordinate system for specifying directions of constraints and loads. This is where we specify modeling information. check the box beside FEM Mode and select the command Structure. A new toolbar appears on the right of the screen that contains icons for creating all the common modeling entities (constraints. Select Constraints > New . The Features command allows you to create additional simulation features like datum points. Press Continue In the MECHANICA menu at the right. All these commands are also available using the command windows that will open on the right side of the screen or in dialog windows that will open when appropriate. to define the model we proceed down this menu in a top-down manner. Other coordinate systems (eg cylindrical) can be created as required and used for the same purpose. loads. and so on. We proceed in a top-down manner. Basically. loads. select Applications > Mechanica An information window opens up to remind you about the units you are using. Create the FEM model In the pull-down menu at the top of the Pro/E window. Notice that a small green coordinate system WCS has appeared. Idealizations lets you create special modeling entities like shells and beams. and a specified material.

Select Surface. Fixed. and surfaces). For our model. A FEM model can contain any number of different load sets. In the final computed model. leave all the translation constraints as FIXED. Create a load called "end_load" in the default load set (LoadSet1) . and the principle of superposition used to combine them in numerous ways. and Function of Coordinates). along with some text labels that summarize the constraint settings. Constraints are organized into constraint sets. edges.21 We can specify constraints on four entity types (basically points. For each direction X. and Z. Each individual constraint also has a unique name (default of the first one is Constraint1). rotational constraints are active if specified. Each constraint set has a unique name (default of the first one is ConstraintSet1) and can contain any number of individual constraints of different types. You should now see some orange symbols on the left face of the model. The constraints to be applied are selected using the buttons at the bottom of the window. and select the OK button. only one set can be included. the rotation constraints are irrelevant (since nodes of solid elements do not have this degree of freedom anyway). we can select one of the four buttons (Free. For our solid model. Y. one load set might contain only the internal pressure. A load set can contain any number of individual loads of different types. another might contain the support forces. For beams and shells. These can be solved at the same time. Prescribed. Here you can give a name to the constraint and identify which constraint set it belongs to. but this can contain numerous individual constraints. We are going to fully constrain the left face of the cantilever. Loads are also organized into named load sets. A dialog window opens as shown above. Defining Loads In the STRC MODEL menu select Loads > New > Surface The FORCE/MOMENT window opens as shown above. in the analysis of a pressurized tank on a support system with a number of nozzle connections to other pipes. In general we specify constraints on translation and rotation for any mesh node that will appear on the selected entity. another a temperature load. For example. and more might contain the forces applied at each nozzle location. we now select the surface we want constrained (push the Surface selection button in the window and then click on the desired surface of the model). Since we elected to create a surface constraint.

Leave the defaults for the load distribution. The load should be displayed symbolically as shown in the figure below. Define the analysis Select Analyses > New . Note that constraint and load sets appear in the model tree. Enter the force components at the bottom. our model has the necessary information for solution (constraints. Then select OK. you will see the properties of the chosen material. In an assembly. Step 3. At this point. then select the right face of the model and middle click to return to this dialog. material). If you select the Edit button.22 Click on the Surfaces button. In the STRC MODEL menu. select a material and move it to the right pane using the triple arrow button in the center of the window. select Materials > Whole Part In the library dialog window. Assigning Materials Our last job to define the model is to specify the part material. you could now assign this material to individual parts. loads. You can select and edit these in the usual way using the right mouse button. Note these are relative to the WCS.

evaluated for the model. This indicates some aspects of mesh quality that may be specified and then. Here is an image of the default mesh. Select Close. you may want to go back to specify mesh controls (discussed below). The MEC STRUCT window. like "ansystest". select Mesh > Create > Solid > Start Accept the default for the global minimum. . Select the type (Structural or Modal). The mesh is created and another dialog window opens (Element Quality Checks). Now select the Add buttons beside the Constraints and Loads panes to add ConstraintSet1 and LoadSet1 to the analysis. If the mesh does not pass these quality checks. Now select OK. Enter a short description. Step 4. by selecting the Check button at the bottom. The results are indicated in columns on the right. Creating the mesh We are going to use defaults for all operations here. shown in wire frame.23 Specify a name for the analysis.

This is at the expense of more than double the number of elements. materials. Creating the Output file All necessary aspects of the model are now created (constraints. In the Solver pull-down list at the top. edges. mesh). Notice the better representation of the curved edges than in the previous figure. you can select the Controls option.24 Improving the Mesh In the mesh command. You pick either Linear or Parabolic elements. In the MEC STRUCT menu. setting a maximum mesh size along the curved ends of the slot results in the following mesh. select ANSYS. Step 6. Go to the top pull-down menus and select Applications > Standard Save the model file and leave the program. .ans). loads. maximum mesh size. and material) is listed. The analysis we defined (containing constraints. Note that mesh controls are also added to the model tree.ans file from your Pro/E working directory to the directory you will use for running ANSYS. In the Analysis list. select Run This opens the Run FEM Analysis dialog window shown here. Select the Output to File radio button at the bottom and specify the output file name (default is the analysis name with extension . This will allow you to select points. and surfaces where you want to specify mesh geometry such as hard points. For example. Copy the . Select OK and read the message window. and so on. Importing into ANSYS Launch ANSYS Interactive and select File > Read Input From. Beware that excessively tight mesh controls can result in meshes with many elements. Step 5. mesh. select Structural. loads.. We are now finished with Pro/E..

ans file you created previously. Step 7. Step 8. You can display the model using (in the pull down menus) Plot > Elements. You should now have a color fringe plot of the Von Mises stress displayed on the model. and select Apply.25 Select the . Viewing the results There are myriad possibilities for viewing FEM results. This will read in the entire model. you will be informed that the solution is complete. Running the ANSYS solver In the ANSYS Main Menu on the left. select Solution > Solve > Current LS > OK After a few seconds. A common one is the following: General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu Pick the Von Mises stress values. .

enter the command File -> Save DB Log File. to a text . This will then open up a new window showing the command line equivialent of all commands entered to this point. ANSYS Command File Creation and Execution Generating the Command File There are two choices to generate the command file: 1.26 Command Line Files The following files should help you to generate your own command line files. 2. The following files include some example problems that have been created using command line coding. execute the desired operation from the GUI and then go to File -> List -> Log File. Intermediate Tutorials This set of command line codes are from the Intermediate Tutorial section. Basic Tutorials This set of command line codes are from the Basic Tutorial section. Prompting the user for parameters. see the next item in this list. or if you'd like to save the whole file. performing calculations with paramaters and control structures are illustrated. You may directly cut and paste from here to a text editor. Then before you are finished. PostProc Tutorials This set of command line codes are from the PostProc Tutorial section. This assumes a good knowledge of the ANSYS command language and the associated options. Radiation Analysis A simple radiation heat transfer between concentric cylinders. This saves the equivalent ANSYS commands that you entered in the GUI mode. Creating Command Files Directions on generating and running command files. If you know what some of the commands and are unsure of others. Directly type in the commands into a text file from scratch. Advanced Tutorials This set of command line codes are from the Advanced Tutorial section. Setup and solve the problem as you normally would using the ANSYS graphic user interface (GUI). ANSYS Command File Programming Features This file shows some of the commonly used programming features in the ANSYS command file language known as ADPL (ANSYS Parametric Design Language).

  save the ASCII text commands in a text file. make those changes in a separate window in a text editor. you may need to point it to the proper directory.. If the file was in the directory. Assuming that the analysis worked properly. frame. Command Line File Loading Alternatively. If ANSYS can not find the file in the current directory. you would use the following syntax . type /input.cmd and yes that is a comma (.cmd) is stored and select it.g. etc. you may not have a full view of your structure in the graphic window. delete errors from your GUI use and make changes as desired. You may need to select Plot -> Elements or Plot -> Lines or what have you.cmd start up either the GUI or text mode of ANSYS GUI Command File Loading To run this command file from the GUI... Running the Command File To run the ANSYS command file. Save those changes to disk. Now ANSYS will execute the commands from that file. Let's assume that we don't turn the menu mode on. then from the ANSYS input window. Select File -> Clear & Start New.. but you might not want to turn on the full graphic mode if working on a slow machine or if you are executing the program remotely. e. If you want to fix some errors or make some changes to the command file. you can also read in the command file right from the ANSYS command line.on.27 file.frame. you can now use the post-processor to view element deflections. To rerun the command file... When it is complete. Assuming that you started ANSYS using the commands.) between frame and cmd. /ansys52/bin/ansysu52 and then entered /show. you would do the following:        From the File menu.. you should first of all clear the current model from ANSYS. Then read in the file as before File -> Read Input from... You can now edit this file with a text editor to clean it up. If the command file is in the current directory for ANSYS. X11c. mode). Any errors and warnings will be listed in this window. select Read Input from. The output window shows the progress of this procedure. At this point you could type in /menu.x11c This has now started ANSYS in the text mode and has told it what graphic device to use (in this case an X Windows. /myfiles/ansys/frame for example. stress. Change to the appropriate directory where the file (frame.

28 /input.l2.y1. The following is only a brief summary of some of the more common commands used for structural analysis. .kp1.rad (kp3 defines plane) circle circular line creation (creates keypoints) see online help spline spline line through keypoints spline. . .y2 block block volume creation block...kp1..kp2. it is necessary to clear the current model in memory with the command /clear. setting up different analysis types and post-processing.a1.kp2.x2. a10 vext create volume from area see online help extrusion vdrag create volume by see online help dragging area along path rectng rectangle creation rectng.z2 .y1. kp18 al area definition from lines a../myfiles/ansys/frame If you want to rerun a new or modified file.kp1.kp2. kp6 a area definition from keypoints a...a2..kp1. Category Basic Geometry Solid Modeling (Primitives) Command Description Syntax k keypoint definition k.. kp8 va volume definition from areas va. applying loads and constraints.kp2.x2.kp3. .z1.. ..zcoord l straight line creation l.start This full procedure of loading in command files and clearing jobs and starting over again can be completed as many times as desired.l1.cmd.xcoord.x1.ycoord. ANSYS Command Groupings ANSYS contains hundreds of commands for generating geometry.x1.kp1.kp2 larc circular arc line (from keypoints) larc.frame.y2.kp#. l10 v volume definition from keypoints v.

. ..r2. a9 vadd vlgue vsbv vinv volume boolean operations see online help et defines element type et.line2.all .. current type is set by mat mat sets current material property pointer mat..theta1. current type is set by real real sets current real constant real. a9 asba creat new area by area substraction asba.a1.number.number.theta2 sphere spherical volume creation sphere..29 Boolean Operations Elements & Meshing cylind cylindrical volume creation cylind. .number pointer mp sets material properties for elements mp..line1.c1. .a1. current type is set by type type set current element type pointer type.number esize sets size or number of divisions on lines esize.a2. .theta2 prism cone torus various volume creation commands see online help aadd adds separate areas to create single area aadd.size.rad1.theta1. a9 aglue creates new areas by glueing (properties remain separate) aglue. r6 may define as many as required.z2.a2 aina create new area by area intersection aina..c0.number..inc or lmesh.type may define as many as required.z1.rad1.a2.rad2.ndivs use either size or ndivs eshape controls element shape see online help lmesh mesh line(s) lmesh. .. c4 may define as many as required.r1.a1.a1.number r define real constants for elements r..a2.rad2.label.

reset selection allsel dk dk. ASYM (antisymmetry) fk defines a fk.MY.label.label.30 Sets & Selection Constraints Loads amesh mesh area(s) amesh.node#.all ksel select a subset of keypoints see online help nsel select a subset of nodes see online help lsel select a subjset of lines see online help asel select a subset of areas see online help nsla select nodes within selected area(s) see online help allsel select everything i.label.FZ.MX.MZ .label.ROTX.value labels: FX.e.vol1.ROTX.node#.label labels: SYMM (symmetry).kp#.vol2.area2.MZ f defines a force at a node f.ALL dl defines (anti)symmetry DOF constraints on a line dl.UY.value labels: FX.MX.UZ.inc or amesh.area#.ROTZ.inc or vmesh.value defines a DOF constraint labels: on a node UX.kp#.UZ.FZ.ROTY.MY.FY.FY.line#.ROTZ.value defines a DOF constraint labels: on a keypoint UX.area1.UY.all vmesh mesh volume(s) vmesh.ALL d d.ROTY.

THEN ! if "ndivs" is greater than "1" dx = (x2-x1)/ndivs *DO.1.all. ! /PREP7 ! preprocessor phase ! x1 = 5 ! define some parameters x2 = 10 *ask.1.i.0 *ENDDO *ELSE k.1..then .1 ! do i = 1.GT. if only is entered.0 k.x2. It illustrates:     entering parameters (variables) prompting the user for parameters performing calculations with paramaters. a default of "5" is used ! *IF.2.ndivs.0. note that the syntax and functions are similar to FORTRAN control structures o if .31 ANSYS Command File Programming Features The following ANSYS command listing.x1.i.x.0. shows some of the commonly used programming features in the ANSYS command file language known as ADPL (ANSYS Parametric Design Language). but it does illustrate some of the "programming features" of the ANSYS command language.endif o looping This example file does not do anything really useful in itself besides generate keypoints along a line.1 ! turn keypoint numbering on kplot ! plot keypoints klist.else .Enter number of divisions (default 5).ndivs.coord ! list all keypoints with coordinates .ndivs+1. ndivs + 1 (in steps of one) x = x1 + dx*(i-1) k.0.kp.0 *ENDIF ! /pnum.5 ! ! the above command prompts the user for input to be entered into the ! variable "ndivs"..

extrusion.0 was used to create some of these tutorials while ANSYS 5. . ANSYS 7.1 was used to create others.7. plane stress and uniform pressure loading will be introduced in the creation and analysis of this 2-Dimensional object. Complete these tutorials in order as each tutorial will build on skills taught in the previous example.  Two Dimensional Truss Basic functions will be shown in detail to provide you with a general knowledge of how to use ANSYS.  Solid Modeling This tutorial will introduce techniques such as filleting. if you are using a different version of ANSYS make note of changes in the menu structure. This tutorial should take approximately an hour and a half to complete. This tutorial should take approximately an hour and a half to complete.32 Basic Tutorials The following documents will lead you through several example problems using ANSYS. copying and working plane orienation to create 3-Dimensional objects.  Bicycle Space Frame Intermediate ANSYS functions will be shown in detail to provide you with a more general understanding of how to use ANSYS. therefore.  Plane Stress Bracket Boolean operations.

p.33 Two Dimensional Truss Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. A = 3250mm2). Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering.123) Preprocessing: Defining the Problem Give the Simplified Version a Title (such as 'Bridge Truss Tutorial'). (Modified from Chandrupatla & Belegunda. select Utility Menu > Plot > Replot Enter Keypoints . reaction forces. This is the first of four introductory ANSYS tutorials.0 to solve a simple 2D Truss problem. Note: to get the title to appear immediately. This title will appear in the bottom left corner of the 'Graphics' Window once you begin. and stress for the truss system shown below (E = 200GPa. Problem Description Determine the nodal deflections. In the Utility menu bar select File > Change Title: The following window will appear: Enter the title and click 'OK'.

34 The overall geometry is defined in ANSYS using keypoints which specify various principal coordinates to define the body. For this example. o We are going to define 7 keypoints for the simplified structure as given in the following table keypoint coordinate x y 1 0 0 2 1800 3118 3 3600 0 4 5400 3118 5 7200 0 6 9000 3118 7 10800 0 (these keypoints are depicted by numbers in the above figure) From the 'ANSYS Main Menu' select: Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS The following window will then appear: . these keypoints are the ends of each truss.

Form Lines The keypoints must now be connected We will use the mouse to select the keypoints to form the lines. areas. o o o o o In the main menu select: Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord. . elements. constraints and loads you are bound to make mistakes. you will have defined it twice! If you did press 'Apply' for the final point. Click 'Apply' to accept what you have typed. in mm) were not specified. click on 'OK' to indicate that you are finished entering keypoints. click on it). thus making any conversions where necessary. lines.y coordinates: 0. It will now be marked by a small yellow box. Units (IMPORTANT) Note the units of measure (i.35 To define the first keypoint which has the coordinates x = 0 and y = 0: Enter keypoint number 1 in the appropriate box. and enter the x.e. Your ANSYS Graphics window should look similar to the following figure. A line will now show on the screen joining these two points. simply press 'Cancel' to close this dialog box. If you first press 'Apply' and then 'OK' for the final keypoint. Correcting Mistakes When defining keypoints. volumes. Left click and a permanent line will appear. Now move the mouse toward keypoint #2. The following window will then appear: Use the mouse to pick keypoint #1 (i. Fortunately these are easily corrected so that you don't need to begin from scratch every time an error is made! Every 'Create' menu for generating these various entities also has a corresponding 'Delete' menu for fixing things up. minimize the 'Lines' menu and the 'Create' menu. 0 in their appropriate boxes (as shown above). When you're done. It is the responsibility of the user to ensure that a consistent set of units are used for the problem. o Note: When entering the final data point.e. click on 'OK' in the 'Lines in Active Coord' window. o Enter the remaining keypoints using the same method. Connect the remaining keypoints using the same method.

36 Disappearing Lines Please note that any lines you have created may 'disappear' throughout your analysis. If this occurs at any time from the Utility Menu select: Plot > Lines Define the Type of Element It is now necessary to create elements. select: Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. However. ANSYS first needs to know what kind of elements to use for our problem: From the Preprocessor Menu. The following window will then appear: . they have most likely NOT been deleted. This is called 'meshing'.

The following window will appear: o o For this example. we will use the 2D spar element as selected in the above figure. The following window will appear: . select Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete o Click Add.. Click on 'OK'.. You should see 'Type 1 LINK1' in the 'Element Types' window.37 Click on the 'Add. Select the element shown and click 'OK'..' button.. Click on 'Close' in the 'Element Types' dialog box. and select 'Type 1 LINK1' (actually it is already selected). Define Geometric Properties We now need to specify geometric properties for our elements: In the Preprocessor menu.

38 As shown in the window above. enter the cross-sectional area (3250mm): Click on 'OK'. Element Material Properties You then need to specify material properties: In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Material Props > Material Models Double click on Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic . 'Set 1' now appears in the dialog box. Click on 'Close' in the 'Real Constants' window.

39 We are going to give the properties of Steel. Mesh o In the Preprocessor menu select Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines o In the size 'NDIV' field. Close the "Define Material Model Behavior" by clicking on the 'X' box in the upper right hand corner. Mesh Size The last step before meshing is to tell ANSYS what size the elements should be. enter '1' and then click 'OK'. There are a variety of ways to do this but we will just deal with one method for now. therefore. Note: You may obtain the note 'PRXY will be set to 0. we have simply defined the element sizes.0'. Click 'OK' on the window to continue. This is poisson's ratio and is not required for this element type. Note that we have not yet meshed the geometry. For this example we want only 1 division per line. . Enter the following field: EX 200000 o Set these properties and click on 'OK'. enter the desired number of divisions per line.

..40 Now the frame can be meshed.. o In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Meshing > Mesh > Lines and click 'Pick All' in the 'Mesh Lines' Window Your model should now appear as shown in the following window Plot To show the line numbers. node numbers. Fill in the Window as shown below and click 'OK' Now you can turn numbering on or off at your discretion Numbering .. keypoint numbers. From the Utility Menu (top of screen) select PlotCtrls > Numbering.

i. on the Utility Menu select File > Save as. these constraints will typically be fixed. Open up the 'Solution' menu (from the same 'ANSYS Main Menu'). 2... As shown above. Select the name and location where you want to save your file. Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving You have now defined your model. Click 'OK'. In mechanical structures. Define Analysis Type First you must tell ANSYS how you want it to solve this problem: From the Solution Menu. select Analysis Type > New Analysis.41 Saving Your Work Save the model at this time. for example. o o Ensure that 'Static' is selected. pinned and roller-type connections. It is a good idea to save your job at different times throughout the building and analysis of the model to backup your work in case of a system crash or what have you. you will at least be able to come back to this point. It is now time to apply the load(s) and constraint(s) and solve the the resulting system of equations. Apply Constraints It is necessary to apply constraints to the model otherwise the model is not tied down or grounded and a singular solution will result. To do this.. . you are going to do a static analysis on the truss as opposed to a dynamic analysis.e. the left end of the truss bridge is pinned while the right end has a roller connection. so if you make some mistakes later on.

apply the roller connection to the right end (UY constrained). . o 3. Select Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > on Keypoints. 210kN. o Using the same method. You will see some blue triangles in the graphics window indicating the displacement contraints. Note that more than one DOF constraint can be selected at a time in the "Apply U.42 o In the Solution menu. 3. This location is fixed which means that all translational and rotational degrees of freedom (DOFs) are constrained. you may need to 'deselect' the 'All DOF' option to select just the 'UY' option. there are four downward loads of 280kN. 5. and 360kN at keypoints 1. Apply Loads As shown in the diagram. Select the first Keypoint (left end of the truss) and click 'OK' in the 'Apply F/M on KPs' window. Therefore. select 'All DOF' by clicking on it and enter '0' in the Value field and click 'OK'. Therefore. select Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints o Select the left end of the bridge (Keypoint 1) by clicking on it in the Graphics Window and click on 'OK' in the 'Apply ALL DOF on KPs' window. and 7 respectively. 280kN.ROT on KPs" window.

This indicate that we will be applying the load in the 'y' direction Enter a value of -280000 in the 'Force/moment value' box and click 'OK'. This indicates that we desire the solution under the current Load Step (LS). Apply the remaining loads in the same manner. Note that we are using units of N here.43 Select FY in the 'Direction of force/mom'. . this is consistent with the previous values input. The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below. Solving the System We now tell ANSYS to find the solution: In the 'Solution' menu select Solve > Current LS. The force will appear in the graphics window as a red arrow.

44 The above windows will appear. Ensure that your solution options are the same as shown above and click 'OK'. Results Using ANSYS .. Click 'Close' and close the /STATUS Command Window. Once the solution is done the following window will pop up. Postprocessing: Viewing the Results Hand Calculations We will first calculate the forces and stress in element 1 (as labeled in the problem description).

The following window will appear. . select Plot Results > Deformed Shape.45 Reaction Forces A list of the resulting reaction forces can be obtained for this element o from the Main Menu select General Postproc > List Results > Reaction Solu. Deformation o In the General Postproc menu. Select 'All struc forc F' as shown above and click 'OK' These values agree with the reaction forces claculated by hand above.

o Observe the value of the maximum deflection in the upper left hand corner (DMX=7.46 o Select 'Def + undef edge' and click 'OK' to view both the deformed and the undeformed object. One should also observe that the constrained degrees of freedom appear to have a deflection of 0 (as expected!) Deflection For a more detailed version of the deflection of the beam. From the 'General Postproc' menu select Plot results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution. . The following window will appear.409).

From the Utility Menu select Plot Controls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours. Fill in the following window as shown and click 'OK'. Leave the other selections as the default values.47 o Select 'DOF solution' and 'USUM' as shown in the above window.. you may want to use more useful intervals. Click 'OK'. o Looking at the scale. ..

. This means that we want to see a listing of all degrees of freedom from the solution. General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution select 'DOF Solution' and 'ALL DOFs' from the lists in the 'List Nodal Solution' window and click 'OK'.48 You should obtain the following. o The deflection can also be obtained as a list as shown below.

.'. For this example we should obtain axial stress to compare with the hand calculations. Then enter 1 after LS. using the item 'LS. From Table 1. o Axial Stress For line elements (ie links. enter 'SAXL' in the 'Lab' box.Comp' boxes. select 'File' within the results window (at the upper left-hand corner of this list window) and select 'Save as'. spars. .' o As shown above. This specifies the name of the item you are defining. strains). Next.49 Are these results what you expected? Note that all the degrees of freedom were constrained to zero at node 1. select 'By sequence number' and 'LS. in the 'Item. while UY was constrained to zero at node 7.1' From the General Postprocessor menu select Element Table > Define Table Click on 'Add. The Element Table is different for each element. we can see that SAXL can be obtained through the ETABLE. and pipes) you will often need to use the Element Table to gain access to derived data (ie stresses. we need to look at the help file for LINK1 (Type help link1 into the Input Line). beams..2 in the Help file. in the selection box Click on 'OK' and close the 'Element Table Data' window. o If you wanted to save these results to a file. therefore.

select 'List Elem Table' From the 'List Element Table Data' window which appears ensure 'SAXL' is highlighted Click 'OK' ... Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours . you may wish to select more appropriate intervals for the contour plot List the Stresses From the 'Element Table' menu. Ensure that 'SAXL' is selected and click 'OK' o Because you changed the contour intervals for the Displacement plot to "User Specified" .you need to switch this back to "Auto calculated" to obtain new values for VMIN/VMAX. Again.50 Plot the Stresses by selecting Element Table > Plot Elem Table The following window will appear.

Now go to 'File > Read input from. A . copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.51 Note that the axial stress in Element 1 is 82..9MPa as predicted analytically..PDF version is also available for printing. p. Bridge Truss Tutorial /PREP7 ! preprocessor phase ! ! define parameters (mm) height = 3118 .123) ! /title. Open the . This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.HTML version. Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering. (Modified from Chandrupatla & Belegunda.123) ANSYS Command Listing ! ANSYS command file to perform 2D Truss Tutorial (Chandrupatla p.' and select the file.

1.3 L.6.3 L. spring element ! real constant #1. width. 0 K. 5*width/2.-360e3 ! SOLVE ! solve the resulting system of equations FINISH ! finish solution /POST1 PRRSOL.7 L. 0.3. #.2 PLNSOL.height K.5.3.5 L. width/2.1.200e3 ! element type #1. 2*width.4.7.7.7 ! ! element definition ! ET.all ! mesh all lines ! FINISH ! finish pre-processor ! /SOLU ! enter solution phase ! ! apply some constraints DK. 3*width.2 ! line connecting kpoint 1 and 2 L.6 L.-210e3 FK.1 ! specify divisions on unmeshed lines LMESH. height K. 1 PRETAB.UY.4.5.SAXL.SUM.-280e3 FK.0.5.ALL.0 ! ! apply loads ! FK. Young's modulus: 200 GPa LESIZE.F PLDISP.EX.1.1.2.FY.2.3. x.ALL.2. height K.4 L.6. .3250 MP.LS. y K.LINK1 R.5.0 ! define a DOF constraint at a keypoint DK.1.U.3.4 L.1 ETABLE.-280e3 ! define a force load to a keypoint FK.7.1.4.1. .FY.52 width = 3600 ! ! define keypoints ! K. Xsect area: 3200 mm^2 ! material property #1.1. 0 ! ! define lines ! L.1.FY. 0 K.6 L. 0 ! keypoint.5 L.1.SAXL ! List Reaction Forces ! Plot Deformed shape ! Contour Plot of deflection ! Axial Stress ! List Element Table . 3*width/2.FY.

In the dialog box that appears.SAXL... select 'QUIT' from the ANSYS Toolbar or select Utility Menu/File/Exit.53 PLETAB. click on 'Save Everything' (assuming that you want to) and then click on 'OK'. .NOAV ! Plot Axial Stress Quitting ANSYS To quit ANSYS..

you need something (ie analytical solution or experimental data) to compare the results to.0 to solve a simple 3D space frame problem. scale factors. units. Verification The first step is to simplify the problem. This way you can be sure that you've gotten the correct analysis type.54 Space Frame Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bicycle frame shown in the following figure. Whenever you are trying out a new analysis type. The frame is to be built of hollow aluminum tubing having an outside diameter of 25mm and a wall thickness of 2mm. etc. The simplified version that will be used for this problem is that of a cantilever beam shown in the following figure: . Problem Description The problem to be solved in this example is the analysis of a bicycle frame.

From the Preprocessor Menu.e. When you're done. A permanent line will appear. Now pick keypoint #2. click on 'OK' in the 'Create Straight Line' window. Select: Preprocessor > Modeling> Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line. Utility Menu > File > Change Title Enter Keypoints For this simple example. click on it). Pick keypoint #1 (i. select: Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. It will now be marked by a small yellow box. Define the Type of Element It is now necessary to create elements on this line.55 Preprocessing: Defining the Problem Give the Simplified Version a Title (such as 'Verification Model'). select: . these keypoints are the ends of the beam. We are going to define 2 keypoints for the simplified structure as given in the following table keypoint 1 2 coordinate x y z 0 0 0 500 0 0 From the 'ANSYS Main Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS Menu' Form Lines The two keypoints must now be connected to form a bar using a straight line.

select Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete Click Add..56 Click on the 'Add. and select 'Type 1 PIPE16' (actually it is already selected). The following window will appear: For this example. The following window will appear: Click and hold the K6 button (second from the bottom). we will use the 3D elastic straight pipe element as selected in the above figure.' button. Define Geometric Properties We now need to specify geometric properties for our elements: In the Preprocessor menu.. and select 'Include Output' and click 'OK'. Click on 'OK'.' button in the 'Element Types' dialog box. Select the element shown and click 'OK'. This gives us extra force and moment output. You should see 'Type 1 PIPE16' in the 'Element Types' window.. Enter the following geometric properties: . Click on 'Close' in the 'Element Types' dialog box and close the 'Element Type' menu.... Click on the 'Options.

enter the desired element length.33 Set these properties and click on 'OK'. 'Set 1' now appears in the dialog box. For this example we want an element length of 2cm.. displacement) at intermediate positions on the beam. NOTE It is not necessary to mesh beam elements to obtain the correct solution. Element Material Properties You then need to specify material properties: In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Material Props > Material Models.. enter '20' (i. Mesh Now the frame can be meshed. Note that we have not yet meshed the geometry. we could enter the number of divisions we want in the line. For an element length of 2cm. . We are going to give the properties of Aluminum. However. Mesh Size In the Preprocessor menu select Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines In the size 'SIZE' field.e 20mm) and then click 'OK'. we have simply defined the element sizes.. 2.. Double click Structural > Linear > Elastic and select 'Isotropic' (double click on it) Close the 'Define Material Model Behavior' Window. therefore. Enter the following field: EX 70000 PRXY 0. Click on 'OK'. In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Meshing > Mesh > Lines and click 'Pick All' in the 'Mesh Lines' Window Saving Your Work Utility Menu > File > Save as.. Click on 'Close' in the 'Real Constants' window.57 o o Outside diameter OD: Wall thickness TKWALL: 25 2 This defines an outside pipe diameter of 25mm and a wall thickness of 2mm. Select the name and location where you want to save your file. (Alternatively. meshing is done in this case so that we can obtain results (ie stress. we would enter 25 [ie 25 divisions]).

Solving the System . Enter a value of -100 in the 'Force/moment value' box and click 'OK'. select 'All DOF' by clicking on it and enter '0' in the Value field and click 'OK'. Select the second Keypoint (right end of bar) and click 'OK' in the 'Apply F/M' window. Ensure that 'Static' is selected and click 'OK'. This location is fixed which means that all translational and rotational degrees of freedom (DOFs) are constrained.58 Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving Define Analysis Type From the Solution Menu.ROT on KPs' window. Therefore. The force will appear in the graphics window as a red arrow. select Force/Moment > on Keypoints. there is a vertically downward load of 100N at the end of the bar In the Structural menu. select Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Select the left end of the rod (Keypoint 1) by clicking on it in the Graphics Window and click on 'OK' in the 'Apply U. Apply Constraints In the Solution menu. Apply Loads As shown in the diagram. The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below. select 'Analysis Type > New Analysis'. Click on the 'Direction of force/mom' at the top and select FY.

2mm as shown above.we need to calculate what we should find.59 We now tell ANSYS to find the solution: Solution > Solve > Current LS Postprocessing: Viewing the Results Hand Calculations Now. Results Using ANSYS Deformation from the Main Menu select General Postproc from the 'ANSYS Main Menu'. since the purpose of this exercise was to verify the results . In this menu you will find a variety of options. Stress: The maximum stress occurs at the base of the rod and was found to be 64.9MPa as shown above (pure bending stress). Select 'Def + undef edge' and click 'OK' to view both the deformed and the undeformed object. . Deflection: The maximum deflection occurs at the end of the rod and was found to be 6. the two which we will deal with now are 'Plot Results' and 'List Results' Select Plot Results > Deformed Shape.

Deflection For a more detailed version of the deflection of the beam.60 Observe the value of the maximum deflection in the upper left hand corner (shown here surrounded by a blue border for emphasis). From the 'General Postproc' menu select Plot results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution. This is identical to that obtained via hand calculations. Select 'DOF solution' and 'USUM'. Leave the other selections as the default values. Click 'OK'. .

If we had only wanted to see the displacements for example.. . select 'DOF Solution' and 'ALL DOFs' from the lists in the 'List Nodal Solution' window and click 'OK'. we would have chosen 'ALL Us' instead of 'ALL DOFs'. which can be accomplished by going to the Utility Menu and selecting Plot Controls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours The deflection can also be obtained as a list as shown below.61 You may want to have a more useful scale. General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution .. This means that we want to see a listing of all translational and rotational degrees of freedom from the solution.

Also note that all the rotational and translational degrees of freedom were constrained to zero at node 1. If you wanted to save these results to a file.. use the mouse to go to the 'File' menu (at the upper lefthand corner of this list window) and select 'Save as'. Click on 'Add. and pipes) you will need to use the Element Table to gain access to derived data (ie stresses. strains)... the maximum deflection occurs at node 2. Stresses For line elements (ie beams. From the General Postprocessor menu select Element Table > Define Table..62 Are these results what you expected? Again.' . spars. the right end of the rod.

. in the 'Item.Comp' boxes in the above window. Ensure that 'SEQV' is selected and click 'OK' If you changed the contour intervals for the Displacement plot to "User Specified" you may need to switch this back to "Auto calculated" to obtain new values for VMIN/VMAX.. select 'Stress' and 'von Mises SEQV' Click on 'OK' and close the 'Element Table Data' window. Plot the Stresses by selecting Plot Elem Table in the Element Table Menu The following window will appear. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours .63 As shown above. .

914 MPa occurs at the fixed end of the beam as predicted analytically. I and J. select more appropriate intervals for the contour plot List the Stresses From the 'Element Table' menu. the Element Table must be used. select 'List Elem Table' From the 'List Element Table Data' window which appears ensure 'SEQV' is highlighted Click 'OK' Note that a maximum stress of 64. Bending Moment Diagrams To further verify the simplified model. First. let's look at how ANSYS defines each element. . First.64 Again. we need to obtain obtain the bending moment data. as shown in the following image. Pipe 16 has 2 nodes. a bending moment diagram can be created. The Element Table contains most of the data for the element including the bending moment data for each element at Node I and Node J. To obtain the bending moment for this element.

6 in the second Comp box Click 'OK' This will save all of the bending moment data at the left hand side (I side) of each element.' in the 'Element Table Data' window. In the window. . this will give a name to the data Same as above Same as above For step D.. enter SMISC. Again.12 in the second Comp box Click 'OK' Click 'Close' in the 'Element Table Data' window and close the 'Element Table' Menu.... Select Plot Results > Contour Plot > Line Elem Res.this will give a name to the data Select 'By sequence num' in the Item box Select 'SMISC' in the first Comp box Enter SMISC. Enter IMoment as the 'User label for item' ..'.. .. Enter JMoment as the 'User label for item' .65 General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table.again. click 'Add. Now we need to find the bending moment data at the right hand side (J side) of each element. Click 'Add..

Click 'OK'. Before the explanation of the above steps. Note again that you can modify the intervals for the contour plot. Now. Note that the line between the I and J point is a linear interpolation. enter help pipe16 in the command line as shown below and then hit enter. you can double check these solutions analytically.66 From the 'Plot Line-Element Results' window. select 'IMOMENT' from the pull down menu for LabI. . and 'JMOMENT' from the pull down menu for LabJ.

Material 1. therefore you must check the ANSYS Documentation files for each element to determine the appropriate SMISC corresponding to the plot you wish to generate.1.6.1.1 moment output !* R. Sequence Numbers. y. x. z Line from keypoint 1 to 2 ! Element Type = pipe 16 ! This is the changed option to give the extra force and ! Real Constant. Note that the text following the "!" are comments.the Member moment for node I.PIPE16 KEYOPT.EX.2. x. Material 1. then hit enter. Table 1. L.1. Young's Modulus.0. 1.0.1. PIPE16 Item. and Definitions for the ETABLE Commands node I name item e Definition MFORX SMISC 1 MFORY SMISC 2 MFORZ SMISC 3 Member forces at the node MMOMX SMISC 4 MMOMY SMISC 5 MMOMZ SMISC 6 Member moments at the node Note that SMISC 6 (which we used to obtain the values at node I) correspond to MMOMZ .500.70000 MPa ! ! ! ! Preprocessor Keypoint. This problem can also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface. 70000 . /PREP7 K. Outside Diameter. z Keypoint.0. K.25.0. 2. Wall ! Material Properties. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) of ANSYS. Copy the following code into the command line.2 !* ET.2.67 Briefly read the ANSYS documentation which appears. y.1. The value of 'e' varies with different Element Types. thickness !* MP. pay particular attention to the Tables near the end of the document (shown below). To see the benefits of the command line clear your current file: From the Utility menu select: File > Clear and Start New Ensure that 'Read File' is selected then click 'OK' select 'yes' in the following window.0.1.

! Element sizes. Bicycle Example Now we will return to the analysis of the bike frame.68 MP.0. 20 mm ! Mesh the lines ! Exit preprocessor ! Solution ! The type of analysis (static) ! Apply a Displacement to Keypoint 1 to all DOF ! Apply a Force to Keypoint 2 of -100 N in the y ! Solve the problem Note that you have now finished Postprocessing and the Solution Phase with just these few lines of code.1.33 !* LESIZE.33 0.0 !* DK.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE. Major Poisson's Ratio.0.-100 direction /STATUS.FY.0. therefore use the verification example as a reference as required.SOLU SOLVE FINISH ! Material Properties.PRXY. Recall the geometry and dimensions of the bicycle frame: Preprocessing: Defining the Problem .20 LMESH. all of the lines. .ALL. Material 1. The steps which you completed in the verification example will not be explained in great detail. There are codes to complete the Postprocessing but we will review these later.ALL FK.2.1. We will be combining the use of the Graphic User Interface (GUI) with the use of command lines. .

Z where. First. these keypoints are the frame vertices. Notice that by using variables like this. open the 'Preprocessor Menu' from the 'ANSYS Main Menu'. you can type /PREP7 into the command line. x1 x2 y1 y2 z1 = = = = = 500 825 325 400 50 Enter Keypoints For this space frame example. Alternatively. These variables represent the various lengths of the bicycle members.69 Clear any old ANSYS files and start a new file Utility Menu > File > Clear and Start New Give the Example a Title Utility menu > File > Change Title Defining Some Variables We are going to define the vertices of the frame using variables. The command line format required to enter a keypoint is as follows: o K. We are going to define 6 keypoints for this structure as given in the following table (these keypoints are depicted by the circled numbers in the above figure): coordinate keypoint x y z 1 0 y1 0 2 0 y2 0 3 x1 y2 0 4 x1 0 0 5 x2 0 z1 6 x2 0 -z1 Now instead of using the GUI window we are going to enter code into the 'command line'. This will enable us to quickly redefine the frame should changes be necessary. Type in each of the following lines followed by Enter. X. The quickest way to enter these variables is via the 'ANSYS Input' window which was used above to input the command line codes for the verification model. each Abbreviation is representative of the following: . it is very easy to set up a parametric description of your model. The preprocessor menu has to be open in order for the preprocessor commands to be recognized. Y. NPT.

for the second keypoint you might type: K. x=0. z=0 Enter the 4 remaining keypoints (listed in the table above) using the command line Now you may want to check to ensure that you entered all of the keypoints correctly: Utility Menu > List > Keypoints > Coordinates only (Alternatively. y=y2. A previously defined keypoint of the same number will be redefined.y2. #.2.. In this example.0. to enter the first keypoint type: K.70 Keypoint.0. As with any programming language. we'll view it in an isometric view: Select Utility menu bar > PlotCtrls > Pan. type 'KLIST' into the command line) If there are any keypoints which need to be re-entered.# where # corresponds to the number of the keypoint.0 into the command line followed by Enter. Reference number for the keypoint. To define keypoint #1.y1. we defined the keypoints by making use of previously defined variables like y1 = 325. Zoom.1..0 ! keypoint. The exclamation mark indicates that anything following it is commented out. ie . we could have alternatively used the coordinates x = 0. simply re-enter the code. you may need to add comments. coords x/y/z For a more detailed explanation. This was simply used for convenience. type help k into the command line For example. Changing Orientation of the Plot To get a better view of our view of our model. if there is one that needs to be deleted simply enter the following code: o KDELE. y = 325. for example. Rotate. However.' . z = 0.

By turning on the dynamic mode (click on the checkbox beside 'Dynamic Mode') you can use the mouse to drag the image. Create Lines We will be joining the following keypoints together: keypoint line 1st 2nd 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 1 4 5 3 5 6 4 5 7 3 6 8 4 6 Again. P2 Line. we will use the command line to create the lines. to obtain the first line.1. Zoom. or close it if your screen is already cluttered. you have many controls. P1. The command format to create a straight line looks like: L. 'Lines' will automatically assign themselves the . Keypoint at the beginning of the line.2 ' Note: unlike 'Keypoints'. I would write: ' L. translating and rotating it on all three axes. Try experimenting with them. click on 'Iso' (at the top right). You can either leave the 'Pan.71  In the window that appears (shown left). Rotate' window open and move it to an empty area on the screen. Keypoint at the end of line For example.  To get an isometric view.

And then re-enter the line (note: a new reference number will be assigned) You should obtain the following: Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete > Add As in the verification model.# ' where # corresponds to the reference number of the line. Enter the remaining lines until you get a picture like that shown below. (This can be obtained from the list of lines). don't forget to change Option K6 'Include Output' to obtain extra force and moment output.72 next available reference number. As in the verification model. Again. define the type of element (pipe16). check to ensure that you entered all of the lines correctly: type ' LLIST ' into the command line If there are any lines which need to be changed. delete the line by typing the following code: ' LDELE. Define Geometric Properties Preprocessor > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete Now specify geometric properties for the elements Outside diameter OD: Wall thickness TKWALL: Element Material Properties 25 2 .

1. C0 Material Property. DOF label.PRXY. type ' MP. DK. to pin the first keypoint enter: DK.UX. In the 'Preprocessor' menu select 'Mesh' > 'Lines' and click 'Pick All' in the 'Mesh Lines' Window Saving Utility Menu > File > Save as.if not open it by clicking Preprocessor in the Main Menu) MP. Lab. K #.70000 ' To set Poisson's ratio (PRXY).0.. value To enter the Elastic Modulus (LAB = EX) of 70000 MPa.. Material Reference Number. VALUE2.UY. we will again use the command line. MAT. we will use the command line. KEXPND. Lab2. other DOF labels Not all of the fields are required for this example.. LAB. Lab5. We are going to pin (translational DOFs will be fixed) the first keypoint and constrain the keypoints corresponding to the rear wheel attachment locations in both the y and z directions. value2. Lab3. VALUE. Lab6 Displacement on K.. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis. value..33 ' Mesh Size As in the verification model. Your Job Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving Close the 'Preprocessor' menu and open up the 'Solution' menu (from the same 'ANSYS Main Menu'). Expansion key.Valid material property label. > Static Apply Constraints Once again. therefore when entering the code certain fields will be empty. (ensure that the preprocessor menu is still open ..0.73 To set Young's Modulus and Poisson's ratio. type: ' MP.UZ . KPOI.EX. The following is the command line format to apply constraints at keypoints. For example. Lab4. set the element length to Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines 20 mm Mesh Now the frame can be meshed.1.1.

the command line code is: DK. KPOI.UY and UZ). We will use the command line to define these loading conditions. value. Lab' (ie 'FKDELE.UZ Note that only UY and UZ are contrained to 0. . Note that the 5th and 6th fields are empty.74 The DOF labels for translation motion are: UX.5.FY' would delete the force in the 'y' direction for Keypoint 3) The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below. Now list the constraints ('DKLIST') and verify them against the following: If you need to delete any of the constraints use the following command: 'DKDELE. If you need to delete one of the forces.0. Also note that all three of the translational DOFs were constrained to 0. the code should look like this: ' FK. These correspond to 'value2' and 'the Expansion key' which are not required for this constraint. UX is not constrained. To apply the contraints to Keypoint 5.. K. FK. FZ). value2 Force loads at keypoints. The DOFs can only be contrained in 1 command line if the value is the same. Lab' (ie 'DKDELE.UZ' would delete the constraint in the 'z' direction for Keypoint 1) Apply Loads We will apply vertical downward loads of 600N at the seat post location (keypoint 3) and 200N at the pedal crank location (keypoint 4). FY.3..FY. Lab. K #.UY. UZ. Apply the constraints to the other rear wheel location (Keypoint 6 .-600 ' Apply both the forces and list the forces to ensure they were inputted correctly (FKLIST). Force Label directions (FX. Again. note that the 5th and 6th fields are empty because they are not required. UY. value1. K.1. value2 (if req'd) To apply a force of 600N downward at keypoint 3. the code looks like this: 'FKDELE.3.

.. open the 'General Postproc' Menu Deformation Plot Results > Deformed Shape. 'Def + undef edge' .75 Solving the System Solution > Solve > Current LS Postprocessing: Viewing the Results To begin Postprocessing.

etc depend on how the object was first defined). Try the 'Front' view button (Note that the views of 'Front'. 'Back'. 'Left'.76 You may want to try plotting this from different angles to get a better idea what's going on by using the 'Pan-Zoom-Rotate' menu that was earlier outlined. Your screen should look like the plot below: .

' from the 'List Results' menu. so we know what node(s) we're after. so the first thing we'll do is plot out the nodes and node numbers. Element Forces We could also take a look at the forces in the elements in much the same way: Select 'Element Solution. Turn everything else off. Are the displacements and rotations as you expected? Plot the deflection as well.. Of particular interest are those nodes where the constraints were applied to see if their displacements/rotations were indeed fixed to zero. Also note the node numbers of the seat and crank locations. Click on 'OK'. The deflections have been calculated at the nodes of the model.. and turn on 'Node numbers'.'). Note the node numbers of interest. List the Nodal Deflections (Main Menu > General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution.77 Deflections Now let's take a look at some actual deflections in the frame.. Select 'Nodal force data' and 'All forces' from the lists displayed. .. Go to Utility menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering. General Postproc > Plot Results > (-Contour Plot-) Nodal Solution select 'DOF solution' and 'USUM' in the window Don't forget to use more useful intervals...

. Select 'Add' Select 'Stress' and 'von Mises' Element Table > Plot Elem Table Again.. Close this list window when you are finished browsing. Then close the 'List Results' menu.. Select Element Table > Define Table. General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table ... use the Element Table to gain access to derived stresses.78 For each element in the model. the force/moment values at each of the two nodes per element will be displayed.6 and SMISC. Stresses As shown in the cantilever beam example.12) And. Plot Results > Line Elem Res. to define the table (remember SMISC. select appropriate intervals for the contour plot Bending Moment Diagrams As shown previously.. to plot the data from the Element Table . the bending moment diagram can be produced.

Open the . ..HTML version. 3D Space Frame Example Problem Description The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bicycle frame shown in the following figure.PDF version is also available for printing. For the rear forks. The frame is to be built of hollow aluminum tubing having an outside diameter of 25mm and a wall thickness of 2mm for the main part of the frame. A . Now go to 'File > Read input from.79 Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. the tubing will be 12mm outside diameter and 1mm wall thickness.. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.' and select the file.

3.y2.5.6 ! l.1.5 L.2. one could directly enter in the coordinates into the keypoint definition below.e.y1. 0 K. 0. 0.4.80 ANSYS Command Listing ! Command File mode of 3D Bicycle Space Frame /title.x1. However.4 L.z-coord ! Define Lines Linking Keypoints L.1.4.3. z1 K.x1.3 L.6.2 L.x-coord. 0.6.pipe16 KEYOPT. 0.4. 0 K.y-coord.key-point number.keypoint1.5 L.x2.3D Bicycle Space Frame /prep7 ! Enter the pre-processor ! Define Some Parameters x1 x2 y1 y2 z1 = = = = = 500 825 325 400 50 ! ! ! ! ! These parameters are not required. i. 0 K.1 .2.keypoint2 ! these last two line are for the rear forks ! Define Element Type ET. using parameters makes it very easy to quickly make changes to your model! ! Define Keypoints K.1.1. 0 K.-z1 ! k.3.1 L.3.6 L.y2.4.x2. 0.

2.3.ALL.UY.outside diameter..FY.SUM.6.1.1..6.2.static ! Define Displacement Constraints on Keypoints DK.wall thickness R. PLDISP.direction ! Define Forces on Keypoints FK.LBOT /WIND.4.value ! mp.2 ! r.2 !Plot the deformed and undeformed edge /GCMD. PLNSOL.12.0.UX.1.real set number.PRXY.ALL.keypoint.RBOT GPLOT /GCMD.U.-200 (dk command) (fk command) !fk.Young's modulus.7.UZ ! dk.FY.keypoint.material number..UY.-600 FK.direction.20 ! lesize.8 ! ! ! ! ! turn on real property set #1 mesh those lines which have that property set mesh lines 1 through 6 in steps of 1 activate real property set #2 mesh the rear forks FINISH ! Finish pre-processing /SOLU ! Enter the solution processor ANTYPE.4.5.0.0 ! Analysis type.1.1.for rear forks ! Define Material Properties MP..Poisson's ratio.1 REAL.direction.25.1 ! Set up Element Table information ! Element tables are tables of information regarding the solution data .0.1.0.1.70000 MP.1 ! second set of real constants .81 ! Define Real Constants ! (Note: the inside diameter must be positive) R.3..EX.RTOP /WIND.UZ DK.2 LMESH.33 ! mp..OFF /WIND.direction.size of element ! Line Meshing REAL.UY.2.LTOP /WIND.material number.1 LMESH.0..line number(all lines).UZ DK.displacement.value ! Define the number of elements each line is to be divided into LESIZE.force SOLVE ! Solve the problem FINISH ! Finish the solution processor SAVE ! Save your work to the database /post1 ! Enter the general post processor /WIND..

/GCMD.smisc.data code number ! The arbitrary name is a name that you give the data in the table ! It serves as a reference name to retrieve the data later ! Use a name that describes the data and is easily remembered.2..-18.vonmi0.vonmi0. ! To plot the data. ! The item name and data code number come off of the tables provided.axij0 /CONT...axii0.item name..9.diri.5 etable.ls.smisc.3.arbitrary name.3.15 ! ADD OTHERS THAT YOU NEED IN HERE.18 /FOC. ! Examples: ! For the VonMises (or equivalent) stresses at angle 0 at both ends of the ! element (node i and node j)..18 /CONT.. simply type ! plls.9.. name for node i. Quitting ANSYS To quit ANSYS..ALL.axii0.DOF. select 'QUIT' from the ANSYS Toolbar or select 'Utility Menu'/'File'/'Exit.nmisc. etable. PLLS.. name for node j ! for example.dirj.vonmj0.340000.-0. etable.0.1 /replot PRNSOL.nmisc. In the dialog box that appears.axij0.1 etable.4.9. PLLS.27 /CONT.4.45 ! For the Axial stresses at angle 0 etable.0.13 etable.82 ! You must tell Ansys what pieces of information you want by using the ! etable command: ! etable.0.ls. .33 ! For the Direct axial stress component due to axial load (no bending) ! Note it is independent of angular location.'. click on 'Save Everything' (assuming that you want to) and then click on 'OK'.vonmj0 /GCMD.

The plane stress bracket tutorial builds upon techniques covered in the first tutorial (3D Bicycle Space Frame). units. Verification Example The first step is to simplify the problem. it is therefore essential that you have completed that tutorial prior to beginning this one. The simplified version that will be used for this problem is that of a flat rectangular plate with a hole shown in the following figure: . plane stress. This way you can be sure that you've gotten the correct analysis type. scale factors. This bracket is to be built from a 20 mm thick steel plate. The 2D Plane Stress Bracket will introduce boolean operations. A figure of the plate is shown below.83 Plane Stress Bracket Introduction This tutorial is the second of three basic tutorials created to illustrate common features in ANSYS. Problem Description The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bracket shown in the following figure. and uniform pressure loading. you need something (ie analytical solution or experimental data) to compare the results to. This plate will be fixed at the two small holes on the left and have a load applied to the larger hole on the right. etc. Whenever you are trying out a new analysis type.

we will create an area (using GUI) Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners Fill in the window as shown above.84 Preprocessing: Defining the Problem Give the Simplified Version a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title Form Geometry Boolean operations provide a means to create complicated solid models. the command line code for the above command is BLC4. Create the main rectangular shape Instead of creating the geometry using keypoints. however.100.200. (Alternatively.0 and the top right corner has the coordinates 200.100) Create the circle . many other Boolean operations can be used in ANSYS.0. These procedures make it easy to combine simple geometric entities to create more complex bodies. This will create a rectangle where the bottom left corner has the coordinates 0.0. Subtraction will used to create this model.0.0.

(Alternatively. the command line code for the above command is CYL4.85 Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Circle > Solid Circle Fill in the window as shown above. This will create a circle where the center has the coordinates 100.50.0 (the center of the rectangle) and the radius of the circle is 20 mm.20 ) Subtraction Now we want to subtract the circle from the rectangle.50. your image should resemble the following: To perform the Boolean operation. Prior to this operation.100. from the Preprocessor menu select: .

Note: The selected area will turn pink once it is selected. The following window may appear because there are 2 areas at the location you clicked. the command line code for the above step is ASBA. select the base area (the rectangle) by clicking on it. Ensure that the entire rectangular area is selected (otherwise click 'Next') and then click 'OK'. You should now have the following model: (Alternatively. Click 'OK' on the 'Subtract Areas' window.1. select the circle by clicking on it and then click 'OK'.86 Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Subtract > Areas At this point a 'Subtract Areas' window will pop up and the ANSYS Input window will display the following message: [ASBA] Pick or enter base areas from which to subtract (as shown below) Therefore. Now you will be prompted to select the areas to be subtracted.2) .

.' button.1. PLANE82 is a higher order version of the two-dimensional. as shown in the above figure. This defines a plate thickness of 20mm) .3. and select 'Plane strs w/thk'. as shown below.87 Define the Type of Element It is now necessary to define the type of element to use for our problem: Preprocessor Menu > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete Add the following type of element: Solid (under the Structural heading) and the Quad 82 element.3) Define Geometric Properties As in previous examples Preprocessor menu > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete Enter a thickness of 20 as shown in the figure below. Click and hold the K3 button. therefore Click on the 'Options. we need a plane stress element with thickness.1. the command line code for the above step is ET. PLANE82 is an eight noded quadrilateral element which is better suited to model curved boundaries. For this example.. (Alternatively.PLANE82 followed by KEYOPT. four-node element (PLANE42).

25.1.1.ALL. Enter the following when prompted: EX 200000 PRXY 0.88 (Alternatively.3 (Alternatively. We will return later to determine if this was adequate for the problem. .0.EX.1.3) Mesh Size To tell ANSYS how big the elements should be.PRXY.) Mesh Now the frame can be meshed. the command line code for the above step is MP. the command line code for the above step is R. select Preprocessor > Material Props > Material models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic We are going to give the properties of Steel. the command line code for the above step is AESIZE.20) Element Material Properties As shown in previous examples. (Alternatively.200000 followed by MP. Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas > All Areas Select an element edge length of 25.

0) Apply Constraints As shown previously.ALL) You should now have the following: Saving Utility Menu > File > Save as.. Define Analysis Type Ensure that a Static Analysis will be performed (Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis). . the command line code for the above step is AMESH. Your Job Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving You have now defined your model.89 In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free and select the area when prompted (Alternatively. In the Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Select the left end of the plate and click on 'Apply' in the 'Apply U. the command line code for the above step is ANTYPE.ROT on Lines' window.. the left end of the plate is fixed. Fill in the window as shown below. It is now time to apply the load(s) and constraint(s) and solve the the resulting system of equations. (Alternatively.

90

This location is fixed which means that all DOF's are constrained. Therefore, select 'All DOF' by
clicking on it and enter '0' in the Value field as shown above.
You will see some blue triangles in the graphics window indicating the displacement
contraints.
(Alternatively, the command line code for the above step is DL,4,,ALL,0)
Apply Loads
As shown in the diagram, there is a load of 20N/mm distributed on the right hand side of the plate.
To apply this load:
Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Pressure > On Lines
When the window appears, select the line along the right hand edge of the plate and click 'OK'
Calculate the pressure on the plate end by dividing the distributed load by the thickness of the plate
(1 MPa).
Fill in the "Apply PRES on lines" window as shown below. NOTE:
The pressure is uniform along the surface of the plate, therefore the last field is left blank.
The pressure is acting away from the surface of the plate, and is therefore defined as a negative
pressure.

91

o

The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below.

Solving the System
Solution > Solve > Current LS

Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
Hand Calculations
Now, since the purpose of this exercise was to verify the results - we need to calculate what
we should find.
Deflection: The maximum deflection occurs on the right hand side of the plate and was
calculated to be 0.001 mm - neglecting the effects of the hole in the plate (ie - just a flat
plate). The actual deflection of the plate is therefore expected to be greater but in the same
range of magnitude.
Stress: The maximum stress occurs at the top and bottom of the hole in the plate and was
found to be 3.9 MPa.
Convergence using ANSYS
At this point we need to find whether or not the final result has converged. We will do this
by looking at the deflection and stress at particular nodes while changing the size of the
meshing element.

92

Since we have an analytical solution for the maximum stress point, we will check the
stress at this point. First we need to find the node corresponding to the top of the hole
in the plate. First plot and number the nodes
Utility Menu > Plot > Nodes
Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering...
The plot should look similar to the one shown below. Make a note of the node closest to the top of
the circle (ie. #49)

List the stresses (General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution > Stress, Principals SPRIN)
and check the SEQV (Equivalent Stress / von Mises Stress) for the node in question. (as shown
below in red)

93

The equivalent stress was found to be 2.9141 MPa at this point. We will use smaller
elements to try to get a more accurate solution.
Resize Elements
To change the element size, we need to go back to the Preprocessor Menu
Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas >
All Areas
now decrease the element edge length (ie 20)
Now remesh the model (Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free). Once you have
selected the area and clicked 'OK' the following window will appear:

Click 'OK'. This will remesh the model using the new element edge length.
Solve the system again (note that the constraints need not be reapplied). ( Solution Menu >
Current LS )
Repeat steps 'a' through 'd' until the model has converged. (note - the number of the node at the top
of the hole has most likely changed. It is essential that you plot the nodes again to select the
appropriate node). Plot the stress/deflection at varying mesh sizes as shown below to confirm that
convergence has occured.

94

Note the shapes of both the deflection and stress curves. As the number of elements in the
mesh increases (ie - the element edge length decreases), the values converge towards a final
solution.
The von Mises stress at the top of the hole in the plate was found to be approximatly 3.8
MPa. This is a mere 2.5% difference between the analytical solution and the solution found
using ANSYS.
The approximate maximum displacement was found to be 0.0012 mm, this is 20% greater
than the analytical solution. However, the analytical solution does not account for the large
hole in the center of the plate which was expected to significantly increase the deflection at
the end of the plate.
Therefore, the results using ANSYS were determined to be appropriate for the verification
model.
Deformation
General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape > Def + undeformd to view both the deformed
and the undeformed object.

Observe the locations of deflection.
Deflection
General Postproc > Plot Results > Nodal Solution... Then select DOF solution, USUM in the
window.

95

Alternatively, obtain these results as a list. (General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution...)
Are these results what you expected? Note that all translational degrees of freedom were
constrained to zero at the left end of the plate.
Stresses
General Postproc > Plot Results > Nodal Solution... Then select Stress, von Mises in the window.

. Principals SPRIN Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. you need something (ie analytical solution or experimental data) to compare the results to. Whenever you are trying out a new analysis type. A . This way you can be sure that you've gotten the correct analysis type.HTML version. Select Stress. etc.96 You can list the von Mises stresses to verify the results at certain nodes General Postproc > List Results. units. Open the . scale factors. Plane Stress Bracket Verification Example The first step is to simplify the problem. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Now go to 'File > Read input from. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. The simplified version that will be used for this problem is that of a flat rectangular plate with a hole shown in the following figure: ANSYS Command Listing ! Command File mode of 2D Plane Stress Verification /title.' and select the file..PDF version is also available for printing. 2D Plane Stress Verification .

A combination of GUI and the Command line will be used for this example.3.97 /PREP7 BLC4.2 ! Preprocessor ! rectangle. .ALL.PRXY.50. width. AESIZE. Material ! circle. all of the lines. 200000 MPa MP. A figure of the plate is shown below.200.0 ! The type of analysis (static) DL.20 ASBA.0.100.-1 ! Apply a Displacement to Line 4 to all DOF ! Apply a Distributed load to Line 2 SOLVE FINISH ! Solve the problem /POST1 PLNSOL. 5 mm ! Mesh the lines FINISH /SOLU ! Exit preprocessor ! Solution ANTYPE. Plate Thickness MP.1.100 height CYL4.center coords. Material 1.1. Major Poisson's Ratio.EX. . This bracket is to be built from a 20 mm thick steel plate.1.3 thickness !element Type = plane 42 ! This is the changed option to give the plate a R.ALL ! Element sizes. ET.0.1.S.20 ! Real Constant. radius ! substract area 2 from area 1 ! Material Properties.5 AMESH. bottom left corner coords. 0.3 ! Material Properties.1. Young's Modulus.0.4.PRES.0 SFL. The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bracket shown in the following figure.EQV Bracket Example Now we will return to the analysis of the bracket.200000 1.2.ALL.3 Material 1.PLANE42 KEYOPT.1.

80.0.50) and has a radius of 50 mm The following code is used to create a circular area: CYL4. Create the main rectangular shape The main rectangular shape has a width of 80 mm. (Alternatively type /PREP7 into the command line window) Now instead of using the GUI window we are going to enter code into the 'command line'. X coord for the center. HEIGHT BLC4. Boolean operations will be used to create the basic geometry of the Bracket. Y coord (bottom left). Now I will explain the line required to create a rectangle:   BLC4. a height of 100mm and the bottom left corner is located at coordinates (0. . width.100 Create the circular end on the right hand side The center of the circle is located at (80.80. Y coord for the center.98 This plate will be fixed at the two small holes on the left and have a load applied to the larger hole on the right.0. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem Give the Bracket example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title Form Geometry Again. the command line for this rectangle is BLC4. YCORNER.0) Ensure that the Preprocessor menu is open.50 Now create a second and third circle for the left hand side using the following dimensions: parameter circle 2 circle 3 XCENTER 0 0 YCENTER 20 80 RADIUS 20 20 Create a rectangle on the left hand end to fill the gap between the two small circles.50. the command line for this circle is CYL4. XCORNER. XCENTER. X coord (bottom left). radius Therefore. height Therefore. RAD1 CYL4. WIDTH. YCENTER.

c.99 XCORNER -20 YCORNER 20 WIDTH 20 HEIGHT 60 b..Addition We now want to add these five discrete areas together to form one area. the command line code for the above step is AADD.ALL) You should now have the following model: .. To perform the Boolean operation. Your screen should now look like the following. click on 'Pick All' (Alternatively. Boolean Operations . from the Preprocessor menu select: Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Add > Areas In the 'Add Areas' window.

Create the three circles with the parameters given below: parameter circle 1 circle 2 circle 3 WP X 80 0 0 WP Y 50 20 80 radius 30 10 10 Now select Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Subtract > Areas Select the base areas from which to subract (the large plate that was created) Next select the three circles that we just created. (Alternatively.ALL) Now you should have the following: . the command line code for the above step is ASBA.6.100 Create the Bolt Holes We now want to remove the bolt holes from this plate. Click on the three circles that you just created and click 'OK'.

PLANE82 followed by KEYOPT. the command line code for the above step is ET.3. Enter the following when prompted: EX 200000 PRXY 0.1. Define Geometric Contants Preprocessor > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete Enter a thickness of 20mm. PLANE82 will be used for this example Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete Use the 'Options.101 Define the Type of Element As in the verification model. the command line code for the above step is R.1.1.3 .20) Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Library > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic We are going to give the properties of Steel.' button to get a plane stress element with thickness (Alternatively.. (Alternatively..3) Under the Extra Element Output K5 select nodal stress.

102 (The command line code for the above step is MP. Your Job Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving You have now defined your model. Define Analysis Type 'Solution' > 'New Analysis' and select 'Static'.ALL) 2. Again. the command line code for the above step is AESIZE.200000 followed by MP.1.3) Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas > All Areas Select an element edge length of 5. It is now time to apply the load(s) and constraint(s) and solve the the resulting system of equations.1. the command line code for the above step is AMESH. 3.PRXY. (Alternatively.ALL.5. .) Mesh Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free and select the area when prompted (Alternatively. we will need to make sure the model has converged.0.. Saving Utility Menu > File > Save as..EX.

(You may want to zoom in to select the points Utilty Menu / PlotCtrls / Pan.0) Apply Constraints As illustrated.) Click at the center of the bolt hole and drag the circle out so that it touches all of the nodes on the border of the hole. Apply Loads As shown in the diagram.ROT on Lines' window and constrain all DOF's in the 'Apply U..ROT on Nodes' window. at the bottom of the large bolt hole. Repeat for the second bolt hole. the plate is fixed at both of the smaller holes on the left hand side. Rotate. . or circle of which all the nodes in that area will be selected..103 (Alternatively. there is a single vertical load of 1000N. you have the option of creating a box. Zoom. the command line code for the above step is ANTYPE. select 'circle' as shown in the window below. Click on 'Apply' in the 'Apply U. Apply this force to the respective keypoint ( Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Select a force in the y direction of -1000) The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below. Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Nodes Instead of selecting one node at a time. For this case. polygon.

it is necessary to prove that the solution has converged. Deformation General Postproc > Plot Results > Def + undeformed to view both the deformed and the undeformed object.104 Solving the System Solution > Solve > Current LS Post-Processing: Viewing the Results We are now ready to view the results. Reduce the mesh size until there is no longer a sizeable change in your convergence criteria. Convergence using ANSYS As shown previously. We will take a look at the deflected shape and the stress contours once we determine convergence has occured. The graphic should be similar to the following .

105 Observe the locations of deflection. obtain these results as a list.USUM in the window.) . Deflection To plot the nodal deflections use General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution then select DOF Solution . Alternatively.. (General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution. Ensure that the deflection at the bolt hole is indeed 0..

Principals SPRIN Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. A . Now go to 'File > Read input from.' and select the file. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Stresses General Postproc > Plot Results > Nodal Solution. Then select von Mises Stress in the window. Plane Stress Bracket Introduction . You can list the von Mises stresses to verify the results at certain nodes General Postproc > List Results..PDF version is also available for printing. Select Stress. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse..106 Are these results what you expected? Note that all translational degrees of freedom were constrained to zero at the bolt holes. Open the ...HTML version.

100 CYL4.20.add all of the areas together CYL4.20 BLC4. plane stress.60 AADD. This plate will be fixed at the two small holes on the left and have a load applied to the larger hole on the right.80.50.30 ! Create Bolt Holes . it is therefore essential that you have completed that tutorial prior to beginning this one.0.0.50.80. ANSYS Command Listing ! Command File mode of 2D Plane Stress Bracket /title.20 CYL4. and uniform pressure loading. 2D Plane Stress Bracket /prep7 ! Enter the pre-processor ! Create Geometry BLC4. A figure of the plate is shown below.50 CYL4.80. The 2D Plane Stress Bracket will introduce boolean operations.20.107 This tutorial is the second of three basic tutorials created to illustrate commom features in ANSYS.-20.0. This bracket is to be built from a 20 mm thick steel plate. Problem Description The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bracket shown in the following figure.80.20.ALL ! Boolean Addition .0. The plane stress bracket tutorial builds upon techniques covered in the first tutorial (3D Bicycle Space Frame).

3 ! mp.value ! Define the number of elements each line is to be divided into AESIZE.10.108 CYL4..0 ! There is probably a way to do these all at once.ALL ! amesh.0 .ALL. 9.Poisson's ratio.20.10 ASBA. plate thickness ! Define Material Properties MP.12.0 .1.0 ! Analysis type..PRXY. DL.material number.keypoint.1.1.-1000 (dl command) (fk command) !fk.ALL.0 . DL.13.static ! Define Displacement Constraints on Lines DL.ALL.0 .11.direction.ALL 6) from base area 6 ! Boolean Subtraction .real set number.all areas.Young's modulus.9. DL.ALL.10 CYL4.3.ALL.0. .size of element ! Area Meshing AMESH.1.0 .FY.0 . DL.200000 MP. all areas FINISH ! Finish pre-processing /SOLU ! Enter the solution processor ANTYPE.6.20 ! r.EX.force SOLVE ! Solve the problem FINISH ! Finish the solution processor SAVE ! Save your work to the database /post1 ! Enter the general post processor /WIND.0.80. DL.ALL.ALL.ALL.material number.5 ! lesize. ! Define Forces on Keypoints FK.ALL.0 . 7.subtracts all areas (other than ! Define Element Type ET.PLANE82 KEYOPT. DL.0.OFF . 8.1.value ! mp.14.ALL. DL.3 ! Plane stress element with thickness ! Define Real Constants ! (Note: the inside diameter must be positive) R.

RBOT GPLOT /GCMD. click 'QUIT' on the ANSYS Toolbar or select Utility Menu > File > Exit.2 /GCMD.3.0. PLNSOL.0036 /CONT.-0.DOF.ALL.. PLNSOL..3.0.RTOP /WIND.0.0.1 ! Plot the deformed and undeformed edge ! Plot the deflection USUM /GCMD.8 /CONT.4.LTOP /WIND.10.0.0.1..2.EQV.4.. ! Prints the nodal solutions Quitting ANSYS To quit ANSYS.10.1 /GCMD..109 /WIND.4.LBOT /WIND.U.1 ! Focus point /replot PRNSOL.05e-3 ! Set contour ranges /FOC.0.2.SUM..3.0.10.340000.S. PLDISP. In the window that appears.1 ! Plot the equivalent stress ! Plot the equivalent strain /CONT. PLNSOL.EPTO.2.1. select 'Save Everything' (assuming that you want to) and then click 'OK'.EQV.. .

The Solid Modelling Tutorial will introduce various techniques which can be used in ANSYS to create solid models. Two Solid Models will be created within this tutorial. it is therefore essential that you complete the tutorials in order. copying. Filleting. extrusion/sweeping. . Problem Description A We will be creating a solid model of the pulley shown in the following figure. Each tutorial builds upon techniques covered in previous tutorials.110 Solid Model Creation Introduction This tutorial is the last of three basic tutorials devised to illustrate commom features in ANSYS. and working plane orientation will be covered in detail.

111 Geometry Generation We will create this model by first tracing out the cross section of the pulley and then sweeping this area about the y axis.5 3 2 5 1 8 0 0.5 5 You should obtain the following: Add the Areas Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > (-Boolean-) Add > Areas AADD. Create the rounded edges using circles . YCORNER. ALL ANSYS will label the united area as AREA 4 and the previous three areas will be deleted. WIDTH. XCORNER. HEIGHT The geometry of the rectangles: WP X (XCORNER) WP Y (YCORNER) WIDTH HEIGHT Rectangle 1 Rectangle 2 Rectangle 3 2 0 1 5. Creation of Cross Sectional Area Create 3 Rectangles Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4.

2 WP X (XCENTER) WP Y (YCENTER) RADIUS Subtract the large circle from the base Preprocessor > Operate > Subtract > Areas ASBA.5 0.BASE.y and z offset of the copied area.SUBTRACT Copy the smaller circle for the rounded edges at the top Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Copy > Areas Click on the small circle and then on OK.XCENTER. Copy this new area now with an x offset of -0.5 You should obtain the following .RAD The geometry of the circles: Circle 1 Circle 2 3 5.YCENTER. The following window will appear.5 0.112 Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Areas-) Circle > Solid circles CYL4.2 0.5 8. It asks for the x.6 and then click OK. Enter the y offset as 4.

113 Add the smaller circles to the large area. .ALL Fillet the inside edges of the top half of the area Preprocessor > Create > (-Lines-) Line Fillet Select the two lines shown below and click on OK. Preprocessor > Operate > Add > Areas AADD.

1 Follow the same procedure and create a fillet with the same radius between the following lines Create the fillet areas As shown below. zoom into the fillet radius and plot and number the lines. Enter 0. .114 The following window will appear prompting for the fillet radius.

(K.0.#. Plot Areas .ALL Plot the areas (Utility Menu > Plot .Z) By default the graphics will now show all keypoints.115 Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Areas-) Arbitrary > By Lines Select the lines as shown below Repeat for the other fillet Add all the areas together Preprocessor > Operate > Add > Areas AADD.Y.X.Areas) Sweep the Cross Sectional Area Now we need to sweep the area around a y axis at x=0 and z=0 to create the pulley.0) and (0.0) and number them 1001 and 1002 respectively. Create two keypoints defining the y axis Create keypoints at (0.5.

Then you will be asked to enter or pick two keypoints defining the axis.116 Sweep the area about the y axis Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > Extrude > (-Areas-) About axis You will first be prompted to select the areas to be swept so click on the area. Plot the Keypoints (Utility Menu > Plot > Keypoints. You should now see the following in the graphics screen. Click on OK. . Then select the following two keypoints The following window will appear prompting for sweeping angles.

The following warning will appear when selecting the keypoint at the origin as there are more than one in this location.117 Create Bolt Holes Change the Working Plane By default. for us to define the bolt holes. we need to use a different working plane. There are several ways to define a working plane. . However. one of which is to define it by three keypoints. Align the Working Plane with the Keypoints Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Align WP with > Keypoints + Select Keypoints 2001 then 2002 then 2003 IN THAT ORDER. The first keypoint (2001) defines the origin of the working plane coordinate system. the working plane in ANSYS is located on the global Cartesian X-Y plane. Create the following Keypoints #2001 #2002 #2003 X 0 1 0 Y 3 3 3 Z 0 0 1 Switch the view to top view and plot only keypoints. while the third (2003) defines the orientation of the working plane. the second keypoint (2002) defines the x-axis orientation.

0. Once you have selected the 3 keypoints and clicked 'OK' the WP symbol (green) should appear in the Graphics window.5 y=0 r=0.5 depth=1 You should see the following in the graphics screen . By default those values would be 0.0.118 Just click on 'Next' until the one selected is 2001. Create a Cylinder (solid cylinder) with x=5. Another way to make sure the active WP has moves is: Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Show WP Status note the origin of the working plane.

.119 We will now copy this volume so that we repeat it every 45 degrees. Note that you must copy the cylinder before you use boolean operations to subtract it because you cannot copy an empty space. We need to change active CS to cylindrical Y Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Change Active CS to > Global Cylindrical Y This will allow us to copy radially about the Y axis Create 8 bolt Holes Preprocessor > Copy > Volumes Select the cylinder volume and click on OK. Youi should obtain the following model. fill in the blanks as shown. The following window will appear.

This will result in the following completed structure: Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. A .120 Subtract the cylinders from the pulley hub (Boolean operations) to create the boltholes. extrusion/sweeping. Solid Model Creation Introduction This tutorial is the last of three basic tutorials devised to illustrate commom features in ANSYS.PDF version is also available for printing. Two Solid Models will be created within this tutorial. and working plane orientation will be covered in detail. Now go to 'File > Read input from.HTML version. Each tutorial builds upon techniques covered in previous tutorials.. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.' and select the file.. We will create a solid model of the pulley shown in the following figure. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. copying. The Solid Modelling Tutorial will introduce various techniques which can be used in ANSYS to create solid models. Filleting. it is therefore essential that you complete the tutorials in order. Open the . .

.5 ! Mirrors an area AADD.5 BLC4.0.3.0.2..8.1.4.4.1 BLC4.0.8.2.5 CYL4.ALL ! Add the areas together CYL4.-0.5.6 AGEN.2.2 ! Create circles ASBA.5.ALL ! Adds all areas .5.0.3..5 ! Create rectangles AADD.1 ! Subtract an area AGEN..0.1.2.5.2..121 ANSYS Command Listing Pulley Model /PREP7 BLC4.5.5.0.2.

2003. ..0.0.1 KWPLAN.7.all.0.6 vsbv.5. . . !Create a fillet radius of 0.14 ! Creates fillet area (arbitrary area AADD. lines 30 and 7 LFILLT.1.26. .0 K.5.0. . .3.1001. .13.9 vsbv.2002.4.1.1002.. .22. .5.5 vsbv.8 vsbv.10.45.ALL ! Sweep K.3.12 Problem Description B We will be creating a solid model of the Spindle Base shown in the following figure.11. .2001.5.7.0.5 !Align WorkPlane with keypoints ! Change Active CS to Global Cartesian Y CYL4.360.0 ! Pattern the circle every 45 degrees !Subtract areas vsbv. .2001.2.5.7 vsbv.0 K.0 ! Keypoints VROTAT.6.2.1002.0.2002.all.3.1 ! Create circle VGEN.0.all.0.122 LFILLT.2003 CSYS.all.8.1mm between AL.3.3. .10. .1.11) AL.1001. keypoints 1001 and 1002 ! Sweep area 4 about axis formed by K. .1.0.0 K.9 using lines 9. .11 vsbv.10 vsbv.

123 Geometry Generation We will create this model by creating the base and the back and then the rib. Create the Base Create the base rectangle WP X (XCORNER) 0 WP Y (YCORNER) 0 WIDTH 109 Create the curved edge (using keypoints and lines to create an area) Create the following keypoints Keypoint 5 Keypoint 6 Keypoint 7 Keypoint 8 o You should obtain the following: X Y Z -20 -20 0 0 82 20 82 20 0 0 0 0 HEIGHT 102 .

Enter the radius of the arc (20) in the 'Arc by End KPs & Radius' window Repeat to create an arc from keypoints 1 and 6 (Alternatively.4.5.1.7.5.6.20 followed by LARC.20 into the command line) Create a line from Keypoint 5 to 6 Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Lines-) Lines > Straight Line L. Select Keypoint 7 as the center-of-curvature when prompted. type LARC.124 Create arcs joining the keypoints Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Lines-) Arcs > By End KPs & Rad Select keypoints 4 and 5 (either click on them or type 4.6 Create an Arbitrary area within the bounds of the lines Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Areas-) Arbitrary > By Lines AL.5.6.7 Combine the 2 areas into 1 (to form Area 3) .8.4.5 into the command line) when prompted.

2 2.ALL) You should obtain the following: .3.1.DX.# Copies (include original).DZ) Copy both circles to create the upper circles (DY=62) Subtract the three circles from the main base (ASBA.Area#.DY. Create the 4 holes in the base We will make use of the 'copy' feature in ANSYS to create all 4 holes Create the bottom left circle (XCENTER=0.125 Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > (-Booleans-) Add > Volumes AADD.Area2# (if 2 areas to be copied). RADIUS=10) Copy the area to create the bottom right circle (DX=69) (AGEN. You should obtain the following image: 3. YCENTER=20.

type VOFFST.126 Extrude the base Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > Extrude > (-Areas-) Along Normal The following window will appear once you select the area Fill in the window as shown (length of extrusion = 26mm). Therefore. in order to create the back of the Spindle Base. (Alternatively. Note. You may have observed that geometry can only be created in the X-Y plane. Again.26 into the command line) Create the Back Change the working plane As in the previous example. Create the following keypoints . we need to create a new working plane where the X-Y plane is parallel to the back. we will define the working plane by aligning it to 3 Keypoints. we need to change the working plane. to extrude the area in the negative z direction you would simply enter -26.6.

. the second keypoint defines the x-axis orientation.127 #100 #101 #102 X 109 109 159 Y 102 2 102 Z 0 0 sqrt(3)/0. HEIGHT=180) Create a circle to obtain the curved top (XCENTER=51. the first keypoint defines the origin.27.02 Align the working plane to the 3 keypoints Recall when defining the working plane. YCENTER=180. (Alternatively.26 Add the base and the back together Add the two volumes together Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > (-Booleans-) Add > Volumes VADD.100.1. RADIUS=51) Add the 2 areas together Extrude the area (length of extrusion = 26mm) Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > Extrude > (-Areas-) Along Normal VOFFST. type KWPLAN.102 into the command line) Create the back area Create the base rectangle (XCORNER=0. while the third defines the orientation of the working plane. WIDTH=102. YCORNER=0.2 You should now have the following geometry Note that the planar areas between the two volumes were not added together.101.1.

32. DEPTH=60) Subtract the volumes to obtain a hole You should now have the following geometry: Create the Rib Change the working plane First change the active coordinate system back to the global coordinate system (this will make it easier to align to the new coordinate system) Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Align WP with > Global Cartesian (Alternatively.60 Add the volumes together Create the inner cylinder (XCENTER=51.-1. Area 2. YCENTER=180. .180. . Area 3 Create the Upper Cylinder Create the outer cylinder (XCENTER=51. . DEPTH=60) Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Volumes-) Cylinder > Solid Cylinder CYL4. YCENTER=180. RADIUS=32. Area 1. RADIUS=18.128 Add the planar areas together (don't forget the other side!) Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > (-Booleans-) Add > Areas AADD.5.0 into the command line) Create the following keypoints X Y Z . type WPCSYS.51.

57735*26) 129-(0.1. 203. 204 Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Areas-) Arbitrary > Through KPs A. type KWPLAN.4 Create the area Create the keypoints corresponding to the vertices of the rib #203 #204 X Y Z 129-(0.129 -20 0 -20 #200 #201 #202 61 61 61 26 26 30 Align the working plane to the 3 keypoints Recall when defining the working plane.200.203. while the third defines the orientation of the working plane. (Alternatively.204 Extrude the area (length of extrusion = 20mm) Add the volumes together You should obtain the following: . the second keypoint defines the x-axis orientation.57735*26) + 38 0 sqrt(3)/2*76 0 0 Create the rib area through keypoints 200. the first keypoint defines the origin.202 into the command line) Change active coordinate system We now need to update the coordiante system to follow the working plane changes (ie make the new Work Plane origin the active coordinate) Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Change Active CS to > Working Plane CSYS.200.201.

6 ! Line arcs AL.-20.0.8.20 ! Keypoints LARC.20 LARC.2.4.6.0.1.5.0.5.6.82 K. .7.69 ! Now called area 3 ! Area 1 ! Mirrors area 1 .109.20 L.7 ! Creates area from 4 lines AADD.130 We will also create a solid model of the Spindle Base shown in the following figure.1.5.8.102 ! Create rectangle K.0. .4.-20.0.5.20 K.7.10 AGEN.1.20. Spindle Base Model /PREP7 BLC4.6.82 K.2 CYL4.

20.202 CSYS.204. select 'QUIT' from the ANSYS Toolbar or select 'Utility Menu'/'File'/'Exit.2 ! Add volumes AADD.180.200. .6.1.38 AADD.109.180 CYL4.131 AGEN.102.51.102. click on 'Save Everything' (assuming that you want to) and then click on 'OK'. .26 ! Creates volume from area K.33.51.30 ! Keypoints KWPLAN.2.102. .34.2.0.-1.ALL ! Mirrors again ! Subtracts areas VOFFST.57735*26).202.101.51.51 AADD.2.201.61.26 K. .0.180.100.-20.102.1.0.32.3 CYL4.101.0 ! Keypoints A.129-(0.sqrt(3)/0.7.27.18.1 ! Create cylinder ! Add volumes ! Another cylinder ! Subtract it WPCSYS. .5.109. .32.1.25. .26 ! Volume from area VADD.159.61.57735*26) + 38. ALL ! Volume from area ! Add it together Quitting ANSYS To quit ANSYS.'.-20.. VADD.37 ! Add areas CYL4.-1.62 ASBA.60 VADD.100.-1.60 VSBV.4 ! Shift working plane ! Change active coordinate system K.204 ! Create area from keypoints VOFFST.61.0 K.2. 129-(0. In the dialog box that appears.0 K.26 K. sqrt(3)/2*76.201.200.0 K. .0 coordinate system ! This re-aligns the WP with the global K.36.203. .180..200.203.26 ! Create rectangle ! Create circle ! Add them together VOFFST.0.3.02 ! Keypoints KWPLAN.102 ! Defines working plane BLC4.

and a transient heat conduction analysis. Buckling In this tutorial both the Eigenvalue and Nonlinear methods are used to solve a simple buckling problem. Effect of Self Weight Incorporating the weight of an object into the finite element analysis is shown in this simple cantilever beam example. Modelling Using Axisymmetry Utilizing axisymmetry to model a 3-D structure in 2-D to reduce computational time. make note of small changes in the menu structure. therefore. a mixed convection/conduction/insulated boundary condition example. however. Thermal Examples Analysis of a pure conduction. Distributed Loading The application of distributed loads and the use of element tables to extract data is expalined in this tutorial. Harmonic. NonLinear Materials The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to include material nonlinearities in an ANSYS model. NonLinear Analysis A large moment is applied to the end of a cantilever beam to explore Geometric Nonlinear behaviour (large deformations). You may be using a different version of ANSYS than what was used to create these tutorials. it is expected that you have completed the Basic Tutorials before attempting these. Dynamic Analysis These tutorial explore the dynamic analyis capabilities of ANSYS. These tutorials can be completed in any order. Modal. There is also an associated tutorial for an explanation of the Graphical Solution Tracking (GST) plot. and Transient Analyses are shown in detail.132 Intermediate Tutorials The majority of these examples are simple verification problems to show you how to use the intermediate techniques in ANSYS. .

...z We are going to define 2 keypoints for this beam as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x. /title.x.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the required steps to account for the weight of an object in ANSYS..0) .z) 1 (0.#. Loads will not be applied to the beam shown below in order to observe the deflection caused by the weight of the beam itself.133 Effect of Self Weight on a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. Effects of Self Weight for a Cantilever Beam Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS.y.0) 2 (1000. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.y. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . K.

86e-6 Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines.67 Total beam height: 10 This defines a beam with a height of 10 mm and a width of 50 mm. enter the following geometric properties: Cross-sectional area AREA: 500 Area moment of inertia IZZ: 4166.. enter the following density for steel: Density DENS: 7.. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window... . For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element. enter the following geometric properties for steel: Young's modulus EX: 200000 Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. > Add.1.3 Define Element Density Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Density In the window that appears. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants... This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes..2 Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2 Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.134 Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L. and rotation about the Z axis)..

This indicates that an acceleration has been defined in the y direction.81m/s2 in the y direction. The following window will appear.. Fill it in as shown to define an acceleration of 9. Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Inertia > Gravity.135 For this example we will use an element edge length of 100mm. This is because the units of acceleration and mass must be consistent to give the product of force units (Newtons in this case). Also note that a positive acceleration in the y direction stimulates gravity in the negative Y direction. .. Note: Acceleration is defined in terms of meters (not 'mm' as used throughout the problem). There should now be a red arrow pointing in the positive y direction.0 Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix keypoint 1 (ie all DOF constrained) Define Gravity It is necessary to define the direction and magnitude of gravity for this problem. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE.

777mm Show the deformation of the beam General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape ..9.1.. > Def + undef edge PLDISP.136 DK. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results Hand Calculations Hand calculations were performed to verify the solution found using ANSYS: The maximum deflection was shown to be 5. ACEL.0..2 .ALL.8 The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below.

777mm. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.HTML version.' and select the file.137 As observed in the upper left hand corner. the maximum displacement was found to be 5. Now go to 'File > Read input from. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Loads will not be applied to the beam shown below in order to observe the deflection caused by the weight of the beam itself.. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. Effect of Self Weight on a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. .0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the required steps to account for the weight of an object in ANSYS. This is in agreement with the theortical value.PDF version is also available for printing. A . Open the .

1.Length. LMESH.ALL.Width*Height.Height MP.EX.PRXY..1.1.0 DK.DENS.0 K.Width*(Height**3)/12.8 ! Static analysis ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Set gravity constant SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.0.1. Effects of Self Weight /PREP7 Length = 1000 Width = 50 Height = 10 K.Length/10.1.1.BEAM3 ! Set element type R.2.3 ! Poisson's ratio MP.138 ANSYS Command Listing /Title.200000 ! Young's Modulus MP.9.1 ! Size of line elements ! Mesh line 1 FINISH /SOLU ! Enter solution mode ANTYPE.0.7. ACEL.ALL.1.0 ! Create Keypoints L.2 ET.86e-6 ! Density !** = exponent LESIZE.2 ! Display deformed shape .1.0.

x. /title.139 Application of Distributed Loads Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0.. The purpose of this tutorial is to explain how to apply distributed loads and use element tables to extract data. Distributed Loading Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS K. Please note that this material was also covered in the 'Bicycle Space Frame' tutorial under 'Basic Tutorials'. A distributed load of 1000 N/m (1 N/mm) will be applied to a solid steel beam with a rectangular cross section as shown in the figure below.y . The cross-section of the beam is 10mm x 10mm while the modulus of elasticity of the steel is 200GPa.#. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem Open preprocessor menu /PREP7 Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title ..

0) Define Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line L... > Add.y) 1 (0.0) 2 (1000.. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears... For this problem we will use the BEAM3 element. .333 Total beam height HEIGHT: 10 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 10mm x 10mm. and rotation about the Z axis).K#.. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.. enter the following geometric properties: Cross-sectional area AREA: 100 Area Moment of Inertia IZZ: 833.3 Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines. With only 3 degrees of freedom. enter the following geometric properties for steel: Young's modulus EX: 200000 Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. the BEAM3 element can only be used in 2D analysis.. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's.K# Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants.140 We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window.

141 For this example we will use an element length of 100mm. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' Plot Elements Utility Menu > Plot > Elements You may also wish to turn on element numbering and turn off keypoint numbering Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering .. Apply Loads .0 Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Pin Keypoint 1 (ie UX and UY constrained) and fix Keypoint 2 in the y direction (UY constrained). Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE..

Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Pressure > On Beams Click 'Pick All' in the 'Apply F/M' window. of 1000 N/m or 1 N/mm. over the entire length of the beam. The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below. As shown in the following figure.142 We will apply a distributed load. enter a value of 1 in the field 'VALI Pressure value at node I' then click 'OK'. Note: .

' In the window that appears enter 'SMAXI' in the 'User Label for Item' section In the first window in the 'Results Data Item' section scroll down and select 'By sequence num' In the second window of the same section. Select General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table Click 'Add. select 'Pressures' in the pull down menu of the 'Surface Load Symbols' section. Select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Symbols. select 'NMISC...2 Plot Principle stress distribution As shown previously.. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results Plot Deformed Shape General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape PLDISP. ' .143 To have the constraints and loads appear each time you select 'Replot' you must change some settings... we need to use element tables to obtain principle stresses for line elements. In the window that appears.

the maximum stress occurs in the middle of the beam with a value of 750 MPa. Open the . The 'Element Table Data' window should now have two variables in it. copy and . we wanted the principal stresses for the elements.144 In the third window enter '1' anywhere after the comma click 'Apply' Repeat steps 2 to 4 but change 'SMAXI' to 'SMAXJ' in step 3a and change '1' to '3' in step 3d. Click 'Close' in the 'Element Table Data' window. A list of available codes for each element can be found in the ANSYS help files.HTML version. Select: General Postproc > Plot Results > Line Elem Res. For the BEAM3 element this is categorized as NMISC. 3 for the 'J' nodes. (ie. 1 for the 'I' nodes and NMISC. As shown in the plot below. Select 'SMAXI' from the 'LabI' pull down menu and 'SMAXJ' from the 'LabJ' pull down menu Note: ANSYS can only calculate the stress at a single location on the element.. These are the nodes that are at the ends of each element. Click 'OK'.. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. For this example. we decided to extract the stresses from the I and J nodes of each element. For this problem. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. type help BEAM3 in the ANSYS Input window).

I.33 ! Young's Modulus ! Poisson's ratio ESIZE.2. Please note that this material was also covered in the 'Bicycle Space Frame' tutorial under 'Basic Tutorials'. Application of Distributed Loads Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.PDF version is also available for printing.100.0 ! Define the keypoints L.0.145 paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.0. Now go to 'File > Read input from.1.1.EX. Distributed Loading of a Beam /PREP7 K.' and select the file. The cross-section of the beam is 10mm x 10mm while the modulus of elasticity of the steel is 200GPa.1.100 ! Mesh size .1.2 ! Create the line ET.PRXY.height MP.area. A .200000 MP.1. ANSYS Command Listing /title.333.0 K.BEAM3 ! Beam3 element type R.1...1000.833. The purpose of this tutorial is to explain how to apply distributed loads and use element tables to extract data.0. A distributed load of 1000 N/m (1 N/mm) will be applied to a solid steel beam with a rectangular cross section as shown in the figure below.10 ! Real constants .

2 ! Plot deformed shape ETABLE.SMAXJ.NMISC.0.1. 3 PLLS.1.1 ! Apply distributed load SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.0 ! Static analysis DK.SMAXI.0 ! Pin keypoint 1 ! Roller on keypoint 2 SFBEAM.ALL.1..ALL ! Mesh line FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.SMAXI.2.146 LMESH.SMAXJ..0 ! Create data for element table ! Plot ETABLE data .UX.PRES.UY DK.NMISC.UY. 1 ETABLE.

. This tutorial will deal specifically with Geometric Nonlinearities . Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure to create a beam with a length of 5 inches: Keypoint Coordinates (x.. After each increment. the load will added incrementally. To solve this problem. There are several causes for nonlinear behaviour such as Changing Status (ex. the stiffness matrix will be adjusted before increasing the load. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . contact elements).0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple nonlinear analysis of the beam shown below.0) . The solution will be compared to the equivalent solution using a linear response.y) 1 (0.147 NonLinear Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Material Nonlinearities and Geometric Nonlinearities (change in response due to large deformations).

In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window. the BEAM3 element can only be used in 2D analysis.125 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 0.069e-5 Total beam height HEIGHT: 0. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's.. for example.25 x 0. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. enter the following geometric properties for steel: Young's modulus EX: 30e6 Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. we would have to consider non-linear material properties.. not non-linear material properties. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.3 If you are wondering why a 'Linear' model was chosen when this is a non-linear example.. . If we were considering a block of wood.0) Define Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2. and rotation about the Z axis)... enter the following geometric properties: Cross-sectional area AREA: 0. With only 3 degrees of freedom.. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element. > Add... it is because this example is for non-linear geometry. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines.03125 Area Moment of Inertia IZZ: 4.125 inches.148 2 (5.

ALL Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE.0 Set Solution Controls Select Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Control.1 " (50 element divisions along the line). this takes time. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH. Automatic time stepping allows ANSYS to determine appropriate sizes to break the load steps into. however..149 For this example we will specify an element edge length of 0.. The following image will appear: Ensure the following selections are made (as shown above) Ensure Large Static Displacements are permitted (this will include the effects of large deflection in the results) Ensure Automatic time stepping is on. The Automatic Time Step feature will determine an appropriate . Decreasing the step size usually ensures better accuracy.

If the Automatic Time Stepping was off. Ensure all solution items are writen to a results file. all of the solution items are written at the end of each load step. Enter 5 as the number of substeps. For more information about these commands. the load steps directly from 10 lbs to 20 lbs). When large static deformations are permitted (as they are in this . This will set the initial substep to 1/5 th of the total load. Function Command Comments Load Step KBC Loads are either linearly interpolated (ramped) from the one substep to another (ie . type help followed by the command into the command line. This stops the program if the solution does not converge after 1000 steps. there would be 5 load steps (each increasing by 1/5 th of the total load): 20 lb*in 40 lb*in 60 lb*in 80 lb*in 100 lb*in Now.150 balance. with the Automatic Time Stepping is on. The following example explains this: Assume that the applied load is 100 lb*in.the load will increase from 10 lbs to 20 lbs in a linear fashion) or they are step functions (ie. By default. Enter a minimum number of substeps of 1. the remaining substeps will be determined based on the response of the material due to the previous load increment. Enter a maximum number of substeps of 1000. Stress Stiffness SSTIF This command activates stress stiffness effects in nonlinear analyses. Output OUTRES This command controls the solution data written to the database. By default. the load is ramped. NOTE There are several options which have not been changed from their default values. You may wish to use the stepped loading for rate-dependent behaviour or transient load steps. This feature also activates the ANSYS bisection feature which will allow recovery if convergence fails. You may select only a specific iten (ie Nodal DOF solution) to decrease processing time. However. the first step size will still be 20 lb*in.

the program will automatically choose the Newton-Raphson options. the previously computed matrix. the modified Newton-Raphson. stress stiffening is automatically included. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOFs constrained). .151 case). and the full Newton-Raphson with unsymmetric matrices of elements. Convergence Values CNVTOL By default. this can cause divergence because some elements do not provide a complete consistent tangent. Newton Raphson NROPT By default. Options include the full Newton-Raphson. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Place a -100 lb*in moment in the MZ direction at the right end of the beam (Keypoint 2) Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE The following will appear on your screan for NonLinear Analyses This shows the convergence of the solution. the program checks the out-ofbalance load for any active DOF. For some special nonlinear cases.

> DOF solution.. UY PLNSOL.1 .U.. > Def + undeformed PLDISP..152 General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results View the deformed shape General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape.1 View the deflection contour plot General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu..0.Y.

. Material Nonlinearities and Geometric Nonlinearities (change in response due to large deformations). NonLinear Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Now go to 'File > Read input from. A . There are several causes for nonlinear behaviour such as Changing Status. This tutorial will deal specifically with Geometric Nonlinearities .> DOF solution.153 List Horizontal Displacement If this example is performed as a linear model there will be no nodal deflection in the horizontal direction due to the small deflections assumptions. . these horizontal deflections are calculated by ANSYS. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Modeling the system non-linearly. the stiffness matrix will be adjusted before increasing the load. General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.PDF version is also available for printing. Open the .' and select the file. After each increment. the load will added incrementally. UX Other results can be obtained as shown in previous linear static analyses.HTML version.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple nonlinear analysis of the beam shown below.. To solve this problem.. this is not realistic for large deflections.. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. However.

5.1.1 lmesh.1.2 ! define line et.1.X ! display deformed mesh ! lists horizontal deflections . min # substeps=1 outres.on ! auto time stepping nsubst.U.mz.5. max # substeps=1000.0.0.beam3 r.0.1 ! Size of first substep=1/5 of the total load. izz.on ! static analysis ! turn on non-linear geometry analysis autots.1 PRNSOL.all ! element size of 0.1.0e6 mp.0.1.4. height of beam Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio esize. ANSYS Command Listing /prep7 ! start preprocessor /title.all ! constrain all DOF on ground fk.prxy.069e-5.0.1.1" ! mesh the line finish /solu ! stop preprocessor ! start solution phase antype.30.3 ! ! ! ! Beam area.NonLinear Analysis of Cantilever Beam k.03125.2.ex.static nlgeom.0.1000.all.2.0 ! define keypoints ! 5" beam (length) l.all ! save results of all iterations dk.1.-100 ! applied moment solve /post1 pldisp.125 mp.154 The solution will be compared to the equivalent solution using a linear response.0.0 k.

real-world buckling prediction analysis. The true non-linear nature of this analysis thus permits the modeling of geometric imperfections. . it over-predicts the expected buckling loads.155 Buckling Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. this is the shape that the structure assumes in a buckled condition. ie. There are two primary means to perform a buckling analysis: Eigenvalue Eigenvalue buckling analysis predicts the theoretical buckling strength of an ideal elastic structure. Nonlinear Nonlinear buckling analysis is more accurate than eigenvalue analysis because it employs non-linear. Buckling loads for several configurations are readily available from tabulated solutions. However. load perterbations. Each load has an associated buckled mode shape.0 to solve a simple buckling problem. For this type of analysis. static analysis to predict buckling loads. note that small off-axis loads are necessary to initiate the desired buckling mode. This method is not recommended for accurate. It computes the structural eigenvalues for the given system loading and constraints. This is known as classical Euler buckling analysis. It is recommended that you complete the NonLinear Tutorial prior to beginning this tutorial Buckling loads are critical loads where certain types of structures become unstable. large-deflection. material nonlinearities and gaps. in real-life. suddenly a very small increase in the load will cause very large deflections). Its mode of operation is very simple: it gradually increases the applied load until a load level is found whereby the structure becomes unstable (ie. structural imperfections and nonlinearities prevent most real-world structures from reaching their eigenvalue predicted buckling strength.

. .X..1. The required load to cause buckling.. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants.. > Add.100) Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L.#. applied at the top-center of the beam.0) 2 (0... /title..2 Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2 Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.Y We are going to define 2 Keypoints for this beam as given in the following table: Keypoints Coordinates (x. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element.156 This tutorial will use a steel beam with a 10 mm X 10 mm cross section... rigidly constrained at the bottom. and rotation about the Z axis).Eigen-Value Buckling Analysis Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS . will be calculated. K. Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis Preprocessing: Defining the Problem Open preprocessor menu /PREP7 Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .y) 1 (0.. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes.

ALL Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE.. prestress effects must be activated. For this example we will specify an element edge length of 10 mm (10 element divisions along the line).333 Total Beam Height HEIGHT: 10 This defines a beam with a height of 10 mm and a width of 10 mm. This is required in eigenvalue buckling analysis. enter the following geometric properties for steel: Young's modulus EX: 200000 Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. . which ensures the stress stiffness matrix is calculated.0 Activate prestress effects To perform an eigenvalue buckling analysis. enter the following geometric properties: Cross-sectional area AREA: 100 Area moment of inertia IZZ: 833. Select Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options In the following window.157 In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.3 Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines. The last option in the solution menu will either be 'Unabridged menu' (which means you are currently looking at the abridged version) or 'Abriged Menu' (which means you are looking at the unabridged menu). If you are looking at the abridged menu. select the unabridged version. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH. You must first ensure that you are looking at the unabridged solution menu so that you can select Analysis Options in the Analysis Type submenu. change the [SSTIF][PSTRES] item to 'Prestress ON'..

.158 Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOF constrained). Apply a vertical (FY) point load of -1 N to the top of the beam (keypoint 2). Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints The eignenvalue solver uses a unit force to determine the necessary buckling load. Applying a load other than 1 will scale the answer by a factor of the load. The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below.

However. with a buckling analysis you must re-enter the solution phase and specify the buckling analysis. Be sure to close the solution menu and re-enter it or the buckling analysis may not function properly. . Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Eigen Buckling ANTYPE. however it tends to converge slower as it is a more robust solver. as shown below. Select 'Block Lanczos' as an extraction method and extract 1 mode. FINISH Normally at this point you enter the postprocessing phase. The 'Block Lanczos' method is used for large symmetric eigenvalue problems and uses the sparse matrix solver. In more complex analyses the Block Lanczos method may not be adequate and the Subspace method would have to be used.1 Specify Buckling Analysis Options Select Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options Complete the window which appears. The 'Subspace' method could also be used.159 Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Exit the Solution processor Close the solution menu and click FINISH at the bottom of the Main Menu.

FINISH Again it is necessary to exit and re-enter the solution phase. is for an expansion pass. Expand the solution Select Solution > Analysis Type > Expansion Pass.. You may have to select the 'Unabridged Menu' again to make this option visible. and ensure that it is on. Select Solution > Load Step Opts > ExpansionPass > Single Expand > Expand Modes .. however. An expansion pass is necessary if you want to review the buckled mode shape(s).. This time.. Complete the following window as shown to expand the first mode .160 Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Exit the Solution processor Close the solution menu and click FINISH at the bottom of the Main Menu.

/POST1 SET.161 Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results View the Buckling Load To display the minimum load required to buckle the beam select General Postproc > List Results > Detailed Summary.LIST Display the Mode Shape Select General Postproc > Read Results > Last Set to bring up the data for the last mode calculated. The value listed under 'TIME/FREQ' is the load (41. Select General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape Non-Linear Buckling Analysis Ensure that you have completed the tutorial NonLinear Tutorial Preprocessing: Defining the Problem Open preprocessor menu prior to beginning this portion of the . If more than one mode was selected in the steps above.123). the corresponding loads would be listed here as well. which is in Newtons for this example.

/TITLE. and rotation about the Z axis). Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. Nonlinear Buckling Analysis Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS K.X.. Define Element Material Properties .#. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element.. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's.Y We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure to create a beam with a length of 100 millimeters: Keypoint Coordinates (x.2 Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.. > Add. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window...333 Total beam height HEIGHT: 10 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 10 x 10 millimeters.. With only 3 degrees of freedom.y) 1 (0.100) Define Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2.0) 2 (0.162 /PREP7 Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title ..1. the BEAM3 element can only be used in 2D analysis. L. enter the following geometric properties: Cross-sectional area AREA: 100 Area Moment of Inertia IZZ: 833..

ESIZE.3 Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Lines > All Lines..ALL Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE...163 Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears..1 Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH. The following image will appear: Ensure the following selections are made under the 'Basic' tab (as shown above) . enter the following geometric properties for steel: Young's modulus EX: 200e3 Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.0 Set Solution Controls Select Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Control. For this example we will specify an element edge length of 1 mm (100 element divisions along the line).

164

Ensure Large Static Displacements are permitted (this will include the effects of large deflection in
the results)
Ensure Automatic time stepping is on. Automatic time stepping allows ANSYS to determine
appropriate sizes to break the load steps into. Decreasing the step size usually ensures better
accuracy, however, this takes time. The Automatic Time Step feature will determine an appropriate
balance. This feature also activates the ANSYS bisection feature which will allow recovery if
convergence fails.
Enter 20 as the number of substeps. This will set the initial substep to 1/20 th of the total load.
Enter a maximum number of substeps of 1000. This stops the program if the solution does not
converge after 1000 steps.
Enter a minimum number of substeps of 1.
Ensure all solution items are writen to a results file.
Ensure the following selection is made under the 'Nonlinear' tab (as shown below)
Ensure Line Search is 'On'. This option is used to help the Newton-Raphson solver converge.
Ensure Maximum Number of Iterations is set to 1000

NOTE
There are several options which have not been changed from their default values. For
more information about these commands, type help followed by the command into
the command line.
Apply Constraints
Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints
Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOFs constrained).

165

Apply Loads
Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints
Place a -50,000 N load in the FY direction on the top of the beam (Keypoint 2). Also
apply a -250 N load in the FX direction on Keypoint 2. This horizontal load will
persuade the beam to buckle at the minimum buckling load.
The model should now look like the window shown below.

Solve the System
Solution > Solve > Current LS
SOLVE

The following will appear on your screen for NonLinear Analyses

This shows the convergence of the solution.

166

General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
View the deformed shape
To view the element in 2D rather than a line: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Size and Shape
and turn 'Display of element' ON (as shown below).

General

Postproc

>

Plot

Results

>

Deformed

Shape...

>

Def

+

undeformed

PLDISP,1

View the deflection contour plot
General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu... > DOF
solution, UY
PLNSOL,U,Y,0,1

167

Other results can be obtained as shown in previous linear static analyses.

Time History Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
As shown, you can obtain the results (such as deflection, stress and bending moment diagrams) the
same way you did in previous examples using the General Postprocessor. However, you may wish
to view time history results such as the deflection of the object over time.
Define Variables
Select: Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro. The following window should open automatically.

If it does not open automatically, select Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro >
Variable Viewer

168

Click the add button

in the upper left corner of the window to add a variable.

Double-click Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Y-Component of displacement (as shown
below) and click OK. Pick the uppermost node on the beam and click OK in the 'Node for Data'
window.

To add another variable, click the add button again. This time select Reaction Forces > Structural
Forces > Y-Component of Force. Pick the lowermost node on the beam and click OK.
On the Time History Variable window, click the circle in the 'X-Axis' column for FY_3. This will
make the reaction force the x-variable. The Time History Variables window should now look like
this:

Graph Results over Time
Click on UY_2 in the Time History Variables window.

169

Click the graphing button

in the Time History Variables window.

The labels on the plot are not updated by ANSYS, so you must change them manually. Select
Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes and re-label the X and Y-axis
appropriately.

The plot shows how the beam became unstable and buckled with a load of
approximately 40,000 N, the point where a large deflection occured due to a small
increase in force. This is slightly less than the eigen-value solution of 41,123 N,
which was expected due to non-linear geometry issues discussed above.

Command File Mode of Solution
The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the
command language interface of ANSYS. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS
command language interface that you may want to browse. Open the .HTML version, copy and
paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Now go to 'File >
Read input from...' and select the file. A .PDF version is also available for printing.

Buckling

rigidly constrained at the bottom. ANSYS Command Listing Eigenvalue Buckling FINISH ! These two commands clear current data . Nonlinear Nonlinear buckling analysis is more accurate than eigenvalue analysis because it employs non-linear. static analysis to predict buckling loads. will be calculated. It is recommended that you complete the NonLinear Tutorial prior to beginning this tutorial Buckling loads are critical loads where certain types of structures become unstable. this is the shape that the structure assumes in a buckled condition. suddenly a very small increase in the load will cause very large deflections). Each load has an associated buckled mode shape. applied at the top-center of the beam. Buckling loads for several configurations are readily available from tabulated solutions. ie. This is known as classical Euler buckling analysis. There are two primary means to perform a buckling analysis: Eigenvalue Eigenvalue buckling analysis predicts the theoretical buckling strength of an ideal elastic structure.170 Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. This tutorial will use a steel beam with a 10 mm X 10 mm cross section. material nonlinearities and gaps. large-deflection. The required load to cause buckling. note that small off-axis loads are necessary to initiate the desired buckling mode.0 to solve a simple buckling problem. real-world buckling prediction analysis. However. structural imperfections and nonlinearities prevent most real-world structures from reaching their eigenvalue predicted buckling strength. in real-life. it over-predicts the expected buckling loads. load perterbations. The true non-linear nature of this analysis thus permits the modeling of geometric imperfections. For this type of analysis. It computes the structural eigenvalues for the given system loading and constraints. This method is not recommended for accurate. Its mode of operation is very simple: it gradually increases the applied load until a load level is found whereby the structure becomes unstable (ie.

200000 MP.required during buckling analysis Constrain the bottom of beam ! ! ! ! Load the top vertically with a unit load.ON MXPAND. SOLVE FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.Time/Freq listing is the force required for buckling (in N for this case).0.0.333.1.171 /CLEAR /TITLE.FY.833.necessary ! An expantion pass will be performed ! Specifies the number of modes to expand /POST1 SET. ANSYS needs the info from a static analysis Prestress can be accounted for .ALL.0.1.100.1.1 SOLVE FINISH ! Enter the solution mode again to solve buckling ! Buckling analysis ! Buckling options .LIST ! ! ! ! ! SET.10 MP.1.subspace.1.ALL FK.1 SOLVE FINISH ! Re-enter solution mode to expand info .2.ALL ! Set element size to 1 mm ! Mesh the line FINISH /SOLU ! Enter the solution mode ANTYPE.2 ! Draw the line ESIZE. This is done so the eigenvalue calculated will be the actual buckling load.PRXY.ON DK.EX. since all loads are scaled during the analysis. Read in data for the desired mode Plots the deflected shape NonLinear Buckling FINISH /CLEAR ! These two commands clear current data . height (mm) Young's modulus (in MPa) Poisson's ratio ! ! ! ! ! Before you can do a buckling analysis.1. I (mm^4). area (mm^2).LAST PLDISP Enter post-processor List eigenvalue solution .2.0 K.-1 Define the element of the beam to be buckled Real Consts: type 1.BUCKLE BUCOPT.Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis /PREP7 ! Enter the preprocessor ET.100 ! Define the geometry of beam (100 mm high) L.3 ! ! ! ! K.BEAM3 R.10 LMESH. one mode /SOLU EXPASS.STATIC PSTRES.1.LANB.

-250 Static analysis (not buckling) Non-linear geometry solution supported Stores bunches of output Load broken into 5 load steps Use 20 load steps to find solution Auto time stepping SOLVE FINISH .0 K.3 ! Young's modulus (in Pa) ! Poisson's ratio R.100. Nonlinear Buckling Analysis /PREP7 ! Enter the preprocessor ET. I.ON OUTRES.F.FX.833.1.0 ! Lower node ! Upper node (100 mm high) L.5% FY) to initiate buckling /POST26 RFORCE.10 ! area.1.2 PLVAR.FY.ALL.1.ALL ! Sets element size to 1 mm ! Mesh line FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.2 ! Draws line ESIZE.ALL NSUBST.Y.333.ON LNSRCH.2.172 /TITLE.1000 AUTOTS.100.DEFLECTION /AXLAB.0.0.1.200000 MP.2.LOAD /REPLOT ! Changes y label ! Changes X label FK.PRXY.STATIC NLGEOM.U.X.Y XVAR.1.0.-50000 ! ! ! ! Apply load slightly greater than predicted required buckling load to upper node Add a horizontal load (0.Y NSOL.1 LMESH.ALL.1 ! Plots the beam as a volume rather than line DK.EX.0 ! Constrain bottom FK.2.1.2.ON ! ! ! ! ! ! /ESHAPE.1.3 ! ! ! ! ! Time history post processor Reads force data in variable 2 Reads y-deflection data into var 3 Make variable 2 the x-axis Plots variable 3 on y-axis /AXLAB.0.1.20 NEQIT. height K.2.3.BEAM3 ! Define element as beam3 MP.

a multilinear stress-strain relationship can be included which follows the stress-strain curve of the material being used. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . In such a case. NonLinear Materials Create Keypoints . The material then begins to yield and the relationship becomes plastic and nonlinear. the case when a large force is applied resulting in a stresses greater than yield strength. /title. The stress-strain curve for the substance is shown above. Note the linear section up to approximately 225 MPa where the Young's Modulus is constant (75 GPa). For this analysis.173 NonLinear Materials Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. For instance. This will allow ANSYS to more accurately model the plastic deformation of the material.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to include material nonlinearities in an ANSYS model.. a simple tension speciment 100 mm X 5 mm X 5 mm is constrained at the bottom and has a load pulling on the top.. This specimen is made out of a experimental substance called "WhoKilledKenium".

y) 1 (0. enter the following geometric properties for steel: Young's modulus EX: 75e3 Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. enter the following geometric properties: Cross-sectional area AREA: 25 Initial Strain: 0 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 5 x 5 millimeters. the stress-strain data must be included.100) Define Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2. For this problem we will use the LINK1 (2D spar) element. L. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears... Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants..Y We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure to create a beam with a length of 100 millimeters: Keypoint Coordinates (x. .0) 2 (0.2 Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.. This element has 2 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's) and can only be used in 2D analysis.174 Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS /PREP7 K. In the 'Real Constants for LINK1' window..#.1.X.. > Add.3 Now that the initial properties of the material have been outlined.

When all the points have been inputed.060 355 9 0.005 250 7 0. click Add Point to add another.275 450 . Fill in the STRAIN and STRESS boxes with the following data.175 Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Nonlinear > Elastic > Multilinear Elastic The following window will pop up. When the data for the first point is input.025 300 8 0.001 75 3 0. These are points from the stress-strain curve shown above. approximating the curve with linear interpolation between the points.003 225 5 0.150 420 11 0. It should look like the one shown above.200 435 12 0.002 150 4 0. Then click OK.100 390 10 0. click Graph to see the curve.004 240 6 0. Curve Points Strain Stress 1 0 0 2 0.250 449 13 0.

0 Set Solution Controls Select Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Control.. select Utility Menu > Plot > Replot. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH. For this example we will specify an element edge length of 5 mm (20 element divisions along the line).ALL Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. /REPLOT Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Manual Size > Size Cntrls > Lines > All Lines...176 To get the problem geometry back.. The following image will appear: Ensure the following selections are made under the 'Basic' tab (as shown above) Ensure Large Static Displacements are permitted (this will include the effects of large deflection in the results) .

Ensure all solution items are writen to a results file. Enter a maximum number of substeps of 1000. Decreasing the step size usually ensures better accuracy. type help followed by the command into the command line.177 Ensure Automatic time stepping is on. This feature also activates the ANSYS bisection feature which will allow recovery if convergence fails. This will set the initial substep to 1/20 th of the total load. This stops the program if the solution does not converge after 1000 steps. For more information about these commands. Ensure Maximum Number of Iterations is set to 1000 NOTE There are several options which have not been changed from their default values. This option is used to help the Newton-Raphson solver converge. this takes time. Automatic time stepping allows ANSYS to determine appropriate sizes to break the load steps into. Enter a minimum number of substeps of 1. This means rather than just recording the data for the last load step. however. The Automatic Time Step feature will determine an appropriate balance. . you can plot certain parameters over time. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOFs constrained). data for every load step is written to the database. Ensure the following selection is made under the 'Nonlinear' tab (as shown below) Ensure Line Search is 'On'. Enter 20 as the number of substeps. Therefore.

.178 Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Place a 10. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE The following will appear on your screen for NonLinear Analyses This shows the convergence of the solution. General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results To view the element in 2D rather than a line: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Size and Shape and turn 'Display of element' ON (as shown below).000 N load in the FY direction on the top of the beam (Keypoint 2).

Y.U.0. you may wish to view time history results such as the deflection of the object over time.. The following window should open automatically. UY PLNSOL. > DOF solution. However.1 Other results can be obtained as shown in previous linear static analyses. stress and bending moment diagrams) the same way you did in previous examples using the General Postprocessor. Define Variables Select: Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro.179 View the deflection contour plot General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu. . you can obtain the results (such as deflection.. Time History Postprocessing: Viewing the Results As shown.

Pick the uppermost node on the beam and click OK in the 'Node for Data' window. On the Time History Variable window. Pick the lowermost node on the beam and click OK. To add another variable. click the add button again. This will make the reaction force the x-variable. Select Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Y-Component of displacement (as shown below) and click OK. The Time History Variables window should now look like this: Graph Results over Time .180 If it does not open automatically. click the circle in the 'X-Axis' column for FY_3. This time select Reaction Forces > Structural Forces > Y-Component of Force. select Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer Click the add button in the upper left corner of the window to add a variable.

was low (in the linear range).' and select the file.181 Click on UY_2 in the Time History Variables window. When you verify this example analytically. the deflection (proportional to strain) began to increase at a greater rate. This is because the stress in the beam is in the plastic range and thus no longer relates to strain linearly. A . Now go to 'File > Read input from. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. . The labels on the plot are not updated by ANSYS.HTML version. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. as the force increased.. Open the .PDF version is also available for printing. so you must change them manually. and subsequently the stress. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.. However. you will see the solutions are very similar. This plot shows how the beam deflected linearly when the force. Select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes and re-label the X and Y-axis appropriately. Click the graphing button in the Time History Variables window. The difference can be attributed to the ANSYS solver including large deflection calculations.

75000 ! Young's modulus ! Line connecting keypoints .1.1.0.LINK1 R. the case when a large force is applied resulting in a stresses greater than yield strength.0 k.182 NonLinear Materials Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.1. This will allow ANSYS to more accurately model the plastic deformation of the material.1.2. This specimen is made out of a experimental substance called "WhoKilledKenium". ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /prep7 k. For this analysis.EX. In such a case.1. a simple tension speciment 100 mm X 5 mm X 5 mm is constrained at the bottom and has a load pulling on the top.2 ! Enter Preprocessor ! Keypoints ET. Note the linear section up to approximately 225 MPa where the Young's Modulus is constant (75 GPa). The stress-strain curve for the substance is shown above.0.25 ! Element type ! Area of 25 MP. The material then begins to yield and the relationship becomes plastic and nonlinear. a multilinear stress-strain relationship can be included which follows the stress-strain curve of the material being used. For instance.100 l.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to include material nonlinearities in an ANSYS model.

..1...ALL AUTOTS.06.183 MP.420 TBPT.5 LMESH..1.3 ! Poisson's ratio TB.240 TBPT..Y XVAR.003.0..U.0 DK..Y.005.1.355 TBPT.....3.0.225 TBPT.150 TBPT.1 OUTRES.12.1 PLNSOL..Y..1000 ! ! ! ! ! ! ANTYPE.FY.1 ! Enter post processor ! Show element shape ! Plot deflection contour FINISH /POST26 RFORCE..450 ! Data points ESIZE.10000 ! Static analysis ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Load on keypoint 2 Nonlinear geometry on 20 load steps Output data for all load steps Auto time-search on Line search on 1000 iteration maximum SOLVE FINISH /POST1 /ESHAPE.390 TBPT.15..300 TBPT.1..1.ALL.004....275.U.250 TBPT.002.449 TBPT.. ! Create a table of 12 data points ! to map the stress-strain curve TBPT.2.2.2.25.ON NEQIT.ON NSUBST.ON LNSRCH.all ! Element size 5 ! Line mesh all lines FINISH /SOLU ! Enter solution phase NLGEOM...2 PLVAR.75 TBPT.1000..DEFLECTION /AXLAB.435 TBPT.3 /AXLAB.20.PRXY.F.2.001.all FK.025.MELA.1.LOAD /REPLOT ! ! ! ! Enter time history Reads force data in variable 2 Reads y-deflection data into var 3 Make variable 2 the x-axis ! Changes y label ! Changes X label .Y NSOL.X.

. The following window will appear . please use the links below.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple modal analysis of the cantilever beam shown below.184 Modal Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Both the command line codes and the GUI commands are shown in the respective links. If you haven't created the model in ANSYS. Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Modal ANTYPE.2 Set options for analysis type: Select: Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem The simple cantilever beam is used in all of the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials.

It is therefore more exact but.185 As shown. This is the fastest method as it reduces the system matrices to only consider the Master Degrees of Freedom (see below). select the Subspace method and enter 5 in the 'No. The following window will then appear . it also takes longer to compute (especially when the complex geometries). of modes to expand' Click 'OK' Note that the default mode extraction method chosen is the Reduced Method. of modes to extract' Check the box beside 'Expand mode shapes' and enter 5 in the 'No. The Subspace Method extracts modes for all DOF's.

The following window will appear . we will use the default options so click on OK. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOFs constrained). For this problem..186 For a better understanding of these options see the Commands manual. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results Verify extracted modes against theoretical predictions Select: General Postproc > Results Summary..

311 8.22 472. select General Postproc > Read Results > Next Set . Mode Theory ANSYS Percent Error 1 8.0 4 285. instead of 10 elements.01 0.e.64 0. Select 'Def + undef edge' The first mode shape will now appear in the graphics window.0 5 472.2 3 145.94 52. View Mode Shapes Select: General Postproc > Read Results > First Set This selects the results for the first mode shape Select General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed shape . The first four mode shapes should look like the following: .68 145. To view the next mode shape.54 0.1 Note: To obtain accurate higher mode frequencies. As above choose General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed shape .51 0. we would have to model the cantilever using 15 or more elements depending upon the highest mode frequency of interest).69 285.1 2 51. Select 'Def + undef edge'. this mesh would have to be refined even more (i.187 The following table compares the mode frequencies in Hz predicted by theory and ANSYS.300 0.

Mode 1 .188 Animate Mode Shapes Select Utility Menu (Menu at the top) > Plot Ctrls > Animate > Mode Shape The following window will appear Keep the default setting and click 'OK' The animated mode shapes are shown below.

189 Mode 2 Mode 3 .

These are degrees of freedom that govern the dynamic characteristics of a structure. going this route means a smaller (reduced) stiffness matrix.190 Mode 4 Using the Reduced Method for Modal Analysis This method employs the use of Master Degrees of Freedom. The steps for using this option are quite simple. Instead of specifying the Subspace method. select the Reduced method and specify 5 modes for extraction. Complete the window as shown below . a detailed understanding of the dynamic behavior of a structure is required. For example. and thus faster calculations. the Master Degrees of Freedom for the bending modes of cantilever beam are For this option. However.

1 3 145. The following table compares the mode frequencies in Hz predicted by theory and ANSYS (Reduced). select all nodes except the left most node (fixed).191 Note:For this example both the number of modes and frequency range was specified.94 52. Mode Theory ANSYS Percent Error 1 8.01 0. ANSYS then extracts the minimum number of modes between the two.1 2 51. The following window will appear: Select UY as the 1st degree of freedom (shown above).300 0. The same constraints are used as above.311 8.0 .66 0.68 145. Select Solution > Master DOF > User Selected > Define When prompted.

Open the . ANSYS Command Listing FINISH /CLEAR . Modal Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.PDF version is also available for printing.66 0.69 285. larger errors would be expected using the reduced method.HTML version.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple modal analysis of the cantilever beam shown below. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. However.71 0. for more complex structures..3 As you can see. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. A .' and select the file. Now go to 'File > Read input from.0 5 472. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer..22 473.192 4 285. the error does not change significantly.

ALL ! Constrain keypoint one SOLVE FINISH /POST1 SET.SUBSP.DENS.5 ! ! ! ! Modal analysis Subspace.LIST ! List solutions SET. Dynamic Analysis /PREP7 K.1.7830 ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density LESIZE.10 LMESH.1.BEAM3 ! Element type R.2.0 ! Animate mode shape .0.0.ALL.1.1.068e11 MP.0.1.01 ! Real Const: area.0.EX.FRONT MXPAND.0.0 ! Enter keypoints L.FIRST PLDISP ! Display first mode shape ANMODE.1 ! Element size ! Mesh line FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE. .2 ! Create line ET.2 MODOPT.1..1.5.8.5 EQSLV.193 /TITLE..33 MP.2.33e-10.I.1.10.1. 5 modes Frontal solver Expand 5 modes DK.PRXY.0001.0 K.height MP.

ANSYS provides 3 methods for conducting a harmonic analysis. We will now conduct a harmonic forced response test by applying a cyclic load (harmonic) at the end of the beam.194 Harmonic Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.100 Hz.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to explain the steps required to perform Harmonic analysis the cantilever beam shown below. These 3 methods are the Full . This example demonstrates the Full method because it is simple and easy to use as compared to the other two methods. However. The figure below depicts the beam with the application of the load. this method makes use of the full stiffness and mass matrices and thus is the slower and costlier option. . Reduced and Modal Superposition methods. The frequency of the load will be varied from 1 .

3 Set options for analysis type: Select: Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options.. .195 Preprocessing: Defining the Problem The simple cantilever beam is used in all of the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials. select the Full Solution method. please use the links below. Click 'OK' The following window will appear. If you haven't created the model in ANSYS. The following window will appear As shown. Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving Define Analysis Type (Harmonic) Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Harmonic ANTYPE. Both the command line codes and the GUI commands are shown in the respective links. Use the default settings (shown below). the Real + imaginary DOF printout format and do not use lumped mass approx.

196 Apply Constraints Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Nodes The following window will appear once you select the node at x=0 (Note small changes in the window compared to the static examples): Constrain all DOF as shown in the above window Apply Loads: Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes Select the node at x=1 (far right) The following window will appear. Fill it in as shown to apply a load with a real value of 100 and an imaginary value of 0 in the positive 'y' direction .

As shown in the window below. By doing this we will be subjecting the beam to loads at 1 Hz... In this case the magnitude of the load is 100 N and its phase is 0..197 Note: By specifying a real and imaginary value of the load we are providing information on magnitude and phase of the load.. 3 Hz. You should now have the following in the ANSYS Graphics window .c. Phase information is important when you have two or more cyclic loads being applied to the structure as these loads could be in or out of phase. For harmonic analysis. would ramp up the amplitude where at 1 Hz the amplitude would be 1 N and at 100 Hz the amplitude would be 100 N.. The ramped option. on the other hand. 100 substeps and stepped b.100Hz.. specify a frequency range of 0 . 100 Hz.. all loads applied to a structure must have the SAME FREQUENCY. 2 Hz. We will specify a stepped boundary condition (KBC) as this will ensure that the same amplitude (100 N) will be applyed for each of the frequencies. Set the frequency range Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequency > Freq and Substps. .

We cannot do this with General PostProcessing (POST1). Open the TimeHist Processing (POST26) Menu Select TimeHist Postpro from the ANSYS Main Menu. Variable 1 is assigned either Time or Frequency. Define Variables In here we have to define variables that we want to see plotted... (To get a list of nodes and their attributes. rather we must use TimeHist PostProcessing (POST26). . We want to see the displacement UY at the node at x=1.198 Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results We want to observe the response at x=1 (where the load was applyed) as a function of frequency. Select TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer. select Utility Menu > List > nodes). By default. In our case it is assigned Frequency. POST26 is used to observe certain variables as a function of either time or frequency. and the following window should pop up. which is node #2.

199 Select Add (the green '+' sign in the upper left corner) from this window and the following window should appear We are interested in the Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Y-Component of displacement. The 'Time History Variables' window should now look as follows . Click OK. Graphically select node 2 when prompted and click OK.

200 List Stored Variables In the 'Time History Variables' window click the 'List' button. 3 buttons to the left of 'Add' The following window will appear listing the data: Plot UY vs. frequency In the 'Time History Variables' window click the 'Plot' button. . 2 buttons to the left of 'Add' The following graph should be plotted in the main ANSYS window.

This corresponds with the predicted frequencies of 8.311 and 51. view the log scale of UY.3 and 51 Hz.201 Note that we get peaks at frequencies of approximately 8. To get a better view of the response.94Hz. Select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axis The following window will appear .

Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. See the help file for instructions.PDF version is also available for printing.. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Open the . Now go to 'File > Read input from.HTML version. change the Y-axis scale to 'Logarithmic' Select Utility Menu > Plot > Replot You should now see the following This is the response at node 2 for the cyclic load applied at this node from 0 . Use the 'Define Variables' and 'Store Data' functions under TimeHist Postpro. A . For ANSYS version lower than 7. the 'Variable Viewer' window is not available. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.202 As marked by an 'A' in the above window.100 Hz. .' and select the file.0..

0 The purpose of this tutorial is to explain the steps required to perform Harmonic analysis the cantilever beam shown below.203 Harmonic Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Reduced and Modal Superposition methods. However. This example demonstrates the Full method because it is simple and easy to use as compared to the other two methods. These 3 methods are the Full . The figure below depicts the beam with the application of the load. ANSYS provides 3 methods for conducting a harmonic analysis.100 Hz. We will now conduct a harmonic forced response test by applying a cyclic load (harmonic) at the end of the beam. this method makes use of the full stiffness and mass matrices and thus is the slower and costlier option. . The frequency of the load will be varied from 1 .

Y.1.I.2 ! Print data ! Plot data ..0.3 ! Harmonic analysis DK.10 LMESH.2 ! Create line ET.1.01 ! Real Const: area. UY_2 STORE.ALL FK.33e-10.BEAM3 ! Element type R.1.33 MP.EX.0001.U.1 ! Element size ! Mesh line FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE..2 PLVAR.204 ANSYS Command Listing FINISH /CLEAR /TITLE.1.1 ! Frequency range ! Number of frequency steps ! Stepped loads SOLVE FINISH /POST26 NSOL. KBC.PRXY.0.068e11 MP.FY.1.2.MERGE ! Get y-deflection data PRVAR. NSUBST.1.height MP.1.2.2.2.1.2.0. Dynamic Analysis /PREP7 K.100.7830 ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density LESIZE.0 ! Enter keypoints L.DENS.1.100 ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Apply force HARFRQ.0.8.0.ALL.100.0 K.

we will impact the end of the beam with an impulse force and view the response at the location of impact. Transient dynamic analysis is a technique used to determine the dynamic response of a structure under a time-varying load.205 Transient Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. where there is a sharp load change in a fraction of time. . Cases where such effects play a major role are under step or impulse loading conditions. For our case. The time frame for this type of analysis is such that inertia or damping effects of the structure are considered to be important. If inertia effects are negligible for the loading conditions being considered. for example.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to show the steps involved to perform a simple transient analysis. a static analysis may be used instead.

In ANSYS. transient dynamic analysis can be carried out using 3 methods. . The smaller the time step. we track the response of the beam at discrete time points for as long as we like (depending on what it is that we are looking for in the response). we cannot produce an ideal impulse force numerically. In other words. However. It should be noted that a transient analysis is more involved than a static or harmonic analysis. Therefore. It requires a good understanding of the dynamic behavior of a structure. We have to apply a load over a discrete amount of time dt. After the application of the load. the higher the mode frequency we will capture. we must resolve our step size such that we will have 20 discrete points per period of the highest mode frequency. a modal analysis of the structure should be initially performed to provide information about the structure's dynamic behavior. The rule of thumb in ANSYS is time_step = 1 / 20f where f is the highest mode frequency we wish to capture.206 Since an ideal impulse force excites all modes of a structure. the response of the beam should contain all mode frequencies. The size of the time step is governed by the maximum mode frequency of the structure we wish to capture.

The Reduced Method: This method reduces the system matrices to only consider the Master Degrees of Freedom (MDOFs). this method handles only linear problems (such as our cantilever case). please use the links below. Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving Define Analysis Type Select Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Transient The following window will appear. Select 'Reduced' as shown. It is the quickest of the three methods. but it requires a good deal of understanding of the problem at hand.207 The Full Method: This is the easiest method to use. The following window will open. we would have to Expand the Reduced Solution. the calculations are much quicker. Define Master DOFs Select Solution > Master DOFs > User Selected > Define Select all nodes except the left most node (at x=0). However. If you haven't created the model in ANSYS. The Mode Superposition Method: This method requires a preliminary modal analysis. We will use the Reduced Method for conducting our transient analysis. It is however very CPU intensive to go this route as full system matrices are used. However. as factored mode shapes are summed to calculate the structure's response. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem The simple cantilever beam is used in all of the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials. All types of non-linearities are allowed. choose UY as the first dof in this window . Both the command line codes and the GUI commands are shown in the respective links. if stresses and forces are of interest than. Because of the reduced size of the matrices. Usually one need not go further than Reviewing the Reduced Results.

This is highly recommended especially when we have many load steps and we wish to re-run our solution. The following time history curve shows our load steps and time steps.208 For an explanation on Master DOFs. Apply Loads We will define our impulse load using Load Steps. Load Step 1 . We can define each load step (load and time at the end of load segment) and save them in a file for future solution purposes. the Reduced Method Constrain the Beam Solution Menu > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On nodes Fix the left most node (constrain all DOFs). We can also solve for each load step after we define it. Note that for the reduced method. We will go ahead and save each load step in a file for later use. a constant time step is required throughout the time range.Initial Conditions . at the same time solve for each load step after we are done defining it. see the section on Using for modal analysis.

. two sets of initial conditions are required.209 Define Load Step We need to establish initial conditions (the condition at Time = 0). initial displacement and initial velocity. This will specify a time step size of 0. both default to zero. Since the equations for a transient dynamic analysis are of second order. set [DELTIM] to 0. Therefore.Time Step .001 seconds to be used for this load step. Specify Time and Time Step Options Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequenc > Time . set a time of 0 for the end of the load step (as shown below). for this example we can skip this step. Write Load Step File Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Write LS File The following window will appear .001. However.

. Enter a force in the FY direction of value -100 N. Specify Time and Time Step Options Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequenc > Time . and set a time of 1 for the end of the load step Write Load Step File Solution > Load Step Opts > Write LS File Enter LSNUM = 3 Solve the System Select Solution > Solve > From LS Files The following window will appear.001 for the end of the load step Write Load Step File Solution > Load Step Opts > Write LS File Enter LSNUM = 2 Load Step 3 Define Load Step Select Solution > Define Loads > Delete > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes and delete the load at x=1.Time Step .. Specify Time and Time Step Options Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequenc > Time .Time Step ..s01 Load Step 2 Define Load Step Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes and select the right most node (at x=1). and set a time of 0.210 Enter LSNUM = 1 as shown above and click 'OK' The load step will be saved in a file jobname.

By default. Define Variables In here we have to define variables that we want to see plotted. which is node #2. Postprocessing: Viewing the Results To view the response of node 2 (UY) with time we must use the TimeHist PostProcessor (POST26). select Utility Menu > List > nodes). .. In our case it is assigned Frequency.. and the following window should pop up. (To get a list of nodes and their attributes. We want to see the displacement UY at the node at x=1. Select TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer.211 Complete the window as shown above to solve using LS files 1 to 3. Variable 1 is assigned either Time or Frequency.

Graphically select node 2 when prompted and click OK.212 Select Add (the green '+' sign in the upper left corner) from this window and the following window should appear We are interested in the Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Y-Component of displacement. The 'Time History Variables' window should now look as follows . Click OK.

A few things to note in the response curve There are approximately 8 cycles in one second. 2 buttons to the left of 'Add' The following graph should be plotted in the main ANSYS window. frequency In the 'Time History Variables' window click the 'Plot' button. 3 buttons to the left of 'Add' The following window will appear listing the data: Plot UY vs.213 List Stored Variables In the 'Time History Variables' window click the 'List' button. . This is the first mode of the cantilever beam and we have been able to capture it.

Select Solution > Load Step Opts > ExpansionPass > Single Expand > Range of Solu's Complete the window as shown below. if stresses and forces are of interest. We will expand 10 solutions within the range of 0.. Note that the response does not decay as it should not. This will expand 10 solutions withing the range of 0.. We should then expand a few or all solutions around one peak (or dip). Expand the Solution For most problems. Let's say we are interested in the beam's behaviour at peak responses.11 seconds Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Review the results in POST1 .214 We also see another response at a higher frequency. we would have to expand the reduced solution. We did not specify damping for our system.11 seconds.08 and 0. However.08 and 0. We may have captured some response at the second mode at 52 Hz of the beam. and switch it to ON in the window that pops open. Expand the solution Select Finish in the ANSYS Main Menu Select Solution > Analysis Type > ExpansionPass. one need not go further than Reviewing the Reduced Results as the response of the structure is of utmost interest in transient dynamic analysis.

we can view the deformed shape at each of the 10 solutions we expanded.0. 0.UX . 0 DOMEGA. Here is where the use of load step files comes in handy. 0.00000000 0. 0.00000000 .ANSYS RELEASE 5.00000000 .UY . 0._TINY DELTIM.00000000 . 1.. 0. We can easily change a few values in these files and re-run our whole solution from these load case files. 1.00000000 .00000000 Change the damping value BETAD from 0 to 0. D. 0. 0.00000000 TINTP.00000000 0.00000000 . 0.. . 0.00000000 .00000000 . We will have to re-run the job for the new load step files. 0. 0. -1.00000000 . 4 TRNOPT. 0.00000000 .00000000 ALPHAD.000000000E-03 TIME. 0. but now we will consider damping.TEMP.00000000 .500000000 . Damped Response of the Cantilever Beam We did not specify damping in our transient analysis of the beam. 0.DEFA ACEL.000000000E-03. Open up the first load step file (Dynamic. -1. .R5..DAMP BFUNIF.00000000 DCGOMG.00000000 0.00000000 TREF.00000000 NCNV.00000000 . Select Utility Menu > file > Clear and Start New. 0. 0. 0. D. 5. 1. 0.7.1 UP20010418 14:44:02 08/20/2001 /NOPR /TITLE. 0.. 0.s01.00000000 . 0. 0.01 in all three load step files.00000000 BETAD. 0.00000000 . The file should look like the following.00000000 . /GOPR 1. We specify damping at the same time we specify our time & time steps for each load step. .R5.215 Review the results using either General Postprocessing (POST1) or TimeHist Postprocessing (POST26).                             /COM. For this case.00000000 ERESX. We will now re-run our transient analysis.00000000 D.00000000 .REDU. 0. 0.00000000 . 0. TINTP. Dynamic Analysis _LSNUM= 1 ANTYPE.ROTZ. 0.00000000 DMPRAT.0. 0. 0.00000000 CGOMEGA.00000000 .s01) for editing Utility Menu > File > List > Other > Dynamic. 0.00000000 OMEGA.00000000 0.00000000 CGLOC. 1.

A . This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.. plot up the response at node 2 in POST26.. Now go to 'File > Read input from.. After the results have been calculated.. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. . Open the . simply go to Solution > (-Solve-) From LS files .PDF version is also available for printing. After selecting MDOFs. The damped response should look like the following Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. and in the window that opens up select files from 1 to 3 in steps of 1.216 Repeat the steps shown above up to the point where we select MDOFs.' and select the file.HTML version.

. If inertia effects are negligible for the loading conditions being considered. However. For our case. Transient dynamic analysis is a technique used to determine the dynamic response of a structure under a time-varying load. Cases where such effects play a major role are under step or impulse loading conditions. where there is a sharp load change in a fraction of time. we cannot produce an ideal impulse force numerically.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to show the steps involved to perform a simple transient analysis. for example. the response of the beam should contain all mode frequencies. The time frame for this type of analysis is such that inertia or damping effects of the structure are considered to be important. Since an ideal impulse force excites all modes of a structure. we will impact the end of the beam with an impulse force and view the response at the location of impact. a static analysis may be used instead. We have to apply a load over a discrete amount of time dt.217 Transient Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.

Because of the reduced size of the matrices. In other words. The size of the time step is governed by the maximum mode frequency of the structure we wish to capture. we track the response of the beam at discrete time points for as long as we like (depending on what it is that we are looking for in the response). the higher the mode frequency we will capture. The Mode Superposition Method: This method requires a preliminary modal analysis. transient dynamic analysis can be carried out using 3 methods. We will use the Reduced Method for conducting our transient analysis. this method handles only linear problems (such as our cantilever case). but it requires a good deal of understanding of the problem at hand. The Full Method: This is the easiest method to use. However. It requires a good understanding of the dynamic behavior of a structure. The Reduced Method: This method reduces the system matrices to only consider the Master Degrees of Freedom (MDOFs). as factored mode shapes are summed to calculate the structure's response. Therefore. It should be noted that a transient analysis is more involved than a static or harmonic analysis. The rule of thumb in ANSYS is time_step = 1 / 20f where f is the highest mode frequency we wish to capture. Usually one need not go further than Reviewing the Reduced Results. if stresses and forces are of interest than. The smaller the time step. In ANSYS. All types of non-linearities are allowed. However. we must resolve our step size such that we will have 20 discrete points per period of the highest mode frequency. the calculations are much quicker.218 After the application of the load. It is the quickest of the three methods. a modal analysis of the structure should be initially performed to provide information about the structure's dynamic behavior. we would have to Expand the Reduced Solution. . It is however very CPU intensive to go this route as full system matrices are used.

1.UY.2.PRXY.0.0 K.Y.7830 ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density LESIZE. M.0 /PREP7 K.'.' ! Calls the dynamic file NSOL.ALL !* ! Sets time to 0.1.2..1.DENS. UY_2 STORE.10 LMESH.001 ! reduced solution method ! Specifies the time step sizes !At time equals 0s NSEL..001 KBC.Dynamic.001 seconds ! Ramped load step ! Delete the load at the end !At time equals 1s TIME.ALL ! select nodes 2 . NSEL.1.0001.All. TRANS ! Transient analysis TRNOPT.S.33 MP. .MERGE ! Calls data for UY deflection at node 2 ! Stores the data .2.01 ! Element type ! Real constants MP.1 KBC..2.0 FDELE.068e11 MP.0.219 ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /TITLE.1 ! Element size ! Mesh the line FINISH /SOLU ! Enter solution phase ANTYPE.1.2. .0 L.1.3.'Dynamic'.33e-10.0.0.REDUC.1.0.0 !* ! Sets time to 1 second ! Ramped load step LSSOLVE.BEAM3 R.'rdsp'.2 ! This sets the jobname to 'Dynamic' ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Connect keypoints with line ET.1.0..11 ! Define Master DOFs ! Reselect all nodes D.2. DELTIM.001s TIME.1. Dynamic Analysis /FILNAME.2.EX.11.1 ! solve multiple load steps FINISH /POST26 ! Enter time history FILE.U.-100 !* ! Load right end !At time equals 0.FY.ALL.8.1.ALL ! Constrain left end F.

220

PLVAR,2,

! Plots vs. time

!Please note, if you are using a later version of ANSYS,
!you will probably have to issue the LSWRITE command at the
!end of each load step for the LSSOLVE command to function
!properly. In this case, replace the !* found in the code
!with LSWRITE and the problem should be solved.

221

Modelling Using Axisymmetry
Introduction
This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 This tutorial is intended to outline the steps required
to create an axisymmetric model.
The model will be that of a closed tube made from steel. Point loads will be applied at the center of
the top and bottom plate to make an analytical verification simple to calculate. A 3/4 cross section
view of the tube is shown below.
As a warning, point loads will create discontinuities in the your model near the point of application.
If you chose to use these types of loads in your own modelling, be very careful and be sure to
understand the theory of how the FEA package is applying the load and the assumption it is making.
In this case, we will only be concerned about the stress distribution far from the point of
application, so the discontinuities will have a negligable effect.

Preprocessing: Defining the Problem
Give example a Title

222

Utility Menu > File > Change Title ...
/title, Axisymmetric Tube

Open preprocessor menu
ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor
/PREP7

Create Areas
Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By Dimensions
RECTNG,X1,X2,Y1,Y2

For an axisymmetric problem, ANSYS will rotate the area around the y-axis at x=0.
Therefore, to create the geometry mentioned above, we must define a U-shape.
We are going to define 3 overlapping rectangles as defined in the following table:
Rectangle X1 X2 Y1 Y2
1

0 20 0

5

2

15 20 0 100

3

0 20 95 100

Add Areas Together
Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Add > Areas
AADD,ALL

Click the Pick All button to create a single area.
Define the Type of Element
Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete...
For this problem we will use the PLANE2 (Structural, Solid, Triangle 6node)
element. This element has 2 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes).
Many elements support axisymmetry, however if the Ansys Elements Reference
(which can be found in the help file) does not discuss axisymmetric applications for
a particular element type, axisymmetry is not supported.
Turn on Axisymmetry
While the Element Types window is still open, click the Options... button.
Under Element behavior K3 select Axisymmetric.

223

Define Element Material Properties
Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic >
Isotropic
In the window that appears, enter the following geometric properties for steel:
Young's modulus EX: 200000
Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.3
Define Mesh Size
Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas
For this example we will use an element edge length of 2mm.
Mesh the frame
Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All'
Your model should know look like this:

224

Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving
Define Analysis Type
Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static
ANTYPE,0

Apply Constraints
Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > Symmetry B.C. > On Lines
Pick the two edges on the left, at x=0, as shown below. By using the symmetry B.C.
command, ANSYS automatically calculates which DOF's should be constrained for
the line of symmetry. Since the element we are using only has 2 DOF's per node, we
could have constrained the lines in the x-direction to create the symmetric boundary
conditions.

Utility Menu > Select > Entities
Select Nodes and By Location from the scroll down menus. Click Y coordinates
and type 50 into the input box as shown below, then click OK.

225

Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural >
Displacement > On Nodes > Pick All
Constrain the nodes in the y-direction (UY). This is
required to constrain the model in space, otherwise it
would be free to float up or down. The location to
constrain the model in the y-direction (y=50) was chosen
because it is along a symmetry plane. Therefore, these
nodes won't move in the y-direction according to theory.
Utility Menu > Select > Entities
In the select entities window, click Sele All to
reselect all nodes. It is important to always
reselect all entities once you've finished to ensure
future commands are applied to the whole model
and not just a few entities. Once you've clicked
Sele All, click on Cancel to close the window.

Apply Loads
Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints
Pick the top left corner of the area and click OK. Apply a load of 100 in the FY direction.
Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints
Pick the bottom left corner of the area and click OK. Apply a load of -100 in the FY direction.
The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below.

Solve the System

.55 in the Min. Determine the Stress Through the Thickness of the Tube Utility Menu > Select > Entities.226 Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results Hand Calculations Hand calculations were performed to verify the solution found using ANSYS: The stress across the thickness at y = 50mm is 0. as shown below and click OK.Max box.182 MPa.. Select Nodes > By Location > Y coordinates and type 45. General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution > Stress > Components SCOMP The following list should pop up..

..227 If you take the average of the stress in the y-direction over the thickness of the tube. such as corners. The following window will appear. the stress in the tube is 0. it is assumed the stress is evenly distributed across the thickness.18552 + 0. The average is used because in the analytical case. Thus. we must average the stress over the thickness.182 MPa. to approximate the analytical solution. Plotting the Elements as Axisymmetric Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Symmetry Expansion > 2-D Axi-symmetric. matching the analytical solution. (0.17866)/2.. By clicking on 3/4 expansion you can produce the figure shown at the beginning of this tutorial. This is only true when the location is far from any stress concentrators.

0 This tutorial is intended to outline the steps required to create an axisymmetric model. Modelling Using Axisymmetry Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. so the discontinuities will have a negligable effect. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse..' and select the file.. Point loads will be applied at the center of the top and bottom plate to make an analytical verification simple to calculate.HTML version. The model will be that of a closed tube made from steel. In this case. point loads will create discontinuities in the your model near the point of application. we will only be concerned about the stress distribution far from the point of application. be very careful and be sure to understand the theory of how the FEA package is appling the load and the assumption it is making. A 3/4 cross section view of the tube is shown below. . If you chose to use these types of loads in your own modelling. Now go to 'File > Read input from.228 Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. A . As a warning. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Open the .PDF version is also available for printing.

100 ! Apply point loads in center solve finish /post1 nsel.loc.10 /view.s.15.loc.fy.20. Axisymmetric Tube /prep7 /triad.200000 mp.prxy.100 ! Create 3 overlapping rectangles aadd.-100 fk.1.0.all ! Mesh size ! Mesh the area Define element type Turns on axisymmetry Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio finish /solu antype..all.2 amesh.ex.1.45.uy.1.x.5 rectng.loc.1.all /expand.all ! Add the areas together et.plane2 keyopt.2.comp nsel.1 mp.s.y.12.3.0.50 d.axis.229 ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.95.1..off ! Turns off origin triad marker rectng.3 ! ! ! ! esize.55 prnsol.all ! Node select at y=50 ! Constrain motion in y ! Re-select all nodes fk.all.100 rectng.0.fy.20..s.27.0 dl.1.all ! Select the lines at x=0 ! Symmetry constraints ! Re-select all lines nsel.s.1.3 /replot ! Select nodes from y=45 to y=55 ! List stresses on those nodes ! Re-select all nodes ! Expand the axisymmetric elements ! Change the viewing angle .symm lsel.20.0 nsel.y.0.0.0 ! Static analysis lsel.

it is expected that you have completed the Basic Tutorials. however. Design Optimization The use of Design Optimization in ANSYS is used to solve for unknown parameters of a beam. Contact Elements Model of two beams coming into contact with each other. Springs and Joints The creation of models with multiple elements types will be explored in this tutorial. Using P-Elements The stress distribution of a model is solved using p-elements and compared to h-elements. therefore. You may be using a different version of ANSYS than what was used to create these tutorials. Melting Using Element Death Using element death to model a volume melting. ANSYS Parametric Design Language Design a truss using parametric variables. Substructuring The use of Substructuring in ANSYS is used to solve a simple problem. These tutorials can be completed in any order.230 Advanced Tutorials The majority of these examples are simple verification problems to show you how to use the more advanced techniques in ANSYS. . Coupled Structural/Thermal Analysis The use of ANSYS physics environments to solve a simple structural/thermal problem. elements COMBIN7 and COMBIN14 will be explained as well as the use of parameters to store data. make note of small changes in the menu structure. Additionally.

and a modulus of elasticity of 200GPa. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem Open preprocessor menu /PREP7 Give example a Title .7. This tutorial will introduce: the use of multiple elements in ANSYS elements COMBIN7 (Joints) and COMBIN14 (Springs) obtaining/storing scalar information and store them as parameters. The springs have a stiffness of 5 N/mm.231 Application of Joints and Springs in ANSYS Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 5. a wall thickness of 10. A 1000N vertical load will be applied to a catapult as shown in the figure below.1. The catapult is built from steel tubing with an outer diameter of 40 mm.

and ROTY) can be constrained with different levels of flexibility.. ROTY). there should now be three types of elements defined. PIPE16 Preprocessor > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete.Catapult Define Element Types For this problem. UY.Y and Z axis). It is therefore required that the types of elements are defined prior to creating the elements. ROTX. UY). For this example. Y and Z axis. This element has 6 degrees of freedom (translation along the X. 'Elast straight 16' Click on 'Apply' You should see 'Type 1 PIPE16' in the 'Element Types' window.. > click 'Add' Select 'Pipe'. K2 (UZ) and K3 (ROTX. COMBIN14 (Spring-Damper) . Define PIPE16 With 6 degrees of freedom. 'Revolute Joint 7' Click 'Apply'. /title. we . 'Set 1' will now appear in the dialog box COMBIN7 (Joint) Five of the degrees of freedom (UX. then click 'OK' OD = 40 TKWALL = 10 a. These can be defined by the 3 real constants: K1 (UX. Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. > click 'Add' Select Type 1 PIPE16 and click 'OK' Enter the following properties. 'Spring damper 14' Click on 'OK' In the 'Element Types' window. Define Real Constants Real Constants must be defined for each of the 3 element types.. and rotation about the X.. UZ... 3 types of elements are used: PIPE16. COMBIN7 (Revolute Joint). Define COMBIN14 Now we will define the spring elements. Select 'Combination'. Select 'Combination'. Define COMBIN7 COMBIN7 (Revolute Joint) will allow the catapult to rotate about nodes 1 and 2. the PIPE16 element can be used to create the 3D structure.232 Utility Menu > File > Change Title .

Young's modulus EX: 200000 Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. enter the give the properties of Steel then click 'OK'. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models In the 'Define Material Model Behavior' Window..x. Click 'OK'. In the 'Element Types' window. Enter the following geometric properties: Spring constant K: 5 b. we are essentially constraining the two coincident nodes to each other.z) . Note: The constants that we define in this problem refer to the relationship between the coincident nodes. In the 'Real Constants for COMBIN7' window. COMBIN14 (Spring) Click 'Add' Select 'Type 3 COMBIN14'.33 Define Nodes Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Nodes > In Active CS.y. Click 'Add' Select 'Type 2 COMBIN7'. N. By having high values for the stiffness in the X-Y plane and along the Z axis.233 will use high values for K1 through K3 since we only expect the model to rotate about the Z axis. ensure that Material Model Number 1 is selected Select Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. Click 'OK'. enter the following geometric properties (then click 'OK'): X-Y transnational stiffness K1: 1e9 Z directional stiffness K2: 1e9 Rotational stiffness K3: 1e9 'Set 2' will now appear in the dialog box.y.#. there should now be three types of elements defined.z We are going to define 13 Nodes for this structure as given in the following table (as depicted by the circled numbers in the figure above): Node Coordinates (x..

0) 5 (0.0. Then click 'OK'.0.500) 9 (0.400. Create elements .0) 2 (0.1000.0.-500) Create PIPE16 elements Define element type Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > Elem Attributes .0.1000..0.0.1000) 4 (1000. Ensure that the 'Element type number' is set to 1 PIPE16.1500) 13 (0.234 1 (0.700. and 'Real constant set number' is set to 1.0.1000) 11 (0. The following window will appear.0.0.1000) 6 (0.500) 12 (0.. 'Material number' is set to 1.0) 7 (700.0) 10 (0.500) 8 (400.1000) 3 (1000.

node b Create the following elements joining Nodes 'a' and Nodes 'b'.1. Node a Node b 1 6 2 5 1 4 2 3 3 4 10 8 9 8 7 8 12 5 13 6 12 13 5 3 6 4 You should obtain the following geometry (Oblique view) Create COMBIN7 (Joint) elements Define element type .235 Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > (-Auto Numbered-) Thru Nodes E. node a. Note: because it is difficult to graphically select the nodes you may wish to use the command line (for example. the first entry would be: E.6).

Two nodes are coincident at the point of rotation. Meshing Because we have defined our model using nodes and elements. node b Create the following lines joining Node 'a' and Node 'b' Node a Node b 5 8 8 6 2. The axis would be the line from the coincident nodes to the other node. we would have had to . you can list all the elements defined in the model.236 Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > Elem Attributes Ensure that the 'Element type number' is set to 2 COMBIN7 and that 'Real constant set number' is set to 2. we do not need to mesh our model.node a. select Utilities Menu > List > Elements > Nodes + Attributes. The other node for the joint defines the axis of rotation. Then click 'OK' Create elements When defining a joint. Then click 'OK' Create elements Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > (-Auto Numbered-) Thru Nodes E.node a. three nodes are required. node b. The elements that connect to the joint must reference each of the coincident points. If we initially defined our model using keypoints and lines. To do this. NOTE: To ensure that the correct nodes were used to make the correct element in the above table. Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > (-Auto Numbered-) Thru Nodes E. node c Create the following lines joining Node 'a' and Node 'b' Node a Node b Node c 1 9 11 2 10 11 Create COMBIN14 (Spring) elements Define element type Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > Elem Attributes Ensure that the 'Element type number' is set to 3 COMBIN7 and that 'Real constant set number' is set to 3.

ON Because the model is expected to deform considerably. Plot Elements Utility Menu > Plot > Elements You may also wish to turn on element numbering and turn off keypoint numbering Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering . Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. we need to include the effects of large deformation.237 create elements in our model by meshing the lines. It is the elements that ANSYS uses to solve the model. Apply Constraints Solution > (-Loads-) Apply > (-Structural-) > Displacement > On Nodes .0 Allow Large Deflection Solution > Sol'n Controls > basic NLGEOM...

Postprocessing: Viewing the Results Plot Deformed Shape . 4. you will see a yellow warning window which states that the "Coefficient ratio exceeds 1. This warning indicates that the solution has relatively large displacements. This is due to the rotation about the joints. and 13.. (ie .0e8".. Note: To have the constraints and loads appear each time you select 'Replot' in ANSYS.all degrees of freedom are constrained). you must change some settings under Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Symbols. 12. Solve the System Solution > (-Solve-) Current LS SOLVE Note: During the solution.. In the window that appears check the box beside 'All Applied BC's' in the 'Boundary Condition Symbol' section. The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below. Apply Loads Solution > (-Loads-) Apply > (-Structural-) > Force/Moment > On Nodes Apply a vertical point load of 1000N at node #7.238 Fix Nodes 3.

. We will do this using the GET command.2 Extracting Information as Parameters In this problem. Select 'Results data' and 'Nodal results' as shown then click 'OK' Fill in the 'Get Nodal Results Data' window as shown below: . The following window will appear..239 General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape PLDISP. we would like to find the vertical displacement of node #7. Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data.

This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.. This can be repeated for any of the other nodes you are interested in.240 To view the defined parameter select Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters.78 mm. Therefore the vertical displacement of Node 7 is 323. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. copy and . Open the .HTML version..

241 paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. A 1000N vertical load will be applied to a catapult as shown in the figure below.3.COMBIN7 ET.2. a wall thickness of 10..' and select the file.PDF version is also available for printing. The catapult is built from steel tubing with an outer diameter of 40 mm..7. Application of Joints and Springs in ANSYS Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 5. The springs have a stiffness of 5 N/mm. A .COMBIN14 ! Element type 1 ! Element type 2 ! Element type 3 .1. This tutorial will introduce: the use of multiple elements in ANSYS elements COMBIN7 (Joints) and COMBIN14 (Springs) obtaining/storing scalar information and store them as parameters.PIPE16 ET. Catapult /PREP7 ET. and a modulus of elasticity of 200GPa. Now go to 'File > Read input from.1. ANSYS Command Listing /title.

4 ! Element connectivity TYPE. 8.40.12. 5 E.12.13.5.3 ! Turn on Element 3 ! Turn on Real constants 3 E. 0.10.10.1000. 400.ON ! Static analysis ! Non-linear geometry on . 0. 5. 2. 400. 500 N. 2. 0.1 ! Turn on Element 1 ! Turn on Real constants 1 ! Turn on Material 1 E.1e9. 0 N. 0.1000 N. 9. . 6.3 REAL.0 NLGEOM.0 /PNUM. 3 E.8 E. 6. 2.1000 N. 0 N.11.8.1000. .1000.0. 500 N. 0.EX. 8 E. 8 E.1 REAL.6 ! Element connectivity /PNUM. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0 N.1 MAT. 0.2 REAL.1 /REPLOT ! Number nodes ! Number elements FINISH /SOLU ! Enter solution phase ANTYPE. 2. 1. 7.33 ! Young's modulus (Material 1) ! Poisson's ratio (Material 1) N. 1.KP.12.1.2.5. 3.1500 N.1. 0. 11 ! Element connectivity TYPE.PRXY. 1. 9. 9. 5. 4. 4 E. 0. 4 E. 500 N.10 R. ! Real constants 1 ! Real constants 2 ! Real constants 3 MP.242 R.-500 ! Node locations TYPE. 700. 0.ELEM.1e9 R.1000 N. 7. 0 N. 8 E.200000 MP.1e9.13 E. 3 E. 0. 11 E. 1. 0. 5 E.13. 6 E.3.1000 N. 10.2 ! Turn on Element 2 ! Turn on Real constants 2 E.1. 0. 3. 0. 0. 700. 6 E.1000.

13 ! Load node 7 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.12.FY.3..13 F.-1000 ! Constrain nodes 3.Y .5 ! 5 Load steps of equal size D.VERT7.2 *GET.ALL.7.U..4.0.12.4.NODE.243 NSUBST.7.

0 The purpose of this tutorial is to introduce a method of solving design optimization problems using ANSYS. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . The use of hardpoints to apply forces/constraints in the middle of lines will also be covered in this tutorial. The purpose of this optimization problem is to minimize the weight of the beam without exceeding the allowable stress.244 Design Optimization Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. Design Optimization Enter initial estimates for variables To solve an optimization problem in ANSYS. parameters need to be defined for all design variables.. A beam has a force of 1000N applied as shown below. However. state and objective variables and setting the correct tolerances for the problem to obtain an accurately converged solution in a minimal amount of time. the width and height of the beam cannot be smaller than 10mm. This will involve creating the geometry utilizing parameters for all the variables.. The maximum stress anywhere in the beam cannot exceed 200 MPa. It is necessary to find the cross sectional dimensions of the beam in order to minimize the weight of the beam. . deciding which variables to use as design. /title.

.0) 2 (1000. we want to apply a force 3/4 of the way down the .. For this case. K.y We are going to define 2 Keypoints for this beam as given in the following table: Keypoints Coordinates (x. Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS. The 'Scalar Parameters' window will stay open.. Now type H=20 in the ‘Selection’ section Click ‘Accept' Click ‘Close’ in the ‘Scalar Parameters’ window. In the window that appears (shown below).0) Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L.y) 1 (0.x. NOTE: None of the variables defined in ANSYS are allowed to have negative values.2 Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2 Create Hard Keypoints Hardpoints are often used when you need to apply a constraint or load at a location where a keypoint does not exist..245 Select: Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters.#. type W=20 in the ‘Selection’ section Click ‘Accept’.1.

3 Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines.. . enter the following geometric properties: (Note that '**' is used instead '^' for exponents) Cross-sectional area AREA: W*H Area moment of inertia IZZ: (W*H**3)/12 Thickness along Y axis: H NOTE: It is important to use independent variables to define dependent variables such as the moment of inertia... the other variables must be defined in relation to the width and height. During the optimization.. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes. You have now created a keypoint labelled 'Keypoint 3' 3/4 of the way down the beam. As a result. This will allow us to create a hardpoint on the line by defining the ratio of the location of the point to the size of the line Select the line when prompted Enter a ratio of 0. enter the following geometric properties for steel: Young's modulus EX: 200000 Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. the width and height will change for each iteration.. Since there are not any keypoints here and we can't be certain that one of the nodes will be here we will need to specify a hardpoint Select Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > Hard PT on line > Hard PT by ratio. > Add.. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element.. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.246 beam. and rotation about the Z axis). Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window.. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.75 in the 'Create HardPT by Ratio window which appears.

. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH.247 For this example we will specify an element edge length of 100 mm (10 element divisions along the line).ALL Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. UY constrained) and constrain Keypoint 2 in the Y direction. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Apply a vertical (FY) point load of -2000N at Keypoint 3 The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below.0 Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Pin Keypoint 1 (ie UX.

. In this problem.. > Add... you have to sum the element values together to obtain the total volume of the beam. Define the volume Select General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table.248 Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results Extracting Information as Parameters: To perform an optimization. If you were to list the element table you would get a volume for each element. we must extract the required information. The following window will appear. Fill it in as shown to obtain the volume of the beam. we would like to find the maximum stress in the beam and the volume as a result of the width and height variables. A little window will appear notifying you that the tabular sum of each element table will be calculated. Note that this is the volume of each element.. Follow the instructions below to do this. In the window which appears select 'Results Data' and 'Elem table sums' . Therefore. Click 'OK' You will obtain a window notifying you that the EVolume is now 400000 mm2 Store the data (Volume) as a parameter Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data.. Select General Postproc > Element Table > Sum of Each Item...

The following window will appear.. For further information type Help beam3 into the command line Now we will need to sort the stresses in descending order to find the maximum stress Select General Postproc > List Results > Sorted Listing > Sort Elems Complete the window as shown below to sort the data from 'SMAX_I' in descending order .. > Add. Define the maximum stress at the i node of each element in the beam Select General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table... Fill it in as shown to obtain the maximum stress at the i node of each element and store it as 'SMAX_I'.1 is the maximum stress. Note that nmisc.249 the following window will appear. Now if you view the parameters (Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters. Select the items shown to store the Volume as a parameter..) you will see that Volume has been added..

However.3 (instead of NMISC. name the parameter 'SMaxJ'. however. Select the largest of SMAXJ and SMAXI Type SMAX=SMAXI>SMAXJ into the command line ... In the window which appears select 'Results Data' and 'Other operations' In the that appears.. This will give you the max stress at the j node. Comp selection box Store the data (Max Stress) as a parameter Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data. > Add... fill it in as shown previously .. Define maximum stress at the j node of each element for the beam Select General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table. however make the following changes: save the data as 'SMAX_J' (instead of 'SMAX_I') The element table data enter NMISC. In the window which appears select 'Results Data' and 'Other operations' In the that appears.1). Fill this table as done previously. select 'SMAX_J' in the Item.250 Store the data (Max Stress) as a parameter Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data... Select General Postproc > List Results > Sorted Listing > Sort Elems to sort the stresses in descending order. fill it in as shown to obtain the maximum value.

. View the parametric data Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters Note that the maximum stress is 281.0. Write the command file It is necessary to write the outline of our problem to an ANSYS command file.. .. it should similar to this: /BATCH ! /COM..BEAM3 !* !* R.H ...'C:\Program Files\Ansys Inc\v70\ANSYS\apdl

.3 !* LESIZE. 1.. .251 This will set the largest of the 2 values equal to SMAX. LMESH.. we can now solve the optimization problem. K. !* ET..H.1.75. L. In this case the maximum values for each are the same.1..ALL. Design Optimization *SET.. this is not always the case. 20 /PREP7 K...... .2..1.0. .PRXY. 2 !* HPTCREATE.0 MPDATA.ANSYS RELEASE 7..1..25 which is much larger than the allowable stress of 200MPa Design Optimization Now that we have parametrically set up our problem in ANSYS based on our initial width and height dimensions.1.ans.0 UP20021010 /input..0. If you open the command file in a text editor such as Notepad.W .. . !* !* MPTEMP.100.1. However. 20 *SET.1.RATI..(W*H**3)/12.. 1 16:10:03 05/26/2003 .start70.txt’ Click ‘OK’. MPTEMP.. In the window that appears type a name for the command file such as ‘optimize. .EX.W*H.1.0.LINE. . This is so that ANSYS can iteratively run solutions to our problem based on different values for the variables that we will define.1 /title...0.1. Select Utility Menu > File > Write DB Log File...200000 MPDATA.1000.. .

. .UX.0. .1.FY.. However.DK.SMax_J. .C:\Temp\. .-2000 ! /STATUS. . .2.2.SMAX.1 !* /GO DK. .P51X.ETAB.NMISC.2. . This specifies the constraints at keypoint 1 Line 37 . FLST. .optimization. .2. Save and close the file once you have made all of the required changes. 1 !* ESORT.P51X.SSUM. .0.3.SMaxI.SORT.0.ORDE. .0.0. .3.2 !* /GO DK. most of these changes will already be made. using command line code.SMAXI>SMAXJ ! LGWRITE.0. ETABLE. Therefore.0.UY.3 !* /GO FK.UX. ETABLE. !* *GET. To modify the file simply open it using notepad and make the required changes. !* *GET.ORDE.UX.COMMENT Several small changes need to be made to this file prior to commencing the optimization.UY.0.SMAX_J. Change this to: DK. .EVolume. if you used GUI to create this file there are several occasions where you used the graphical picking device.SORT. !* SSUM !* *GET.UY.0.1.1 FITEM. .1. The following is a list of the changes which need to be made to this file (which was created using the GUI method) Line 32 .2. .1.0.MAX AVPRIN. . . .2.0.. .P51X.UY.0. .1. 3 !* ESORT.0.SMaxJ.SMax_I. the actual items that were chosen need to be entered.0.0 FLST.Volume.3. If you created the geometry etc.NMISC. The code 'P51X' symbolizes the graphical selection.. .252 FINISH /SOL !* ANTYPE.SOLU SOLVE FINISH /POST1 AVPRIN.1 FITEM.ITEM.VOLU. .ETAB.EVOLUME AVPRIN.DK. . .1 FITEM. .P51X. . .MAX *SET.0.SMAX_I. ETABLE. .1.UY. .P51X. .ORDE. FLST.0. . .

In this example.-2000 Change to: FK.UY. we need to know which variables have an effect on the variable to be minimized. If you are comfortable with command line coding. Define Variables and Tolerances ANSYS needs to know which variables are critical to the optimization. our optimization will continue until both the width and height are zero. For the width and height. Changing either variable has a direct effect on the solution of the problem. Objective Variable (OV) The objective variable is the one variable in the optimization that needs to be minimized.0.-2000 This specifies the force applied on the beam There are also several lines which can be removed from this file. This would minimize the weight to zero which is not a useful result. we will select a tolerance of 0. we need to define ranges and tolerances for each variable. Now that we have decided our design variables.P51X. These variables are necessary to constrain the design. In this example our objective is to minimize the volume of a beam which is directly related to the weight of the beam. the SV is the maximum stress in the beam. This specifies the constraints at keypoint 2 Line 42 .FK. In this example.01mm. ANSYS categorizes three types of variables for design optimization: Design Variables (DVs) Independent variables that directly effect the design objective.3. Click ‘OK’.253 Change to: DK.FY. none of the variables defined in ANSYS are allowed to have negative values. State Variables (SVs) Dependent variables that change as a result of changing the DVs. we will be minimizing the volume of the beam.0. NOTE: As previously stated. we will select a range of 195 to 200 MPa with a tolerance of 0. Assign the Command File to the Optimization Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Analysis File > Assign In the file list that appears. To define variables. Tolerances are necessary in that they tell ANSYS the largest amount of change that a variable can experience before convergence of the problem. the width and height of the beam are the DVs. . For the stress variable.FY.01MPa. In our problem. . Because a small change in either the width or height has a profound effect on the volume of the beam.2. Without this SV. . you should remove the lines which you are certain are not required. we will select a range of 10 to 50 mm for each. select the filename that you created when you wrote the command file.

> Add. Define the Optimization Method . Complete the window as shown below to specify the variable limits and tolerances for the height of the beam..001) Define the Objective Variable Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Objective... Under Convergence Tolerance.. Enter: Lower Limit (MIN = 195) Upper Limit (MAX = 200) Feasibility Tolerance (TOLER = 0. Select ‘VOLUME’ in the ‘Parameter Name’ section. We will set the tolerance to 200mm3.. > Add... we do not need to define an allowable range.. This tolerance was chosen because it is significantly smaller than the initial magnitude of the volume of 400000mm3 (20mm x 20mm x 1000mm). In the window fill in the following sections Select 'SMAX' in the ‘Parameter Name’ section.. enter 200.. Define the Design Variables (width and height of beam) Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Design Variables.254 Because the volume variable is the objective variable. Repeat the above steps to specify the variable limits for the width of the beam (identical to specifications for height) Define the State Variables Select Main Menu > Design Opt > State Variables.

Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Method / Tool. Click ‘OK’. Complete the window as shown to obtain a graph of the height and width of the beam changing with each iteration For the ‘X-variable parameter’ select ‘Set number’. In the ‘Specify Optimization Method’ window select ‘First-Order’ Click ‘OK’ Enter: Maximum iterations (NITR = 30). confirm that the analysis file. Percent forward diff. The solution of an optimization problem can take awhile before convergence. For this problem we will use a First-Order Solution method... In the ‘Begin Execution of Run’ window. it is advisable to use different solution methods. Percent step size SIZE = 100. and the stress is equal to 199.. Defaults to 10.255 There are several different methods that ANSYS can use to solve an optimization problem. View graphical results of each variable during the solution Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Design Sets > Graphs / Tables..83 MPa with a volume of 386100mm2.. DELTA = 0. . If you have trouble with getting a particular problem to converge it would be a good idea to try a different method of solution to see what might be wrong... This problem will take about 15 minutes and run through 19 iterations.16 mm. Defaults to 100% DELTA forward difference (%) applied to the design variable range that is used to compute the gradient. To ensure that you are not finding a solution at a local minimum.24 mm. method/type and maximum iterations are correct.2 Click ‘OK’. Note: the significance of the above variables is explained below: NITR Max number of iterations. height=29. Defaults to 0..2% Run the Optimization Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Run. View the Results View Final Parameters Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters. SIZE % that is applied to the size of each line search step. You will probably see that the width=13.

. .256 For the ‘Y-variable parameter’ select ‘H’ and ‘W’. Ensure that 'Graph' is selected (as opposed to 'List') Now you may wish to specify titles for the X and Y axes Select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes... you will see a graph of width and height throughout the optimization. enter ‘Number of Iterations’ for the ‘X-axis label’ section.. You can print the plot by selecting Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Hard Copy. Click 'OK' Select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls In the graphics window. Enter ‘Width and Height (mm)’ for the ‘Y-axis label’. In the window.

. the width and height of the beam cannot be smaller than 10mm. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Instead of using width and height for the y-axis label and variables. Design Optimization Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. However.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to introduce a method of solving design optimization problems using ANSYS. displacement. Now go to 'File > Read input from. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. . state and objective variables and setting the correct tolerances for the problem to obtain an accurately converged solution in a minimal amount of time. all of the results data (ie stress. use whichever variable is necessary to plot. In addition.. The use of hardpoints to apply forces/constraints in the middle of lines will also be covered in this tutorial. Alternatively. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. you could list the data by selecting Main Menu > Design Opt > Design Sets > List. This will involve creating the geometry utilizing parameters for all the variables.HTML version.PDF version is also available for printing. A . A beam has a force of 1000N applied as shown below. It is necessary to find the cross sectional dimensions of the beam in order to minimize the weight of the beam.257 You can plot graphs of the other variables in the design by following the above steps. . Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. Open the .. deciding which variables to use as design.' and select the file. bending moments) are available from the General Postproc menu. The maximum stress anywhere in the beam cannot exceed 200 MPa.. The purpose of this optimization problem is to minimize the weight of the beam without exceeding the allowable stress.

0 DK.-2000 ! Force at hardpoint ! Support keypoint 2 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 ETABLE.0 ! Static analysis DK.0 ! Pin keypoint 1 FK.2 HPTCREATE.1.2. '^').0.1..1.PRXY.3.100 LMESH.ALL ! Mesh size ! Mesh line ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.1.1.EVolume.height MP.1.W.EVOLUME beam ! Volume of single element ! Sum all volumes ! Create parameter 'Volume' for volume of . ! Set an initial height of 20 mm ! Set an initial width of 20 mm ! Keypoint locations ! Create line ! Create hardpoint 75% from left side ET.(W*H**3)/12. Design Optimization *set. not ESIZE.258 ANSYS Command Listing /prep7 /title.H.2.3 ! Element type ! Real consts: area.200000 MP.I (note '**'..0..Volume.1.ITEM.75.1000.LINE.1..W*H.20 *set.0 L.20 K.0 DK.EX.RATI.UX..0 K.UY.BEAM3 R.0.H.FY. SSUM *GET.SSUM.1.VOLU.UY.

SORT.X.1.H.VOLUME.optimize.259 ETABLE.SORT.SMAX_J.SMAX_I.200.SMAX_J.001 50 mm. Percent step size.DV.0.MAX ! Create parameter 'SMaxJ' for max stress *SET. min 10 mm.3 at J node ESORT.001 MPa OPVAR. tolerance 0. min 10 mm.0.txt /OPT OPANL.FIRS OPFRST.. min 195 MPa. tolerance 200 OPTYPE. max ! Width design variable.001mm OPVAR. PLVAROPT..0.'optimize'.W. max ! Volume as object variable..SMAXJ.200 mm^2 ! Height design variable.001mm OPVAR. *GET.W /AXLAB.NMISC. tolerance 0.'C:\Temp

Related Interests

! Assign optimize.DV..Y.ETAB.txt.0.SMAX.H.'txt'.Width and Height (mm) /REPLOT ! Graph optimation data ! Run optimization .OBJ. tolerance 0.SV.1 at I node ESORT.100.001 200 MPa..NMISC.10. *GET.0.ETAB.10.SMAXI>SMAXJ ! Create parameter 'SMax' as max stress LGWRITE. max 50 ! Height state variable.SMAXI.Number of Iterations /AXLAB.2.50.0.1.MAX ! Create parameter 'SMaxI' for max stress ETABLE.50.SMAX_I.txt as analysis file OPVAR.195.SMAX.C:\TEMP ! Save logfile to C:\Temp\optimize. Percent forward difference OPEXE ! First-order analysis ! Max iteration.30..001 mm.

Select the degrees of freedom to save (master DOFs) and to discard (slave DOFs).29) connected to a block of silicone (E = 2. Expansion Pass Expand the reduced solution to obtain the solution at all DOFs for the super-element. This method is .260 Substructuring Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. The use of substructuring in ANSYS is a three stage process: Generation Pass Generate the super-element by condensing several elements together. substructuring will be used for the wood block.5 MPa. Note that a this method is a bottom-up substructuring (each super-element is created separately and then assembled in the Use Pass). The example involves a block of wood (E =10 GPa v =0.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the how to use substructuring in ANSYS. Apply loads to the super-element Use Pass Create the full model including the super-element created in the generation pass. Apply remaining loads to the model.41) which is rigidly attached to the ground. then super-element are created by selecting the appropriate elements). This reduces the required computation time and also allows the solution of very large problems. however. For this example. Substructuring is a procedure that condenses a group of finite elements into one super-element. v = 0. Top-down substructuring is also possible in ANSYS (the entire model is built. The solution will consist of the reduced solution tor the super-element and the complete solution for the non-superelements. A simple example will be demonstrated to explain the steps required. A force will be applied to the structure as shown in the following figure. please note that this model is not one which requires the use of substructuring.

WIDTH.YCORNER.HEIGHT Create a rectangle with the dimensions (all units in mm): XCORNER (WP X) = 0 YCORNER (WP Y) = 40 Width = 100 Height = 100 Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Expansion Pass: Creating the Super-element Preprocessing: Defining the Problem Give Generation Pass a Jobname Utility Menu > File > Change Jobname . enter the following geometric properties for wood: Young's modulus EX: 10000 (MPa) Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0..29 Define Mesh Size . This element has 4 nodes. For this problem we will use PLANE42 (2D structural solid). each with 2 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes).XCORNER..261 suitable for smaller models and has the advantage that the results for multiple super-elements can be assembled in postprocessing.. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.. Enter 'GEN' for the jobname Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 Create geometry of the super-element Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4.

the stiffness matrix or load matrix can be printed to the output window if desired. the stiffness matrix is to be generated.1 Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Substructuring ANTYPE.262 Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas > All Areas ..SUBST Select Substructuring Analysis Options It is necessary to define the substructuring analysis options Select Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options The following window will appear. In this case. With the option SEPR. Ensure that the options are filled in as shown. Sename (the name of the super-element matrix file) will default to the jobname. Select Master Degrees of Freedom . Mesh the block Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' AMESH.. For this example we will use an element edge length of 10mm.

Select Solution > Master DOFs > User Selected > Define Select the Master DOF as shown in the following figure. In the window that appears. set the 1st degree of freedom to All DOF Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes Place a load of 5N in the x direction on the top left hand node .263 Master DOFs must be defined at the interface between the super-element and other elements in addition to points where loads/constraints are applied.

including the super-elements from the Generation Pass. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem Clear the existing database Utility Menu > File > Clear & Start New Give Use Pass a Jobname .db SAVE Save the database to be used again in the expansion pass Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Use Pass: Using the Super-element The Use Pass is where we model the entire model. Save the database Utility Menu > File > Save as Jobname.264 The model should now appear as shown in the figure below.

..265 Utility Menu > File > Change Jobname .. FILNAME.XCORNER. We will again use PLANE42 (2D structural solid). Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears..HEIGHT Create a rectangle with the dimensions (all units in mm): XCORNER (WP X) = 0 YCORNER (WP Y) = 0 Width = 100 Height = 40 Define the Non-Superelement Type Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.YCORNER.5 (MPa) Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.41 Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas > All Areas ..WIDTH. .. Select 'Super-element' (MATRIX50) Create geometry of the non-superelement (Silicone) Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4. USE Enter 'USE' for the jobname Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 Now we need to bring the Super-element into the model Define the Super-element Type Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. enter the following geometric properties for silicone: Young's modulus EX: 2...

).266 For this block we will again use an element edge length of 10mm. If we bring in the super-element with similar node numbers. Therefore. Mesh the block Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' AMESH.. Fill in the following window as shown to set MaxNode = the highest node number Offset the node numbering . we need to offset the super-element nodes Determine the number of nodes in the existing model Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data . Note that is is imperative that the nodes of the non-superelement match up with the super-element MDOFs.1 Offset Node Numbering Since both the super-element and the non-superelement were created independently. they contain similarly numbered nodes (ie both objects will have node #1 etc. For Selected set as shown. The following window will appear.. the nodes will overwrite existing nodes from the non-superelements. Select Model Data.

Select Nodes.. Enter 'GEN2' as the Jobname of the matrix file in the window (shown below) Utility Menu > Plot > Replot Couple Node Pairs at Interface of Super-element and Non-Superelements Select the nodes at the interface Select Utility Menu > Select > Entities . The following window will appear. By Location...SUB File.267 Select Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Elements > Super-elements > BY CS Transfer Fill in the following window as shown to offset the node numbers and save the file as GEN2 Read in the super-element matrix Select Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Elements > Super-elements > From . Y coordinates.. 40 as shown. .

0 Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Fix the bottom line (ie all DOF constrained) Apply super-element load vectors Determine the element number of the super-element (Select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering.268 Couple the pair nodes at the interface Select Preprocessor > Coupling / Ceqn > Coincident Nodes Re-select all of the nodes Select Utility Menu > Select > Entities . click 'Nodes > By Num/Pick > From Full > Sele All' Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE.) You should find that the super-element is element 41 Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Load Vector > For Super-element The following window will appear. . In the window that appears.. Fill it in as shown to apply the super-element load vector....

269 Save the database Utility Menu > File > Save as Jobname.1 .db SAVE Save the database to be used again in the expansion pass Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results Show the Displacement Contour Plot General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution ..0..SUM. Translation USUM PLNSOL.U. > DOF solution.

FILNAME.. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem Clear the existing database Utility Menu > File > Clear & Start New Change the Jobname back to Generation pass Jobname Utility Menu > File > Change Jobname .270 Note that only the deformation for the non-superelements is plotted. GEN Enter 'GEN' for the jobname Resume Generation Pass Database .. Expansion Pass: Expanding the Results within the Superelement To obtain the solution for all elements within the super-element you will need to perform an expansion pass. This results agree with what was found without using substructuring (see figure below).

271

Utility Menu > File > Resume Jobname.db ...
RESUME

Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving
Activate Expansion Pass
Enter the Solution mode by selecting Main Menu > Solution or by typing /SOLU into the command
line.
Type 'EXPASS,ON' into the command line to initiate the expansion pass.
Enter the Super-element name to be Expanded
Select Solution > Load STEP OPTS > ExpansionPass > Single Expand >Expand Superelem ...
The following window will appear. Fill it in as shown to select the super-element.

Enter the Super-element name to be Expanded
Select Solution > Load Step Opts > ExpansionPass > Single Expand > By Load Step...
The following window will appear. Fill it in as shown to expand the solution.

Solve the System
Solution > Solve > Current LS
SOLVE

General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
Show the Displacement Contour Plot

272

General Postproc > Plot Results > (-Contour Plot-) Nodal Solution ... > DOF
solution, Translation USUM
PLNSOL,U,SUM,0,1

Note that only the deformation for the super-elements is plotted (and that the contour
intervals have been modified to begin at 0). This results agree with what was found without
using substructuring (see figure below).

Command File Mode of Solution
The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the
command language interface of ANSYS. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS

273

command language interface that you may want to browse. Open the .HTML version, copy and
paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Now go to 'File >
Read input from...' and select the file. A .PDF version is also available for printing.

Substructuring
Introduction
This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the how to use
substructuring in ANSYS. Substructuring is a procedure that condenses a group of finite elements
into one super-element. This reduces the required computation time and also allows the solution of
very large problems.
A simple example will be demonstrated to explain the steps required, however, please note that this
model is not one which requires the use of substructuring. The example involves a block of wood (E
=10 GPa v =0.29) connected to a block of silicone (E = 2.5 MPa, v = 0.41) which is rigidly attached
to the ground. A force will be applied to the structure as shown in the following figure. For this
example, substructuring will be used for the wood block.

The use of substructuring in ANSYS is a three stage process:
Generation Pass
Generate the super-element by condensing several elements together. Select the degrees of freedom
to save (master DOFs) and to discard (slave DOFs). Apply loads to the super-element
Use Pass
Create the full model including the super-element created in the generation pass. Apply remaining
loads to the model. The solution will consist of the reduced solution tor the super-element and the
complete solution for the non-superelements.
Expansion Pass
Expand the reduced solution to obtain the solution at all DOFs for the super-element.

274

Note that a this method is a bottom-up substructuring (each super-element is created separately and
then assembled in the Use Pass). Top-down substructuring is also possible in ANSYS (the entire
model is built, then super-element are created by selecting the appropriate elements). This method is
suitable for smaller models and has the advantage that the results for multiple super-elements can be
assembled in postprocessing.

ANSYS Command Listing
! Bottom-Up Substructuring
! GENERATION PASS - Build the superelement portion of the model
FINISH
/CLEAR, START
/FILNAME,GEN
! Change jobname
/PREP7
! Create Geometry
blc4,0,40,100,100

! Creates rectangle

! Define material properties of wood section
ET,1,PLANE42
! Element type
MP,EX,1, 10000
! Young's Modulus
MP,PRXY,1,0.29
! Poisson's ratio
! meshing
AESIZE,1,10,
amesh,1

! Element size
! Mesh area

FINISH
/SOLU
ANTYPE,SUBST
SEOPT,GEN,,2

! SUBSTRUCTURE GENERATION PASS
! Name = GEN and no printed output

NSEL,S,EXT
M,ALL,ALL
NSEL,ALL

! Select all external nodes
! Make all selected nodes master DOF's
! Reselect all nodes

NSEL,S,LOC,Y,140
NSEL,R,LOC,X,0
F,ALL,FX,5

! Select the corner node

NSEL,ALL

! Reselect all nodes

SAVE
SOLVE
FINISH

! Saves file to jobname.db
! GEN.SUB created

! USE PASS
FINISH
/CLEAR
/FILNAME,USE
/PREP7

! Load it

! Change jobname to use

! Create Geometry of non superelements
blc4,0,0,100,40
! Creates rectangle
! Define material properties

275

ET,2,PLANE42
TYPE,2
MP,EX,2, 2.5
MP,PRXY,2,0.41
! Meshing
AESIZE,1,10,
mat,2
real,2
amesh,1
! Superelement
ET,1,MATRIX50
TYPE,1
*GET,MaxNode,NODE,,NUM,MAX
SETRAN,GEN,,MaxNode,GEN2
SE,GEN2
NSEL,S,LOC,Y,40
CPINTF,ALL
NSEL,ALL

! Element type
! Turns on element type 2
! Second material property set for silicon

!
!
!
!

Element size
Turns on Material 2
Turns on real constants 2
Mesh the area

! MATRIX50 is the superelement type
! Turns on element type 1
! determine the max number of nodes
! node number offset
! Read in superelement matrix
! Select nodes at interface
! Couple node pairs at interface

FINISH
/SOLU
ANTYPE,STATIC

! Static analysis

NSEL,S,LOC,Y,0
D,ALL,ALL,0
NSEL,ALL

! Select all nodes at y = 0
! Constrain those nodes
! Reselect all nodes

ESEL,S,TYPE,,1
SFE,ALL,1,SELV,,1
ESEL,ALL

! Element select
! Apply super-element load vector
! Reselect all elements

SAVE
SOLVE
FINISH
/POST1
PLNSOL,U,SUM,0,1
FINISH
! EXPANSION PASS
/CLEAR
/FILNAME,GEN
RESUME
/SOLU
EXPASS,ON,YES
SEEXP,GEN2,USE
EXPSOL,1,1,
SOLVE
superelement solution written
FINISH
/POST1
PLNSOL,U,SUM,0,1

! Enter post processing
! Plot deflection contour

! Clear database
! Change jobname back to generation pass jobname
! Restore generation pass database
! Enter SOLUTION
! Activate expansion pass
! Superelement name to be expanded
! Expansion pass info
! Initiate expansion pass solution.
to GEN.RST

! Plot deflection contour

Full

276

Using P-Elements
Introduction
This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0. This tutorial outlines the steps necessary for solving
a model meshed with p-elements. The p-method manipulates the polynomial level (p-level) of the
finite element shape functions which are used to approximate the real solution. Thus, rather than
increasing mesh density, the p-level can be increased to give a similar result. By keeping mesh
density rather coarse, computational time can be kept to a minimum. This is the greatest advantage
of using p-elements over h-elements.
A uniform load will be applied to the right hand side of the geometry shown below. The specimen
was modeled as steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.

Preprocessing: Defining the Problem
Give example a Title
Utility Menu > File > Change Title ...
/title, P-Method Meshing

Activate the p-Method Solution Options
ANSYS Main Menu > Preferences
/PMETH,ON

Select p-Method Struct. as shown below

y..x..#.z We are going to define 12 keypoints for this geometry as given in the following table .277 Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS. K.

/title. It will be subject to convection heating which will cause the block to "melt". Element birth is also possible.278 Melting Using Element Death Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. The elements are still technically there. More accurate models using element death can then be created as required. Element Death Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 Create Rectangle Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners Fill in the window with the following dimensions: .0 The purpose of the tutorial is to outline the steps required to use element death to model melting of a material. For further information.. The model will be an infinitely long rectangular block of material 3cm X 3cm as shown below. Element death is the "turning off" of elements according to some desired criterion. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . but will not be discussed here. see Chapter 10 of the Advanced Guide in the ANSYS help file regarding element birth and death. rather it is concerned with the element death procedure. they just have zero stiffness and thus have no affect on the model.. This tutorial doesn't take into account heat of fusion or changes in thermal properties over temperature ranges.

279 WP X = 0 WP Y = 0 Width = 0.0. For this example. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' .0. Quad 4node 55). enter the following properties: Specific Heat C: 2040 Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Density In the window that appears. For this example we will use an element edge length of 0. we will use PLANE55 (Thermal Solid.03 Height = 0.03 Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.03 BLC4. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic In the window that appears.03...8 Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Specific Heat In the window that appears. PLANE55 can only be used for 2 dimensional steady-state or transient thermal analysis...0. enter the following properties: Thermal Conductivity KXX: 1. enter the following properties: Density DENS: 920 Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas.0.0005m. This element has 4 nodes and a single DOF (temperature) at each node.

. there is no apparent way to do this with the graphical user interface.280 Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Transient The window shown below will pop up.FULL into the commmand line. Set Solution Controls Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Controls The following window will pop up.4 Turn on Newton-Raphson solver Due to a glitch in the ANSYS software. We will use the defaults. so click OK. This step is necessary as element killing can only be done when the N-R solver has been used. Therefore. ANTYPE. you must type NROPT.

. E) Set the Maximum number of iterations to 100.281 A) Set Time at end of loadstep to 60 and Automatic time stepping to OFF. C) Set the Frequency to Write every substep. Click on the NonLinear tab at the top and fill it in as shown D) Set Line search to ON . B) Set Number of substeps to 20.

with a film coefficient of 10 and a bulk temperature of 368. In this example. the time at the end of the load step is how long the transient analysis will run and the number of substeps defines how the load is broken up. By writing the data at every step. Basically. constraints can be in the form of Temperature. you can create animations over time and the other options help the problem converge quickly. all external surfaces of the material will be subject to convection with a coefficient of 10 W/m^2*K and a surrounding temperature of 368 K. Convection. or Radiation. Apply Initial Conditions Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Initial Condit'n > Define > Pick All Fill in the IC window as follows to set the initial temperature of the material to 268 K: Apply Boundary Conditions For thermal problems. Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Convection > On Lines > Pick All Fill in the pop-up window as follows. Heat Flow. refer to the help file. .282 For a complete description of what these options do. Heat Flux. Heat Generation.

283 The model should now look as follows: Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE .

.. Assume the material melts at 273 K.284 Postprocessing: Prepare for Element Death Read Results General Postproc > Read Results > Last Set SET.. From the General Postprocessor menu select Element Table > Define Table.. the user can manually kill. Here. with a title Melty and select DOF solution > Temperature TEMP and click OK. For instance. Utility Menu > Select > Entities Use the scroll down menus to select Elements > By Results > From Full and click OK. Select Elements to Kill Assume that the melting temperature is 273 K. we will use data from the analysis to kill the necessary elements to model melting. elements to create the desired effect. thus any element with a temperature of 273 or greater must be killed to simulate melting. We can now select elements from this table in the temperature range we desire.' Fill the window in as shown below. We must create an element table containing the temperature of all the elements. or turn off. Click on 'Add..LAST Create Element Table Element death can be used in various ways.

The reason for the warning is ANSYS defaults to a multi-frame restart. and close the warning message. Solution Phase: Killing Elements Restart the Analysis Solution > Analysis Type > Restart > OK You will likely have two messages pop up at this point. Click OK to restart the analysis. Kill Elements . thus it is just warning the user. which this analysis doesn't call for.285 Ensure the element table Melty is selected and enter a VMIN value of 273 as shown.

With the window still open. select Elements > Live Elem's > From Full and click OK.286 The easiest way to do this is to type ekill. this will kill only those elements. This is much too time consuming in this case.all into the command line. Since all elements above melting temperature had been selected. . Postprocessing: Viewing Results Select Live Elements Utility Menu > Select > Entities Fill in the window as shown with Elements > Live Elem's > Unselect and click Sele All. The other option is to use Solution > Load Step Opts > Other > Birth & Death > Kill Elements and graphically pick all the melted elements.

287 View Results General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu > DOF solution > Temperature TEMP The final melted shape should look as follows: .

..PDF version is also available for printing.. rather than increasing mesh density. The p-method manipulates the polynomial level (p-level) of the finite element shape functions which are used to approximate the real solution. Using P-Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. Open the .288 This procedure can be programmed in a loop. to more accurately model element death over time. computational time can be kept to a minimum. A .HTML version. A uniform load will be applied to the right hand side of the geometry shown below. This tutorial outlines the steps necessary for solving a model meshed with p-elements. By keeping mesh density rather coarse. That way. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. The specimen was modeled as steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. more accurately modelling the heating process. Thus. a check can be done after each substep to see if any elements are above the specified temperature and be killed at that point. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. using command line code.' and select the file. Rather than running the analysis for a time of 60 and killing any elements above melting temperature at the end. the prescribed convection can then act on the elements below those killed. This is the greatest advantage of using p-elements over h-elements. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.0. the p-level can be increased to give a similar result. Now go to 'File > Read input from.

of iterations Auto time search off Line search on Output data for all substeps Load applied in steps.03 a.0.8 ! Define density ! Define specific heat ! Define heat transfer coefficient esize.s.03.off lnsrch. esel.0.ext sf.1 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! IC.0.3.03.on outres.all.4.289 ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.c.0.s.4 ! Define keypoints ! Connect the keypoints to form area ! mesh 2D areas ET.920 mp.2.10.0005 amesh.0 k.melty.0.1.1.1. temp = 268 nsel.all.3.all ! Mesh size ! Mesh area finish /solu ! Enter solution phase antype.temp.all /gst.full Lumped mass off Number of substeps. Convection Example /prep7 ! Enter the preprocessor ! define geometry k.0 nsubst.all.1.0 k.273 finish .1.etab.all kbc.4 ! Transient analysis time.368 nsel.last etable.20 neqit.2.2040 mp. 20 Max no.melty.03 k.1.1.60 ! Time at end of analysis nropt.full lumpm.100 autots.kxx.Plane55 ! Element type MP.off ! ! ! ! Node select all exterior nodes Apply a convection BC Reselect all nodes Turn off graphical convergence monitor ! ! ! ! Enter postprocessor Read in last subset of data Create an element table Select all elements from table above 273 Newton Raphson .temp.Dens.0.0.conv. not ramped solve finish /post1 set.268 ! Initial conditions.

all esel.s.rest ekill.live plnsol.temp ..290 /solu antype.last esel.all ! ! ! ! Re-enter solution phase Restart analysis Kill all selected elements Re-select all elements ! ! ! ! Re-enter postprocessor Read in last subset of data Select all live elements Plot the temp contour of the live elements finish /post1 set.

as shown below. have a Young's modulus of 200 GPa. 10mm x 10mm in cross-section. and are rigidly constrained at the outer ends. Width.291 Contact Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.. Contact Elements Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 Define Areas Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Area > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4. Height We are going to define 2 rectangles as described in the following table: .0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to utilize contact elements to simulate how two beams react when they come into contact with each other.. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . are 100mm long. /title. causing it to bend and contact the lower. WP Y. The beams. A 10KN load is applied to the center of the upper.WP X.

Quad 4node 42) element. For this problem we will use the PLANE42 (Solid. enter the following geometric properties: Thickness THK: 10 This defines a beam with a thickness of 10 mm. 10) Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.Height) 1 (0. This allows a thickness to be input for the elements.. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. While the Element Types window is still open.. 15.. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. > Add. 100..292 Rectangle Variables (WP X.3 .WP Y. 0. This element has 2 degrees of freedom at each node (translation along the X and Y).. Change Element behavior K3 to Plane strs w/thk as shown below..Width... 10) 2 (50. enter the following geometric properties for steel: Young's modulus EX: 200000 Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. In the 'Real Constants for PLANE42' window.. 100. click Options.

the contact element is slowly "crushed" until it's upper node(s) lie along the same line as the lower node(s).293 Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Lines. This is an important step. As the surfaces approach each other. While the Element Types window is still open. This way. For this example we will use an element edge length of 2mm. incremements slowly when contact is immenent.. depending on what the user has specified in the solution controls. pt-to-surf 48) element. ANSYS can calculate when the two prescribed surfaces have made contact. This will be covered below. Contact occurs when the contact node penetrates the target line. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' Define the Type of Contact Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. one surface won't penetrate too far into the other and cause the solution to fail. CONTAC48 elements are created in the space between two surfaces prescribed by the user. Thus. require a target element. When using contact elements in your own analyses. It initiates a process during the solution calculations where the time step or load step... For this problem we will use the CONTAC48 (Contact. The element has two degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x and y directions. CONTAC48 may be used to represent contact and sliding between two surfaces (or between a node and a surface) in 2-D. Other contact elements. such as CONTA175. click Options. It is important to note. Change Contact time/load prediction K7 to Reasonabl T/L inc.. to function. The ANSYS help file has plenty of useful information regarding contact elements and is worth reading. Define Real Constants for the Contact Elements . such as TARGE169... be sure to understand how the elements work..

Sets of nodes that are likely to come into contact must be defined and used to generate the necessary elements.294 Preprocessor > Real Constants. rather than node to element edge. Target length tolerance TOLS: 10 Real constant TOLS is used to add a small tolerance that will internally increase the length of the target. ANSYS recommends a value between 0. However.. The other real constants can be used to model sliding friction. These terms are important when using the automatic contact element mesher to ensure the elements will correctly model contact between the surfaces. the contact node may repeatedly "slip" off one of the target nodes. This is useful for problems when node to node contact is likely to occur. In this simple case.. you may inadvertantly select a node from the wrong surface and it could cause problems during element generation. where as target nodes are those that are contacted. Since this "spring" is so stiff.. Select Areas and By Num/Pick from the pull down menus. Utility Menu > Select > Entities. In this situation. When one surface comes into "contact" with the other. contact elements must be defined in a slightly different manner. the source nodes will be selected. This KN value can greatly affect your solution. given in %. when the geometry is complex. it is not too hard to ensure you select the correct nodes. First. . Select the top beam and click OK.. so be sure to read the help file on contact so you can recognize when your solution is not converging and why. resulting in convergence difficulties. ANSYS has many recommendations about which nodes to select and whether they should act as target nodes or source nodes. is usually enough to prevent such difficulties.. A small value of TOLS. you should increase KN. > Add. etc.01 and 100 times Young's modulus for the material. If there is too much penetration. Information about these other constants can be found in the help file.. tolerances. If it takes a lot of iterations to converge for a single substep. the behaviour of the model is like the two surfaces have made contact. source nodes are those that will move into contact with the other surface. This will ensure any nodes that are selected in the next few steps will be from the upper beam. In the 'Real Constants for CONTAC48' window. ANSYS numerically puts a spring of stiffness KN between the two. In this case. A good rule of thumb is to start with a low value of KN and see how the solution converges (start watching the ANSYS Output Window). A strong understanding of how the elements work is important when using contact elements for your own analysis. select From Full from the radio buttons and click OK. you should decrease KN. Define Nodes for Creating Contact Elements Unlike the normal meshing sequence used for most elements. enter the following properties: Normal contact stiffness KN: 200000 CONTAC48 elements basically use a penalty approach to model contact.

Select Nodes and By Location from the pull down menus. Y coordinates and Reselect from the radio buttons and enter a value of 15 and click OK... This will select the nodes above the lower beam. X coordinates and Reselect from the radio buttons and enter values of 50.. .. Utility Menu > Select > Entities. This will select all nodes along the bottom of the upper beam.100. Select Nodes and By Location from the pull down menus.295 Utility Menu > Select > Entities.

Utility Menu > List > Nodes. it takes a great deal of .296 Now if you list the selected nodes. It is important to try and limit the number of nodes you use to create contact elements. you should only have the following nodes remaining... If you have a lot of contact elements.

Now we can use this component.. Utility Menu > Select > Entities. and click the Sele All button. Be sure to reselect all nodes before starting to select others. When creating the component this time. Utility Menu > Select > Comp/Assembly > Create Component Enter the component name Source as shown below.. and click the Sele All button. Generate Contact Elements Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Elements > Elem Attributes Fill the window in as shown below. IMPORTANT: Be sure to reselect all the nodes before continuing. This is done by opening the entity select menu. The Y coordinate is 10 The X coordinates vary from 50 to 100. These values will be the ones you'll use. select the nodes on the lower beam directly under the upper beam.. . Utility Menu > Select > Entities.. as a list of nodes to be used in other functions. clicking the Also Select radio button. Source. thus those are the only nodes we will use to create the contact elements.297 computational time to reach a solution. In this case. Now select the target nodes. This is done by opening the entity select menu. the only nodes that could make contact with the lower beam are those directly above it. Using the same procedure as above. This ensures ANSYS knows that you are dealing with the contact elements and the associated real constants. and click OK. clicking the Also Select radio button. enter the name Target. This can be very useful in other applications as well... Click the lower area for the area select.

the contact elements don't get plotted on the screen so it is sometimes difficult to tell they are there. your model should look like the following.298 Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling> Create > Elements > Surf / Contact > Node to Surf The following window will pop up. The rest of the selections remain unchanged. Unfortunately. If you wish. At this point. you can plot the elements (Utility Menu > Plot > Elements) and turn on element numbering (Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering > . Select the node set SOURCE from the first drop down menu (Ccomp) and TARGET from the second drop down menu (Tcomp).

you can see little purple stars (Contact Nodes) and thin purple lines (Target Elements) numbered "2" which correspond to the contact elements.. The following image will appear: . If you zoom in on the contact areas.0 Set Solution Controls Select Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Control..299 Elem/Attrib numbering > Element Type Numbers). Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. shown below. The preprocessor stage is now complete.

The Automatic Time Step feature will determine an appropriate balance. Enter a minimum number of substeps of 20. For more information about these commands. Once everything is working. Decreasing the step size usually ensures better accuracy. Automatic time stepping allows ANSYS to determine appropriate sizes to break the load steps into. however. you can reduce the number of substeps to optimize the computational time.300 Ensure the following selections are made under the 'Basic' tab (as shown above) Ensure Automatic time stepping is on. These solution control values are extremely important in determining if your analysis will succeed or fail. Ensure all solution items are writen to a results file. type help followed by the command into the command line. if the maximum number of substeps or iterations is . In this case the solution will resemble that of an analysis that didn't have contact elements defined at all. This will set the initial substep to 1/100 th of the total load. Enter a maximum number of substeps of 1000. Also. If you have too few substeps. Enter 100 as the number of substeps. 1. the contact nodes may be driven through the target elements before ANSYS "realizes" it has happened. This feature also activates the ANSYS bisection feature which will allow recovery if convergence fails. this takes time. This stops the program if the solution does not converge after 1000 steps. Ensure the following selection is made under the 'Nonlinear' tab (as shown below) Ensure Maximum Number of Iterations is set to 100 NOTE There are several options which have not been changed from their default values. Therefore it is important to choose a relatively large number of substeps initially to ensure the model is defined properly.

If you leave the scaling as default. when in fact it was just due to the displacement scaling to which ANSYS defaulted. Again. many times it will look like your contact nodes have gone through the target elements. this is a point load on a 2D surface. The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Fix the left end of the upper beam and the right end of the lower beam (ie all DOF constrained) Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes Apply a load of -10000 in the FY direction to the center of the top surface of the upper beam. However. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results Open postprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > General Postproc /POST1 Adjust Graphical Scaling Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Displacement Scaling Click the 1. then click ok.0 (true scale) radio button. . This is of huge importance! I lost many hours trying to figure out why the contact elements weren't working.301 left too low. thus we will use a point load for simplicity. ANSYS may stop the analysis before it has a chance to converge to a solution. This type of loading should be avoided since it will cause a singularity. Note. the displacement or stress near the load is not of interest in this analyis. leave these relatively high at first.

302 Show the Stress Distribution in the Beams General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu > Stress > von Mises Adjust Contour Scale Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours > Non-Uniform Contours Fill in the window as follows: This should produce the following stress distribution plot: .

0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to utilize contact elements to simulate how two beams react when they come into contact with each other. producing a stress distribution in both. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title. Open the . Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. A .' and select the file.. A 10KN load is applied to the center of the upper. Now go to 'File > Read input from. Contact Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. are 100mm long.HTML version.PDF version is also available for printing. have a Young's modulus of 200 GPa.. as shown below.Contact Elements . the load on the upper beam caused it to deflect and come in contact with the lower beam. The beams. 10mm x 10mm in cross-section.303 As seen in the figure. causing it to bend and contact the lower. and are rigidly constrained at the outer ends.

200000.y.x.r.X2.loc.(X2+L2/2)! cm.2 ! nsla..(X2+L2/2)! cm.L2..s.X2.10 TYPE. 1.NUXY.01 ! define material properties MP.target.H2 ! nsel.1 ! nsla.1 ! nsel.s. 200e3 MP.3.all ET.source.2 amesh.EX.Y1.1 ! nsel.y.x.2 real.304 /prep7 ! Top Beam X1=0 Y1=15 L1=100 H1=10 ! Bottom Beam X2=50 Y2=0 L2=100 H2=10 ! Create Geometry blc4.loc. 0.target.H2 ! define element type ET.r.7. 10 ! element type 1 ! plane stress w/thick ! activate element type 1 ! thickness 0.plane42 keyopt.area.3 type.2 ! set meshing size ! mesh area 1 ! defines second element type .H1 blc4.s.node ! select top area select the nodes within this area select bottom layer of nodes in this area select the nodes above the other beam call this group of nodes 'source' ! then the target nodes allsel ! asel. 1..s.2.source.2D contact elements ! contact time/load prediction ! activates or sets this element type ! activates or sets the real constants ! define contact nodes and elements ! first the contact nodes asel.loc.X2.1.3 finish ! generate contact elements between defined nodes ..Y1 ! nsel.r.2.2.1.node ! relect everything select bottom area select nodes in this area select bottom layer of nodes in this area select the nodes above the other beam call this selection 'target' gcgen.Y2.loc.area.L1.r.1 R.X1.1.3 ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! meshing esize.1 r..contac48 keyo.

y.40.80.0 time.X1 ! Constrain top beam nsel.1.320.all nsel.r.all.S.1280.s.1 .1000.all.loc.s.r.100 ! ! ! ! ! Sets time at end of run to 1 sec Auto time-stepping on Number of sub-steps Write all output Max number of iterations nsel.r.all.100.y.EQV.0.loc.loc.all solve finish /post1 /dscale.all neqit.(L1/2+X1) ! Apply load nsel.on nsubst.1 autots.fy.loc.(Y1+H1) d.640.loc.(Y2+H2) d.20 outres.loc.Y1.1 /CVAL.1.(X2+L2) ! Constrain bottom beam nsel.Y2.y.x.x.2560 PLNSOL.x.all.305 /solut antype.s.all nsel.20.160.all nsel.(Y1+H1) f.all nsel.-10000 nsel.

covering things like variable definition and simple looping.1 COUNT = COUNT + 1 OSCILATE = (-1)**COUNT X_COORD = X_COORD + DELTA_L *if. The following discussion will attempt to explain the commands used in the code.How many cross supports even number. Preprocessing: Use of APDL Shown below is the APDL code used to construct the truss shown above.HEIGHT. height and number of divisions of the truss will be requested and the APDL code will construct the geometry.i. a height of 10 m and 20 divisions.How long is the truss. This tutorial will cover the preprocessing stage of constructing a truss geometry.1. finish /clear /prep7 *ask. To learn more about APDL and see more complex examples.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to familiarize the user with the ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL). It is assumed the user has been exposed to basic coding and can follow the logic.LENGTH. This will be a very basic introduction to APDL.How tall is the truss. using a length of 200 m.2 DELTA_L NUM_K = COUNT = X_COORD = (LENGTH/(DIVISION/2))/2 DIVISION + 1 -1 = 0 *do. Users familiar with basic programming languages will probably find the APDL very easy to use. please see the APDL Programmer's Guide located in the help file.DIVISION.GT.306 ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL) Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. Variables including length.OSCILATE.THEN .20 *ask.100 *ask.NUM_K.0.

1.LE.THEN L.prxy.KEYP. Thus in later parts of the code. or a mathematical expression.307 k.200000 mp. the *ASK command can be used define a variable.(DIVISION-1). IVAL. INC.3 esize.ex. As seen above.(KEYP+1) *if.HEIGHT *endif *enddo KEYP = 0 *do.i. as seen in the line defining DELTA_L *DO Loops Do-loops are useful when you want to repeat a command a known number of times.0 *else k.1.1 KEYP = KEYP + 1 L.X_COORD.(KEYP+2) *endif *enddo et. where Par is the parameter that will be incremented by the loop. LENGTH can be used in other commands rather than typing in 200 m. IVAL is the initial value the . This value is stored under the variable LENGTH.How long is the truss.1. *ask.LENGTH. However. but this is usually only used for data that will change from run to run.100 mp. The *SET command can also be used to define variables.100 prompts the user for a value describing the length of the truss. It is used in the following manner: 'the variable you wish to define' = 'some arguement'. the most intutitive method is to use "=".j. In this case.1 lmesh. The syntax for the expression is *DO.. Variable Definition Using the "=" Command ANSYS allows the user to define a variable in a few ways.KEYP. see the help file. This argument can be a single value. The 100 value at the end of the string is the default value if the user were to enter no value and just hit the enter key. FVAL.all finish *ASK Command The *ASK command prompts the user to input data for a variable. Par.X_COORD.i.link1 r.DIVISION. For more information on this command.1.KEYP.1.0.

FVAL is the final value the parameter will reach. *do.1 is a do-loop which increases the parameter "i" from 1 to 10 in steps of 1.PDF version is also available for printing.GT. If it is not true it will skip to the *else command. then.. OSCILATE.2.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to familiarize the user with the ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL).8.10).i.".. please see the APDL Programmer's Guide located in the help file. To learn more about APDL and see more complex examples. in the code above there is a statement: *if. For example. It is necessary to use a *ENDDO command at the end of the loop to locate where ANSYS should look for the next command once the loop has finished. This tutorial will cover the preprocessing stage of constructing a truss geometry. *IF Statement If-statements can be used as decision makers..' and select the file.1. This command is only used in conjunction with the *if command. covering things like variable definition and simple looping. (ie 1.. This translates to "if the variable.10_K. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Any code directly following the *if command will be carried out if the statement is true. ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL) Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. Open the . height and number of divisions of the truss will be requested and the APDL code will construct the geometry. Variables including length.OSCILATE. the user can place code that will utilize the repetative characteristics of the loop. is greater than zero.. Users familiar with basic programming languages will probably find the APDL very easy to use. determining if a certain case has occured. and INC is the increment value that the parameter will be increased by during each iteration of the loop. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.9. This will be a very basic introduction to APDL. In between the *DO and *ENDDO. Any code directly following the *else command will be carried out when the original statement is false. A . An *endif command is necessary after all code in the *if and *else sections to define an ending.HTML version. Now go to 'File > Read input from.3. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.0.308 parameter starts as.. .THEN. For example.

1.1 KEYP = KEYP + 1 L.0.How tall is the truss.1 COUNT = COUNT + 1 OSCILATE = (-1)**COUNT X_COORD = X_COORD + DELTA_L *if.OSCILATE.X_COORD.309 ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /prep7 *ask.i.THEN k.GT.DIVISION.DIVISION.0 *else k.(KEYP+1) .j.100 *ask.2 DELTA_L NUM_K = COUNT = X_COORD = (LENGTH/(DIVISION/2))/2 DIVISION + 1 -1 = 0 *do.i.20 *ask.How long is the truss.1.LENGTH.i.X_COORD.KEYP.HEIGHT.How many cross supports even number.NUM_K.HEIGHT *endif *enddo KEYP = 0 *do.

1 lmesh.KEYP.1.0.100 mp.200000 mp.all finish .KEYP.LE.(KEYP+2) *endif *enddo et.prxy.ex..1.310 *if.3 esize.link1 r.1.1.(DIVISION-1).THEN L.

311 Postprocessing Tutorials These tutorials were created to show some of the tools available in ANSYS for postprocessing. a special type of array. it is expected that you have completed the Basic Tutorials. Advanced X-Sectional Results: Using Paths to Post Process Results The purpose of this tutorial is to create and use 'paths' to provide extra detail during post processing. Viewing Cross Sectional Results The method to view cross sectional results for a volume are shown in this tutorial. You may be using a different version of ANSYS than what was used to create these tutorials. Data Plotting: Using Tables to Post Process Results The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to plot results using tables. These tutorials can be completed in any order. however. Changing Graphical Properties This tutorial outlines some of the basic graphical changes that can be made to the main screen and model. therefore. . make note of small changes in the menu structure.

0.) of the following example.312 Viewing X-Sectional Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.Height. etc.Length Where: Width: Height: Length: Define the Type of Element 40mm 60mm 400mm .0.Width..0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to view cross sectional results (Deformation. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . /title. Stress.. Cross-Sectional Results of a Simple Cantilever Beam Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 Create Block Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Volumes > Block > By 2 Corners & Z BLC4.

Solve the System .0 Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Areas Fix the left hand side (should be labeled Area 1). Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.313 Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Apply a load of 2500N downward on the back right hand keypoint (Keypoint #7). This element has 8 nodes each with 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X. Y and Z directions). enter the following geometric properties for steel: Young's modulus EX: 200000 Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.3 Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Global > Size esize.20 For this example we will use an element size of 20mm. For this problem we will use the SOLID45 (3D Structural Solid) element.all Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. Mesh the volume Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Volumes > Free > click 'Pick All' vmesh..

options 1. we will first outline the steps required to view a slice. Offset the working plane for a cross section view (WPOFFS) Select the TYPE of display for the section(/TYPE). Only the selected section is shown without any remaining faces or edges shown CAP or (5) Capped hidden diplay.314 Solution > (-Solve-) Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results Now since the purpose of this tutorial is to observe results within different cross-sections of the colume. therefore. 5. This is as though you have cut off a portion of the model and the remaining model can be seen ZQSL or (8) QSLICE Z-buffered display. This is the same as SECT but the outline of the entire model is shown. For this example we are trying to display a section. Select: General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu . Visual Representation Align the cutting plane with the working plane(/CPLANE) Deflection Before we begin selecting cross sections. Type Description SECT or (1) Section display. or 8 are relevant and are summarized in the table below. let's view deflection of the entire model.

To illustrate how to take a cross section. halfway through the beam Select: Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Offset WP by Increments In the window that appears.315 From this one may wish to view several cross sections through the YZ plane. increase Global X to 30 (Width/2) and rotate Y by +90 degrees Select the type of plot and align the cutting plane with the working plane (Note that in GUI. these two steps are combined) Select: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Hidden-Line Options Fill in the window that appears as shown below to select /TYPE=ZQSL and /CPLANE=Working Plane . let's take one halfway through the beam in the YZ plane First. offset the working plane to the desired position.

0.0.0 view WPROTA.SUM.0 .0.90 /CPLANE.-1.U.1 ! Offset the working plane for cross-section ! Rotate the working plane ! Cutting plane defined to use the WP Also note that to realign the working plane with the active coordinate system. simply use: WPCSYS. note that the command lines required to do the same are as follows: WPOFFS.1 /TYPE. however.Width/2.1.0.8 PLNSOL. you should now have the following: This can be repeated for any slice.316 As desired.

0.0. Also note that we are using the capped hidden display this time..EQV. Because it is much easier. let's view stresses within the entire model. And change the 'Type of Plot' to 'Non-hidden' Select: General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu > Stress > von Mises Let's say that we want to take a closer look at the base of the beam through the XY plane.1 /TYPE. You should now see the following: . Select: Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Align WP with > Active Coord Sys (NOTE: To check the position of the WP.0. select Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Show WP Status) Next we need to change /TYPE to the default setting(no hidden or section operations).317 Equivalent Stress Again.5 PLNSOL.S..1. Select: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Hidden Line Options. First we need to realign the working plane with the active coordinate system.1 ! Offset the working plane ! Cutting plane defined to use the WP ! Use the capped hidden display Note that we did not need to rotate the WP because we want to look at the XY plane which is the default). we are going to use command line: WPOFFS.1/16*Length /CPLANE.

let's show an animation of the Von Mises stress through the beam. but please bear with me.. Open the .. the sweep direction. . Unfortunately. Now go to 'File > Read input from. just change the Item to be contoured to 'Stress' 'von Mises' You will then be asked to select 3 nodes. Select: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Animate > Q-Slice Contours In the window that appears. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. In the graphics window. You should now see an animated version of the contour slices through the beam. so select any node in the z direction (parallel to the first node).. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. bottom left hand side corner as the Y axis. select the node in the back. the ANSYS commands are not as user friendly as they could be. Next. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. the sweep direction is in the Z direction.318 Animation Now. the origin. for something a little more impressive. select the node at the origin of the coordinate system as the origin of the sweep (the sweep will start there).. For more information on how to modify the animation. and the Y axis. type help ancut into the command line. A .PDF version is also available for printing.' and select the file.HTML version. Finally.

319 Viewing X-Sectional Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.60.1 /REPLOT.200000 MP.Height.SOLID45 ! Element type MP.Width. Cross-Sectional Results of a Simple Cantilever Beam /PREP7 ! All dims in mm Width = 60 Height = 40 Length = 400 BLC4.all ! Element size ! Mesh the volume FINISH /SOLU ! Enter solution mode ANTYPE.3 ! Young's Modulus ! Poisson's ratio esize. ANSYS Command Listing FINISH /CLEAR /Title.EX. etc.0.1.0 ! Static analysis . 1 .1.Length ! Creates a rectangle /ANGLE.) of the following example.YS.0.FAST ! Rotates the display ! Fast redisplay ET.1.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to view cross sectional results (Deformation.20 vmesh.000000.PRXY. Stress.0.

0.Length KSEL.1/16*Length /CPLANE.All.14.Z.90 /CPLANE.S.1.05.0.0 DA.1.LOC.1 WPOFFS.U.0.1.LOC.0.0.ALL.0.FY.LOC.0.Y.0 ASEL.5.43.0.Width/2.5 PLNSOL.0.0 WPROTA.1 /TYPE.S.LOC.-2500 KSEL.S.0.320 ASEL.ALL ! Select certain keypoint SOLVE FINISH ! Solve /POST1 ! Enter post processor PLNSOL.EQV.R.2 ! Animate the slices .-1.Height KSEL.8 ! ! ! ! ! WPCSYS.0.Width FK.0 ! Deflines working plane location WPOFFS.1.ALL ! Area select at z=0 ! Constrain the area ! Reselect all areas KSEL.R.1 /TYPE.Z.1 ! ! ! ! ! Force on keypoint ! Reselect all keypoints Plot deflection Offset the working plane for cross-section view Rotate working plane Cutting plane defined to use the WP QSLICE display Offset the working plane Cutting plane defined to use the WP Use the capped hidden display Plot equivalent stress !Animation ANCUT.All.SUM.7.X.

. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem Give the example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . /title. Three holes are drilled through the vertical centerline of the plate.0 and the width and height are 200 and 100 respectively. a plot of the stress along that path can be made. .200.0. The plate is constrained in the y-direction at the bottom and a uniform. In this tutorial. one may want to determine the effects of stress concentrators along a certain path. Use of Paths for Post Processing Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 Define Rectangular Ares Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to create and use 'paths' to provide extra detail during post processing.321 Advanced X-Sectional Results: Using Paths to Post Process Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Rather than plotting the entire contour plot..0. For example. a steel plate measuring 100 mm X 200 mm X 10 mm will be used. distributed load is pulling on the top of the plate.100 Create a rectangle where the bottom left corner has the coordinates 0.

WP Y..Radius Create three circles with parameters shown below. click 'Options. enter a thickness of 10...' and set 'Element behavior' to Plane strs w/thk Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. This element has 2 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes)... Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. In the 'Element Types' window. the circles) and click OK. In the 'Real Constants for PLANE2' window.322 Create Circles Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Circle > Solid Circle cyl4... the rectangle) and click OK. Then. > Add.. . Circle Parameters WP X WP Y Radius 1 50 50 10 2 100 50 10 3 150 50 10 Subtract the Circles Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Subtract > Areas First.WP X. For this problem we will use the PLANE2 (Solid Triangle 6node) element. select the areas to be subtracted (ie. select the area to remain (ie. The remaining area should look as shown below.

Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Pressure > On Lines Apply a constant. The model should now look like the figure below. enter the following geometric properties for steel: Young's modulus EX: 200000 Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.323 Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. Mesh the Area Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis ANTYPE.0 Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Constrain the bottom of the area in the UY direction.. For this example we will use an element edge length of 5mm.3 Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas. uniform pressure of -200 on the top of the area. > Static ..

if the stress near the holes are of interest. you could create a normal contour plot. you could create a path through the center of the plate and plot the stress on that path. Both cases will be plotted below on a split screen. which would have the distribution over the entire plate. .324 Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results To see the stress distribution on the plate. However. Contour Plot Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Window Controls > Window Layout Fill in the 'Window Layout' as seen below General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu > Stress > von Mises The display should now look like this.

For this example.325 To ensure the top plot is not erased when the second plot is created. click 'Cancle' because we only enabled two points on the path in the previous step. select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Erase Option > Erase Between Plots and ensure there is no check-mark. Turn window 1 'off'. To have the next graph plot in the bottom half of the screen. meaning this function off. or in other words. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Window Controls > Window On or Off. you must make a couple of changes. what results should be available to the path. select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Window Controls > Window Layout and select 'Window 2 > Bottom Half > Do not replot'. equivalent stress is desired. shown below. . name the path Cutline and set the 'Number of divisions' to 1000 Fill the next two window in with the following parameters Parameters Path Point Number X Loc Y Loc Z Loc o 1 0 50 0 2 200 50 0 When the third window pops up. Create Path General PostProc > Path Operations > Define Path > By Location In the window. Map the Stress onto the Path Now the path is defined. To keep window 1 visible during replots. General Postproc > Path Operations > Map onto Path Fill the next window in as shown below [Stress > von Mises] and click OK. you must choose what to map to the path.

326 The warning shown below will probably pop up. since there are plenty of points that do lie on interpolation points to produce the necessary plot. so disregard the warning. This is of little concern though. This is just saying that some of the 1000 points you defined earlier are not on interpolation points (special points on the elements) therefore there is no data to map. Plot the Path Data General Postproc > Path Operations > Plot Path Item > On Geometry Fill the window in as shown below .

a plot of the stress along that path can be made. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to create and use 'paths' to provide extra detail during post processing. This plot makes it easy to see how the stress is concentrated around the holes.327 2.' and select the file.PDF version is also available for printing. Due to resolution restrictions. For example. 3. one may want to determine the effects of stress concentrators along a certain path. these dots are not shown here. Now go to 'File > Read input from... Note.HTML version. Rather than plotting the entire contour plot. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. there will be dots on the plot showing node locations. Advanced X-Sectional Results: Using Paths to Post Process Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. . The display should look like the following. A . Open the .

3 R.100 SFL.s.328 In this tutorial.0.ex.0 dl.0.0.10 asba.200. The plate is constrained in the y-direction at the bottom and a uniform.PRES.10 cyl4. distributed load is pulling on the top of the plate.prxy. Three holes are drilled through the vertical centerline of the plate.all ! mesh size ! area mesh finish /solu ! apply constraints lsel.50.. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.1..s.50.50.3 ! ! ! ! Plane element thickness of plane Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio esize.1.all.-2000/10 ! select line for contraint application ! constrain all DOF's on this face ! restore entire selection ! apply a pressure load on a line .loc.100.y.150.200000 mp.50.loc.5 amesh.1. a steel plate measuring 100 mm X 200 mm X 10 mm will be used.10 mp.100 cyl4.1.10 cyl4.all et.y.UY allsel ! apply loads allsel lsel. Defining Paths /PREP7 ! create geometry BLC4.plane2..all.1.

AVG nsel.200.top /POST1 PLNSOL..1000 ppath.329 allsel solve finish ! plot results /window.50 path.2.bot nsel.0.S.1 edge) /window.200.off /noerase /window.NODE ! solve resulting system of equations ! define a window (top half of screen) ! plot stress in xx direction (deformed and undeformed ! ! ! ! ! define define choose define define a window (bottom half of screen) nodes to define path nodes half way through structure a path labeled cutline endpoint nodes on path ! calculate equivalent stress on path ! show graph on plot with nodes ..all nsel.1.50 PDEF.y.s.2.cutline.S.1..SEQV.1.loc..all PLPAGM.50 ppath.eqv.2.eqv.2.

z We are going to define 2 keypoints for this beam as given in the following table: . Length of the following beam using tables.330 Data Plotting: Using Tables to Post Process Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.x. Use of Tables for Data Plots Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS.. with a 40 mm X 60 mm cross section as shown above. rather than using a contour plot.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to plot Vertical Deflection vs. /title.. This tutorial will use a steel beam 400 mm long.y. a special type of array.#.. By plotting this data on a curve. finer resolution can be achieved. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem Give the example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . It will be rigidly constrained at one end and a -2500 N load will be applied to the other.. K.

0) 2 (400..2 Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2 Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.. Mesh the frame . Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants.. enter the following geometric properties: Cross-sectional area AREA: 2400 Area moment of inertia IZZ: 320e3 Total beam height: 40 This defines a beam with a height of 40 mm and a width of 60 mm. For this example we will use an element edge length of 20mm. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes.z) 1 (0.1. and rotation about the Z axis)..3 Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. > Add.y.. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element.0) Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L.. enter the following geometric properties for steel: Young's modulus EX: 200000 Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window..331 Keypoint Coordinates (x..

0 Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix keypoint 1 (ie all DOF constrained) Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Apply a load of -2500N on keypoint 2.332 Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. The model should now look like the figure below. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE .

. the location and verticle deflection of each node must be recorded in the table.. are basically matrices that can be used to store and process data from the analysis that was just run.. Fill it out as shown [Graph > Table > 22. Create the Table Utility Menu > Parameters > Array Parameters > Define/Edit > Add The window seen above will pop up. a special type of array. one more than the number of nodes.333 Postprocessing: Viewing the Results It is at this point the tables come into play. the horizontal location of the nodes will be recorded Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Array Data . In the window shown below. > OK.. Note there are 22 rows. This example is a simplified use of tables. Enter Data into Table First. Utility Menu > List > Nodes. For this example there are 21 nodes. select Model Data > Nodes . Tables. The reason for this will be explained below.2. Therefore. Thus the table must have at least 21 rows. it is necessary to determine how many nodes exist in the model. Number of Nodes Since we wish to plot the verticle deflection vs length of the beam.1]. For more information type help in the command line and search for 'Array Parameters'. but they can be used for much more. Click OK and then close the 'Define/Edit' window.

column 1. Naming the array parameter 'Graph(1. the vertical displacement will be recorded.1) > All > Location > X]. Next. Arrange the Data for Ploting .. and continues down the column.2) > All > DOF solution > UY].1)' fills in the table starting in row 1.334 Fill the next window in as shown below and click OK [Graph(1.2)' fills in the table starting in row 1. Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Array Data .. > Results data > Nodal results Fill the next window in as shown below and click OK [Graph(1. column 2. and continues down the column. Naming the array parameter 'Graph(1.

the second row in the table contains the data for the last node. Fill it in as shown. . This is why a table with 22 rows was created. Utility Menu > Parameters > Array Parameters > Define/Edit > Edit The data for the end of the beam (X-location = 400. with the X-location data on the X-axis and the vertical deflection on the Y-axis. to provide room to move this data. and paste it into the appropriate column (right click > Paste or Ctrl+V).335 Users familiar with the way ANSYS numbers nodes will realize that node 1 will be on the far left. When both values have been moved check to ensure the two entries in row 2 are zero. and the rest of the nodes are numbered sequentially from left to right. Select File > Apply/Quit Plot the Data Utility Menu > Plot > Array Parameters The following window will pop up. node 2 will be on the far right (keypoint 2). Cut one of the cells to be moved (right click > Copy or Ctrl+X).833) is in row two. Thus. This causes problems during plotting. UY = -0. as it is keypoint 1. thus the information for the last node must be moved to the final row of the table. press the down arrow to get to the bottom of the table.

336 To change the axis labels select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes ... To see the changes to the labels. select Utility Menu > Replot The plot should look like the one seen below. .

PDF version is also available for printing.2400.1. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. finer resolution can be achieved.40 ! Beam3 element ! Area.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to plot Vertical Deflection vs. Data Plotting: Using Tables to Post Process Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. This tutorial will use a steel beam 400 mm long. Open the . with a 40 mm X 60 mm cross section as shown above.Height . Use of Tables for Data Plots /prep7 elementsize = 20 length = 400 et. rather than using a contour plot. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.' and select the file. It will be rigidly constrained at one end and a -2500 N load will be applied to the other. Now go to 'File > Read input from.HTML version. a special type of array.beam3 r.320e3. By plotting this data on a curve.I..337 Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.. A .1. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title. Length of the following beam using tables.

all ! Mesh size ! Mesh finish /solu antype.1.length.all.1.y ! Re-enter the data for x = 400.x the end *vget.1).graph.all.2.TABLE.-2500 ! Apply load to other end solve finish /post1 ! Note.2) which is for UY @ x ! otherwise graph is not plotted properly *vget.graph(2.Vertical Deflection /replot ! Change the axis labels ! of the table .3 ! Youngs Modulus ! Poisson's Ratio k.0 ! Geometry l.338 mp.graph(2.1.1.u.graph(rows.x direction ! Creat a table called "graph" ! 22 rows x 2 columns x 1 plane ! Put node locations in the x ! in the first column for all nodes *vget.y.loc. but at *vplot.2).1.prxy.2.1).elementsize lmesh.all ! Constrain one end fully fk.node.graph(1.0.graph(rows.1).static ! Static analysis dk.graph(1.ex.node.2).2).graph(1.2.Length /axlab.2.x.200000 mp.graph(1.rows.u.0 400 ! Delete data in (2.fy.1) which is for x = ! otherwise graph is not plotted properly *set.0.2 esize.node.2.2) ! Plot the data in the table /axlab.1 *vget.1). ! the table must have (#nodes + 1) rows For the procedure below rows = ((length/elementsize + 1) + 1) *DIM.0 = 400 ! Delete data in (2.node.0 k. there are 21 nodes in the mesh.loc.y ! Put node deflections in the y direction ! in the second column *set.

1.0 This tutorial covers some of the methods that can be employed to change how the output to the screen looks.beam3 r.2.1.0 K.0.fy. changing the background colour.2 et.prxy.1.all finish /solu antype. numbering the nodes.ex.100.100.0.1.3 esize. Changing Graphical Properties /prep7 K.1.339 Changing Graphical Properties Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. etc.10 mp. finish /clear /title.5 lmesh.2.1.1.0 dk.all fk.0 L. For instance.333. Since the purpose of this tutorial is not to build or analysis a model. please copy the following code and paste it into the input line below the utility menu.all.-100 solve finish You should obtain the following screen: .200000 mp.833.

. the window will disappear and your model should be numbered appropriately.340 Graphical Options Number the Nodes Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering. When you click OK. This could be because you had . sometimes the numbers won't show up. However.. The following window will appear: From this window you can select which items you wish to number.

For instance. select the node numbering and plot the nodes. select the same item you just numbered from the Utility > Plot menu and the numbering will show up. You can also see some other information that ANSYS is providing. To remedy this problem. You should get the following: As shown. The triangles on the left are the constraints and the coordinate triad is also visible. These extra symbols may not be necessary.341 previously selected a plot of a different item. the nodes have been numbered. Symbol Toggles Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Symbols . The arrows on the left and the right are the force that was applied and the resulting external reactive forces and moments. so the next section will show how to turn these symbols off.

there are no Surface or Body Loads.342 This window allows the user to toggle many symbols on or off. The result should be as follows: Triad Toggle Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Window Controls > Window Options . click on None to turn off all the force and reaction symbols. so those sections won't be used. Under the Boundary conditions section. or Initial Conditions. In our case.

.343 This window also allows the user to toggle many things on and off. Element Shape Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Size and Shape. the legend or title can be turned off. To turn off the triad. select Not Shown from the Location of triad drop down menu. In this case. . The following output should be the result. it is things associated with the window background. etc. Notice how it is much easier to see the node numbers near the origin now. As shown in the window..

you can change the view orientation. but they have volume according to the real constants. the elements are no longer just a line.. ANSYS can display the elements shapes based on the real constant description. Click on the toggle box beside [/ESHAPE] to turn on element shapes and click OK to close the window. thus elements are not going to show up. To aid in this process. Select Utility Menu > Plot > Elements. The following should appear.344 When using line elements. . such as BEAM3. don't be alarmed. To get a better 3-D view of the model. If there is no change in output.. Recall we selected a plot of just the nodes. As shown. it is sometime difficult to visualize what the elements really look like. View Orientation Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Pan Zoom Rotate.

Basic rotating. You can also select predefined views. translating and zooming can also be done using the mouse. By holding the Control button on the keyboard and holding the Right mouse button the model will rotate about all axis. such as isometric or oblique.345 This window allows the user to rotate the view. they can be changed. By holding the Control button on the keyboard and holding the Left mouse button the model will translate. General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > USUM If the contour divisions are not appropriate. . Changing Contours First. translate the view and zoom. By holding the Control button on the keyboard and holding the Middle mouse button the model will zoom or rotate on the plane of the screen. Using these options. This is very handy when you just want to quickly change the orientation of the model. plot the deformation contour for the beam. it's easy to see the elements in 3-D.

Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Colours > Contour Colours. Under non-uniform contours.. and we'll set the background colour to white.. The colours for each division can be selected from the drop down menus. but don't want a black background. If you don't like the colours of the contour. Select the background colour you desire for the window you desire. Here we are only using Window 1.. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Colours > Window Colours. Under uniform contours. .346 Utility Meny > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours Either Uniform or Non-uniform Contours can be selected. be sure to click on User specified if you are inputing your own contour divisions. those can also be changed. you can create a logarithmic contour division or some similiar contour where uniform divisions don't capture the information you desire. Changing Background Colour Perhaps you desire to use a plot for a presentation..

select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Capture Image.. these are just a few. There are lots of other option that can be used to change the presentation of data in ANSYS.. If there is information that needs to be added. To save the display. . Notice how all the text disappeared. the PlotCtrls menu is a good place to start.347 The resulting display is shown below. Under the File heading. select Save As. this can be done in other graphic editors. This is because the text colour is also white. as is the help file. such as contour values. If you are looking for a specific option.

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.3 !* LESIZE. 1.. .251 This will set the largest of the 2 values equal to SMAX. LMESH.. we can now solve the optimization problem. K. !* ET..H.1.75. L. In this case the maximum values for each are the same.1..ALL. Design Optimization *SET.. this is not always the case. 20 /PREP7 K...... .2..1.0. .PRXY. 2 !* HPTCREATE.0 MPDATA.ANSYS RELEASE 7..1..25 which is much larger than the allowable stress of 200MPa Design Optimization Now that we have parametrically set up our problem in ANSYS based on our initial width and height dimensions.1.ans.0 UP20021010 /input..0. If you open the command file in a text editor such as Notepad.W .. . !* !* MPTEMP.100.1. However. 20 *SET.1.RATI..(W*H**3)/12.. 1 16:10:03 05/26/2003 .start70.txt’ Click ‘OK’. MPTEMP.. In the window that appears type a name for the command file such as ‘optimize. .EX.W*H.1.0.LINE. . This is so that ANSYS can iteratively run solutions to our problem based on different values for the variables that we will define.1 /title...0.1. Select Utility Menu > File > Write DB Log File...200000 MPDATA.1000.. .

. .UX.0. .1.FY.. However.DK.SMax_J. .C:\Temp\. .-2000 ! /STATUS. . .2.2.SMAX.1 !* /GO DK. .P51X.ETAB.NMISC.2. . This specifies the constraints at keypoint 1 Line 37 . FLST. .optimization. .2. Save and close the file once you have made all of the required changes. 1 !* ESORT.P51X.SSUM. .0.3.SMaxI.SORT.0.ORDE. .0.0. .3.2 !* /GO DK. most of these changes will already be made. using command line code.SMAXI>SMAXJ ! LGWRITE.0. ETABLE. Therefore.0.UY.3 !* /GO FK.UX. ETABLE. !* *GET. To modify the file simply open it using notepad and make the required changes. !* *GET.ORDE.UX.COMMENT Several small changes need to be made to this file prior to commencing the optimization.UY.0.SMAX_J. Change this to: DK. .EVolume. if you used GUI to create this file there are several occasions where you used the graphical picking device.SORT. !* SSUM !* *GET.UY.0.1.1 FITEM. .1. The following is a list of the changes which need to be made to this file (which was created using the GUI method) Line 32 .2. .1.0.MAX AVPRIN. . . .2.0.. .P51X.UY.0. .1. 3 !* ESORT.0.SMaxJ.SMax_I. the actual items that were chosen need to be entered.0.0 FLST.Volume.3. If you created the geometry etc.NMISC. The code 'P51X' symbolizes the graphical selection.. .252 FINISH /SOL !* ANTYPE.SOLU SOLVE FINISH /POST1 AVPRIN.1 FITEM.ITEM.VOLU. .ETAB.EVOLUME AVPRIN.DK. . .1 FITEM. .P51X. . .MAX *SET.0.SMAX_I. ETABLE. .1.UY. .P51X. .ORDE. FLST.0. . .

In this example.-2000 Change to: FK.UY. we need to know which variables have an effect on the variable to be minimized. If you are comfortable with command line coding. Define Variables and Tolerances ANSYS needs to know which variables are critical to the optimization. our optimization will continue until both the width and height are zero. For the width and height. Changing either variable has a direct effect on the solution of the problem. Objective Variable (OV) The objective variable is the one variable in the optimization that needs to be minimized.0.-2000 This specifies the force applied on the beam There are also several lines which can be removed from this file. This would minimize the weight to zero which is not a useful result. we will select a tolerance of 0. we need to define ranges and tolerances for each variable. Now that we have decided our design variables.P51X. These variables are necessary to constrain the design. In this example our objective is to minimize the volume of a beam which is directly related to the weight of the beam. the SV is the maximum stress in the beam. This specifies the constraints at keypoint 2 Line 42 .FK. In this example.01mm. ANSYS categorizes three types of variables for design optimization: Design Variables (DVs) Independent variables that directly effect the design objective.3. Click ‘OK’.253 Change to: DK.FY. none of the variables defined in ANSYS are allowed to have negative values. State Variables (SVs) Dependent variables that change as a result of changing the DVs. we will be minimizing the volume of the beam.0. NOTE: As previously stated. we will select a range of 195 to 200 MPa with a tolerance of 0. Assign the Command File to the Optimization Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Analysis File > Assign In the file list that appears. To define variables. Tolerances are necessary in that they tell ANSYS the largest amount of change that a variable can experience before convergence of the problem. the width and height of the beam are the DVs. . For the stress variable.FY.01MPa. In our problem. . Because a small change in either the width or height has a profound effect on the volume of the beam.2. Without this SV. . you should remove the lines which you are certain are not required. we will select a range of 10 to 50 mm for each. select the filename that you created when you wrote the command file.

> Add. Define the Optimization Method . Complete the window as shown below to specify the variable limits and tolerances for the height of the beam..001) Define the Objective Variable Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Objective... Under Convergence Tolerance.. Enter: Lower Limit (MIN = 195) Upper Limit (MAX = 200) Feasibility Tolerance (TOLER = 0. Select ‘VOLUME’ in the ‘Parameter Name’ section. We will set the tolerance to 200mm3.. > Add... we do not need to define an allowable range.. This tolerance was chosen because it is significantly smaller than the initial magnitude of the volume of 400000mm3 (20mm x 20mm x 1000mm). In the window fill in the following sections Select 'SMAX' in the ‘Parameter Name’ section.. enter 200.. Define the Design Variables (width and height of beam) Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Design Variables.254 Because the volume variable is the objective variable. Repeat the above steps to specify the variable limits for the width of the beam (identical to specifications for height) Define the State Variables Select Main Menu > Design Opt > State Variables.

Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Method / Tool. Click ‘OK’. Complete the window as shown to obtain a graph of the height and width of the beam changing with each iteration For the ‘X-variable parameter’ select ‘Set number’. In the ‘Specify Optimization Method’ window select ‘First-Order’ Click ‘OK’ Enter: Maximum iterations (NITR = 30). confirm that the analysis file. Percent forward diff. The solution of an optimization problem can take awhile before convergence. For this problem we will use a First-Order Solution method... In the ‘Begin Execution of Run’ window. it is advisable to use different solution methods. Percent step size SIZE = 100. and the stress is equal to 199.. Defaults to 10.255 There are several different methods that ANSYS can use to solve an optimization problem. View graphical results of each variable during the solution Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Design Sets > Graphs / Tables..83 MPa with a volume of 386100mm2.. DELTA = 0. . If you have trouble with getting a particular problem to converge it would be a good idea to try a different method of solution to see what might be wrong... This problem will take about 15 minutes and run through 19 iterations.16 mm. Defaults to 100% DELTA forward difference (%) applied to the design variable range that is used to compute the gradient. To ensure that you are not finding a solution at a local minimum.24 mm. method/type and maximum iterations are correct.2 Click ‘OK’. Note: the significance of the above variables is explained below: NITR Max number of iterations. height=29. Defaults to 0..2% Run the Optimization Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Run. View the Results View Final Parameters Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters. SIZE % that is applied to the size of each line search step. You will probably see that the width=13.

. .256 For the ‘Y-variable parameter’ select ‘H’ and ‘W’. Ensure that 'Graph' is selected (as opposed to 'List') Now you may wish to specify titles for the X and Y axes Select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes... you will see a graph of width and height throughout the optimization. enter ‘Number of Iterations’ for the ‘X-axis label’ section.. You can print the plot by selecting Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Hard Copy. Click 'OK' Select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls In the graphics window. Enter ‘Width and Height (mm)’ for the ‘Y-axis label’. In the window.

. the width and height of the beam cannot be smaller than 10mm. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Instead of using width and height for the y-axis label and variables. Design Optimization Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. However.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to introduce a method of solving design optimization problems using ANSYS. displacement. Now go to 'File > Read input from. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. . state and objective variables and setting the correct tolerances for the problem to obtain an accurately converged solution in a minimal amount of time. all of the results data (ie stress. use whichever variable is necessary to plot. In addition.. The use of hardpoints to apply forces/constraints in the middle of lines will also be covered in this tutorial. Alternatively. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. you could list the data by selecting Main Menu > Design Opt > Design Sets > List. This will involve creating the geometry utilizing parameters for all the variables.HTML version.PDF version is also available for printing. A . A beam has a force of 1000N applied as shown below. It is necessary to find the cross sectional dimensions of the beam in order to minimize the weight of the beam.257 You can plot graphs of the other variables in the design by following the above steps. . Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. Open the .. deciding which variables to use as design.' and select the file. bending moments) are available from the General Postproc menu. The maximum stress anywhere in the beam cannot exceed 200 MPa.. The purpose of this optimization problem is to minimize the weight of the beam without exceeding the allowable stress.

0 DK.-2000 ! Force at hardpoint ! Support keypoint 2 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 ETABLE.0 ! Static analysis DK.0 ! Pin keypoint 1 FK.2 HPTCREATE.1.2. '^').0.1..1.PRXY.3.100 LMESH.ALL ! Mesh size ! Mesh line ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.1.1.EVolume.height MP.1.W.EVOLUME beam ! Volume of single element ! Sum all volumes ! Create parameter 'Volume' for volume of . ! Set an initial height of 20 mm ! Set an initial width of 20 mm ! Keypoint locations ! Create line ! Create hardpoint 75% from left side ET.(W*H**3)/12. Design Optimization *set. not ESIZE.258 ANSYS Command Listing /prep7 /title.H.2.3 ! Element type ! Real consts: area.200000 MP.I (note '**'..0..Volume.1.ITEM.75.1000.LINE.1..W*H.20 *set.0 L.20 K.0 DK.EX.RATI.UX..0 K.UY.BEAM3 R.0.H.FY. SSUM *GET.SSUM.1.VOLU.UY.

SORT.X.1.H.VOLUME.optimize.259 ETABLE.SORT.SMAX_J.SMAX_I.200.SMAX_J.001 50 mm. Percent step size.DV.0.MAX ! Create parameter 'SMaxJ' for max stress *SET. min 10 mm.3 at J node ESORT.001 MPa OPVAR. tolerance 0. min 10 mm.0.txt /OPT OPANL.FIRS OPFRST.. min 195 MPa. tolerance 200 OPTYPE. max ! Width design variable.001mm OPVAR. PLVAROPT..0.'optimize'.W. max ! Volume as object variable..SMAXJ.200 mm^2 ! Height design variable.001mm OPVAR. *GET.W /AXLAB.NMISC. tolerance 0.'C:\Temp"},"eligible_for_exclusive_trial_roadblock":false,"eligible_for_seo_roadblock":false,"exclusive_free_trial_roadblock_props_path":"/doc-page/exclusive-free-trial-props/259292650","flashes":[],"footer_props":{"urls":{"about":"/about","press":"/press","blog":"http://literally.scribd.com/","careers":"/careers","contact":"/contact","plans_landing":"/subscribe","referrals":"/referrals?source=footer","giftcards":"/giftcards","faq":"/faq","accessibility":"/accessibility-policy","faq_paths":{"accounts":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246346","announcements":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246066","copyright":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246086","downloading":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/articles/210135046","publishing":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246366","reading":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246406","selling":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246326","store":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246306","status":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/en-us/articles/360001202872","terms":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246126","writing":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246366","adchoices":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/articles/210129366","paid_features":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246306","failed_uploads":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/en-us/articles/210134586-Troubleshooting-uploads-and-conversions","copyright_infringement":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/en-us/articles/210128946-DMCA-copyright-infringement-takedown-notification-policy","end_user_license":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/en-us/articles/210129486","terms_of_use":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/en-us/articles/210129326-General-Terms-of-Use"},"publishers":"/publishers","static_terms":"/terms","static_privacy":"/privacy","copyright":"/copyright","ios_app":"https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/scribd-worlds-largest-online/id542557212?mt=8&uo=4&at=11lGEE","android_app":"https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.scribd.app.reader0&hl=en","books":"/books","sitemap":"/directory"}},"global_nav_props":{"header_props":{"logo_src":"/images/landing/home2_landing/scribd_logo_horiz_small.svg","root_url":"https://www.scribd.com/","search_term":"","small_logo_src":"/images/logos/scribd_s_logo.png","uploads_url":"/upload-document","search_props":{"redirect_to_app":true,"search_url":"/search","search_test":"control","query":"","search_page":false}},"user_menu_props":null,"sidebar_props":{"urls":{"bestsellers":"https://www.scribd.com/bestsellers","home":"https://www.scribd.com/","saved":"/saved","subscribe":"/archive/pmp_checkout?doc=259292650&metadata=%7B%22context%22%3A%22pmp%22%2C%22action%22%3A%22start_trial%22%2C%22logged_in%22%3Afalse%2C%22platform%22%3A%22web%22%7D","top_charts":"/bestsellers","upload":"https://www.scribd.com/upload-document"},"categories":{"book":{"icon":"icon-ic_book","icon_filled":"icon-ic_book_fill","url":"https://www.scribd.com/books","name":"Books","type":"book"},"news":