My article is about how various roles of music technology and the relationship of

how it falls in with our music and our society.

Sampler:
When it was first invented? Why was it invented?
Prior to the computer memory-based samplers was used. Musicians used tape
replay keyboards, which stored recordings on analog tape. This was around the
time of the 1960’s and 1970’s. This was very expensive though due to the
amount old tape mechanisms and very heavy so therfor wasn’t very practical.
The range of the sampler was three octaves at most. The emerging digital
sampler a lot more practical. Bruce Haack built a digital sampler which he
demonstrated on Mister Rogers Neighborhood in 1967. The homemade
synthesizer device included a built-in sampler which recorded, stored, played
back and looped sounds controlled by switches, light sensors and human skin
contact. EMS Musys system was one of the first manufactures to take the
concept and develop it. There was three man people from the company that
developed the product; Peter Grogono (software), David Cockerell (hardware and
interfacing) and Peter Zinovieff (system design and operation). At their London
(Putney) Studio c. 1969. The system ran on two mini-computers which was
Digital Equipment. These had 12,000 (12k) bytes of read-only memory, backed
up by a hard drive of 32k and by tape storage (DecTape). EMS equipment was
used to control the world's first digital studio.
However The first commercially available sampling synthesizer was the
Computer Music Melodian by Harry Mendell (1976), while the first polyphonic
digital sampling synthesiser was the Australian-produced Fairlight CMI, first
available in 1979. The E-mu SP-1200 percussion sampler progressed Hip-Hop
away from the drum machine sound upon its release in August 1987, ushering in
the sample-based sound of the late 1980s and early 1990s. Akai pioneered many
processing techniques, such as crossfade looping and "time stretch" to shorten
or lengthen samples without affecting pitch and vice versa.
During the 1980s hybrid synthesizers began to utilize short samples (such as the
attack phase of an instrument) along with digital synthesis to create more
realistic imitations of instruments than had previously been possible. Examples
are Korg M1, Korg O1/W and the later Korg Triton and Korg Trinity series,
Yamaha's SY series and the Kawai K series of instruments. Limiting factors at the
time were the cost of physical memory (RAM) and the limitations of external data
storage devices, and this approach made best use of the tiny amount of memory
available to the design engineers.
The modern-day music workstation no matter if it is a playback or complex
editing that matches all but the most advanced dedicated samplers, and also
includes features such as a sequencer.

How did it change the way music sounded and how it was listened to?

Everything became a lot more digital. Digital is good because it is easier to
produce with and the bad quirks of anolog e.g. how time consuming it can be. It
changed the it was listened to as a lot traditional artist in genres such as pop and
hip hop as well as some metal core bands has started using them such as bring
me the horizon in songs such as shadows Moses. And it has become a necessity
to have in a lot of pop, hip-hop, drum and bass or traditional music no a days.

What was the impact of the musician?
The invention of a digital and a commercialised sampler meant that with time it
is used widely with artists such as Jay-z, Eminem, Dj Guv as well as less main
stream bands such as bring me the horizon. It means they can easily get a
sample that they have used in the studio and play it when they play live. It
means with the evolution of the modern day sampler as well as it being digital, it
can be transported conveniently. It also means for consumer they can listen to
their favourite artists and bands live without these samples so it can give them a
fuller experience. It also means that consumers can buy these instruments for an
affordable price if they will want to get into some aspects of the music industry.

Electric guitar
When it was first invented? Why was it invented?
The need for the amplified guitar became apparent during the big band era as
orchestras increased in size, particularly when guitars had to compete with large
brass sections. The first electric guitars used in jazz were hollow archtop acoustic
guitar bodies with electromagnetic transducers. By 1932 an electrically amplified
guitar was commercially available. Early electric guitar manufacturers include:
Rickenbacker (first called Ro-Pat-In) in 1932, Dobro in 1933, National, AudioVox
and Volu-tone in 1934, Vega, Epiphone (Electrophone and Electar), and Gibson in
1935 and many others by 1936. The first recordings using the electric guitar
were by Hawaiian style players, in 1933. Bob Dunn of Milton Brown's Musical
Brownies introduced the electric Hawaiian guitar to Western Swing with his
January 1935 Decca recordings, departing almost entirely from Hawaiian musical
influence and heading towards jazz and blues.
Gibson's first production electric guitar, marketed in 1936, was the ES-150 model
("ES" for "Electric Spanish"; and "150" reflecting the $150 price of the
instrument, along with matching amplifier). The ES-150 guitar featured a singlecoil, hexagonally shaped "bar" pickup, which was designed by Walt Fuller. It
became known as the "Charlie Christian" pickup (named for the great jazz
guitarist who was among the first to perform with the ES-150 guitar). The ES-150
achieved some popularity, but suffered from unequal loudness across the six
strings.
A functionally solid body electric guitar was designed and built in 1940 by Les
Paul from an Epiphone acoustic archtop. His "log guitar" (so called because it
consisted of a simple 4x4 wood post with a neck attached to it and homemade
pickups and hardware, with two detachable Epiphone hollow body halves
attached to the sides for appearance only) shares nothing in design or hardware

with the solid body Gibson Les Paul introduced in 1952. However, the feedback
problem associated with hollow-bodied electric guitars was understood long
before Paul's "log" was created in 1940; Gage Brewer's Ro-Pat-In of 1932 had a
top so heavily reinforced that it essentially functioned as a solid-body
instrument.

How did it change the way music was listened to?
It changed the way the music was listened to because of the way music went
almost from black and white to technicolour because new bands started
emerging from a soft jazz scene and then there was the heavy electrified sound
such as bands from the 60’s and late 50’s such as the cream, Elvis Presley, and
the rolling stones.
What was the impact of the musician?
The electric guitar as an innovation gave the wider music industry more jobs
such as means to amplify these products. It also means that over the years the
electric guitar for some musicians can sound different and also be a different
instrument with things such as delays, reverbs, distortion fuzz overdrive as well
as newly developed synth pedals. It also made guitarists get there music out to
a wider audience such as, playing in stadiums and arenas as well as venues with
larger audience base.

Dynamic microphone
When it was first invented? Why was it invented?
In 1923 the first practical moving coil microphone was built. "The Marconi Sykes"
or "magnetophon", developed by Captain H. J. Round, was the standard for BBC
studios in London. This was improved in 1930 by Blumlein and Holman who
released the HB1A and was the best standard of the day.

In the same year, the ribbon microphone was introduced, another
electromagnetic type, believed to have been developed by Harry F. Olson, who
essentially reverse-engineered a ribbon speaker. Over the years these
microphones were developed by several companies, most notably RCA that
made large advancements in pattern control, to give the microphone
directionality. With television and film technology booming there was demand for
high fidelity microphones and greater directionality. Electro-Voice responded with
their Academy Award-winning shotgun microphone in 1963.

During the second half of 20th century development advanced quickly with the
Shure Brothers bringing out the SM58 and SM57. Digital was pioneered by Milab
in 1999 with the DM-1001.[16] The latest research developments include the use
of fibre optics, lasers and interferometers.

How did it change the way music was listened to?
It changed the way music was listened to because it gave people a way to listen
to music in more of a refine way as it was before done in concert halls, that had
to have the right acoustics. It gave away for the consumers to hear what was
being sung.

What was the impact of the musician?
It meant finally that the singer could become the star, and therefore could be
known for either the style of the singing or the antics that could come with going
to a gig. It meant that there is no more need for acoustic theatres but festivals
could then emerge with the projection of microphones and musicians could then
play all over the world.

Tape
When it was first invented? Why was it invented?
In 1935, decades before the introduction of the Compact Cassette, AEG released
the first reel-to-reel tape recorder, which had a commercial name
"Magnetophon", based on the invention of the magnetic tape (1928) by Fritz
Pfleumer, which used similar technology but with open reels (for which the tape
was manufactured by BASF). These instruments were still very expensive and
very much difficult to use and were therefore used mostly by professionals in
radio stations and recording studios. The reel to reel, Only slowly took off from
about the 1950s; with prices between 700 and 1,500 DM (which would now be
about £ 1600 to 3400) such machines were still far too expensive for the mass
market as well as the production of making such a device. Their vacuum tube
construction made them very bulky. In the early 1960s, however, the weights
and the prices dropped when vacuum tubes were replaced by transistors. Reelto-reel tape recorders then became more common in household use, though they
remained in only a small fraction of homes with long playing record players.
In 1958, following four years of development, from RCA Victor introduced the
stereo, quarter-inch, reversible, reel-to-reel RCA tape cartridge. It was a cassette
and was very big with the measurements being 5" × 7", but unfortunately
offered fewer pre-recorded tapes; despite multiple versions, it failed.
In 1962, Philips invented the Compact Cassette medium for audio storage,
introducing it in Europe on 30 August 1963 (at the Berlin Radio Show), and in the
United States (under the Norelco brand) in November 1964, with the trademark
name Compact Cassette. The team at Philips was led by Lou Ottens in Hasselt,
Belgium. Although there were other magnetic tape cartridge systems, Philips'
Compact Cassette became dominant as a result of Philips' decision in the face of
pressure from Sony to license the format free of charge. Philips also released the
Norelco Carry-Corder 150 recorder/player in the U.S. in November 1964. By 1966

over 250,000 recorders had been sold in the US alone and Japan soon became
the major source of recorders. By 1968, 85 manufacturers had sold over 2.4
million players. This made music more accessible and also created a way to
listen to music whilst you are on your travels, this was like the iPod of today’s
society. This also the improved sound quality as early tape players was very
much mediocre but from the 1970 the quality of music was dramatically
improved. This made the Walkman.

How did it change the way music was listened to?
Tape changed the way music was listened to by allowing people to listen to
music out and about and on the go. The new invention of tape I think allowed
other manufactures to take the idea and expand like the later invention of a cd
and then the very modern cyber music that allows you to download thousands of
songs on to one device and then you listening to them such as the IPod.

The impact on the musician?
This allowed the musician a wider market to get there material out to the wider
audiences as well as a wider generation of the public so therefore they can be
more lucrative. As well as the consumer finding it easier to listen to their top
band and it was another way for a consumer to get hold of a musician’s music.
Internet
I have set my analysis out in a table to clearly show the positives and the
negatives on how the internet has affected musicians / Artists and how the
internet has affected general consumers of their music.

POSSOTIVES
Consumers
It is easier to
listen to music for
free on the
internet with
things such as
YouTube to see if
you may like the
new album or
song before you
go out and buy it.
You can download
music easier by
going on pirate
music sights to
download music
and it is fast and
free.

It’s easier to find
things out about a
rig a certain
musician uses
such as type of
cymbals, or amp
they may use by
a quick browse on
the internet. This
means they could
easily get a sound
that they like if
they play an
instrument.

Artists / musicians
It’s a lot easier for
bands to promote
themselves so
they can sell out
gigs and venues.

Easier for
musicians and
artists to put their
music out there,
as anyone can put
their music on;
YouTube, Spotify,
sound cloud, as
well as other
music sights so
consumers can
listen.

NEGATIVES
Consumers
There’s usually a
lower quality of
sound, when you
go and download
these songs from
pirate sights.

There can be
cyberbullying on
some comment
pages, when
listening to the
music on the
internet as some
music may not be
to peoples taste.

Consumers may
give and can give
unwanted and
bad publicity
towards artists/
bands and
musicians. This
could even be
dependent on a
lot of things such
as, a new record,
something in and
artists, or a
musicians
personal life, etc.
this could have a
knock on affect
with record sales
gigs etc.

Artists / musicians
It is harder to be
more lucratively
successful in the
music industry
because there is
less buying of
hard copied
albums / singles.

There’s more
competition
between bands
and artists. Due
to either the
amount of
followers they
have on twitter,
Instagram or
friends on
Facebook, which
shows the
demand for
certain acts. Even
though one act
may be more
talented than the
other, but it will
not show because
of followers or
friends.
Piracy of
musician’s music,
is a big negative
as musicians and
artist do not make
any money from
the download.

How did it change the way music was listened to?
Music started getting listened to on sights such as YouTube which is a free sight
which allows you to listen to music as well as videos. Spotify and iTunes started
through the succession of the internet.

My opinion is that I think the internet has been bad for musicians due to it has
become easier for people to put up their own music so therefore it is harder for
real talented people to come to the surface. Before computers if you wanted to
see talent you had to physically go and see them in clubs and pubs furthermore
this would mean promoters and people from record company’s would be more
inclined to get spotted and signed as if some people thought what you were
doing was different and a bit of a new sound they would sign you. To add to the
last point I think the internet has stopped giving bands originality because you
never see new bands say, “oh yeah we want to be like a hard rocking blues
band” but instead you see kids saying “oh we want to be a little bit heavier than
the rolling stones”, this is only an example however it shows the detreating
originality in music today, because some bands material does sound like some
other bands material.