Fall 2008
§12 The Completeness Axiom
12.3 For each subset of R, give its supremum and it’s maximum, if they exist. Otherwise, write “none.”
(a) {1, 3}
sup{1, 3} = max{1, 3} = 3
(c) [0, 4]
sup[0, 4] = max[0, 4] = 4
n∈N
(e)
Notice that n1  n ∈ N = 1, 12 , 13 , 14 , . . . .
sup n1  n ∈ N = max n1  n ∈ N = 1
n
o
n
(g) n+1
n∈N
n
o
n
 n ∈ N = 12 , 23 , 34 , 54 , . . . .
Notice that n+1
n
o
n
sup n+1
 n ∈ N = 1, maximum is “none.”
o
n
n
(i) n + (−1)

n
∈
N
n
n
o
n
Notice that n + (−1)

n
∈
N
= 0, 2 + 21 , 3 − 13 , 4 + 14 , 5 − 15 , . . . .
n
The set is not bounded above, so the supremum is “none” and the maximum is “none.”
1
n
12.4 Repeat Exercise 12.3 for the infimum and the minimum of each set.
(a) {1, 3}
inf{1, 3} = min{1, 3} = 1
(c) [0, 4]
inf[0, 4] = min[0, 4] = 0
(e) n1  n ∈ N
Notice that n1  n ∈ N = 1, 12 , 13 , 14 , . . . .
1
inf n  n ∈ N = 0, minimum is “none”
n
o
n
(g) n+1
n∈N
n
o
n
Notice that n+1
 n ∈ N = 12 , 23 , 34 , 54 , . . . .
n
o
n
o
n
n
inf n+1
 n ∈ N = min n+1
 n ∈ N = 12
n
o
n
(i) n + (−1)
n∈N
n
(3) y is an upper bound for S.2 n o n Notice that n + (−1)  n ∈ N = 0. Now suppose that k > 0. To show that k inf S is a lower bound for kS. then x ≤ z. 4 + 14 . Then ks ≤ y for every s in S. To show inf(kS) = k inf S it is sufficient to show that (c) k inf S is a lower bound for kS and (d) if y is any lower bound for kS. Suppose that x and y are both suprema for S. suppose that x is in kS. . then kS = 0 · S = {0} and so sup(kS) = sup{0} = 0 = 0 · sup S = k sup S. suppose that y is a lower bound for kS. x is an upper bound for S and so by (4). To show that k sup S is an upper bound for kS. Then ks ≥ y for every s in S. then k sup S ≤ y. then sup(kS) = k sup S and inf(kS) = k inf S. To prove that inf(kS) = k inf S there are two cases. . 2 + 21 . y is an upper bound for S and so by (2). To show (b). . By (1). Then s ≤ sup S since sup S is an upper bound for S and so x = ks ≤ k sup S. because sup(kS) is the only number for which properties (a) and (b) are true. To prove that sup(kS) = k sup S there are two cases. n n o n o inf n + (−1) = min n + (−1) =0 n n∈N n n∈N 12. Prove that sup S is unique. then y ≤ k inf S. y/k is an upper bound for S and so sup S ≤ y/k. Then (1) x is an upper bound for S. If k = 0. Then there is an s in S so that x = ks. (4) If z is any upper bound for S. Therefore.7a Let S be a nonempty bounded subset of R and let k be in R. then sup(kS) ≤ y Therefore. then y ≤ z. to show sup(kS) = k sup S it is sufficient to show that (a) k sup S is an upper bound for kS and (b) if y is any upper bound for kS. (2) If z is any upper bound for S. Therefore x ≤ y and y ≤ x. Then s ≥ inf S since inf S is a lower bound for S and so x = ks ≥ k inf S. By (3). Therefore. suppose that y is an upper bound for kS. To show (d). so x = y by Trichotomy. . then kS = 0 · S = {0} and so inf(kS) = inf{0} = 0 = 0 · inf S = k inf S. . y/k is a lower bound for S and so inf S ≥ y/k. 12. Define kS = { ks  s ∈ S }. Multiplying by k we see that k inf S ≥ y as desired. 3 − 13 . k sup S is an upper bound for kS. Then there is an s in S so that x = ks. suppose that x is in kS. Now suppose that k > 0. so s ≥ y/k for every s in S. 5 − 15 .6a Let S be a nonempty bounded subset of R. Multiplying by k we see that k sup S ≤ y as desired. The number sup(kS) is the unique real number with the properties (a) sup(kS) is an upper bound for kS and (b) if y is any upper bound for kS. k inf S is a lower bound for kS. Prove the following: If k ≥ 0. If k = 0. y ≤ x. Since x was arbitrary. so s ≤ y/k for every s in S. x ≤ y. Since x was arbitrary.
. then there are infinitely many rational numbers in the interval [x. In class. y].3 12.10a Prove:If x and y are real numbers with x < y.