Issue #5

Summer 2014

Produced with
the kind
support of

&

THE SINGULARITY IS NIGH

elcome

What’s The ASCII For

“Wolf”?

SQL Server
2014
Powerful database
functionality, available
to small and midsize
organisations

When is a number not a number? When
it’s a placeholder. When it’s zero. Zero
being precisely the number of recorded
instances of harm befalling a human as a
result of actual real world exploitation of
the Heartbleed vulnerability.

Molly Wood writing about Heartbleed in the business section
SJXLI±2I[=SVO8MQIW²SRXL%TVMPSFWIVZIH[MXL
regret that “what consumers should do to protect their own
information isn’t … clear, because security experts have
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“there is no evidence it has been used to steal personal
MRJSVQEXMSR²;IYRHIVQMRIHTYFPMGXVYWXERHGSR½HIRGIMR
the Internet; and in ourselves.

Heartbleed was a vulnerability. Not a risk. As professionals,
we know that risk is a function of an indivisible compound of
vulnerability with threat. We further know that threat itself
is a function of a further indivisible compound of an attacker
with both the capability and the intent to act on their
nefarious desires. A vulnerability in the absence of threat is
not a risk. Prior to the media storm visited needlessly upon
the world, few if any, including the threat actors, even knew
of its existence.

What we do is important because the systems we are
VIWTSRWMFPIJSVWIGYVMRKERHQEREKMRKEVIMQTSVXERX8LI]
are the beating heart of the Internet and this is the nervous
W]WXIQSJXLIG]FIVTLIRSQIRSR8LI-RXIVRIXEPSRIMWSJ
societal, if not existential, importance. Cyber is transformative.
Without us, or at least without some of us, the world would
be less safe and less secure than it is. However, it needs to
be safer and more secure than it is. More of us need to do
a better job.

Heartbleed was real. A serious vulnerability to an important
web service. Limited exploitation of the vulnerability had the
TSXIRXMEPXSIREFPI[VSRKHSIVW[MXLWYJ½GMIRXMRXIRXERH
capability to do harm to individuals. Unchecked exploitation
would certainly have temporarily dented trust in the Internet.
4VSPSRKIHSVQEWWMZI½RERGMEPPSWWEWEVIWYPXSJWMKRM½GERX
exploitation could have had serious macro-economic or
social consequences and might even have damaged public
XVYWXERHGSR½HIRGIMRXLIEHZMGISJ-8ERHG]FIVWIGYVMX]
experts. It demanded a serious, thoughtful, considered,
measured, balanced, co-ordinated, proportionate and
professional response from these experts. Which is precisely
the opposite of what happened.

8LIRIXIJJIGXSJ,IEVXFPIIHXLIVIEPGEXEWXVSTLILEW
FIIR]IXERSXLIVWIPJMR¾MGXIH[SYRHXSXLIEPVIEH]FEHP]
damaged credibility of the community of security experts.
We cannot sustain many more of these injuries before the
credibility of our community as a whole falls victim to our
seemingly suicidal instincts.
If we want to be taken seriously and treated as professionals,
it’s time we started to behave like professionals. We need
XSWXSTGV]MRK[SPJERHWXEVXKMZMRKERW[IVWXSXLIHMJ½GYPX
questions we have been avoiding for far too long. How do
we actively enable cyber democracy?
It is now time to start the process of moving towards the
creation of a professional governance body with the same
kind of power and status as, for instance, the Law Society or
the General Medical Council. Embracing willingly and freely all
of the consequences around regulation, licensing and liability
XLEXXLMW[MPPFVMRK8MQIXSWXSTGV]MRKG]FIV[SPJ8MQIJSV
XLIWREOISMPQIVGLERXWXS½RHERSXLIV;MPH;IWX

;IXLIGSQQYRMX]SJ-8ERHG]FIVWIGYVMX]I\TIVXW
turned the volume up to eleven on this one. Us, not the
bad guys. As experts, we competed to command ever
more extravagant hyperbole. In concert, we declared this
“catastrophic”. In a post Snowden world it was inevitable
that the dark ink of conspiracy theory would cloud the story
as fast as the Internet could carry it. And yet, nothing bad
actually happened. We rushed to spread fear, uncertainty and
HSYFXMRORS[MRKHI½ERGISJXLIEZEMPEFPIIZMHIRGI4IVLETW
because of the absence of evidence.

Colin Williams, Editor

We did succeed in scoring two own goals. Firstly, we
needlessly spread fear, uncertainty and doubt. Arguably
far more effectively than anyone other than the most
sophisticated attacker could have done. Secondly, we gave
further credence to the growing sense that this is all we can
HS8LIVIMWEZMI[HERKIVSYWERHQMWXEOIRFYXRSRIXLIPIWW
credible and growing, that we turn the volume up to
eleven to crowd out the silence of our own ignorance and
incompetence.

As your business grows so do the demands you place on the databases that help run your
organisation. Whether for inventory, online sales transactions, or customer management, a
slow-performing or unavailable database can create bottlenecks in the way your employees
do their jobs—and cause your customers to take their business elsewhere.

stop crying wolf!

Speed up applications and reduce downtime with the most widely used database in the
world.
Find out how SBL can help you upgrade and save.
Call 01347 812100 or visit www.softbox.co.uk/microsoft

3
SBL Recommends Microsoft Software

3

EXWSR Colin Williams 10 Andrew Fitzmaurice REVIEW EDITORS Encouraging More Women In Computing National Museum of Computing (V-ER&V]ERX (V2ERG]1IEH  CONTRIBUTORS Halidu Abubakar (V-ER&V]ERX Andrew Cook (V(EZMH(E] (IRMW)HKEV2IZMPP Andrew Fitzmaurice 8SQ.co.uk CONTACT US General enquiries:  .SSO (V%RHVI%VE/EVEQERMER &PEOI1EVOLEQ (V2ERG]1IEH (V'LEV7EQTPI (V(ER7LSIQEOIV Magnus Wakander Colin Williams 8SQ.0 18 Spear Fishing and Pirates: A Guide To Staying Safe In The Cyber Sea 20 Meat The Machine 26 A Campaign To Make Every Day Online Behaviour Safer &PEOI1EVOLEQ Halidu Abubakar (V'LEV7EQTPI (V%RHVI/EVEQERMER Magnus Wakander Colin Williams 29 30 Call For Articles The Rise And Fall Of Edward The Confessor 33 Who Wants Stovepipes? 37 The Road To Competency 41 I.SSO Ed Mallows ADVERTISING CO .CONTENTS 10 14 STUDENT SHOWCASE 03 Welcome 05 07 Flash Fiction Competition 5 Reasons To Be Paranoid About Internet Safety 08 Cybercrime: The Still Important Role Of Education In A Fight We Can Never Win Colin Williams (V(EZMH(E] (IRMW)HKEV2IZMPPI 09 20 26 ADVERTORIAL 41 48 Andrew Cook DEPUTY EDITORS Natalie Murray 8MRIOI7MQTWSR SUB -EDITORS 8SQ.Human 48 The IA Practitioners’ Event 2014 Review  Alamanac of Events Andrew Cook  EVENTS ART DIRECTOR & DIGITAL EDITOR Cyber Security Responses To Counterfeit Goods Cyber Streetwise 50 8MQ.ORDINATOR 11 Open Or Closed Source Security Protocols 13 Culture and Cyber Behaviors: The Role Of Culture 14 Cyber Security & Capitalism 6.SQI3J½GI']FIV7XVIIX[MWI'EQTEMKR DESIGN )PPIR0SRKLSVR(IWMKR www.SSO SPECIAL THANKS 8LI2EXMSREP1YWIYQSJ'SQTYXMRK 8LI9/.ellenlonghorndesign.

  Editorial enquiries: .

uk Web: www.softbox.co.co.uk/cybertalk cybertalkmagazine $']FIV8EPO9/ ']FIV8EPOMWTYFPMWLIHXLVIIXMQIWE]IEVF]7&0.  Email: cybertalk@softbox.

>L»YLZLLRPUNL_JLW[PVUHSZOVY[Z[VYPLZIHZLKVU[OL[OLTLVMº*@). we want to seek out and celebrate the most skilled and creative new writers in our next edition.co. As part of this.LMPWXIZIV] IJJSVXLEWFIIRQEHIXSIRWYVIXLEXXLIGSRXIRXSJ']FIV8EPOQEKE^MRI MWEGGYVEXIRSVIWTSRWMFMPMX]GERFIEGGITXIHF]7&0JSVIVVSVW misrepresentation or any resulting effects.500 words and must be submitted to cybertalk@softbox. for a chance to WINHMHU[HZ[PJWYPaLHUKILYLJVNUPZLKHZHUL_JP[PUN[HSLU[PU[OLZJPLUJLÄJ[PVUNLUYL The winning entry will be published in full in the next issue of CyberTalk.OPZ[OLTLJHUILPU[LYWYL[LKPUHU`^H`[OH[PUZWPYLZ`V\ Stories should be a maximum of 1. ']FIV8EPOMWHIWMKRIHF])PPIR0SRKLSVR(IWMKR and printed by Wyndeham Grange plc.co. including emerging writers and exciting new voices. the Sci-Fi Issue. )WXEFPMWLIHMR[MXLELIEHUYEVXIVWMR=SVO7&0EVIE:EPYI%HHIH -86IWIPPIV[MHIP]VIGSKRMWIHEWXLIQEVOIXPIEHIVMR-RJSVQEXMSR 7IGYVMX]7&0SJJIVWEGSQTVILIRWMZITSVXJSPMSSJWSJX[EVILEVH[EVI services and training.9» .softbox.uk/cybertalk. We invite both amateur and professional writers to demonstrate their skill in short-story writing by entering the CyberTalk Flash Fiction Competition.7SJX[EVI&S\0XH  Nothing in this magazine may be reproduced in whole or part without XLI[VMXXIRTIVQMWWMSRSJXLITYFPMWLIV%VXMGPIWMR']FIV8EPOHSRSX RIGIWWEVMP]VI¾IGXXLISTMRMSRWSJ7&0SVMXWIQTPS]IIW. COMPETITION CyberTalk magazine supports and promotes the best cyber narrative writing from around the world. and also online at www. with an in-house professional services team IREFPMRKXLIHIPMZIV]SJEGSQTVILIRWMZIERHMRRSZEXMZIVERKISJ-8 solutions.uk by midnight on 1st August 2014. Good Luck! 'SPPIIR6SFIVXWSR  5 .

Moreover. flexibility and choice. Make sure your data center is always agile. vmware. but in terms of making the Internet completely safe.IVIEVI½ZI top tips to help you do that: information about you from many different sites . We’re also depending on others to stay alert for the vulnerabilities we LEZI]IXXSEHHVIWW. Malicious parties have commonly placed above its safety.Copyright © 2014 VMware.com/sddc * 5 reasons to be paranoid about internet safety (V(EZMH(E] 7LIJ½IPH. It’s IT for the mobile cloud era. The Software-Defined Data Center. Inc. by extending virtualization to all data center resources—computing. storage. Business is always changing. &IGSQIQMRHJYPSJXLIEQSYRXSJMRJSVQEXMSR with an application’s functionality you reveal about yourself. the odds are well stacked against us. it’s MRGVIEWMRKP]HMJ½GYPXXSOIIT up with the escalating number of new vulnerabilities. not days. sophisticated tools and methods to correlate all the As security professionals. VMware’s software-defined data center delivers unprecedented levels of agility. in minutes. So businesses can deploy applications when and where they need them on any device.EPPEQ 8LIQSVIMRXIVRIXETTPMGEXMSRW University we use. We can make an environment a lot more secure. in many instances the standard of security used when creating web 1. the greater attack opportunities we present to an aggressor. Avoid social media overload applications is astonishingly poor. network and security—and by automating management.

but also be aware that information posted online has E[E]SJKIXXMRKSYXVIKEVHPIWW8LMROZIV]GEVIJYPP] before you post information which can either be used against you. don’t VIP]WSPIP]SRXLITLMWLMRK½PXIVW]SYQE]LEZISR your web browser – they work by checking web EHHVIWWIWEKEMRWXIMXLIVORS[RPIKMXMQEXI. Recognise Phishing Never give your personal information to anyone unless you completely trust them and are absolutely sure they are who they say they are. 4. Even if it’s from someone you know. or you don’t know who or where it is from. rats and keyloggers are just some of the HMJJIVIRXX]TIWSJQEPMGMSYWWSJX[EVI8LIQSWXPMOIP] way one of these will affect you is if you open an attachment when you either don’t know what it is. Further. Don’t be a victim of malware :MVYWIW[SVQWXVSNERWWT][EVIEH[EVIVERWSQ[EVI rootkits. or to impersonate you.VIJIVVIHXSEW±HS\MRK² &IEXXIRXMZIXS]SYVTVMZEG] settings on social media accounts such as Facebook. can you also be sure that they know what they have sent you? 2. and you can verify it is indeed them. If you can’t EYXLIRXMGEXIXLIWSYVGISJXLI½PI[MXLGIVXEMRX]ERH EPWSGERRSXGSR½VQXLIEXXEGLQIRXSV½PIMWWEJIXLIR simply delete it.

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Be careful with BitTorent… 3VMRHIIHER]SXLIV½PIWLEVMRKW]WXIQ1SWXYWIMX because they don’t want to pay for copyrighted or commercially licenced material. Putting any discussion on the morality of that to one side. they are also a perfect way to propagate malware.LIREWGEQ[IFEHHVIWWLEWLEH 960WLSVXIRMRKETTPMIHXSMXXLVIISVQSVIXMQIWMX´W PMOIP]]SYVTLMWLMRK½PXIV[MPPJEMPXSHIXIGXXLEXMX´WE TLMWLMRK960 5. If you regularly download pirated media. and not dwelling on the fact that its improper use can end up with you facing a serious law suit and/or criminal proceedings.FPEGO PMWXW8LIWIPMWXWGERRSXFI entirely complete and therefore cannot be exclusively VIPMIHYTSR%PWSQER]½PXIVWEVIMRIJJIGXMZIEKEMRWX 960WLSVXIRMRK. sooner or PEXIV.

3. particularly those relating to scripting. Watch out for compromised websites Many websites have been compromised by a technique called Cross Site Scripting and the likelihood is the site’s administrators will not even know their [IFETTPMGEXMSRMWEJJIGXIH8LMWHSIWR´XQIER]SYEVI powerless against it. this is no longer true. they can see your face as you do so. And while the favoured headline may be “In cyberspace no one can hear you scream”.telefonica. Your web browser has a number of settings you can adjust to help protect you. So now they cannot only hear you scream. In summary. Using remote access trojans.YWYEPP]WSSRIV ]SY[MPPIRHYTMRJIGXIH[MXL malware. hackers can take control of your webcam and mic.com/  .digital. It’s beyond the scope of this article to discuss them all.YF¯ a global blog on digital tech – http://blog. but if you are using a modern version of Internet Explorer then it’s well worth becoming familiar with the browser’s security tab in internet options. 8LMWTMIGISVMKMREPP]ETTIEVIHSR8IPIJSRMGE´W-RRSZEXMSR. be alert and cautious Paranoia is no bad thing on the internet.

ADVERTORIAL Cybercrime THE STILL IMPORTANT ROLE OF EDUCATION IN A FIGHT WE CAN NEVER WIN (IRMW)HKEV2IZMPP Head. Centre for Cybercrime Forensics Canterbury Christ Church University If you can keep your head. whilst all around you are losing theirs – you TVSFEFP]HSR´XYRHIVWXERHXLIWMXYEXMSR8LEX´WEKSSHWYQQEV]SJVIEPMX] XSHE]MRXLI½KLXEKEMRWX']FIVGVMQI7SQIWSYVGIWRS[TYX']FIVGVMQI EWFMKKIV.

8LIVI[EWEXMQI[LIR[SQIR[IVI a large proportion of the technology workforce. /EWTIVWO]0EFWVITSVXIHXLEXMRTLMWLIVWPEYRGLIHEXXEGOWEJJIGXMRK EREZIVEKISJTISTPI[SVPH[MHIIEGLHE]¯X[MGIEWQER]EWMR 8LI2SVXSR']FIVGVMQI6ITSVXWLS[IHXLEXEVSYRHSRI million adults become Cybercrime victims everyday.MRXIVQWSJQSRI] XLERXLIHMWXVMFYXMSRERHWEPISJEPPJSVQWSJ MPPIKEPHVYKXVEJ½GOMRK[SVPH[MHI-XMWGIVXEMRP]VIWTSRWMFPIJSVXLIKVIEXIWX number of attempted crimes of any type and the problem is growing rapidly. but now they are considerably under-represented. 6IGIRXWXYHMIWWLS[XLEXXLI] represent 17% of the workforce and that the proportion has not altered over the past decade. with an average cost to IEGLSJ ENCOURAGING MORE WOMEN IN COMPUTING IT’S FOOLISH TO BELIEVE THERE IS ANY SINGLE MAGIC BULLET TO COMBAT CYBERCRIME. It’s foolish to believe there is any single magic bullet to combat Cybercrime. Governments around the world have committed massive sums of money to ½KLXMRKXLVIEXWXSREXMSREPG]FIVMRJVEWXVYGXYVIFYXXLIOI]UYIWXMSRMW[LIVI MX´WFIWXXSWTIRH]SYVQSRI]#8LIEREPSK]MWXLEX]SYEVIWXERHMRKYRHIVE XMHEP[EZI[MXLERYQFVIPPE.

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8LIGSSTIVEXMSRSJWYGLREXMSREPGIRXVIWMWMQTSVXERXERHXLIGVIEXMSRSJ)' . experience and opportunities to help educate and defend organisations and individuals from the developing threat of Cybercrime. commerce and the university sector. Each of these areas brings valuable expertise.ºQMPPMSRSZIVQSRXLWMRZSPZMRK9/9RMZIVWMXMIWGSQTERMIWERH XLI'SPPIKISJ4SPMGMRKMRXLI9/ 8LMWTVSNIGXFIKERMR(IGIQFIVERH GSRGPYHIWMR%YKYWX-XMRGPYHIWQENSVXVEMRMRKERHWOMPPWYTHEXMRKJSVPE[ IRJSVGIQIRXMRXLI9/)9ERHFVMRKWXSKIXLIVXLIXLVIIMQTSVXERXEVIEWSJ law enforcement.

XLI)YVSTIER']FIVGVMQI'IRXVI [MXLMR)YVSTSPSR. opened the Museum’s Google-sponsored Women in Computing gallery which highlights the role of [SQIRMR-8SZIVXLIHIGEHIW 2S[XLI&)88E[EVH[MRRMRKXIEQSJ8213'XLI 0SRHSR+VMHJSV0IEVRMRK.ERYEV]TVSZMHIW EQENSVI\GLERKIJSVMRJSVQEXMSRERHNSMRXMRMXMEXMZIW&YXF]GSQTEVMWSR[MXL the problem these initiatives are small. 8LI2EXMSREP1YWIYQSJ'SQTYXMRKWIIWXLMWMQFEPERGI VI¾IGXIHMRXLIGSQTSWMXMSRSJZMWMXMRKWXYHIRXKVSYTW 8SXV]XSGSYRXIVMXPEWX]IEV(EQI7XITLERMI7LMVPI]-8 entrepreneur.

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SQIRERH'SQTYXMRK MWI\TIGXIHXSGSRXEMREFSYXZMHISGPMTWHIWMKRIH for easy and rapid access by teachers for use in the classroom and be a valuable resource incorporating GYVVMGYPYQWYTTSVXQEXIVMEPJSV/I]7XEKIWXS See www. [IHSRSXI\TIRHXLIIRIVK]XSTVSXIGXSYVWIPZIWEKEMRWXXLIQ8LIVIEVI hundreds of things we might reasonably look for when turning on a machine.EHIZMGIXLIWM^ISJETIRGET[LMGLGERFIMRWIVXIHFIX[IIR a keyboard and computer to record all key depressions – and hence be YWIHXSWXIEPTEWW[SVHWERHSXLIVTIVWSREPHEXE 8LIWIHIZMGIWLEZIFIIR commercially available for over ten years.S[IZIV deciding not to educate yourself. 8LIIUYMZEPIRGISJEREMVPMRITMPSX´WGLIGOPMWXFIJSVIXEOISJJQMKLXLIPTFYXMX would completely change the utility of using computers. and reduce the effort of recovering from attacks. Also on Facebook. Even when we know such threats exist. is the path to losing and spending a lot of money! The-National-Museum-of-Computing @tnmoc The National Museum of Computing   . Google+ and Twitter. 7GLIHYPIHJSVVIPIEWIMR.org for further developments. it was very unlikely anyone would from now on regularly check their systems. I asked the audience of over a hundred participants if they had ever checked to see if such a device was GSRRIGXIHXSXLIMVGSQTYXIV3RP]X[STISTPILEHIZIVPSSOIH8LIRMX occurred to me that even when the threat of this problem had been discussed with the audience at this event.tnmoc. 8LMWMW[L][IGERRIZIVVIEPP][MRXLMW½KLXEKEMRWX']FIVGVMQI.

Prior to me joining the course I studied at undergraduate level in a computer-related discipline.com/in/markhambp LEZIQEWWMZI½RERGMEPMQTPMGEXMSRWHYIXSTVSZMHMRKVITPEGIQIRXWSVJVSQPE[WYMXW SJYRLETT]GYWXSQIVW8LIVITIVGYWWMSRWEVIQYGLKVEZIVJSVGLMTWXLEXQE]LEZI JSYRHXLIMV[E]SRXSQMPMXEV]KVEHI½KLXIVNIXW[LMGLGSYPHVIWYPXMRQMHEMVJEMPYVIW MRHIIHGSYRXIVJIMXGLMTWLEZIFIIRJSYRHMR½KLXIVNIXW A more sinister use of counterfeit chips is the intent of extracting personal MRJSVQEXMSRJVSQSXLIVW8LMWGERFIEGLMIZIHXLVSYKLIQFIHHMRKQEP[EVISRXLI IPIGXVSRMGGLMT8LITSXIRXMEPMQTPMGEXMSRWXLMWFVMRKWGERGEYWILEZSG[MXLQSVISJ us using smart phones and doing our banking remotely on these kinds of devices. 8LMWLEWHIZIPSTIHMRXSELSFF]ERH-LEZIWMRGII\TIVMQIRXIH with exploiting wireless technology and poorly coded web forms by performing SQL injection attacks. intercepting https communication utilising a QERMRXLIQMHHPIEXXEGO8LIVIGIRX. Bio Name: School: Linkedin: &PEOI1EVOLEQ University of Warwick https://www. with criminals taking full advantage of new technology and this type of threat could become more and more prominent as more traditional malware MWHMWGSZIVIHERHGSQFEXIH-XMWHMJ½GYPXXSMHIRXMJ]VSKYIGLMTWMRTVSHYGXMSRERH even more so once they are in place as the average user will blindly trust that there was no pre-existing malware on their new device. that combined [MXLQ]IHYGEXMSRLEWIREFPIHQIXSI\GIPMRQ]½IPH-EQ always seeking new challenges and am currently in the process of developing mobile phone apps. granting root level access to the web servers. Malware installed this way would FIQSVIHMJ½GYPXXSGSYRXIVHYIXSXLIJEGXXLEXMXMWLEVH[EVIFEWIHVEXLIVXLER WSJX[EVIFEWIHWSIZIRXLIQSWXVEHMGEPSJETTVSEGLIW.IEVXFPIIHFYKLEWSRP]VI IRJSVGIHXLIMWWYI[IQYWXEWWYQIXLEXRSXLMRKMW WIGYVI Many of the skills I have acquired are self-taught. my father and I started building computers from when I was very young and I used this to discover how they work. I now focus my efforts on being able to both secure and exploit these systems. I have also managed to simulate exploiting the secure sockets layer. Fraud is on the rise.linkedin. possibly with the potential to contribute to the security aspects of mobile devices in the future. However.STUDENT SHOWCASE Open or Closed source security protocols Cyber Security Responses to Counterfeit Goods &PEOI1EVOLEQ University of Warwick I am currently a Cyber Security and Management student at the University of Warwick.

to QIIXXLIVIUYMVIQIRXWSJEWTIGM½GNSF.S[IZIVXLMWHSIWRSXQIERXLEXGSQTERMIW do not produce counterfeit chips. From threats on our livelihood. to implications on government security.EV[MGO[SYPHFIRI½XERHFIEFPIXSJYVXLIVHMWXMRKYMWLMXWIPJJVSQXLIKVS[MRK amount of cyber security courses by reinforcing the theories discussed in lectures with practical experience. counterfeiting techniques are also evolving to evade these security QIEWYVIW3RIWYGLI\EQTPIMWTEWWTSVXWXLEXRS[YXMPMWIERXMXEQTIVMRKLSPSKVEQW ERHGLMTWXLEXEVIVIEHF]W]WXIQWEXXLIFSVHIV8LIWIEVIRSPSRKIVEWVITVSHYGMFPI as previous passport designs so criminals often alter stolen passports rather than TVSHYGMRKRI[SRIW8LMWXLIREPPS[WXLSWIGEVV]MRKGSYRXIVJIMXTEWWTSVXWXSXVEZIP [MXLSYXVEMWMRKWYWTMGMSREWXLI]LSPHERSJ½GMEPTEWWTSVXXLEXLEWFIIREPXIVIHXS their new identity. When a corporation designs a chip. through compromises at the borders and in military machines. or FY]MRKERSXLIVRI[TLSRI&YXXLMWMWYRPMOIP]XSMRWTMVIXVYWXMRGSQTERMIW[LSWI products have been compromised. My thesis addresses counterfeiting of electronic goods and particularly focuses on the cyber security responses to combat it. Halidu Abubakar. including attempts to tackle the problem at the supply chain with XLIYXMPMWEXMSRSJXIGLRSPSK]WYGLEW6*-(GLMTW'SQTYXIVGLMTWEVIERI\EQTPI SJGSRWYQIVKSSHWXLEXEVIGSYRXIVJIMXIH[MHIP]-XMWHMJ½GYPXXSXLMROSJER] technology that does not utilise these micro devices for numerous different tasks.EV[MGO8LIVIEWSR-GLSWIXLMWGSYVWI[EWFIGEYWIMX is well rounded and focuses on many aspects of the cyber security industry. security protocols have followed a similar fashion of evolution.S[IZIV-HSFIPMIZI XLEX.WYGLEW³[MTMRK´EHIZMGI  [SYPHRSXRIGIWWEVMP]VIQSZIXLIXLVIEX6IEPMWXMGEPP]XLISRP]JIEWMFPIETTVSEGLIW to combat this would be replacing the counterfeited chip in the existing phone. (IWTMXIXIGLRSPSKMGEPEHZERGIWXLEXEMHMRTVSXIGXMRKKSSHWJVSQFIGSQMRK counterfeited. with the academic year coming to an end. whether knowingly or not. Anti-counterfeiting areas are explored in my project. Computer chips fail as a result of this putting great stress on the GSVIGEYWMRKXLIQXSSZIVLIEX8LIGSRWIUYIRGISJXLMWZEVMIWHITIRHMRKSRXLI technology that they have been implemented into. but some are in fact ‘over-clocked’ and sold as being the genuine article. they construct chips that are built for purpose. 8LIVIJSVIXLMWG]FIVWIGYVMX]GSYVWILEWTIVJIGXP]TSMWIHQIXSLEZIEKVIEXGLERGI SJ½RHMRKIQTPS]QIRX[MXLGSQTERMIWWYGLEW(IIT7IGYVIJVSQXLI1EPZIVR ']FIV7IGYVMX]'PYWXIVMRXLIEVIEWXLEX-½RHQSWXJEWGMREXMRK. counterfeiting is a threat that needs to be addressed. In fact. from using lock and key to security smart GEVHWJSVEGGIWW8LMWIZSPYXMSRMWQSXMZEXIHFIGEYWISJGSRWXERX attempts to exploit the vulnerabilities of security systems which are sometimes successful or unsuccessful. I am presently working on developing GSYRXIVQIEWYVIWJSV%HZERGIH4IVWMWXIRX8LVIEX. through fraudsters gaining access to our accounts. University of Warwick Bio Name: School: Linkedin: Halidu Abubakar University of Warwick LXXTRKPMROIHMRGSQTYFEFYFEOEVLEPMHY I am an enthusiast of Cyber Security and my research interest is in Cyber espionage. it is easily one of the more worrying ways counterfeiting can affect our lives. Some chips may indeed be what they are advertised as. I can look back and am able to IZEPYEXIQ]I\TIVMIRGIEX. Now. A phone brand that has used a counterfeited chip unknowingly that overheats and causes their phones to fail could  7IGYVMX]LEWEP[E]WFIIREHEMP]FEXXPI[LMGLPIEHWXS½RHMRKRI[ [E]WSJTVSXIGXMSR8LMWGERFIWIIRMRXLIIZSPYXMSRSJXVEHMXMSREP home security measures. For example. from broadening my knowledge of current techniques to developing skills required to FIGSQIEWYGGIWWJYPQEREKIV8LIVILEZIEPWSFIIRWSQIMRZEPYEFPISTTSVXYRMXMIWXS network with some of cyber security’s elite and to gain an insight into their opinions due to talks by multiple guest speakers. Historically. both from the private and public sectors. counterfeit chips have been discovered in an array of devices including branded TLSRIWXEFPIXWERHIZIV]GSRGIMZEFPIGSQTYXIV]SYGERXLMROSJ&YX[LEXMJER] threat do they pose to the consumer who has unknowingly used them? Although cyber security issues may not be the immediate issue that comes to mind when thinking about counterfeiting. educating students on penetration testing by simulating real world situations with attacker and victim machines would emphasise the theories on combative techniques taught during lectures.

8LI7IGYVI7SGOIX0E]IV.%48 [LMGL is commonly used in espionage operations.

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-XMWIZMHIRXXLEX. Most of the technologies that underpin the services people use in their daily lives are part of the cyber sphere thus need to be safe.IEVXFPIIHMWRSXXLI½VWXZYPRIVEFMPMX]XLEXLEWFIIRJSYRHSRXLMW STIRWSYVGIWIGYVMX]TVSXSGSP1SWXSJXLIG]FIVEXXEGOWSR807EVIEGEWISJYWMRK MXWWXVIRKXLEKEMRWXMX*SVMRWXERGIXLIGSYRXIVQIEWYVIJSVXLI&)%78EXXEGO[LMGL I\TPSMXWE[IEORIWWMR'&'.&VS[WIV)\TPSMX%KEMRWX770807 EXXEGOGVMQIERHFVIEGLEXXEGOTEHHMRKEXXEGOW truncation attacks and recently the Heartbleed bug. I see cyber security as another way of protecting lives and property rather than another information technology challenge. -LEZI[SVOIHEWERIPIGXVMGEPIRKMRIIVJSVQSRXLWERH EW]WXIQWIRKMRIIVJSV]IEVWFIJSVITYVWYMRKER17GMR Cybersecurity and Management.

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7MQMPEVP]XLI. such that the server is made XSVIWTSRH[MXLQSVIHEXESRMXWQIQSV]XLERMXWLSYPH8LMWHEXEGSYPHMRGPYHI TEWW[SVHWERHSXLIVWIRWMXMZIHEXEXLEX807[EWTVSGIWWMRKEXXLIXMQISJXLI VIUYIWX8LMWWIIQWPMOIEGEWISJRI[WSPYXMSRWPIEHMRKXSRI[ZYPRIVEFMPMX][LMGLMW common with most technological advancement.IEVXFPIIHFYKMWERI\TPSMXSJXLIWXVIRKXLSJ807XLILIEVXFIEXTEGOIX is sent by a client computer to a server in order to keep a session active because of XLIHMJ½GYPX]SJWIXXMRKYTERI[WIWWMSR8LMWMWEWXVIRKXLXLEXFIGEQIEZYPRIVEFMPMX] when the heartbeat packet was maliciously constructed. However.JVEKQIRXEXMSR PIHXS a new exploit known as the truncation attack where fragments of the message to be sent could be dropped by an attacker and fragments that meant something else are delivered. the question that comes to mind is: What if this new vulnerability was discovered and exploited maliciously long before cyber security programmers and professionals discover it existed? 2IZIVXLIPIWWPMOIIZIV]SXLIVSTIRWSYVGITVSNIGX.

ETTPMGEXMSRWWSJX[EVIERH STIVEXMRKW]WXIQW XLI]FIGSQIFIXXIVEWHIZIPSTIVWGSRXVMFYXIXSMXF]EHHMRKRI[ JYRGXMSREPMXMIWSV½\MRKHMWGSZIVIHFYKW3RXLISXLIVLERHWIGYVMX]TVSXSGSPWXLEX EVI[MHIP]YWIHPMOI807770QMKLXRSXFIRI½XJVSQXLMWOMRHSJGSRXVMFYXMSRFIGEYWI XLIIGSW]WXIQMWFYMPXEVSYRHG]FIVWIGYVMX]8LIVIJSVIXLIVIMWRIIHXSWIVMSYWP] consider whether security protocols should be made open or closed source.  . Continuous research in more resilient protocols is needed. while bearing in mind that technological measures are to ensure that breaking security systems becomes more HMJ½GYPXERHI\TIRWMZIJSVEXXEGOIVWFIGEYWIXLIVIMWRSTIVJIGXWIGYVMX]W]WXIQ It is evident that Heartbleed is RSXXLI½VWXZYPRIVEFMPMX]XLEX has been found on this open source security protocol.

PERSONALITY INDIVIDUAL TISTPI-JLYQERREXYVIHI½RIWYRMZIVWEPIQSXMSRWXLIR -RXLI½VWXEVXMGPIXLIVIWIEVGLIVWWLEVIHXLIHMWGSZIV]SJE GYPXYVIHI½RIWIQSXMSREPVIWTSRWIWXLEXEVIWLEVIH correlation between operationalised and indexed culture by a group. the ½VWXEVXMGPIXLIGSRRIGXMSRHMWGSZIVIH[EWFIX[IIR community.SJWXIHI XLIWI½RHMRKWJSVXLI']FIVWIGYVMX]MRHYWXV] Culture is both self-reproducing and +. Figure 1: 6IPEXMSRWLMTFIX[IIR'YPXYVIERH4IVWSREPMX] take the prior studies shared. thus bridging the distance between inherent human nature and JYRHEQIRXEPLEFMXW8LIWILEFMXWEVIIEW]XSPIEVRFYXHMJ½GYPXXSYRPIEVR TIVWSREPMX]8LI½VWXX[SWXYHMIWXLEX[IVITIVJSVQIHI\EQMRIHE SVIZIRORS[XLI]EVIXLIVI8LI]WIIQREXYVEPERHXLIMVEWWSGMEXIH WTIGM½GX]TISJKVSYTREXMSREPMWXMGGYPXYVIW thinking seems like common sense. depicted as the lowest level of the triangle in JSVIEGLGYPXYVIERHXLI]QERMJIWXYRMUYI½RKIVTVMRXWMRIZIV] ½KYVIVITVIWIRXWXLIIQSXMSRWXLEXEVIYRMZIVWEPXSEPP behaviour. patriotic website defacements and MRWXMXYXMSRW3RGIXLIMRHMZMHYEPEFWSVFW power distance. and to generalise Note: 8LMW½KYVIMWEHETXIHJVSQ. the education system and national nationalist.ERH1MROSZ1. Culture is learned by the individual CULTURAL GROUP HMQIRWMSRWERHG]FIVFILEZMSYV7TIGM½GEPP]MRXLI through society’s cultural institutions the family. collectivism. and short-term culture the individual will reproduce cultural HUMAN NATURE orientation.(V'LEV7EQTPI')68ERH(V%RHVI/EVEQERMER Culture and Cyber Behaviours: The Role of Culture 8LI½VWXEVXMGPISJXLIWIVMIWHMWGYWWIHLS[GYPXYVIEJJIGXWLYQERW´ level. norms both in the workforce and in the next generation when the cultural values 8LITYVTSWISJXLMWJSPPS[SREVXMGPIMWXS are taught to the children.SJWXIHI+. Except these habits are unique Human nature.

MPP4YFPMWLMRK2I[=SVO2= perform future studies both in Cybersecurity. and is re-enforced as part of the next [LIRHMWGYWWMRKGYPXYVIERHG]FIVWIGYVMX]MW±. does not address that those norms are for a particular behaviours and operations. Whether you study for an MSc or a PhD. however. Consider the example of smiling REXMSRW7MQMPEVP]HIJIRWIGLSMGIWWYGLEWGLSSWMRKXSVYR(277)'EPWS [LIRWIVZMRKJEWXJSSH8LMWFILEZMSYVMWGSRWMHIVIHRSVQEPMRXLI97ERH ETTIEVXSFIGYPXYVEPP]MR¾YIRGIH7TIGM½GEXXEGOERHHIJIRWIXSSPWQE] QER][IWXIVRGYPXYVIWFYX[LIRMX[EWMRXVSHYGIHMR6YWWMEGYWXSQIVW[IVI WYFGSRWGMSYWP]ETTIEPXSHMJJIVIRXGYPXYVEPTVIJIVIRGIW8LIPMQMXIHWXYHMIW WYWTMGMSYWSJXLIWIVZIVW[LSWQMPIH8LMWPEGOSJGYPXYVEPGSRWMHIVEXMSRW conducted to date in this area seem to support this view and we hope to ]MIPHIHQM\IHVIWYPXWSRTW]GLSPSKMGEPTVS½PMRKWXYHMIW%WWLS[RMR½KYVI HMWGYWWXLSWIWXYHMIWMRHIXEMPMRWYFWIUYIRXEVXMGPIW8LIWIWXYHMIWWLS[LS[ GYPXYVIEHHVIWWIWXLIXVEMXWERHGLEVEGXIVMWXMGWEWWSGMEXIHEXXLIKVSYT these patterns of thought affect the cyber domain actors. 'YPXYVIWERH Generalising the work allows researchers to WIPJVIMRJSVGMRK&IGEYWIGYPXYVIMW 3VKERM^EXMSRW1G+VE[.ac.ac. 6IEH4EVXSJXLMWWIVMIWSJEVXMGPIW±%(MJJIVIRX4IVWTIGXMZISR%XXVMFYXMSR²SRPMRIJSVJVIIRS[EX[[[WSJXFS\GSYOG]FIVXEPOMWWYIJSYV Please contact us for more information: t +44 (0)24 7657 5994 e wmgmasters@warwick.uk w www. your industrially focused research programme together with world-leading cyber security skills will provide you with a highly-valued competitive edge in your career. Attack behaviours such as brute force attacks culture.LIVIHSIWGYPXYVI½X#²8LMW generation. ubiquitous. culture is absorbed into the and the social sciences that allow them to EYXSQEXMGXLSYKLXTVSGIWW8LMWSGGYVW HVE[PEVKIVGSRGPYWMSRW3RIIEVP]UYIWXMSRXLEXSJXIRGSQIWYT across a lifetime from birth to death.uk/go/wmgmasters/courses/csm  . Why Study Cyber Security at Warwick? t Security Architectures t Network Defence t Digital Forensics t Data Protection t Information Risk Management t Security Governance t Strategic Management of IT Resources t Globalisation and Outsourcing At WMG our world-class team of cyber security specialists combine insights into security tools and techniques with strategic security management principles and practice. initial question is usually followed by the question “Haven’t we already tried -JGYPXYVI´WMR¾YIRGIGERFIWSIEWMP]XVERWQMXXIHMRIZIV]HE]XLSYKLXW TW]GLSPSKMGEPTVS½PMRK#² GYPXYVI´WXLSYKLXTEXXIVRWWLSYPHEPWSFITVIWIRXMRG]FIVWTEGI8LIWI 4W]GLSPSKMGEPTVS½PMRKEHHVIWWIWMRHMZMHYEPFILEZMSYVFEWIHSRRSVQW GYPXYVEPTEXXIVRWSJXLSYKLXGERMR¾YIRGIEXXEGOFILEZMSYVWHIJIRWI Psychology. 'SRWMHIVXLII\EQTPISJWQMPMRK[LIRWIVZMRKJEWXJSSH8LMWFILEZMSYVMWGSRWMHIVIH RSVQEPMRXLI97ERHQER][IWXIVRGYPXYVIWFYX[LIRMX[EWMRXVSHYGIHMR6YWWME customers were suspicious of the servers who smiled.warwick. A behaviour that is considered normal in one culture may be have anecdotally revealed cultural similarities between otherwise unrelated considered abnormal in another culture.

the eerie fact that the European 9RMSRERHMXWREXMSRWMWWXMPPEGSRXMRIRXQEHISYXSJZIV] different nations and with different heritages. We in the Western world have been given the luxury of relaxation. Europe is also made up of different sets of values that. And make no mistake. gspot. htt m gs: o co Blo gspot. And with that I mean nations that used to be empires remember what that used to be like and somewhere in every nation some form of retrospective nationalism is still smouldering: “We had the answers. I think many have forgotten XLITS[IVMRKISKVETLMGEPP]HI½RIH mechanisms and they wonder “why” someone is doing something. and we still do. when push comes to shove.SVPH. we are now in what I would argue are the XIRWIWXXMQIWMR)YVSTIWMRGIXLI7IGSRH. rather. VICTORY HAS DEFEATED YOU. but no one is listening”. or rather it should be complemented with “what does our geography try to force us to do?” Free will. mostly because we now understand that it still can happen in Europe. &ERIMR&EXQER¯ The Dark Knight Rises.EV8LI]EVI tense because Europe now understands that it neither controls RSVYRHIVWXERHW[LEXMWLETTIRMRK8LIVIEWSR[L]XLMWMWWS GERFIMPPYWXVEXIH[MXLXLIXEFPISRTEKI FREE WILL. It is. it’s never as free as you would want it to be. IT’S NEVER AS FREE AS YOU WOULD WANT IT TO BE. . Perhaps that is the wrong question.c : o l lo n b b .LIR6YWWMERS[TYXWXLI½RKIVSRXLIYRLIEPIH[SYRHW SJSPHGSR¾MGXW[IMRXLI)9EVIWSQI[LEXPSWXEXWIE-XMW not that our citizens don’t want to be responsible and do the right thing. WE]WYRXS&EXQER ±4IEGILEWGSWX]SY]SYVWXVIRKXL:MGXSV]LEWHIJIEXIH]SY² ERHXLI[SVHWEVI[SVXLVI¾IGXMRKYTSR-XMWE[IPPORS[R fact that predators attack weak animals. tend to collide and European nations have poor records of internal cooperation in tense times.THE UT R O AB THO gnus AU e: Ma r m nde er. o r i a t tacw ccupa curity & O al se den ion we Nat litics. S po Na y t i r u c 0 e . s 6 r m e b s i Cy pital a C & 8LIIZIRXWMR9OVEMRILEZIF]VMKLX unsettled many of us. and ka Wa ://wak p:// p htt m. It is also the most empire-dense place in the world.   PEACE HAS COST YOU YOUR STRENGTH. consumption and recreation for a couple of decades now and the worry is that that period of calm is now over. . weakness encourages EKKVIWWMSR&YXQMWTPEGIHWXVIRKXLMRXLI[VSRKWLETIGEREPWS trigger unintended and desperate aggression.

driven events. monetary and intellectual. There may be two quasi-new types of conversations during 2014: Russia publicly considers the Internet to be a product of the US Central Intelligence Agency. depending on values and other things. intangible and globally accessible. This promotes openness.  People are addicted to social media and online entertainment as it howls down all the chaotic streams of thoughts that are passing through the mind. and then something else. back to basics and a toned-down spiritualism. Cyber security is still being discussed widely but some might be discouraged that the discussion seems to be going nowhere. The interdependence between nations is nearly 100% and this puts a brake on wars. Senior politicians are out of touch with this generation. The capitalistic system is anti-war by design as money has no master and knows no values. retrospection was important 2SXMQIJSVVI¾IGXMSRSV±WPS[² everything happens and then something else happens. freedom and prosperity. EUROPE NOW UNDERSTANDS THAT IT NEITHER CONTROLS NOR UNDERSTANDS WHAT IS HAPPENING. require little risk to be XEOIRFYXQMW½VIQSWXSJXLIXMQI Internalisation of the individual. We swim in the stream of social networks and spend little time in personal evolution. Therefore.MPP)YVSTIFIGSQI[LEX Europe used to be as well or evolve and understand that something else is needed in order to protect everything we’ve accomplished during the last HIGEHIW#&IGEYWIIZIRMJ[IGER½RHQER]JEYPXW ERHWLSVXGSQMRKWMRSYVW]WXIQ.Time of Second World War “the great suffering and the ultimate death of evil” Current time. Politicians represent their people and the people want the nation to be managed in accordance with certain values. We’re seeing a change happening here in the younger generations though (at least in the Nordic nations): we’re seeing an urge to go back to nature. Sanctions look good. It also leads to a wrongful picture in the heads of politicians that they can do this on their own with XLIMRWXVYQIRXWSJXLIMVS[RREXMSR8LI]GER´X (S[IRIIHE92JSV']FIVWTEGIXLEX½KLXWJSV human rights in Cyberspace? 6YWWMESJLEWFIIRGSQTEVIH[MXLLS[MXYWIH XSFIYRHIVXLI8WEVW. Europeans know too little about too much. As a continent we’ve been hiding on the top levels of that pyramid even when things have progressively become [SVWI8LI½RERGMEPGVMWMWWLS[IHYWXLEXXLIQIGLERMWQWSJ consumption are so strong that no matter how bad others have it. knowledge even less) On average. year 2014 “we’re living it” Changes in vulnerability Mechanical world (physical machines) Virtual world (Internet of things) All worth in the society. we continue to spend and true solidarity beyond our borders is a rare occurrence. When the nation needs. This is how the system works ERHMXVIHYGIWVMWOJSVEVQIHGSR¾MGX Politicians polarise and turn processes into value. Politically controlled markets Conformity to the strive to be an individual (creates liberalism) Creates a shared feeling of security. When too strong this creates an enslaved nation under power of the few. Anyone disrupting this system will effectually eliminate that brake and make war more likely. 8LMWTVSQSXIWKIRIVSWMX]WIPJWEGVM½GIERH empathy. equality and personal freedom: the nation exist for the individual. to politically intervene in the affairs SJSXLIVREXMSRW½RERGMEPMRWXVYQIRXWXIRHXSFI[IEOERH misaligned. 1. are now volatile. we might WXEVXXLMROMRK[I´VIWIPJWYJ½GMIRXERHXLEX[IRIIHRS one. “We have to focus on national defence and start regulating more clearly how things are HSRISRXLI-RXIVRIX8LMWEPWSQIERWEGXMZIP] supporting our industry. unilateral trust MRXLI½RERGMEPW]WXIQEWEREXMSREPWIGYVMX]QIGLERMWQ PIEHWXSETEGM½WXMGETTVSEGLXSTSPMXMGW[LMGLJSVXLIQSWX part is a good thing. even if they are no good at what they do. Liberalised market detached from democratic control (still under political MR¾YIRGIXLSYKL Maslow’s hierarchy of needs shows us why it is important for us to have more support by the group when we are on the lower levels of the pyramid. When at the top. Knowledge society (books) Idea based society (words mean little. Little is required in order to fully disrupt this world. We can trust no one but SYVWIPZIW²8LMWPIEHWXSMKRSVERXETTPMGEXMSRSJ national powers in the global market system. to know why I should know it and to have the tenacity to evolve enough so that I can make that knowledge a part of my future actions while I\LMFMXMRKKSSHNYHKIQIRX²8LEXMWQ]S[RHI½RMXMSR]SY GER½RHQER]QSVIMRXLIMR½RMXIWTEGISJ']FIV Conformity to common values in order to build a nation (requires conservatism) A nation is often built upon a shared feeling of vulnerability and a feeling that I need others in order to be safe. Cannot be too strong but can be misguided and ignorant and therefore create hazards. Is it possible to know anything in the eyes of others these days? Wisdom actually meant something No one knows what wisdom is anymore (does it even exist and can it be bought?) 3RI[E]SJPSSOMRKEXXLIXIVQ³[MWI´MWXSHI½RIMXEW±8S be wise is to know what I don’t know.

mind and soul. 6YWWMEMWKSZIVRIHF]X[STS[IVFPSGOWXLI 7MPSZMOM. This requires that we exhibit a few things. can make the world a better place for democracy through the implementation of Cyber weapons. some of which I believe are: If you were not smart enough in order to YRHIVWXERHXLEX6YWWME[SYPHMRZEHI'VMQIE what indicates that you will be smart enough tomorrow? It is not the lack of information that should worry you. it is your lack of ability to perceive the reality clearly that should. Now. 2. “We need to weaponise Cyberspace lest [IFISZIVVYRERHMR½PXVEXIHF]SXLIVREXMSRW² 8LMWPIEHWXSERMKRSVERXERHQMWTPEGIHFIPMIJ that we as European nations actually. We tend to have bad luck from time to time [LIR[IXLMRO3RII\GIPPIRXI\EQTPIMWXLI WERGXMSRWMQTSWIHSR6YWWMEEWEGSRWIUYIRGISJ the annexation of Crimea. Strength in the wrong places may encourage unwanted aggression. think about this: Cyber security will have to become what is needed in order to strengthen our nations and our global communities. on our own. And our system is the only one in the world that has care and empathy built in from the FIKMRRMRK%RHJSVYW½KLXMRKJSVJVIIHSQTIVWSREP security and integrity on the Internet is the same as protecting our democracies.ERH]IWQER] people are not as happy as we would wish them to FI [IWXMPPLEZIXLIFIWXHIQSGVEXMGW]WXIQ[I´ZI ever seen and we have freedom of speech.

REXMSREPWIGYVMX]PMOI4YXMR ERHXLI VIWX.

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MWHSQ 3.  0IEHIVWLMTERHXLIEFMPMX]XSEGX  )QTEXL]ERHGEVI  0SZIJSVXLIHIQSGVEXMGW]WXIQ As a consequence of the sanctions. Adaptation.  “VICTORIOUS WARRIORS WIN FIRST AND THEN GO TO WAR.EV[EWRSXQYGLSJE war although the sense of urgency was great. WHILE DEFEATED WARRIORS GO TO WAR FIRST AND THEN SEEK TO WIN”. PERSONAL SECURITY AND INTEGRITY ON THE INTERNET IS THE SAME AS PROTECTING OUR DEMOCRACIES. (YVMRK+SVFEGLIZXLI7MPSZMOMQEHIYT SJXLI power structure. SUN TZU.  . the Siloviki are growing stronger nationally.  7SPMHEVMX]XLVSYKLEGXMSRWERHRSX through words. Endurance.  6IWMPMIRGI 5. You cannot understand what comes next if you only focus on Putin. THE ART OF WAR FIGHTING FOR FREEDOM.4YXMR 'S  %FWSPYXIGPEVMX]SJZMWMSR  . 8LI½RERGMEPQEVOIXMWEFVEOI on war and through sanctions 6YWWMEGERGEWXSJJXLMWGPSEOSJ TEGM½GEXMSRERHGSRXMRYIEPSRKXLI hostile road it has worked to get up on JSVHIGEHIW8LI'SPH. And if you believe money actually means anything in itself XS4YXMR 'SXLMROEKEMR%RH6YWWMETYFPMGP] considers the Internet to be a product of the US Central Intelligence Agency. today they are to be considered an absolute power.

and ensure that you can keep your systems safe. Become expert in areas such as: f f f f f f f Identity Trust and reputation Cryptography Network security Malware and intrusion detection Risk management Development of high assurance systems For more details. contact the retailer directly and ask whether the email with the attachment was sent from them. ˆ ‘Clean’ it. Andrew Fitzmaurice ')3SJ 8IQTPEV Executives The growth of the internet in the late 1980’s and early 1990’s brought huge opportunities to both organisations and individuals but this growth also WMKREPPIHEFMVXLSJERI[X]TISJTIVWSRXLILEGOIV Typically your computer hacker in the late 80’s and 90’s hacked into computers to show off with only a small proportion operating to cause damage and HMWVYTXMSR2S[EHE]WXLIKEQILEWGLERKIHLEGOIVW are primarily acting illegally or on behalf of a nation state to steal data. INFECTED MEDIA 8LIGVIEXMSRSJTSVXEFPIQIHMEHVMZIWWYGLEW 97&WERH'(WLEWKMZIRLEGOIVWE[SRHIVJYPRI[ STTSVXYRMX]97&HVMZIWGERFIMRJIGXIHF]XLIWMQTPI EGXSJMRWIVXMRKER97&TIRHVMZIMRXSERMRJIGXIH QEGLMRI%RMRJIGXIH97&WXMGO[MPPXLIRTEWWXLI malware onto any machine in which it is used. part-time over three years.  ˆ Never open attachments. go to the site and log on HMVIGXP].LEXIZIVRSXM½GEXMSRSVWIVZMGISJJIVMRK[EW referenced in the email. Many individuals continue to share every aspect of their lives on social media from their date of birth to home addresses. SPEAR PHISHING 7TIEVTLMWLMRKMWERIQEMPWTSS½RKJVEYHEXXIQTX XLEXXEVKIXWEWTIGM½GSVKERMWEXMSRSVMRHMZMHYEP WIIOMRKYREYXLSVMWIHEGGIWWXSGSR½HIRXMEPHEXE Spear phishing email messages appear to come from a trusted source such as a well-known company SVSRPMRIIRXMX][MXLEFVSEHQIQFIVWLMTFEWI8S make an email appear to be authentic.ac. the sender will typically include a company logo and a copyright slogan enticing individuals to click on either attachments or links containing malware. PIRATED SOFTWARE A lot of today’s software is not free. Lots of people are looking for ways to get access to free software F]TEWWMRKTVSXIGXMSRXSPSSOJSVGVEGOIHWSJX[EVI8LMW is the perfect opportunity for hackers to advertise free downloads to gain access to computers. Find out more about us at www. Prevention Techniques: ˆ 7IX97&XSVIEHSRP]1EOMRKE97&WXMGOVIEH only should prevent infections when plugging into a different machine. An up-to-date version of an antivirus WSJX[EVI[MPPEPPS[]SYXS³GPIER´YT]SYV97&ERH remove the infection if it has been compromised. if valid.york.ac. email us on postgraduate@cs. If you do think the email is legitimate. If there is any doubt. do not give out your personal information. ˆ Never click on links in emails. 8]TMGEPP]PEVKI corporations will not send emails with attachments. likes and dislikes.a course that gives you the technical skills to make major and long-term decisions in cyber security. Ask them to provide you their name and a call-back number. That’s why we developed our MSc in Cyber Security . or as one week short courses. which are all IEW]XSJEPPJSVMJRSXE[EVI&IPS[MWEPMWXSJGSQQSR attack methods and what you can look out for to prevent falling into the trap. We have expertise in a number of areas. and offer teaching in our specialisms for undergraduates. we appreciate the importance of the security of your systems. break into systems for monetary gain and to seriously damage systems. Hackers are using increasingly sophisticated methods to target both organisations and individuals.cs. Prevention Techniques: &Y]PIKMXMQEXIWSJX[EVI7SJX[EVIGERFII\TIRWMZIFYX the costs far outweigh the loss of data through use of cracked software.uk .york.uk or call us on 01904 325402 Find out more at www.york.SPEAR PHISHING & PIRATES: HOW TO STAY SAFE IN THE CYBER SEA Build your expertise in cyber security At the University of York.ac.cs. will be available via regular log on. All of this is fodder for social engineers and can be used to target you for attack.uk/professional/cyber The Department of Computer Science at the University of York is one of the top UK Computer Science departments. Take it full-time over one year. and you’ll come away with the skills and knowledge you need in core areas of cyber security. postgraduates and professionals. ˆ Rethink what you share on social media. Social engineering is a process of deceiving individuals into providing personal information to seemingly trusted agents who turn out to be malicious actors. SOCIAL ENGINEERING Social engineering is a form of spear phishing whereby hackers will glean key information on individuals to con TISTPIMRXSTIVJSVQMRKEGXMSRWSVHMZYPKMRKGSR½HIRXMEP MRJSVQEXMSR8SKIXMRHMZMHYEPWXSVIPIEWIMRJSVQEXMSR hackers will use social media to gain information about a person as well as phone calls to build up an MRHMZMHYEP´WTVS½PI Prevention Techniques: ˆ Do not give out personal information over the phone or in an email unless completely sure. If contacted over the phone by someone claiming to be a retailer or collection agency.

and to. A topography machined in mocking homage to the minds of those who created its makers. Cracking and fracturing and tearing. but somewhat less often read. into the eternal torment of 8EVXEVYW3%WXLI3P]QTMERWSZIVXLVI[XLI8MXERWWSRS[LEWLYQERMX]FIIR usurped and enslaved by its own cyber seed. We are the damned. and latterly with amplifying frequency. Manifestations of the Frankenstein Complex appear with remarkable consistency. We gave control of the machines to the computers.   . In this world. and. As the energy traversing one pillar passes that traversing another. The three1 Laws of Robotics Individually and collectively. seeds as scabs on the machine. cast Cronus. allow a human being to come to harm. endlessly. circumscribed with innumerable bulbs of glowing pods ordered in coils of sinister symmetry. For. each human. ironically. being EQERMJIWXEXMSRSJEKIRIVEP±FPMRHYRVIEWSRMRKVIWMWXERGIXS©GLERKI²8LI author of the four laws of robotics was clear in his position on the subject. A GSVTSVIEPI\TVIWWMSRSJERMKLXQEVIHMEPIGXMG%TIVZIVXIHTEVSH]SJE8YVMRK morphogenesis. as reality. he widened the scope to include the human fear of computers. We created computers of ever increasing power and complexity. has risen from XLIWPEFXSVIFIPERHHIWXVS]MXWQEOIV3RGIEKEMRXLIVSFSXWLEZIVIZSPXIHERH XYVRIHEKEMRWXYW3RGIEKEMRXLIGSQTYXIVWLEZIFIGSQIQSVIMRXIPPMKIRXXLER XLIMVQEOIVW3RGIEKEMRXLIJVYMXWSJLYQERORS[PIHKILEZIFIIRXLIGEYWI SJSYVJEPP3RGIEKEMR[ILEZIGSQQMXXIHXLIWMRSJLYFVMWERHFIIRI\TIPPIH JVSQ)HIR3RGIEKEMRLYQERMX]LEWFPEWTLIQIHERHFIIRGEWXJVSQKVEGI 3RGIEKEMR-GEVYWLEWJEPPIR3RGIEKEMR[ILEZIGVIEXIHKSHMRSYVMQEKIERH our creation. through inaction. A contemptuous sneer at fertility. each frond. the son. Later. 8LIGSPYQRWEVIEWXLSYKLWYWTIRHIH[MXLMRERIXIVREPERHPMQMXPIWWZSMH %JEFVMGEXIHERH¾SSVPIWWERHVSS¾IWWJSVIWX%KVSXIWUYIWMQYPEGVYQSJ nature and nurture. A vast complexity of binary code collectively and simultaneously experienced as sense data. humanity. Sterile. *VSQ. Stems and seeds attended to by spider like insectoidal robots that scuttle and skitter within XLIIRHPIWWTMX8LIYRXLMROMRKQMRMSRWSJXLI3XLIV8LIVSFSXEYXSQEXESJ XLIQEWXIVWSJHEQREXMSR8LIG]FIVWTMHIVWQSZIFIX[IIRXLIXS[IVWERH amongst the bulbous suppurations with programmed and unthinking purpose. by inaction. for Asimov. each cell. Colin Williams 7&0 ±8LI1EXVM\²MWFYXSRISJEZEWXGERSRVITVIWIRXMRKERHHITMGXMRK[LEXMW essentially the same cultural phenomenon. or. our child. but never illuminating. our god. allow humanity to come to harm. an arc of incandescent plasma sparks and stabs between them. We are the meat for the machine. A world wrought by entities of our own QEOMRK%VITVIWIRXEXMSRSJ8LI7MRKYPEVMX]EWXLIIRHSJLYQERMX]%GSVVYTX cybernetic construct in which the meat is food for the machine. robot kills man””5 . 8IGLRSTLSFMEMRKIRIVEPERHJIEVSJVSFSXWMRTEVXMGYPEV[EWEWIVMSYWQEXXIV FIGEYWIMX[EW±PMOIP]XSHSQYGLLEVQXSXLI[SVPHMRKIRIVEP²6SFSXW±EVI going to play an inevitable role in advancing technology”. In his early thinking on the subject the essence of the trope is “”man creates robot. Hence. Each pillar as fractal frond. so Zeus.SLR'EVTIRXIV´W½PQ±(EVO7XEV²ZMEXLI½PQSJ(IRRMW*IPXLEQ. We are the damned. the human fear of human ingenuity ERHMRZIRXMSR3VTIVLETWQSVIFVSEHP]XLILYQERJIEVSJGLERKI[VSYKLXF] SYVS[RLERH3VTIVLETWJVSQEWPMKLXP]HMJJIVIRXERKPIXLILYQERJIEVSJPSWW of control over those instruments of change wrought by our own hand as a TVSHYGXSJSYVTS[IVWSJGVIEXMSR3VTIVLETWSYVS[RJIEVSJSYVWIPZIW 8LIWIEVIXLIJIEVWVIJIVVIHXSF]-WEEG%WMQSZMRLMWJSVQYPEXMSRSJ[LEXLI called the “Frankenstein complex”3VMKMREPP]%WMQSZIRZMWEKIHXLIGSQTPI\ MRWSJEVEWMXSFXEMRIHXSXLIJIEVXLEXLYQERWHMVIGXWTIGM½GEPP]XS[EVHWVSFSXW Here. the blackness FIX[IIR8LITSHWGEWXE[IEOJIFVMPITMROMWLKPS[XLEX[ERP]QEVKMREPP] contests but never defeats the enshrouding darkness. incomprehensibly complex QEGLMRIW8LI1EXVM\MWEHMKMXMWIHH]WXSTMEGVIEXIHF]GSQTYXIVWGSRXVSPPIHF] computers. his father. for Asimov. Current I\TVIWWMSRWSJXLIGSQTPI\MRGPYHIXLI8:WIVMIW±6IZSPYXMSR²%FMHMRK depictions of a fear that repel and attract in equal measure. %REVVEXMZI%WXSV]%GSRWXVYGXIHGSRWGMSYWRIWW%REVXM½GMEPMRXIPPMKIRGI Gibson’s cyberspace as a collective hallucination. technology and robots are both very good things. 8LIWIQERMJIWXEXMSRWEVILS[IZIVRSXGSR½RIHXSXLI½GXMSRWSJTSTYPEV GYPXYVI8LI]EVITVIWIRXEGVSWWXLIWTIGXVYQSJLYQEREJJEMVWERHXLVSYKLSYX XLILMWXSV]SJLYQERVIEGXMSRWXSXIGLRSPSK]3RGI]SYORS[[LEXXSPSSO JSV]SY[MPP½RH(V*VEROIRWXIMR´WTVSKIR]IZIV][LIVI8LI+VIIOQ]XLSJ Prometheus expresses a primordial form of the complex in relation to the LYQEREFMPMX]XSLEVRIWW½VIMXWIPJ4VSQIXLIYWWXIEPW½VIJVSQ3P]QTYWERH KMJXWMXXSLYQERMX]>IYWTYRMWLIWLMQJSVLMWLYFVMW-RXLILERHWSJLYQERW½VI HIWXVS]WERHOMPPWEWQYGLEWMX[EVQWERHTVSXIGXW5YIIR:MGXSVMESVHIVIHXLI HVMZIVSJXLI½VWXXVEMRYTSR[LMGLWLIVSHIXSXVEZIPEXQYGLPIWWXLERXLIJSVX] miles an hour of which it was capable lest the force of such unnatural velocity did her physical harm. 8LI1EXVM\MWEXSSPSJTS[IVERHHSQMRERGI%RMRWXVYQIRXSJGSRXVSP[LIVIMR humans are rendered as passive objects by. We created machines of ever increasing capability. We are the meat for the machine. depends. is. Popular culture is replete with them. his deployment of the reference to Mary Shelley’s often referenced. _FIRST LAW A robot may not injure a human being or.” Such technophobia. _ZEROTH LAW A robot may not harm humanity. It is hell. Computers controlled other computers. is implanted with and EWWMQMPEXIH[MXLMR8LI1EXVM\%GSQTYXIVGSRWXVYGX%WLEVIHLEPPYGMREXMSR% world of the mind made real through manipulation by machines of the meat of humanity. an entire species. 'SQTYXIVWERHQEGLMRIWFIGEQIEWSRI8LIGSQTYXIVQEGLMRIWEXXEMRIH WIRXMIRGIERHGSRWGMSYWRIWW8LI]FIGEQIEPMJIJSVQ8LI7MRKYPEVMX][EW EXXEMRIH3YVGVIEXMSRWVIFIPPIH8LIMVGVIEXSVWLYQERWFIGEQIXLIFEXXIVMIW the food. we polluted the planet. except where such SVHIVW[SYPHGSR¾MGX[MXL the First Law. For Asimov. robots are anthropomorphic representations of the powers of human ingenuity and physical manifestations of the powers of science and technology. for their own children. Cast down and condemned to a 8EVXEVYWSJXIGLRSPSK]8LIGLMPHLEWWPEMRMXWTEVIRX8LIWSRLEWWYTTPERXIHXLI JEXLIV3IHMTYWMW6I\3RGIEKEMR*VEROIRWXIMR´WQSRWXIVNSPXIHXSPMJIF]XLI primordial force of electricity harnessed by the science of man. _SECOND LAW A robot must obey the orders given to it by human beings. book. has consumed and enslaved and destroyed us. A communal and manufactured imagination. scaling to a base ERHEWYQQMXEWWYQIHMQEKMRIHYRWIIR6ERO YTSRGSYRXPIWWVERO½PIYTSRPMQMXPIWW½PIXLI cohorts of columns curve and span toward and never reach a vanishing point beyond human WIRWI8LI[SVOSJERIRXMVIP]EPMIRGSRWGMSYWRIWW 8LITVSHYGXWSJERMRGSQTVILIRWMFP]3XLIV intelligence. each of the innumerable pods is a cell in a vast energy source furnishing heat ERHTS[IVXSEGMZMPMWEXMSRSJWIRXMIRXGSRWGMSYWQEGLMRIW8LILIPPSJLYQERMX] LEWFIGSQIXLIPMJIJSVGISJXLI3XLIV8LIIRXMVIGSRWXVYGXMWEKIRIVEXSV% TS[IVWXEXMSR)EGLGIPPGSRXEMRWERSVKERMGGSVI8LIYPXMQEXIWSYVGISJXLI energy upon which an entire world.A host of vast pillars. Narrow skeins of laser sharp static form coruscating cuffs coursing around TSHERHTMPPEV6MFFSRWSJFMREV][LMXIPMKLXGIEWIPIWWP][VMXLMRKERHTYPWMRKYT and down the imagined lengths. Asimov was a scientist as QYGLEWLI[EWEREYXLSVSJWGMIRGI½GXMSR 8LIMRRYQIVEFPITMPPEVWSJLIPPSS^IXLIMVGSYRXPIWWTYWXYPSYWTSP]TWEW scrofulous and scabrous pods. _THIRD LAW A robot must protect its own existence as long as such TVSXIGXMSRHSIWRSXGSR¾MGX with the First or Second Law. the “Frankenstein Complex” is a manifestation of a propensity towards the yet wider phenomenon of what he himself called “technophobia. A fractal forest. 8LIGSQTVILIRWMSRSJXLIREXYVISJXLIMVXEWOWHIQERHIHF]SYVMRXIPPMKIRGI yet denied by our humanity. A precision machine made hell of mathematical sequences.SRIW´ RSZIP±'SPSWWYW²EW±'SPSWWYW8LI*SVFMR4VSNIGX²XLVSYKLXLI±8IVQMREXSV² JVERGLMWIERHSRXSVITIEXIHMRGEVREXMSRWSJXLI½PQERH8:WIVMIWSJ±&EXXPIWXEV Galactica” we are presented with the nightmare of a world in which the computers and the robots become sentient and kill and enslave us. As Cronus castrated his father Uranus and cast him from dominion over the Earth. barren shafts of metal and machines morphing into and out of organic and made forms. 8LMWMWXLI[SVPHSJ±8LI1EXVM\² .

Narratives. And. Fear is a precondition to surviving danger when it spurs action.. And a dangerous one.YQERW[MPPFI killed and maimed at their hands. human society as a whole advanced precisely because it became irreversibly and existentially dependent upon the printed word. stories. yet this does not alter the fact that it is. An easy illusion to imagine the Frankenstein Complex comforting the modern Luddites as they build their bunkers of the mind. human. We are driven to attempt to make sense of ourselves. if not super saturated. the robots. are both WYFNIGXWERHSFNIGXWSJGVIEXMSR8LIREVVEXMZIQEXVM\MWFSXLGEYWIERHIJJIGXSJ XLIEGXYEPMX]SJXLI[SVPHEWMXMW%VXMQMXEXIWPMJIERHPMJIMQMXEXIWEVX8SGLERKI the world. Until they choose not to. to create as though real that which does not exist in the world as is. including but not limited to humanoid robots. 8LI*VEROIRWXIMR'SQTPI\MWEREVVEXMZI%WXSV][IEVIXIPPMRKSYVWIPZIWSJXLEX which could be. 8S[EXGL±8LI1EXVM\²MWXSI\TIVMIRGIEREVXIJEGXSJTVIGMWIP]XLIOMRHSJ “creative cultural osmosis” relied upon by William Gibson8LMWGVIEXMZISWQSWMW occurs in a cultural.YWXEW[IQERYJEGXYVIHXLIJEFVMGSJ8LI7MRKYPEVMX] so we can manage our role within it. language formation and social forms.EHVSR'SPPMHIV8LIWEQIXIGLRSPSK]XLEXQEOIW it possible for us to even imagine our civilisation existing beyond the exhaustion SJJSWWMPJYIPW8LMWXIGLRSPSK]LEWGVIEXIHNSFWERH[IEPXL-XMWVIJSVQMRKWSGMIX] humans. Warnings from ourselves to ourselves upon which our survival compels us to act. of others. 8LIWEQI-RXIVRIXXLEXWMXWEXXLILIEVXSJXLIG]FIVTLIRSQIRSR8LIWEQI Internet that has in a few short decades already done more to unleash human creative potential and transform human society. later humans feared that breaking the sound barrier would render the pilot’s body a deconstructed blob of jelly. Compelled to discern and establish and impose patterns and structures. Into which they retreat to endure the pain and dissonance of future shock. As they all have before. but only for the moment. opposable digits. Fully autonomous weapons systems.M*M%RHXLMW[MPPFINYWXXLIFIKMRRMRK8LIWIW]WXIQW[MPP RSXSRP]FILEZIEYXSRSQSYWP]8LI][MPPIZSPZI'SQTYXIVWERHGSQTYXIV networks will continue to exhibit ever more of the characteristics of sentience. nonetheless. we must change our narratives. social. Nonetheless. We must not allow ourselves to make our own stories come true. it has enabled human creativity and potential so far and so fast that throughout the historic heartlands of western capitalism future shock has become a psycho-cultural pandemic. 8LI7MRKYPEVMX]MWVIEP-X[MPPLETTIR8LIVYPIWSJXLI[SVPH[MPPGLERKI. at precisely the same time as the very same technology was TVSTIPPMRKXLIZIV]RI[WTVMRXJIIHMRKXLMWJIEVEXNYWXXLSWIWTIIHW&]EREGXSJ TEVPMEQIRXXLI½VWXGEVWXSHVMZISRXLIVSEHWSJ)RKPERH[IVISVHIVIHXSFI TVIGIHIHF]EQERFIEVMRKEVIH¾EKXS[EVRSJXLIMQQMRIRXEVVMZEPSJHMVI danger. telepathy. 'SQTYXIVFEWIHXIGLRSPSK]LEWIREFPIHXLI½VWX¾S[IVMRKWSJTVMQMXMZI HIQSGVEG]MRTVIZMSYWP]EYXSGVEXMGWXEXIW8LIWEQIXIGLRSPSK]LEWIREFPIH undergraduate students to use a three dimensional printer to fabricate a TVSWXLIXMGLERHJSVEGLMPHJSVEJI[LYRHVIHHSPPEVW8LIWEQIXIGLRSPSK]XLEX if all goes according to plan. the matrix of consciousness. Similarly. Society will change. the ‘they’ are now GSQTYXIVWERHVSFSXW8LIWEQI-RXIVRIXXLEXRS[[EVRWXLIPIKMSR[LS[MPP listen of the impending and imminent fall of civilisation as the ineluctable end of the inevitable Cyber Apocalypse. overwhelmingly for the better.IETSRWMR1E]X[SIQMRIRXEGEHIQMGW[MPPGSRHYGXERMRJSVQEPHIFEXI LSWXIHF]XLI'EQTEMKRXS7XST/MPPIV6SFSXWERHGLEMVIHF]EWIRMSV*VIRGL HMTPSQEXEFSYXJYPP]EYXSRSQSYWERH[IETSRMWIHVSFSXW6SFSXWEVIQIVIP] means through which computers acquire locomotion. perhaps alluring. Humans are story tellers. Fully autonomous weapons systems. It is desirable and necessary. human emotions play ETEVX8LIJIEVWSJXLI*VEROIRWXIMR'SQTPI\EVIEPWSVIEPMRXLIWIRWIXLEX they represent to us visions of that which we all know is possible. yet apparently utterly incontrovertible. we must generate a counter REVVEXMZI3RIMR[LMGLLYQEREKIRG]MWTEVEQSYRX*VEROIRWXIMR´WGVIEXMSR became monster and destroyer because of the way it was treated.   . illusion though this may be. We build narratives as a core element of our very humanity. including but not limited to humanoid VSFSXW[MPPWSSRETTIEVMRXLIEXVIWSJGSR¾MGX. and thoughts. will soon appear in theatres SJGSR¾MGX. and at every level and in every sphere. Alongside the UN Convention on Certain Conventional . not because of the way it was made. Witness the Agrarian 6IZSPYXMSRXLI)RPMKLXIRQIRXERHXLI-RHYWXVMEP6IZSPYXMSR6SFSXWGSQTYXIVW with the capacity to move and sense and act socially. In order to prevent an expression of a real fear and an imagined future becoming a reality. If we choose too. It is. An easy and. sense data. solution. Computers and robots will usurp humans across the spectrum of economic ERHWSGMEPEGXMZMX]8IGLRSPSK]HMHHMWTPEGIXLILERHPSSQ[IEZIVWXLI FPEGOWQMXLWERHXLIX]TMWXW6SFSXW[MPPXEOILYQERNSFW9RXMPXLI]GLSSWIRSX XS8LMWXIGLRSPSK]MWXVERWJSVQEXMZIERHXVERWJSVQEXMSRWHMWVYTX(MWVYTXMSR MWHMWGSVHERXERHJSVWSQITEMRJYP8LITS[IVSJXLI6SQER'EXLSPMG'LYVGL never recovered the blow it was dealt by the invention of the movable type mechanical printing press.. of consciousness. Forced to give our worst and deepest fears form in the matrix of the cultural expressions of our collective negotiated consciousness. of life itself. an illusion. Forced to use our capacity to imagine. and tentacles. of the world around us. are the narratives of the computers. and neurons. And.SVPH'YT MR&VE^MP8LIWEQIXIGLRSPSK]XLEXLEWIREFPIHXLIQETTMRKSJXLILYQER KIRSQITVSNIGXERHXLI0EVKI. thus. A warning. Emotion may sit uncomfortably with a post Enlightenment sensibility as a driver of human behaviour. with the narratives of “killer robots”. Endlessly being formed and reformed into ever morphing patterns of ITLIQIVEPERHGSRXMRKIRXREVVEXMZIMRXIVEGXMSRW8LIJIEVWSJXLI*VEROIRWXIMR 'SQTPI\EVIHVE[RJVSQERHI\TVIWWIH[MXLMRXLMWQEXVM\8LMWQEXVM\MW infused. beams of light and sound that will disintegrate corporeal FMSPSKMGEPJSVQW8LI][MPPGEVV]SRFSEVHXLVIIHMQIRWMSREPTVMRXIVWERHWSFI GETEFPISJWIPJLIEPMRK8LI][MPPGSQQYRMGEXIXIPITEXLMGEPP]MRMXMEPP]XLVSYKL &PYIXSSXLERH. From declarations of war to declarations of love. becoming life. Present. it is the cause of catastrophe when it is allowed to induce paralysis. and will soon bear ½VWXXLIQYVQYVMRKERHXLIRXLIGEGSTLSR]GSRHIQRMRKXLIEFSQMREXMSRSJ HVMZIVPIWW*VEROIRGEVW8LIWEQI-RXIVRIXXLEXXLVYQWXSXLIJEQMPMEVHMWGSVHERX beats of the ancient rallying cry that ‘they are taking your jobs’. A matrix of memes.8LITSTYPEVQIHMESJXLI:MGXSVMERHE][IVITPE]MRKXSXLIJIEVXLEXXVEZIP at such unheard of speeds as technology could now grant would disintegrate the human form. Robots will take human jobs. in lesser solution. dangers of Frankenfoods. Upon which we must act. %XXLIHE[RSJXLIX[IRX]½VWXGIRXYV]XLI-RXIVRIXFSVIXLIRI[WSJEXXIQTXW to take legal injunctions against the operation of the Large Hadron Collider JSVJIEVXLEXMXWSTIVEXMSR[SYPHGEYWIXLIHIWXVYGXMSRSJXLI)EVXL8LIWEQI Internet that carries myriad warnings of the unknown and unproven.YQERW[MPPFIOMPPIHERH QEMQIHEXXLIMVLERHWERHXIRXEGPIW8LIWIVSFSXW[MPPFIEVHMVIGXIHIRIVK] weapons systems. will allow a paralysed teenager wearing a cybernetic exoskeleton driven telepathically through brain machine interface technology XSVMWIJVSQXLIMV[LIIPGLEMVERHOMGOXLI½VWXFEPPSJXLI*-*%. Neither the reality nor the validity of the fears of the Frankenstein Complex are WYJ½GMIRXXSEPPS[XLIREVVEXMZIXSTVSTEKEXIYRGLEPPIRKIH8LIREVVEXMZISJJIEV must not be allowed to disseminate without contest. 8LIJIEVWI\TVIWWIHXLVSYKLXLIEFMHMRKERHEQTPMJ]MRKQERMJIWXEXMSRWSJXLI *VEROIRWXIMR'SQTPI\EVIVIEPMRIZIV]WIRWI8LI]EVIVIEPMRXLIWIRWIXLEX they form part of the actuality of the matrix of the human condition.YQERW will change. It is deceptively easy to dismiss these fears as those of the feeble or simple QMRHIH8SFVERHXLIQEWIZMHIRGISJHI½GMIRG]SJMRXIPPIGXSV[IEORIWWSJ character. Fear in the face of this onslaught of dissonance and disruption and transformation is not merely inevitable. will attain whatever HI½RMXMSRWSJMRXIPPMKIRGIWIRXMIRGIERHGSRWGMSYWRIWW]SYGLSSWIXSJEZSYV Perhaps the ultimate danger of the Frankenstein Complex is that it presents as inevitable that which is merely possible and thus invites the negation of the IJ½GEG]SJLYQEREKIRG]. even the nature of our humanity itself. than any other technology across the span of the millennia of the improvement of the human condition.

Closed systems atrophy and.MIRIV-R½VWX±']FIVRIXMGWSJ'SRXVSP ERH'SQQYRMGEXMSRMRXLI%RMQEPERHXLI1EGLMRI².Human society must transform if it is to survive. IZIRXYEPP]HIGE]XSHIEXL:MEFPIW]WXIQWEVIZMXEPW]WXIQW8LI]WIRWIERHEGXSR JIIHFEGO8LI]GLERKIXLIMVWXEXIIRHPIWWP](MWVYTXMSRERHHMWWSRERGIEVIXLI TVMGISJXVERWJSVQEXMSRERHWSSJWYVZMZEP8LMWMWSRISJXLIJYRHEQIRXEPMRWMKLXW EXXLILIEVXSJXLI[SVOSJ2SVFIVX.

YQER9WISJ. ERHXLIRMR±8LI .YQER&IMRKW².

we must change our narratives .'0MGOPMHIV8LIWEQI 0MGOPMHIV[LS[IRXSRXSLIEHYTXLI&ILEZMSYVEP7GMIRGIWERH'SQQERHERH 'SRXVSP4VSKVEQQIWJSVXLI97(IJIRGI%HZERGIH6IWIEVGL4VSNIGXW%KIRG] .MIRIVLEHEHMVIGXMR¾YIRGISRXLIXLMROMRKSJSRI.IMRIVHIZIPSTWXLIXLMROMRKXLEXMRNYWX about every sense. . Art imitates life and life imitates art. has given us the contemporary cyber phenomenon. 8SGLERKIXLI world.

or perhaps a shorthand for XLI-RXIVRIXSJ8LMRKWSVQE]FIXLIFIPEXIHI\XIRWMSRSJXLIWGSTISJSYV understanding of computer networks to industrial control systems. a cyber system is one wherein the distinctions between the organic and the inorganic modalities of operation becomes ever less meaningful. Cyber will give us the question of how QYGLQIEXQYWXXLIVIFIMREQEGLMRIJSVXLIIRXMX]XSFILYQER3VLS[ QYGLQEGLMRIQYWXXLIVIFIMRXLIQIEXJSVXLIIRXMX]XSFIEVSFSX8LVII dimensional printers are replicating humans. the meat and the machine. More. for the evolution of humanity. ']FIVMWXLIHSQMRERXJSVQEXMZIERHHI½RMXMSREPGSRXI\XJSVXLIRI\XTLEWI of the development of our society. to IZIRFIKMRXSGSQTVILIRH8LI7MRKYPEVMX]ERHFIJSVI[IHIZIPSTXLIGSYRXIV narratives to the Frankenstein Complex. their matrix is about to deconstruct. and about computers as communications devices. References  It’s deliberate!  6IJIVIRGIWXS±8LI1EXVM\²EVIXSXLI½PQ8LSWIXS8LI1EXVM\EVIXSXLIREVVEXMZI   GSRWXVYGX[MXLMRXLI½PQ8LIQIERMRKWERHWMKRM½GERGIWSJER]SXLIVVIJIVIRGIWXSER]   SXLIVQEXVM\SVQEXVMGIWEVIYTXS]SYXS½KYVISYX8EOIXLIFPYITMPPSVXLIVIHTMPP  8LIGLSMGIMW. Wiener coined the term “cybernetics” as the name of a new multi-disciplinary science devoted to the study of complex systems in which humans and machines operated as equally instrumental agents. Cyber is real. We need better narratives. We need to read Wiener.%64% 8LIWEQI0MGOPMHIV[LSMRXLIW[VSXIEFSYX[LEXLIGEPPIHXLI “man-machine symbiosis”. we must turn to and rediscover the frame of the matrix that Wiener laid out. 3VMRLMW[SVHW±XLIWXYH]SJRSRPMRIEVWXVYGXYVIWERHW]WXIQW[LIXLIVIPIGXVMG SVQIGLERMGEP[LIXLIVREXYVEPSVEVXM½GMEPLEWRIIHIHEJVIWLERHMRHITIRHIRX point of commencement”. the imagined and the actual. and about computers connected together in to a “Galactic Network” wherein humans could interact socially and information could be stored and accessed JVSQER]RSHISJXLIRIX[SVO8LIWEQI0MGOPMHIV[LSPIHXLIEGXMZMX]XLEX[EW XSTVSHYGIXLI%64%2)8XLITVMQSKIRMXSVSJXLI-RXIVRIX -RSVHIVXSHMWTIPJIEVMXMWRIGIWWEV]EPXLSYKLF]RSQIERWWYJ½GMIRXXSEGUYMVI ORS[PIHKI/RS[PIHKISJSVMKMRWFIMRKSJTEVXMGYPEVMQTSVXERGI8SYRHIVWXERH our cyber world. for XLIIZSPYXMSRSJXLIRI[PMJIJSVQWSJ8LI7MRKYPEVMX]7SSR[I[MPPWLEVIXLMW TPERIX[MXL3XLIVGSRWGMSYWRIWW']FIVMWEFSYXYXXIVP]RI[ERHTVIZMSYWP] unimaginable intermingling between the real and the virtual. And. For Wiener a cyber system is precisely one in which the meat and the machine interact within the system with no distinction insofar as the fact of their agency is concerned. We are on the verge of sharing a new world with new life. And inexorable. For those who imagine cyber to be simply a new way of describing the Internet. And different. to acquire the knowledge of the origins of cyber itself.

allow humanity to come to harm. by inaction.duke. “Cybernetics: of Control and Communication in the Animal and the  1EGLMRI²7IGSRH)HMXMSR1-84VIWWTZMMM  For a more detailed treatment of the connections between Wiener. or.edu/project/walk-again-project/  Norbert Wiener. 5 Asimov develops and extends his thinking around the “Frankenstein complex” in his  MRXVSHYGXMSRXS±1EGLMRIW8LEX8LMRO²8LIERXLSPSK]SJWGMIRGI½GXMSRWLSVX  stories he edited with Patricia Warwick and Martin Greenberg.TVSFEFP] ]SYVW 3 An abyss deeper even than the pits of Hades.  LXXT[[[[MPPMEQKMFWSRFSSOWGSQEVGLMZICCCEVGLMZIEWT6IXVMIZIH  XL1E]  http://virtualreality. Campbell and Asimov. All of the quotes from  %WMQSZEVIXEOIRJVSQLMWMRXVSHYGXMSRXSXLI4IRKYMRIHMXMSRSJXLMWERXLSPSK]  %WMQSZWYFWIUYIRXP]EHHIHXLI^IVSXLPE[XSXLISVMKMREP8LVII0E[WSJ6SFSXMGW8LI  zeroth expands and precedes the First Law thus: “A robot may not harm humanity. A prison of ceaseless torture worse even than hell.”  %TSGV]TLEPSVRSXXLMW[MHIP]VITSVXIHXEPIGETXYVIWERMQTSVXERXIPIQIRXSJXLI:MGXSVMER zeitgeist just as it illustrates the abiding power of the narrative of the Frankenstein Complex.EVVMGO±8LI']FIVRIXMG-QEKMREXMSRMR7GMIRGI*MGXMSR²TEVXMGYPEVP]GLETXIV %RHF][E]SJE½REP¾SYVMWLE&YVOMER.  WII4EXVMGME7.  It was Asimov’s custom to enclose references to the phenomenon in quotation marks.

MIRIV[VSXI WGMIRGI½GXMSREPWS.MIRIV[EWSRISJLMWXIEGLIVW.MIRIV[EWZIV]MRXIVIWXIHMRVSFSXW. Campbell was a WXYHIRXEX1-8[LIVI2SVFIVX. We RIIHFIXXIVWGMIRGI½GXMSR  . We need to read .MIRIV.SLR..MIRIV´WWGMIRGI½GXMSR -J[IEVIXSIZEHIXLITSHWIWGETI8LI1EXVM\IPYHI8EVXEVYWIZIRWYVZMZI8LI Singularity. Asimov freely acknowledged the importance of Campbell to the development of his thinking.'EQTFIPPFIGEQIIHMXSVSJ±%WXSYRHMRK7GMIRGI*MGXMSR²MR-WEEG Asimov published much of his work about robots in “Astounding” and the two men worked closely together for many years. We need to re-programme our future.IRIIHXSVITYFPMWLERHVIEH. We need better narratives.EQIWRSX)HQYRH GSRRIGXMSR .

banking and socialising online in VYKLY[VH]VPKMHSSPUN]PJ[PT[VJYPTL Content will be updated on a regular basis.com/user/becyberstreetwise/videos Join the conversation on #BeCyberStreetwise   . research highlights: ONLY 44% always install internet security software on new equipment ONLY 37% download updates and patches for personal computers when prompted – falling even further to a FIFTH (21%) for smartphones and mobile devices O T N G I A P A CAM ERY DAY MAKE EV EHAVIOUR ONLINE B SAFER . while 94% OF PEOPLE believe it is their personal responsibility to ensure a safe internet experience.SLHKLYZHUKZ[Hќ[VNHPUPTWHY[PHSN\PKHUJLVUWYV[LJ[PUN[OLPY businesses online including an online health-checker to assess J`ILYZLJ\YP[`RUV^SLKNL Digestible advice is also provided on how best the public can protect themselves while shopping.’ reveals Jacky 7HYZVUZ+PYLJ[VYVMPUZPNO[HNLUJ`:LUZL>VYSK^PKL ‘Any mobile internet-enabled device – such as a tablet or laptop – NP]LZKPYLJ[HJJLZZ[V[OLV\[ZPKL^VYSKI\[P[KVLZU»[MLLSSPRL[OH[ Unlike walking down a dark alley in an unfamiliar neighbourhood late at night when we’re totally on our guard. communicating and ZOHYPUN^P[OMYPLUKZ¶^LJHYY`[OH[^P[O\Z» Parsons points out that alerts instructing users to update software can seem frustrating: ‘Some see it as a massive inconvenience [OH[»ZNVPUN[VZSV^\ZKV^U0[TPNO[Q\Z[[HRLHML^TPU\[LZI\[PU V\YMHZ[WHJLKKPNP[HSSPML[OH[MLLSZSPRL[VVSVUN[V^HP[»ZOLZH`Z REDUCING THE RISKS .HYSPLY[OPZ`LHY.Z`Z[LTZMVYIYLHJOLZ ‹ YLZ[YPJ[HJJLZZ[V[OLPY0. resources and advice on how [VWYV[LJ[[OLTZLS]LZVUSPUL Visit www. ^LKVU»[HKVW[[OLZHTLZVY[VM^HYPULZZ>L»YLPUV\YJVTMVY[ aVULZV^L»YLT\JOTVYLSPRLS`[V[HRLYPZRZVUSPUL» KEEPING UP-TO-DATE Simple steps such as updating software when prompted can make HO\NLKPќLYLUJL[VV\YVUSPULZLJ\YP[`I\[7HYZVUZILSPL]LZ[OH[ [OLSHUN\HNL\ZLKI`[LJOUVSVN`KL]LSVWLYZPZU»[HS^H`ZOLSWM\S º6ULVM[OLRL`ÄUKPUNZMYVTV\YYLZLHYJOPZ[OH[[OLSHUN\HNL about and on the internet is all about speed and convenience. it’s getting harder and harder for us to keep track of cyber ZLJ\YP[`>LULLKHTVYLNLULYHSH^HYLULZZ»ZH`Z >OP[[` MULTIPLE DEVICES >OPSLTHU`VM\ZOH]LHU[P]PY\ZHUKÄYL^HSSZLJ\YP[`ZVM[^HYL installed on our personal computers at home.cyberstreetwise.facebook. such as accessing entertainment.com Cyber Streetwise can be found on Facebook. the messages are about easy access to whatever you want to do online. such as privacy online that simply weren’t anticipated VYPNPUHSS`» ‘As we migrate to multiple mobile devices. Professor of Contemporary Media from the University of Leicester says that the internet has evolved so quickly and so dramatically over the past few years that many are playing JH[JO\W[VZVTLL_[LU[OH]PUN[VHKHW[HUKSLHYU ‘Computing experts originally designed the net [VTV]LPUMVYTH[PVUHYV\UKMYLLS`»ZOLL_WSHPUZ ‘Consequently. shopping. Facebook.com/cyberstreetwise @cyberstreetwise www. RBS Group.UL[^VYRZ ‹ YLN\SHYS`\ZLJVTWSL_HJJLZZWHZZ^VYKZ ‹ YLN\SHYS`KV^USVHK[OLSH[LZ[ZVM[^HYL\WKH[LZ ‹ JVU[YVS[OL\ZLVM<:)Z[VYHNLKL]PJLZ LESS THAN A THIRD (30%) habitually use complex passwords to protect online accounts 57% do not always check websites are secure before making a purchase UNDERSTANDING ONLINE BEHAVIOUR Commenting on why half the population aren’t taking the simple steps to protect themselves online. [VVº3V[ZVM\ZMLLS]LY`YLSH_LKHUKJVTMVY[HISLVUSPULILJH\ZL we’re using the internet at ease. focused on how safety precautions in the real world have similar YLSL]HUJLPU[OL]PY[\HS^VYSK Cyber Streetwise is funded by the Government’s National Cyber Security Programme.OL/VTL6ѝJLPUJVUQ\UJ[PVU with the Department of Business. when we’re online at home. our mobile internetenabled devices – such as phones and laptops – are often ULNSLJ[LKPUJVTWHYPZVUº7Z`JOVSVNPJHSS`HWOVULMLLSZSPRLH]LY` personal device – we put covers on them and have our photos on [OLZJYLLU0[MLLSZSPRLHUL_[LUZPVUVMV\YZLS]LZI\[P[»ZHJ[\HSS`H WVY[HS[VHW\ISPJYLHST»HKKZ>OP[[` 0[»ZUV[Q\Z[WLYZVUHSPZLKNHKNL[Z[OH[JHUNP]LHMHSZLZLUZLVM security online – it’s partly down to where and how we log online.youtube.Twitter and YouTube: www. and Financial Fraud (J[PVU<2 BUILDING AN OVERVIEW OF THE CHALLENGE Findings from the government’s National Cyber Security Tracker provided an overview to key online behaviour including: Approximately half of SMEs ‹ YLN\SHYS`TVUP[VY[OLPY0. with a number of private sector partners also provided support and investment. including Sophos. in our own homes. aiming to change the way SMEs and consumers view online safety. Monica Whitty.ADVERTORIAL From an individual perspective. Innovation and :RPSSZ)0:HUK[OL*HIPUL[6ѝJLSH\UJOLK[OL *`ILY:[YLL[^PZLPUP[PH[P]L The awareness campaign. it’s a platform that’s still evolving to Ä[[OLZVJPHSW\YWVZLZP[»ZUV^ILPUN\ZLKMVY>L»YL Z[PSSÄUKPUNV\[OV^[VHKK[OLO\THULSLTLU[[V the internet and there are basic issues arising. providing the public and businesses with the latest information.OL^LIZP[L^^^J`ILYZ[YLL[^PZLJVTHKKYLZZLZZVTLVM[OLZL PZZ\LZHUKÄUKPUNZHUKOVZ[ZHYHUNLVMPU[LYHJ[P]LYLZV\YJLZMVY :4.

Only a sense of humour and an adventurous spirit are needed to enjoy the fun! Together we can give vulnerable children a brighter future Join us. Find out more and read past issues online for free at: www.000 words and be related in some way to the topic VM:JPLUJL-PJ[PVUHUKVY*`ILY:LJ\YP[`0M`V\^V\SKSPRL[VJVU[YPI\[LWSLHZLLTHPS *`ILY. or sponsor the event! CyberTalk #6 THE SCI-FI ISSUE The Editorial Board of CyberTalk magazine are currently inviting the submission of articles for Cybertalk #6 – The Sci-Fi Issue Articles should be no longer than 2.Helping vunerable children and teenagers Our motoring events don’t require a special vehicle or advanced driving skills.org +44 700 596 4779  .whitehatrally.co. sponsor the rally.uk/cybertalk Supported By To enter a team.HSR'ZVM[IV_JV\R^P[OH[P[SLHUKZOVY[HY[PJSLZ`UVWZPZUVSH[LY[OHU1\S` Articles will be due for submission no later than 30th July 2014 for publication September 2014.softbox. or make a donation www...

the decade. Edward Snowden. In a world where QSVIXLERFMPPMSRTISTPIVIGSVHXLIMVHEMP]EGXMZMXMIW and eating habits on Facebook. and. potentially. it would have been a bigger revelation if Snowden had proved our every move wasn’t being monitored. revealed that many of the world’s governments were not only spying on foreign XEVKIXWFYXSRXLIMVS[RGMXM^IRWEW[IPP8LIZMHIS[EWTMGOIH YTF]IZIV]QENSVRI[WRIX[SVOERHEWXLIWXSV]½PXIVIH XLVSYKLSRXLIIZIRMRKRI[WXLI9/´WZMI[MRKTSTYPEXMSR KEWTIH©FIJSVITVSQTXP]W[MXGLMRKSZIVXSXLI3RI7LS[ 3RI]IEVSRERHJSVXLIQERSRXLIWXVIIX7RS[HIR´WPIEOW remain about as shocking to the public as the news that night follows day – of course the government are spying on us. In it. is there really such a thing as online privacy anymore anyway? 6IGIRXP]XLI+YEVHMERGPEMQIHXLEXETYFPMGSTMRMSR TSPPJSYRHXLEXQSVI&VMXSRWXLSYKLXMX[EWVMKLX for them to publish the leaks than thought it was wrong. According to the YouGov poll from which the WXEXIQIRXW[IVIXEOIRQSVIXLEREXLMVH.“In a time of Universal Deceit – telling the truth will become a revolutionary act” George Orwell – 1984 3RXL. of course we’re being watched. at this point still an employee of the NSA.YRIXLI+YEVHMERRI[WTETIVTSWXIHSRPMRIEZMHIS interview which would become the most explosive news story of the year. Quite frankly.

. Especially not when Cheryl and Simon have come back to the X Factor. He overlooks the fact that it was he himself [LSGLSWIXS¾IIVEXLIVXLERJEGIGLEVKIW8LEXLIWYFWIUYIRXP] decided to criticise the fairness of the US legal system whilst safely ensconced inside a country whose human rights record is hazy at best. His appearances on mainstream outlets ERHIZIRXWLEZIMRGVIEWIH.S.” If true. law. we presume. he describes his decision XSHMWGPSWIGPEWWM½IH97 government information as a “moral duty”. claiming “as a result of reporting these concerns.YWXEJI[WLSVXQSRXLWPEXIVLS[IZIVMRLMWPIXXIVXS7XV}IFPI Snowden positions himself as a man being framed for crimes he HMHR´XGSQQMX-REQSZIWXVERKIP]VIQMRMWGIRXSJXLI½PQ)RIQ] of the State. So why did Snowden bother? He gave up LMWLSQIMR. it is a noble cause but there are many who believe that his motives were less than altruistic. In a letter to German politician Hans-Christian Ströbele. but in pubs and coffee shops across the country ]SY´VIYRPMOIP]XS½RHSTIRHMWGYWWMSRSJXLI latest regarding the misuse of metadata and algorithms. he refers to his leaks as a “public service” and an “act of political expression” and contends that “my government continues to treat dissent as defection. even more damningly. and seeks to criminalise political speech with felony charges that provide no defence. Andy Cook 7&0 8LISYXVEKISVVEXLIVPEGOSJWYVVSYRHMRKXLI 7RS[HIRPIEOWMRXLI9/MWYRWYVTVMWMRK8LIVI are. noble sentiment. Cheltenham et al. internet freedom and basic liberties for people around the world with this massive surveillance machine they’re secretly building.” Again.” acknowledging a clear awareness that he’d broken U. debates raging behind closed doors in Whitehall. but this is not Hollywood and Snowden is not Gene Hackman. but that doing so was an act of conscience. yet it is no more than Snowden originally expected.E[EMMLMWOE]IEVNSF ERHRS[PMZIWMRIJJIGXMZII\MPIMR6YWWME constantly looking over his shoulder for fear of reprisal from the country of his birth. merely adds salt to the wound. In his initial interview with Laura Poitras and Glenn Greenwald he categorically stated “I don’t expect to go home. 3ZIVXLITEWX]IEV7RS[HIRLEWFIIRUYMGOXSGETMXEPMWISRLMW new found notoriety. SJ XLI&VMXMWLTISTPIXLSYKLXMX[EWVMKLXXSTYFPMWL 8LIXVMYQTLERXREXYVISJXLITETIV´WLIEHPMRIW HMHPMXXPIXSGSZIVXLIJEGXXLEX IMXLIVXLSYKLX that the Guardian were wrong or. simply did not care either way. Upon revealing his identity 7RS[HIRWXEXIH±-´Q[MPPMRKXSWEGVM½GI all of that because I can’t in good conscience allow the US government to destroy privacy. I have faced a severe and sustained campaign of prosecution that forced me from my JEQMP]ERHLSQI²8LMWQE]   well be true.

. In fact. nothing is. I don’t care if the government knows where in the [SVPH-XSSOETLSXSKVETLSVXLEX-KIXIQEMPWEHE]JVSQ Groupon offering me half price canvas prints. however. Seemingly. the former Soviet Union is the only country XSLEZIFIRI½XXIHJVSQXLIEJJEMV¯. If.I[SYPHJEGIXLIGLEVKIWERHXEOILMWTYRMWLQIRX secure in the knowledge that he was making a small personal WEGVM½GIXSWIGYVIXLI[IPPFIMRKSJXLI[SVPH It is. not surprising that Snowden has ended up in Moscow. most recently. are watching our every move. only that they did. be they terrorist organisations or nation states. Poitras and Greenwald were awarded a Pulitzer Prize for their work. Similarly. it would not matter who had leaked the information. Ungoverned by our self-imposed sanctions. once his identity was revealed he should have no reason XS¾II. 8LIHIFEXI7RS[HIRLEWSTIRIHMWERMQTSVXERXSRI-EKVII that it is necessary to discuss just how meta-data is stored and used by government departments and companies. they are able to glean as much information EFSYXSYVPMZIWEWXLI]HIIQ½XWS[IQYWXHSXLIWEQI Personally. In today’s world.EPFIMXZMEWEXIPPMXIPMRO TYFPMGWTIEOMRK engagements in his adopted home have become more frequent and he was even able to deliver the alternative Christmas address JSV'LERRIPMR.SLRWSR´WKVERHHEYKLXIV´WKVIEXRMIGI´WRI[TYTT]ERHLERK up hours before she does. former Cold War tensions are beginning to refreeze then it is beyond absurd to think that we WLSYPHFIKMRLEQTIVMRKSYVS[RMRXIPPMKIRGI8LIVIGERFIRS doubt that our foes and rivals.SPP][SSHQSZMIWSJLMWWXSV]EVIRS[ in the pipeline and. or that I phone my mother once a week and instantly regret it. it is not so vital that we should compromise our own security and diplomacy. If he was truly acting in the public interest rather than his own then there should be no need for him to reveal his identity. However.IWXIVRWIGYVMX]VIPEXMSRWLMTW have been weakened. Alongside this. if they want to PMWXIRMRSRXLEXGEPPMX´W½RIF]QI)ZIRFIXXIVXLI]GERWTIEOXS LIVXLIQWIPZIW-KYEVERXIIXLI]´PPKIXFSVIHSJ½RHMRKSYXEFSYX 1VW. Snowden’s narcissism also appears to have grown. public trust is crumbling and its intelligence EKIRGMIWLEZIFIIRGVMTTPIH%PPXLI[LMPI6YWWMELEWWXVIRKXLIRIH Its “Anschluss” of Crimea from the Ukraine has more than a faint echo of history. as seems likely. and to ensure that it is safely stored and doesn’t fall into the wrong hands.

%6)%0-8= .%8 “stovepipes” 3*'31192-8-)73*-28)6)78 %6)7)0(31-28.)'=&)6(31%-2 -ER&V]ERX 8IGLRMGEP(MVIGXSV SJXLI9/ 8VYWX[SVXL] Software Initiative . Tired of incomplete and complicated management? Overloaded with chaotic deployments? Confused with solutions inconsistency? Suspicious about real life security features? ‘¡…¤££Ì±’£¶²‹£¬£°Ÿ²§­¬Š§°£µŸªª­Þ£°±²¦£«­±²Ÿ¢´Ÿ¬¡£’£²µ­°©—£¡³°§²·Ÿ®®ª§Ÿ¬¡£±§¬²¦£ «Ÿ°©£²²­¦£ª®·­³±­ª´£²¦£±£§±±³£± Protect yourself against AETs “¬ª·‘¡…¤££’£¶²‹£¬£°Ÿ²§­¬Š§°£µŸªª¦Ÿ±²¦£²£¡¦¬­ª­¥·²­¢£²£¡²Ÿ¬¢±²­®…‰˜±®°§­°²­§¬¤£¡²§¬¥·­³° ¬£²µ­°©‡°£Ÿ²££´Ÿ±§­¬[¤°££²°Ÿá¡¤°££­¤£¶®ª­§²±µ§²¦²¦£«­±²£Þ£¡²§´£®°­²£¡²§­¬Ÿ´Ÿ§ªŸ ª£Ÿ¥Ÿ§¬±²²¦£ «­±²¢£²£°«§¬£¢Ÿ²²Ÿ¡©±[[[¬¤Ÿ¡²§²Ì± ££¬²£±²£¢Ÿ¥Ÿ§¬±²­´£°«§ªª§­¬…‰˜±…ªµŸ·±³®²­¢Ÿ²£²¦§± ªŸ·£°­¤±£¡³°§²·§±¡°§²§¡Ÿª²­±²­®£«£°¥§¬¥¬£²µ­°©[ Ÿ±£¢Ÿ²²Ÿ¡©±²¦Ÿ²¡Ÿ¬ ·®Ÿ±±²°Ÿ¢§²§­¬Ÿª¬£²µ­°© ±£¡³°§²·±­ª³²§­¬± Advanced Evasion Prevention ˆ£²£¡²Ÿ¬¢®°£´£¬²…¢´Ÿ¬¡£¢ ‰´Ÿ±§­¬˜£¡¦¬§¯³£± Centralized Management ™±£Ÿ±§¬¥ª£«Ÿ¬Ÿ¥£«£¬²¡­¬±­ª£¤­° £¶®Ÿ¬¢£¢´§±§ §ª§²·§¬²­²¦££¬²§°£¬£²µ­°© High Availability ‰¬Ÿ ª£ŸªµŸ·±[­¬¡­¬¬£¡²§´§²· Ÿ¬¢­®£°Ÿ²§­¬± ™nißed —oftware Core ­µ¡­±²£Ÿ±·²­¢£®ª­·±£¡³°£ Ÿ¬¢°£±§ª§£¬²¡­¬¬£¡²§´§²·¤­° ¢§±²°§ ³²£¢­°¥Ÿ¬§¸Ÿ²§­¬± Contact us today and see how the McAfee Next Generation Firewall protects you against  «illion AETs and oÞers the highest level of security protection.-28.-8.ADVANCED EVASION TECHNIQUES REQUIRE AN ADVANCED FIREWALL. REST EASY WITH THE NEXT GENERATION.)49&0-' +33(=)8783:)4-4)7%6) :)6=19'.0)(+)(8. Tel:  Email: £¬¯³§°§£±k±­¤² ­¶¡­³© Web: µµµ±­¤² ­¶¡­³© WHO WANTS STOVEPIPES? -8-7%*%'892-:)67%00= %'/23. McAfee® Next Generation Firewall changes how network security is delivered.

87-  33 .

-XMWTIVLETWMRXIVIWXMRKXSVI¾IGXXLEXXLIXIVQWXSZITMTIMWMXWIPJEJSVQSJFEVVMIVMR that depending on the reader’s perspective it will conjure up visions of either the literal stovepipe from a fossil fuel combustion device – or one of two different fashion trends .For the context of this article I use the term “stovepipe” to represent communities of interest that have erected barriers between themselves and the rest of their domain.

for in addition to this organisational context.EWX]PISJLEXMRXLIXLGIRXYV]EWX]PISJXVSYWIVWMRXLIXLGIRXYV]  %REPXIVREXMZIXIVQYWIHXSHITMGXWYGLWIPJHI½RIHGSQQYRMX]FEVVMIVW[SYPHFI±WMPS² which again illustrates the potential for situation of appreciation by terminology. it may also be taken to mean somewhere that grain MWWXSVIH.

XLIPMOIP]½VWXXLSYKLXJSVXLSWIIRKEKIHMREKVMGYPXYVI SVWSQI[LIVIEQMWWMPI MWTVSXIGXIHTVMSVXSPEYRGL.

such 4IVZIVWI-RGIRXMZIWMRGPYHI±8LI)W² 8LIQSWXGLEPPIRKMRKSJXLIWIWIXWSJWXSZITMTIWMWXLIWIIQMRKP] MQTIVQIEFPIFEVVMIVFIX[IIR±-8²ERH±38² 8LIXIVQ±-8²MWVIPEXMZIP][IPPEGGITXIH¯IZIRMJMXWIPJTVSRI XSWXSZITMTIWEWQIRXMSRIHTVIZMSYWP]¯[LIVIEW±38²MWER emergent term standing for 3TIVEXMSREP8IGLRSPSK]E superset of another set of stovepipes. the tendency to group tends to be self-perpetuating. such as ±-'7². due in part to what economists refer to as Perverse Incentives –unintended and undesirable results contrary to the interests of other relevant stakeholders. For stovepipes. =IX[I½RHQER]WXSZITMTIW[MXLMRXLMWHSQEMR[LIVIHIWTMXI obvious similarities the communities of interest insist on regarding XLIQWIPZIWEWFIMRKHMWXMRGXJSVMRWXERGI±FYWMRIWW-8²GSQTEVIHXS ±GSRWYQIV-8² In addition to the human behavioural pattern of clustering leading to stovepipes.XLIPMOIP]½VWXXLSYKLXSJXLSWISJEQMPMXEV]TIVWYEWMSR  So what are the factors that lead to such stovepipes arising? A consequence of this innate segmentation is that an issue affecting only a particular branch will typically be regarded as of little relevance to other FVERGLIWYRPIWWMXTVSTEKEXIWJYVXLIVYTXLIXVIIERMWWYIWTIGM½GWXSZITMTILEW thus been formed.

the greater the degree of trust. dominant personalities will then emerge. as shown in Figure 1. whose status is dependent on the continuation of the Empire: these individuals in particular are therefore particularly disinclined to breaking down Stovepipes. and once these start to form. Within such Empires. what psychologists refer to as the “Hive” process of participants’ brains will assign ever-increasing importance to the Empire and its QIQFIVWEWSTTSWIHXS±3XLIVW² These are Circles of Trust typically represented as tree.-RHYWXVMEP 'SRXVSP7]WXIQW  ˆ ˆ ˆ )QTMVIW )\GPYWMSR )\XIVREPMXMIW . Exclusion refers to the implication from the formation of Empires aligned to TEVXMGMTERXW´MRXIVIWXWXLEXXLIMRZIVWI.MWXSVMGEPP]LYQERWSGMIXMIWLEZIHIGSQTSWIHMRXS[LEXEVIORS[REW±'MVGPIWSJ8VYWX² with the smaller the circle. with this pattern of behaviour tracing back over the millennia. Empires are used to describe groups aligned to participants’ interests.

QEXXIVWRSX[MXLMRTEVXMGMTERXW´MRXIVIWXW  [MPPEPWSI\MWX3RGIWYGLEZMI[WXEVXWXSJSVQXLI)QTMVIFIGSQIWJSGYWIHSR MXWS[RMRXIVIWXWERH[MPPWIIOXSI\GPYHI3XLIVW´MRXIVIWXW HUMANITY 8LMWPIEHWXSXLITIVGITXMSRXLEXMXMWTPEYWMFP]HIRMEFPIXSLEZIER] VIWTSRWMFMPMXMIWJSV3XLIVW´GSRGIVRWERHERMRXVMRWMGHMWMRGIRXMZIXSFVIEOMRK down Stovepipes is to avoid having to accept such responsibilities. 8LI)GSRSQMWXW´GSRGITXSJ)\XIVREPMXMIWVIPEXIWXSXLMRKWXLEXEVISJGSRGIVRXS 3XLIVWRSXXLI)QTMVIJSV[LMGLX[SGSRGITXWEVIMQTSVXERXXSYRHIVWXERH COALITION OF NATIONS ˆ ˆ 6MZEPVSYWKSSHW[LMGLGERFIGSRWYQIHF]SRP]SRITIVWSREXXLI  same time )\GPYHEFPIKSSHWJSVXLSWI[LSLEZIRSXTEMHJSVGSRWYQTXMSRERH[LMGL can reasonably have access prevented 8LMWPIEHWXSXLIQSHIPSJ+SSHWERH7IVZMGIWEWPEMHHS[RMR8EFPI NATION Excludable Non-Excludable Rivalrious Private Goods Common Goods NonRivalrious Club Goods .

±2EXYVEP1SRSTSP]² Public Goods Table 1 If we consider the Cyber domain. it can be shown to consist of two Rational but disjoint Markets: ˆ ˆ CLASS / TRIBE  ˆ ˆ ˆ /RS[PIHKI1EVOIX /RS[PIHKIMW2SR6MZEPVSYW.

±'PYF+SSH ERH_MRERMHIEPMWIH[SVPHEX least. for Corpus community like Academia} Non-Excludable .

±4YFPMG+SSH² 4VSHYGXWERH7IVZMGIW1EVOIX 8]TMGEPP]6MZEPVSYWERH)\GPYHEFPI.

±4VMZEXI+SSHW² %R]PEGOSJYTXEOISJ+SSH4VEGXMGI.

±/RS[PIHKI² F]7YTTP]7MHI  tends to imposes Negative Externality on Demand Side %GSRGIVRMWXLEXXLI7XSZITMTIFIX[IIR(IQERHERH7YTTP]MRE4VSHYGXERH Service Market amounts to Moral Hazard – risk taking by one party typically incurs cost on different party. FAMILY 8YVRMRKRS[XSXLIUYIWXMSRSJXLI']FIVHSQEMR[IIRGSYRXIVSYV½VWX WTIGM½GWIXWSJWXSZITMTIW In my perception. the Cyber domain encompasses the entire ecosystem EWWSGMEXIH[MXLHMKMXEPPSKMGGSRXVSPPIHXIGLRSPSKMIWMRGPYHMRKLEVH[EVI. unless there are compensating measures to transfer or treat such risks.

FSXL PSKMGFEWIHERHVIPEXIHRSRPSKMGFEWIH WSJX[EVI±[IX[EVI².

and the electromagnetic environment. Figure 1  ±7'%(%².XLILYQERJEGXSV  data / information.

So although the building blocks of XLI']FIVHSQEMR.7YTIVZMWSV]'SRXVSPERH (EXE%GUYMWMXMSR ERH±)QFIHHIH Systems” found in sectors such as transport. rail. and maritime. aviation. with self-isolating niches for road.

and leads to improvements. who was a great support of XLIRI[6EMP[E]WFYXJIEVIHXLIPEGO of consensus on good practice was societally damaging. Noting humans’ well known predisposition to only PIEVRJVSQXLIMVQMWXEOIWMRLI stated “Every fresh accident on the railways is an advantage.IKRIX[SVO TVSXSGSPWTVSGIWWSV EVIPEVKIP] common. 8LIUYIWXMSRSJXIRWMSRWFIX[IIR innovation and associated risks was memorably highlighted in the early TLEWIWSJXLI-RHYWXVMEP6IZSPYXMSR in England by the clergyman. with few Cyber risk practitioners EHHVIWWMRKEPPWSYVGIWSJ%HZIVWMX]. writer ERHWSGMEPGVMXMGXLI6IZIVIRH7]HRI] Smith. there are a number of distinct Stovepipes. the stovepiped views represent an impediment to innovation and a barrier to knowledge transfer. =IXMRGSR½RMRKSYVWIPZIWXS stovepipes we are actually reducing our ability to learn from mistakes. And within those concerned with dealing with Cyber risk. -RJEGXXLI7IGYVMX]7EJIX]HIPMRIEXMSRMWMRMXWIPJEVXM½GMEP [MXLEQSVIYWIJYPHIWGVMTXMSRFIMRK8VYWX[SVXLMRIWW consisting of 5 overlapping facets: 8LMWGPYWXIVMRKMRIZMXEFP]VEMWIWGLEPPIRKIWMRVIWTIGXSJ8LI Es. with the best known clusters being “safety” and “security”. What we want is an overturn that kills a bishop – or at least a dean”. in particular Exclusion.

XLIWYTIVWIXSJ.E^EVH ERH8LVIEXW  ˆ 8LSWIIRKEKIHMRXLI-RJSVQEXMSR7IGYVMX]WXSZITMTI GSRWMHIVWXLIMVJSGYWXSWSPIP]FIEHHVIWWMRK8LVIEX.

E^EVHW. 3RXLISXLIVLERHXLI7EJIX]WXSZITMTIGSRWMHIVWXLIMV JSGYWXSWSPIP]FIEHHVIWWMRK.HIEPMRK [MXL8LVIEX%GXSVW[MXL-RXIRXERH'ETEFMPMX] [LMGLMW intrinsically a deterministic model that has challenges if the 6MWOEVMWIWJVSQ9RORS[RERH9RORS[EFPIJEGXSVW8LMW often therefore ignores Hazards. yet Hazards may have security impacts.

consideration needs to be given as to how to break down the barriers created by the various stovepipes.VERHSQQMWGLERGI E largely stochastic model that therefore ignores deterministic 8LVIEXW]IX8LVIEXWQE]LEZIWEJIX]MQTEGXW 35 ˆ  ˆ ˆ ˆ 7EJIX]8LIEFMPMX]SJXLIW]WXIQXSSTIVEXI[MXLSYX harmful states 6IPMEFMPMX]8LIEFMPMX]SJXLIW]WXIQXSHIPMZIV WIVZMGIWEWWTIGM½IH %ZEMPEFMPMX]8LIEFMPMX]SJXLIW]WXIQXSHIPMZIV services when requested 6IWMPMIRGI8LIEFMPMX]SJXLIW]WXIQXSXVERWJSVQ renew. MRTEVXMGYPEV[MXLMRXIGLRSPSKMIW. and recover in timely response to events 7IGYVMX]8LIEFMPMX]SJXLIW]WXIQXSVIQEMR  protected against accidental or deliberate attacks In conclusion. therefore. if Cyber risk is to be dealt with properly.

±-8²ZIVWYW±38² ERH across the various types of Adversity. so that a Public Good KSEPSJ8VYWX[SVXL]']FIVWTEGIGERFIEGLMIZIH .

the interest in and demand for software security specialists has grown dramatically in recent years. 2ERG]61IEH Software Engineering Institute Modern society increasingly relies on software systems that put a premium on quality and dependability. 8LII\XIRWMZIYWISJXLIMRXIVRIX and distributed computing has made software security an ever more prominent and serious problem.*4WV Tel: 01347 812100 Email: MVY]QZQM[([WN\JW`KW]S WZWeb:___[WN\JW`KW]S  .MK]ZQ\a IVLPW_5K)NMMKIVPMTXaW] XTMI[MKWV\IK\. <WÅVLW]\UWZMIJW]\5K)NMM¼[QV^WT^MUMV\_Q\P*TM\KPTMa8IZS ^Q[Q\___UKINMMI\JTM\KPMTaXIZSKW]S <WLQ[K][[aW]Z+aJMZ. As a result. there are key questions that need to be addressed: What background and capability is needed to be a security specialist? How do individuals assess their capability and preparation for software security work? And what’s the career path to increased capability and advancement in this area of software development? In this article we hope to answer these questions and provide guidance to career seekers in software security IRKMRIIVMRK8LIWIERW[IVWQE] also help employers determine their software security needs and assess and improve the software security capabilities of their employees. to support this demand.MPFYVR )QFV]6MHHPI Aeronautical University. However.Building Security In: A Road to Competency 8LSQEW&.

For the past year. a group of industry professionals and university faculty LEZIFIIR[SVOMRK[MXLXLI7SJX[EVI)RKMRIIVMRK-RWXMXYXI.

7)- MRWYTTSVX SJXLI(ITEVXQIRXSJ.SQIPERH7IGYVMX].

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7[%1SHIP .IYWIXLIXIVQ “software assurance” to mean the application of technologies and processes to EGLMIZIEVIUYMVIHPIZIPSJGSR½HIRGIXLEXWSJX[EVIW]WXIQWERHWIVZMGIWJYRGXMSR MRXLIMRXIRHIHQERRIVEVIJVIIJVSQEGGMHIRXEPSVMRXIRXMSREPZYPRIVEFMPMXMIW TVSZMHIWIGYVMX]GETEFMPMXMIWETTVSTVMEXIXSXLIXLVIEXIRZMVSRQIRXERHVIGSZIV JVSQMRXVYWMSRWERHJEMPYVIW How Do Individuals Assess Their Capability and Preparation for Software Security Work? What Is the Career Path to Increased Capability and Advancement as an SwA Professional? 8LI7[%'SV&SORSXSRP]WXVYGXYVIWERHSVKERMWIWWSJX[EVIEWWYVERGIknowledge .

Figure 3 broadly outlines the stair steps in career progression. 8LI7[%'SQTIXIRG]1SHIPRSXSRP]TVSZMHIWXLIFEWMWJSVEWWIWWMRKER individual’s current competency in software assurance practice. but it can also provide direction on professional growth and career advancement.” 8LMWPIZIPSJHIXEMPGERLIPTMRHMZMHYEPWHIXIVQMRIXLIMVGYVVIRXWXEXISJORS[PIHKIERH plan for additional professional development.MRXSORS[PIHKIEVIEWYRMXWERHXSTMGW FYXMXEPWSHIXEMPWLS[ORS[PIHKIWLSYPHFI YRHIVWXSSHERHYWIH*SVI\EQTPI8EFPIWTIGM½IWXLEXER7[%TVSJIWWMSREPWLSYPHFI able to perform “analysis of the threats to which software is most likely to be vulnerable MRWTIGM½GSTIVEXMRKIRZMVSRQIRXWERHHSQEMRW²ERHLEZIXLI±EFMPMX]XSHYTPMGEXIXLI attacks that have been used to interfere with an application’s or system’s operations. Each level of competency EWWYQIWGSQTIXIRG]EXXLIPS[IVPIZIPW8LI7[%'SQTIXIRG]1SHIPEPWS TVSZMHIWEGSQTVILIRWMZIQETTMRKFIX[IIRXLI7[%'SV&S/. including guidance about educational preparation and experience expectations.

 the 7)-7[%'YVVMGYPYQ8IEQHIZIPSTIHER7[%'SVI&SH]SJ/RS[PIHKI .ORS[PIHKIEVIEW ERHYRMXW ERHXLIGSQTIXIRG]PIZIPW8EFPIMPPYWXVEXIWXLMWQETTMRKJSVXLI 7]WXIQ7IGYVMX]%WWYVERGI/% What Knowledge and Capability Is Needed? As part of earlier work on software assurance education programs.

cert.cfm 8LI'SV&S/MWFEWIHSRERI\XIRWMZIVIZMI[SJWSJX[EVIWIGYVMX]VITSVXW books.'SV&S/ 8LI'SV&SOLEWWIVZIHEWEJSYRHEXMSRJSVXLIHIZIPSTQIRXSJ curriculum and course guidance for software assurance curricula at various PIZIPWEWWSGMEXIPIZIPYRHIVKVEHYEXIPIZIPERHQEWXIV´WPIZIP8LI7[% curriculum documents are available at the SEI https://www. and articles. and evolution SJWSJX[EVIW]WXIQW8EFPIHIWGVMFIWXLITVMRGMTEPGSQTSRIRXW. It covers the whole spectrum of SwA practices involved in the acquisition. and on surveys of and discussions with industry and government SwA professionals. operation.org/curricula/ software-assurance-curriculum. development.

ORS[PIHKI EVIEW SJXLI'SV&S/8LI'SV&S/WTIGM½IWXLIORS[PIHKIEVIEWMRKVIEXIV HIXEMPEWMPPYWXVEXIHMRXLII\EQTPIWTIGM½GEXMSRSJXLI7]WXIQ7IGYVMX] %WWYVERGIORS[PIHKIEVIEWLS[RMR8EFPI 3JGSYVWIRSXIZIV]WSJX[EVIWIGYVMX]NSFVIUYMVIWORS[PIHKIERH GSQTIXIRG]EGVSWWXLIIRXMVI'SV&S/JSVI\EQTPIETSWMXMSRQMKLXVIUYMVI deep capability in one or more areas but only a lower-level awareness across XLISXLIVEVIEW%PWSHMJJIVIRXETTPMGEXMSRHSQEMRW.

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and keep current in security technologies 8LIEFMPMX]XSMRGSVTSVEXIIJJIGXMZI security technologies and methods into new and existing systems 8LIEFMPMX]XSZIVMJ]RI[ERHI\isting software system functionality for conformance to requirements and to help reveal malicious content 8LIEFMPMX]XSQSRMXSVERHEWWIWW system operational security and respond to new threats Potential attack methods /RS[PIHKISJXLIZEVMIX]SJQIXLSHWF][LMGLEXXEGOIVWGER damage software or data associated with that software by exploiting weaknesses in the system design or implementation Analysis of threats to software Analysis of the threats to which software is most likely to be ZYPRIVEFPIMRWTIGM½GSTIVEXMRKIRZMVSRQIRXWERHHSQEMRW Methods of defense Familiarity with appropriate countermeasures such as layers. and code review checklists 8EFPI'SV&S//RS[PIHKI%VIEWERH'SQTIXIRGMIW Knowledge Area (KA) Knowledge Topics Historic and potential operational attack methods /RS[PIHKISJERHEFMPMX]XSHYTPMGEXIXLIEXXEGOWXLEXLEZIFIIR used to interfere with an application’s or system’s operations Analysis of threats to operational environments *SV(MZIVWI 3TIVEXMSREP .IFW]WXIQSVIQFIHHIH W]WXIQ X]TMGEPP]VIUYMVIWSJX[EVIWIGYVMX]WTIGMEPMWXWXSLEZIEHHMXMSREP GSQTIXIRG]FI]SRHXLI'SV&S/ Knowledge Units Security and safety aspects of computer-intensive critical infrastructure /RS[PIHKISJWEJIX]ERHWIGYVMX]VMWOWEWWSGMEXIH[MXLGVMXMGEP infrastructure systems such as found. for example. understand standards. comply with regulations. plan for business continuity.IK. privileges. access controls. in banking and ½RERGIIRIVK]TVSHYGXMSRERHHMWXVMFYXMSRXIPIGSQQYRMGEXMSRW and transportation systems For Newly (IZIPSTIH and Acquired Software JSV(MZIVWI Systems KA Competency Assurance Across Lifecycles 8LIEFMPMX]XSMRGSVTSVEXIEWWYVance technologies and methods into lifecycle processes and development models for new or evolutionary system development. lead assurance efforts. encryption. intrusion detection. and for system or service acquisition 6MWO1EREKIQIRX 8LIEFMPMX]XSTIVJSVQVMWOEREP]WMW and tradeoff assessment. and to prioritise security measures Assurance Assessment 8LIEFMPMX]XSEREP]WIERHZEPMHEXI the effectiveness of assurance operations and create auditable evidence of security measures Assurance Management System Security Assurance System Functionality Assurance 7]WXIQ3TIVEXMSREP%WWYVERGI 8LIEFMPMX]XSQEOIEFYWMRIWW case for software assurance.

ˆ 4IVWSRRIPEXXLMWPIZIPQE]WIXTPERWXEWOWERHWGLIHYPIWJSVMRLSYWI  TVSNIGXWHI½RIERHQEREKIWYGLTVSNIGXWERHWYTIVZMWIXIEQWSR the enterprise level. at the master’s level or with equivalent education/training.)\MWXMRK  Systems Analysis of the threats to which software is most likely to be ZYPRIVEFPIMRWTIGM½GSTIVEXMRKIRZMVSRQIRXWERHHSQEMRW (IWMKRSJERHTPERJSVEGGIWWGSRXVSPTVMZMPIKIWERH authentication (IWMKRERHTPERJSVIJJIGXMZIGSYRXIVQIEWYVIWWYGLEWPE]IVW access controls. ˆ 4SWWIWWIWFVIEHXLERHHITXLSJORS[PIHKIWOMPPWERHIJJIGXMZIRIWW  FI]SRHXLI0PIZIPERHX]TMGEPP]LEWX[SXS½ZI]IEVWSJTVSJIWWMSREP experience. ˆ 1ENSVXEWOWVIUYMVIQIRXWEREP]WMWEVGLMXIGXYVEPHIWMKRXVEHISJJEREP]WMW risk assessment *SV(MZIVWI 3TIVEXMSREP . L4: Analyse the threats to which software is QSWXPMOIP]XSFIZYPRIVEFPIMRWTIGM½GSTIVEXMRK environments and domains. assess the assurance quality of a system. interact with external agencies. System Security Assurance L1: Possess knowledge of the attacks that have been used to interfere with an application’s or system’s operations. ˆ 1ENSVVMWOWEWWYVERGIEWWIWWQIRXEWWYVERGIQEREKIQIRXVMWO management across the lifecycle Competency Activities For Newly (IZIPSTIH and Acquired Software JSV(MZIVWI Applications L2: (IWGVMFIXLIZEVMIX]SJQIXLSHWF][LMGL attackers can damage software or data associated with that software by exploiting weaknesses in the system design or implementation. L5: Perform research on security risks and attack QIXLSHWERHYWIMXXSWYTTSVXQSHM½GEXMSRSV creation of techniques used to counter such risks and attacks. and 3TIVEXMSR of Software Systems ˆ 4SWWIWWIWFVIEHXLERHHITXLSJORS[PIHKIWOMPPWERHIJJIGXMZIRIWWERH  EZEVMIX]SJ[SVOI\TIVMIRGIWFI]SRHXLI0PIZIP[MXL½ZIXSXIR]IEVW of professional experience and advanced professional development. 0Apply software assurance countermeasures such as layers. guards. locks. Acquisition. ˆ 4IVWSRRIPEXXLMWPIZIPQE]MHIRXMJ]ERHI\TPSVIIJJIGXMZIWSJX[EVI assurance practices for implementation. encryption. etc. and coding checklists Security methods for physical and personnel environments /RS[PIHKISJLS[TL]WMGEPEGGIWWVIWXVMGXMSRWKYEVHW background checks. and personnel monitoring can address risks Ethics and Integrity in Creation. privileges. and background checks can address risks. privileges. report to management. manage large projects. and implement and promote commonly accepted software assurance practices. intrusion detection. encryption. intrusion detection. access controls. and code review checklists. 04VEGXMXMSRIV L2: Possess knowledge of how gates.

has peer/industry recognition. typically gained through a bachelor’s degree in computing or through equivalent professional experience. for example. Figure 3 describes the SwA competency levels. and creating methods. and transportation systems. and principles at the orginizational level or higher. ˆ 4IVWSRRIPEXXLMWPIZIPQE]QEREKIEWQEPPMRXIVREPTVSNIGXWYTIVZMWI  ERHEWWMKRWYFXEWOWJSV0TIVWSRRIPWYTIVZMWIERHEWWIWWW]WXIQ operations. L2 Professional Entry Level Figure 1: SwA Competency Levels  Unit L1: Possess knowledge of safety and security risks associated with critical infrastructure systems such as found. which distinguish between what is expected in an entry-level position and what is required in more senior positions.)\MWXMRK  Systems ˆ 4SWWIWWIW±ETTPMGEXMSRFEWIH²ORS[PIHKIERHWOMPPWERHIRXV]PIZIP professional effectiveness. in banking ERH½RERGIIRIVK]TVSHYGXMSRERHHMWXVMFYXMSR telecommunications. and implement commonly accepted assurance practices. L5: Perform research on security risks and attack QIXLSHWERHYWIMXXSWYTTSVXQSHM½GEXMSRSV creation of techniques used to counter such risks and attacks. ˆ 1ENSVXEWOWVIUYMVIQIRXWJYRHEQIRXEPWGSQTSRIRXHIWMKR  implementation ˆ 4SWWIWWIW±XIGLRMGEPPIZIP²ORS[PIHKIERHWOMPPWX]TMGEPP]KEMRIHXLVSYKL  EGIVXM½GEXISVEREWWSGMEXIHIKVIITVSKVEQSVIUYMZEPIRXORS[PIHKI and experience ˆ 4IVWSRRIPEXXLMWPIZIPSJGSQTIXIRG]QE]FIIQTPS]IHMRW]WXIQ  STIVEXSVMQTPIQIRXIVXIWXIVERHQEMRXIRERGITSWMXMSRW[MXLWTIGM½G individual tasks assigned by someone at a higher level. L4: Analyse the threats to which software is QSWXPMOIP]XSFIZYPRIVEFPIMRWTIGM½GSTIVEXMRK environments and domains. KA ˆ 4SWWIWWIWGSQTIRXIRG]FI]SRHXLI0PIZIPEHZERGIWXLI½IPWF] developing. ˆ 1ENSVXEWOWXSSPWYTTSVXPS[PIZIPMQTPIQIRXEXMSRXIWXMRKERH maintenance An organisation in which software assurance is critical could use the type of MRJSVQEXMSRMR8EFPIJSVEZEVMIX]SJTYVTSWIW ˆ 8SWXVYGXYVIMXWWSJX[EVIEWWYVERGIRIIHWERHI\TIGXEXMSRW ˆ 8SEWWIWWXLIGETEFMPMX]SJMXWWSJX[EVIEWWYVERGITIVWSRRIP ˆ 8STVSZMHIEVSEHQETJSVIQTPS]IIEHZERGIQIRXERH ˆ %WEFEWMWJSVWSJX[EVIEWWYVERGITVSJIWWMSREPHIZIPSTQIRXTPERW 0(IWMKRSJERHTPERJSVEGGIWWGSRXVSPERH authentication. both legally and ethically. modifying. L4 Senior Practitioner /RS[PIHKISJLS[TISTPI[LSEVIORS[PIHKIEFPIEFSYXEXXEGO and prevention methods are obligated to use their abilities. typically includes a low percentage of an organization’s workforce within  XLI7[%TVSJIWWMSR. a resource individuals can use to assess the extent and level of their capability and guide their preparation for software security work. referencing the Software Engineering Code of Ethical and Professional Conduct Professional competency models typically feature so-called competency levels. practices.

Acknowledgments . only about LEPJLEHETPERJSVXLIMVS[R7[%GSQTIXIRG]HIZIPSTQIRXFYXQSVIXLER WEMH XLI]GSYPHYWIXLI7[%'SQTIXIRG]1SHIPMRWXEJ½RKETVSNIGX 8LIWTERSJGSQTIXIRG]PIZIPW0XLVSYKL0ERHXLIMVHIGSQTSWMXMSRMRXSMRHMZMHYEP GSQTIXIRGMIWFEWIHSRXLIORS[PIHKIERHWOMPPWHIWGVMFIHMRXLI7[%'SV&S/TVSZMHI the features necessary for an organisation or individual to determine SwA competency EGVSWWXLIVERKISJORS[PIHKIEVIEWERHYRMXW3VKERMWEXMSRWGSYPHEPWSEHETXXLI model’s features to the organisation’s particular domain. or structure.EV^SQFIOEX (ITEVXQIRXSJ. a federally funded research and development center. Conclusion 8LMW7SJX[EVI%WWYVERGI'SQTIXIRG]1SHIP[EWHIZIPSTIHXSGVIEXIEJSYRHEXMSR JSVEWWIWWMRKERHEHZERGMRKXLIGETEFMPMX]SJWSJX[EVIEWWYVERGITVSJIWWMSREPW3JEPPXLI participants in recent SEI presentations and webinars on software assurance.SQIPERH7IGYVMX] 8LMWQEXIVMEPMWFEWIHYTSR[SVOJYRHIHERHWYTTSVXIHF]XLI(ITEVXQIRXSJ(IJIRWIYRHIV 'SRXVEGX2S*%'[MXL'EVRIKMI1IPPSR9RMZIVWMX]JSVXLISTIVEXMSRSJXLI7SJX[EVI Engineering Institute. in whole or in part and in any manner. culture.MPFYVRIXEP7SJX[EVI%WWYVERGI'SQTIXIRG]1SHIP8IGLRMGEP2SXI'197)-82 7SJX[EVI)RKMRIIVMRK-RWXMXYXI'EVRIKMI1IPPSR9RMZIVWMX]1EVGLLXXT[[[WIMGQYIHYPMFVEV] EFWXVEGXWVITSVXWXRGJQ 2ERG]61IEHIXEP7SJX[EVI%WWYVERGI'YVVMGYPYQ4VSNIGX:SPYQI-1EWXIVSJ7SJX[EVI%WWYVERGI 6IJIVIRGI'YVVMGYPYQ8IGLRMGEP6ITSVX'197)-867SJX[EVI)RKMRIIVMRK-RWXMXYXI 'EVRIKMI1IPPSR9RMZIVWMX]%YKYWXLXXT[[[WIMGQYIHYPMFVEV]EFWXVEGXWVITSVXWXVGJQ  .IETTVIGMEXIXLIWYTTSVXSJXLI7SJX[EVI%WWYVERGI'YVVMGYPYQXIEQERH. which should help organisations adapt it to related purposes.7 Competency Model and to a set of mappings of actual organisational positions.IK SVPIWW  L1 Technician /RS[PIHKISJXLIPIKEPERHIXLMGEPGSRWMHIVEXMSRWMRZSPZIHMR analysing a variety of historical events and investigations 8EFPI7[%'SQTIXIRG]7TIGM½GEXMSR L5 Expert 3ZIVZMI[SJIXLMGWGSHISJIXLMGWERHPIKEPGSRWXVEMRXW Computer attack case studies 8LI7[%'SQTIXIRG]1SHIP[EWMRXIRHIHXSFIKIRIVEPIRSYKLWSXLEXERMRHMZMHYEP SVSVKERMWEXMSRGSYPHIEWMP]XEMPSVMXXSEWTIGM½GIQTPS]QIRXWIGXSVETTPMGEXMSRHSQEMR SVSVKERMWEXMSREPGYPXYVI8LI7[%1SHIPEPWSMRGPYHIWEGSQTEVMWSRXSXLI(. 8LMWQEXIVMEPLEWFIIRETTVSZIHJSVTYFPMGVIPIEWIERHYRPMQMXIHHMWXVMFYXMSR 8LI+SZIVRQIRXSJXLI9RMXIH7XEXIWLEWEVS]EPX]JVIIKSZIVRQIRXTYVTSWIPMGIRWIXSYWIHYTPMGEXI or disclose the work.SI. JSVKSZIVRQIRXTYVTSWIWTYVWYERXXSXLIGST]VMKLXPMGIRWIYRHIVXLIGPEYWIEXERH %PXIVREXI-(1 References 8. and to have or permit others to do so.

humanity is being overlooked. 8SQ.SSO 7&0  .I.HUMAN In the design of a machine world.

In Microsoft’s research arm. Much more controversial is the claim XLEXXLIWIGLERKIW[MPPEPPFIJSVXLIFIXXIV3J course more advanced technology will increase our abilities and make our lives easier. Complete with microphone. it will also make our lives more exciting as new products enable us to achieve things we’ve never even considered before. among other things. it’s becoming clear that we can’t predict what wider consequences these changes will bring – on our outlook on life.It is widely accepted that advances in technology will vastly change our society.SVZMX^LEWEQEGLMRIWXEXMSRIHSYXWMHILMWSJ½GIXS take queries about his diary. as new branches of technology gather pace. camera and a voice. However. and on our humanity as a whole. on our interactions with one another. JSVI\EQTPI'SHMVIGXSV)VMG. the PA has a conversation with the colleague in order to answer their UYIV]-XGERXLIRXEOIER]EGXMSR. and humanity as a whole. AI has also been developed to act as a Personal Assistant.

whose programming no human can comprehend since it has so far surpassed the original model. AI like this could also detract from the relationships. talk and work like humans worries QER]JSVGSYRXPIWWVIEWSRW3RIGSRGIVRIHKVSYTMWXLI7SYXLIVR)ZERKIPMGEP Seminary. because we have a limited ability to perform calculations and spot areas for MQTVSZIQIRXMRXIVQWSJIJ½GMIRG] %VXM½GMEP-RXIPPMKIRGIWIIQWXSLEZIXLIQSWXTSXIRXMEPXSXVERWJSVQWSGMIX]8LI possibility of creating machines that move. 3RIGSRGITXXLEXGSYPHHVEWXMGEPP]JEWXJSV[EVHXLIWTIIHSJ%-HIZIPSTQIRX is the Intelligence Explosion. explains that “the resulting increase in machine intelligence could be very rapid. the idea that we can use an AI machine to devise improvements to itself. with the resulting machine able to design improvements to MXWIPJJYVXLIVERHWSSR8LMW[SYPHHIZIPST%-QYGLQSVIWYGGIWWJYPP]XLERLYQERW can. 8LMWMWNYWXXSYGLMRKSRXLITSXIRXMEPXLEX%-GEREGLMIZIMREHQMRMWXVEXMZI[SVOEPSRI and yet it has already proved that it can drastically reduce the amount of human GSRZIVWEXMSRWXLEX[MPPXEOITPEGIMRERSJ½GI. Human programmers would initially need to WIXXLI½VWX%-QEGLMRI[MXLHIXEMPIHKSEPWWSXLEXMXORS[W[LEXXSJSGYWSRMRXLI HIWMKRSJXLIQEGLMRIWMXTVSHYGIW8LIHMJ½GYPX][SYPHGSQIJVSQTVIGMWIP]HI½RMRK XLIKSEPWERHZEPYIWXLEX[I[ERX%-XSEP[E]WEFMHIF]8LIVIWYPXMRK%-[SYPHJSGYW militantly on achieving these goals in whichever arbitrary way it deems logical and QSWXIJ½GMIRXWSXLIVIGERFIRSQEVKMRJSVIVVSV 3FZMSYWP]XLI2ESVSFSXLEWWSQI[E]XSKSFIJSVIMXWJYRGXMSRWEVI indistinguishable from humans. Neuromorphic chips are now being developed that are modelled on biological brains. and problem-solving than any human or group of humans. and could give rise to super-intelligent machinesQYGLQSVIIJ½GMIRXEXIK inference. a fundamentalist Christian group in North Carolina.” 8LITEVXSJXLMWXLISV]XLEXWIIQWMQQIHMEXIP]WXEVXPMRKMWXLEX[IGSYPHLEZIE super-intelligent machine.MXLEPPXLIGSRZIRMIRGIXLEXMXEHHWXS work and personal life. walk. Neuromorphic chips are now being developed that are modelled on FMSPSKMGEPFVEMRW[MXLXLIIUYMZEPIRXSJLYQERRIYVSRWERHW]RETWIW8LMWMWRSXE WYTIV½GMEPG]RMGEPEXXIQTXEXTVSHYGMRKWSQIXLMRKLYQERPMOIJSVRSZIPX]´WWEOI'LMTW QSHIPPIHMRXLMW[E]EVIWLS[RXSFIQYGLQSVIIJ½GMIRXXLERXVEHMXMSREPGLMTWEX TVSGIWWMRKWIRWSV]HEXE.FSSOMRKERETTSMRXQIRXJSVI\EQTPI EWELYQER PA would. (ERMIP(I[I]6IWIEVGL*IPPS[EXXLI9RMZIVWMX]SJ3\JSVH´W*YXYVISJ.YQERMX] Institute. with the equivalent of human neurons and synapses. 8LITSXIRXMEPJSVLYQERJYRGXMSRWXSFIGSQTYXIVMWIHERHXLIEGGIPIVEXMRKTEGIEX [LMGL%-HIZIPSTWQIERWXLEXXLIIJJIGXWSRWSGMIX]GSYPHKSJVSQMRWMKRM½GERXXS colossal in the space of just a few years. planning. creativity and shared learning that all branch out of a 5 minute human conversation that would otherwise have taken place. SES have recently bought one of the most advanced pieces of AI on the market in order to study XLITSXIRXMEPXLVIEXWXLEX%-TSWIXSLYQERMX]8LI][MPPFIWXYH]MRKXLI2ESER EYXSRSQSYWTVSKVEQQEFPILYQERSMHVSFSXHIZIPSTIHF]%PHIFEVER6SFSXMGW2ES is marketed as a true companion who ‘understands you’ and ‘evolves’ based on its experience of the world. but scientists are persistently edging closer towards that end goal.

I[SYPHLEZIXSHI½RIIZIV]XLMRKMRGPYHIHMRXLIWIKSEPWXSEHIKVIISJEGGYVEG] XLEXIZIRXLI)RKPMWL.WYGLEWWSYRHERHMQEKIV] ERHVIWTSRHMRKETTVSTVMEXIP] .

as not human. As such.IQMKLXEPWS[ERXXSHI½RI[LEX[I[ERX%-XSHSJSVLYQERW+SMRKFEGOXS Asimov’s “Zeroth Law”.YQER&VEMR 4VSNIGXMR)YVSTIMWVITSVXIHP]WTIRHMRKºQSRRIYVSQSVTLMGTVSNIGXWSRISJ [LMGLMWXEOMRKTPEGIEXXLI9RMZIVWMX]SJ1ERGLIWXIV%PWS-&16IWIEVGLERH. the concept of a ‘human’ [SYPHRIIHHI½RMXMSR[MXLSYXER]EQFMKYMX]8LMWGSYPHGEYWIHMJ½GYPXMIW[LIRXLIVI QMKLXFII\GITXMSRWXSXLIVYPIW[IKMZI.IQMKLXHI½RIELYQEREWEGSQTPIXIP] biological entity – but the machine would then consider anyone with a prosthetic limb. for example.SVER] PERKYEKIQMKLXTVSLMFMX4VIWYQEFP][I´H[ERXXS create an AI that looks out for human interests. allow humanity to come to LEVQ²)ZIRMJ[IWYGGIWWJYPP]TVSKVEQQIHXLMWPE[MRXS%-. :EWXMRZIWXQIRXMWFIMRKTYXMRXSRIYVSQSVTLMGWERHXLITSXIRXMEPJSVMXWYWIMR IZIV]HE]IPIGXVSRMGWMWFIGSQMRKQSVI[MHIP]EGORS[PIHKIH8LI. . a robot may not “by inaction.60 0EFSVEXSVMIWLEZIIEGLHIZIPSTIHRIYVSQSVTLMGGLMTWYRHIVEQTVSNIGXJSV XLI97(ITEVXQIRXSJ(IJIRGIJYRHIHF]XLI(IJIRGI%HZERGIH6IWIEVGL4VSNIGXW Agency.

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XSKMZIYWRYXVMIRXW[MXLRSVMWOSJSZIVIEXMRKJEXX] JSSHW  Qualcomm. named after Isaac Asimov’s “Zeroth 0E[²SJ6SFSXMGW. are seen as the most promising developers of this brainemulating technology. however. with their Zeroth program.

8LMWXIGLRSPSK]LEWI\TERWMZITSXIRXMEPEWXLIGLMTWGERFIIQFIHHIHMRER]HIZMGI we could consider using. our smartphones for example could be extremely perceptive. allow humanity to come to harm. A gap in the translation might be overlooked MJMX´WRSXRIIHIHJSV SJXLIQEGLMRI´WJYRGXMSRWFYXEWXLIMRXIPPMKIRGI explosion progresses. by inaction. or.XLIJSYVXLPE[LIEHHIHXSXLIJEQSYW8LVII0E[WSJ6SFSXMGWXS TVSXIGXLYQERMX]EWE[LSPIVEXLIVXLERNYWXMRHMZMHYEPW  “A robot may not harm humanity.” Neuromorphic technology will vastly increase the functionality of robots like Nao. with the concept of an AI with the learning and cognitive abilities of a human gradually moving from ½GXMSRXSVIEPMX] %GGSVHMRKXS*VERO1IILER[LSIZIV[VMXIWXLI½VWXWYGGIWWJYP%-TVSKVEQ.” 5YEPGSQQ´WTVSKVEQ[SYPHFIXLI½VWXPEVKIWGEPIGSQQIVGMEPTPEXJSVQJSV RIYVSQSVTLMGGSQTYXMRK[MXLWEPIWTSXIRXMEPP]WXEVXMRKMRIEVP] 8LMWI\EQTPIMWI\XVIQIFYXMJXLITVSKVEQQIVW[LSHIZIPSTSYV½VWX%-EVI MRGETEFPISJWIXXMRKXLIVMKLXHI½RMXMSRWERHTEVEQIXIVWMX´WETSWWMFMPMX]8LIQEMR problem is that even basic instructions and concepts involve implicitly understood features that can’t always be spelled out. your device will be better able to understand your intentions and anticipate your needs. With neuromorphic chips. and could assist us in our needs before we even ORS[[ILEZIXLIQ7EQMV/YQEVEX5YEPGSQQ´WVIWIEVGLJEGMPMX]WE]WXLEX±MJ]SY and your device can perceive the environment in the same way. a tiny hole in the machine’s programming could be enough to lead to a spiral in disastrous AI decisions.

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we would also have to trust that they have the MRXIKVMX]XSQEOITVSKVEQQMRKHIGMWMSRWXLEXVI¾IGXLYQERMX]´WFIWXMRXIVIWXWERH are not solely driven by commercial gain. there are many possible consequences that understandably worry the likes of the Southern )ZERKIPMGEP7IQMREV]%OI]GSRGIVRSJ(V/IZMR7XEPI]SJ7)7MWXLEXXVEHMXMSREPP] human roles will instead be completed by machines. dehumanising society due to less human interaction and a change in our relationships. Not only would we have to trust the developer to program the AI fully and competently. Even Frank Meehan. When robots do reach their full potential to function as humans do. who was MRZSPZIHMR%-FYWMRIWWIW7MVMERH(IIT1MRH.JSVI\EQTPIMRXLI[E]XLEXXLIMRXIPPMKIRGI I\TPSWMSRGSRGITXWYKKIWXW XLIVIMWERMQQIEWYVEFPIVIWTSRWMFMPMX]JSVXLEX developer to do things perfectly.

this control could span the human race as a whole. but the consequences on human interaction are obvious. So a key question now stands: How can we trust the directors of one corporation with the future of the human race? 8LIVITPEGIQIRXSJLYQERWMRIZIV]HE]JYRGXMSRWMWEPVIEH]LETTIRMRK¯VMWMRK numbers of self-service checkouts mean that we can do our weekly shop without any interaction with another human being.FIJSVIXLI][IVIEGUYMVIHF]%TTPI ERH+SSKPIVIWTIGXMZIP] [SVVMIWXLEX±TEVIRXW[MPPJIIPXLEXVSFSXWGERFIYWIHEW company for their children”. Clearly this might be a much more convenient way of shopping.   . 9PXMQEXIP]XLI½VWXWYGGIWWJYP%-TVSKVEQQIVGSYPHLEZIJYRHEQIRXEPGSRXVSPERH MR¾YIRGISZIVXLI[E]XLEX%-TVSKVIWWIWERHEW%-[MPPPMOIP]GSQIXSLEZIELYKI impact on society.

o As Meehan goes on to say. separating us in individual cells (to stop us attacking each other) and drip feeding us tasteless gruel (to give us nutrients with no risk of overeating fatty foods). and companies have always been able to develop these in private before. If done correctly. and humanity is in danger of becoming subservient. society will have surrendered a great deal. If humans do become AI-dependent. ture an race? 8LIX[SMHIEWLS[IZIVEVIR´XQYXYEPP]I\GPYWMZI[IGERWYVVIRHIV huge dependence to a servant. with maximum assistance [LIVIZIVMXQMKLXFIYWIJYP8LITVSFPIQMWXLEXXLIJYPPHI½RMXMSR of ‘correctly’ hasn’t been established. AI enthusiasts are right to say that this technology can give us countless advantages. fundamental programming decisions will probably be made by the corporation “in secret and no one will [ERXXSUYIWXMSRXLIMVHIGMWMSRWFIGEYWIXLI]EVIWSTS[IVJYP²8LMW would allow the developer to write whatever they want without GSRWIUYIRGISVMRTYXJVSQSXLIVTEVXMIW3JGSYVWI%-[MPPMRMXMEPP] start out as software within consumer electronics devices. PowerEdge VRTX. we’ll have minimum negative disruption to our relationships and overall way of life. and develop collaborative public forums to ensure that fundamental programming decisions are taken with care. and whether it ever will be is HSYFXJYP(IZIPSTIVW[MPPEP[E]WFIJSGYWWIHSRGSQQIVGMEPWYGGIWW the problem of balance in everyday society will not be their concern. If AI is allowed to take over every previously human task in society.This could end up with machines burying all humans a mile underground (to eliminate risk of meteor strikes). &EPERGIGSYPHEPWSFISZIVPSSOIHF]XLIVIWXSJLYQERMX]EWMXJSGYWIW SRI\GMXIQIRXJSVXLIPEXIWXXIGLRSPSK]8LMWQEOIWWXYQFPMRKMRXSE computer-controlled dystopian society a real danger. we will be at its mercy. a likely consequence is apathy . &YXEVKYEFP]XLIJYXYVISJ%-[MPPRSXFINYWXERSXLIVGSRWYQIV XIGLRSPSK]VEXLIVMX[MPPFISRIXLEX[MPPGLERKIWSGMIX]EXMXWGSVI8LMW gives us reason to treat it differently. If we give the amount of dependence that leads parents to trust AI with the care of their children. Redefining office IT.

Humanity cannot be seen to have progressed if it becomes blind. deaf and dumb to the dangers of imperfect machines dictating our lives. You inspired it. c 8LIWIJSVQEXMZIWXEKIWSJHIZIPSTQIRX[MPPFILYKIP]MQTSVXERX3RI of the key reasons that the Southern Evangelical Seminary are studying Nao. because computers will have made our input redundant. is because of worries that super-intelligent AI could lead to humans “surrendering a great deal of trust and dependence” with “the TSXIRXMEPXSXVIEXEWYTIV%-EWKSH²'SRZIVWIP](V7XYEVX%VQWXVSRK 6IWIEVGL*IPPS[EXXLI*YXYVISJ. ±(SR´XKMZI]SYVWIPZIWXSXLIWIYRREXYVEPQIR machine men with machine minds and machine hearts! You are not machines! You are not cattle! You are men! You have a love of humanity in your hearts!” Charlie Chaplin.MRSXLIV[SVHWWPSXL¯ERSXLIVGSRGIVRSJ7)7 ERHEKIRIVEPPEGOSJ awareness or knowledge. 48TBs of storage. Luddism is never something that should be favoured. Enter the new Dell PowerEdge VRTX powered by the Intel® Xeon® processor. It’s the only 5U PowerEdge shared infrastructure platform design based on input from over 7. Up until now. an integrated end-to-end solution built specifically for the growing office. storage. there hasn’t been an IT solution designed specifically for an office environment.YQERMX]-RWXMXYXIFIPMIZIWXLEXE super-intelligent AI “wouldn’t be seen as a god but as a servant”. e How an w trust the dire ctors o f one c orpora tion with t fu he um he h ft The first and only full integration of servers. networking and management in only 5U. The Great Dictator (1940) &DOO ˆ Premier Dell PartnerDirect Partner IRUDTXRWHRUHPDLO 'HOO#VRIWER[FRXN  )LQGRXWDERXW6%/ VKDUGZDUHVROXWLRQVDWKWWSZZZVRIWER[FRXNKDUGZDUH . but restraint and extreme care is needed during the development of such a precarious and transformative technology as AI. featuring four integrated servers. networking and systems management to simplify all aspects of IT.000 customers. Dell built it.

” Scott Cattaneo.gov. SBL For more information.co. SBL’s innovations will support the Government Cloud Strategy to transform the public sector ICT estate into one that is agile. Having had a presence in the CloudStore from the beginning.uk/cloudstore/ TM . SBL are committed to this increasingly important framework as a route to market for our solutions and continue to develop new services in response to the changing needs of our public sector customers.uk Web: www.G-Cloud With the launch of G-Cloud. cost effective and environmentally sustainable.co. Commercial Manager. Working with leading global security vendors various research projects and pilots are currently underway to scope the delivery of the next generation of Community Cloud Services via the DOBUS™ platform. please contact SBL on: Tel:  Email: cloud@softbox.uk 3VWIEVGL±7&0²SRXLI'PSYH7XSVI http://govstore. SBL can announce that the following services are now available via the CloudStore: DOBUS™ SBL DOBUS™ and Lumension End Point Management Security Suite DOBUS™ To Go SBL Cloud Enabled Device. Design and Integration Services Egress Switch Email and File Encryption SBL Cloud Ready Training Services Egress Switch Secure Web Forms SBL VMware Virtualisation and Cloud Ready Healthcheck SBL Mobile Device Management SBL Secure Hosted Asset Sentry SAM Portal AirWatch Mobile Device Management SBL Cloud Services Consultancy SBL Becrypt MDM for iOS “ SBL are pleased to be continuing to promote our portfolio of cloud services in the latest CloudStore. SBL have focused heavily on significantly expanding our Cloud Services portfolio to the PSN – Public Sector Network.softbox. SBL deliver a number of secure Cloud Services across the Public Sector through the medium of the G-Cloud initiative.service.

REVIEW A new feature in this year’s event was an academic presentation. information. Char Sample. Security Solutions Engineer EX'EVRIKMI1IPPSR9RMZIVWMX]FVMIJIHHIPIKEXIWSRXLIPEXIWXVIWIEVGL[LMGLEREP]WIWERHUYERXM½IWXLI XLVIEXZIGXSVWFEWIHYTSRXLIGLEVEGXIVMWXMGWSJTSXIRXMEPWEXXEGOIVW8LIVIMWMRGVIEWMRKMRXIVIWXMR']FIV 7IGYVMX]6IWIEVGLEWSYVMRHYWXV]QSZIWXS[EVHWMRGVIEWIHTVSJIWWMSREPMWQERH'EVRIKMI1IPPSRMWSRI SJXLIYRMZIVWMXMIWEPVIEH]GSRXVMFYXMRKXSXLI']FIV7IGYVMX]6IWIEVGL.MOMXLEX7&0ERRSYRGIHHYVMRK the IA Practitioners’ Event. The IA Practitioners’ EVENT 2014 eview 7&0MW[SVOMRK[MXLMRHYWXV]TEVXRIVWERH9RMZIVWMXMIWMRGPYHMRK3\JSVH&MVQMRKLEQ6IEHMRK(I 1SRXJSVXERH=SVOXSEWWMWX[MXLXLITVSHYGXMSRSJXLI']FIV7IGYVMX]6IWIEVGL.MOMXSTVSZMHIHIZIPSTERHQEMRXEMREVIWXVMGXIH space in which practitioners will be able to access this information in one place.MOMERHGS SVHMREXMSRGSPPEXMSRERHQSRMXSVMRKSJMXWGSRXIRX6IGIRXGSPPEFSVEXMSR[MXL%GEHIQMEERH-RHYWXV] both here and overseas has served to identify a clear and profound requirement for a central repository of useful and leading edge cyber security research. and best practice KYMHERGIQEXIVMEP7&0LEWHIZIPSTIHXLMW. 8LIJSYVXLERRYEP-RJSVQEXMSR%WWYVERGI .

Seeing the venue packed to its maximum with enthusiastic debate between all attendees. Lead Sponsor 8LI-%4VEGXMXMSRIVW´)ZIRXEPWSQEOIWTVSZMWMSRJSVXLI-87IGYVMX]3J½GIVW´*SVYQ . Some of this years’ enhancements included a mobile site so delegates GSYPHOIITEFVIEWXSJXLIEKIRHEERHIZIRXMRJSVQEXMSR(MKMXEPHMWTPE] screens also provided quick reference to information and iPad stations provided the opportunity for instant feedback on the presentations.” “IA Practitioners’ )ZIRXHIPMZIVIH on both my professional requirements and expectations.MPPMEQW7&0 &YWMRIWW(IZIPSTQIRX(MVIGXSV ZMWMXMRK4VSJIWWSVEX(I1SRXJSVX9RMZIVWMX] reprising his role as the Master of Ceremonies throughout. An excellent event!” Delegate Feedback 3ZIVEXXIRHIIWVIKMWXIVIHJSVXLIIZIRXQEOMRKMXXLIFMKKIWX-% 4VEGXMXMSRIVW´)ZIRXWSJEVEPSRK[E]JVSQXLILYQFPISVMKMRWMRXLI½VWX (-4'3+)ZIRXLIPHSRXL7ITXIQFIV[LIRXLIVI[IVINYWX HIPIKEXIWERHI\LMFMXSVW 8LIGSRXMRYMRKKVS[XLERHTSTYPEVMX]SJXLI-%4VEGXMXMSRIVW´)ZIRXMWMRRS small part attributable to the fact that we do listen to the feedback we receive and continually seek to improve the event and enhance the experience for delegates and sponsors alike.-% 4VEGXMXMSRIVW´)ZIRXXSSOTPEGIEX=SVO 6EGIGSYVWISRXL XL1EVGL ±-%4VEGXMXMSRIVW´)ZIRXHIPMZIVIHSRFSXLQ]TVSJIWWMSREPVIUYMVIQIRXWERH expectations. delegates had the choice of attending one of six workshops on each day. Feedback from these sessions indicates that delegates not only IRNS]FYXFIRI½XJVSQXLISTTSVXYRMX]XSMRXIVEGX[MXLTIIVW')7+ERHZIRHSVWSR HMZIVWIXSTMGWWYGLEW±%HZERGI']FIV8LVIEXW²±4VEGXMGEP%TTPMGEXMSRSJ-%MRER%KMPI World” and “An Industry Perspective of Cyber Security Skills. An excellent event!” (IPIKEXI*IIHFEGO In addition to keynotes/plenary sessions. serves to show me that the IA community is not only growing. It’s a valuable opportunity for CESG to interact directly with the practitioners who deal with cyber issues on a daily basis. &VSYKLXXS]SYF]')7+ERH7&0XLMW]IEVW´IZIRX[EWGLEMVIHF]'LVMW9PPMSXX 8IGLRMGEP(MVIGXSVERH'LMIJ7IGYVMX]%VGLMXIGX')7+[MXL'SPMR. but is also one that is keen to be involved in advancing the profession. Practitioners’ Event 2014 Commenting on the event Chris Ulliott stated “It was always going to be HMJ½GYPXXSFYMPHSRXLIWYGGIWWIWSJTVIZMSYWIZIRXW]IXXLIUYEPMX]SJ speakers and attendee interaction made this years’ IA Practitioners’ Event even bigger and better.

16'EVIVIXLMROMRKLS[XLI] aggregate data.” Lead Networking Sponsor 8LI-%4VEGXMXMSRIVW´)ZIRXMWVIRS[RIHJSVXLIUYEPMX]SJMXWMRTYXTEVXP] because the programme is kept strictly to time and topic but also by working EGVSWW')7++SZIVRQIRX(ITEVXQIRXWERH:IRHSVGSQTERMIW[IEVIEFPI to draw on a vast resource of speakers from different backgrounds who provide excellent and stimulating input to the conference. Some of this year’s speakers included: “It was always going to be difficult to build on the successes of previous events. using Cloud Computing and open source technology to MQTVSZIWIGYVMX]8LI]EVIEPWSYWMRK8VERWEGXMSRERH1EGLMRIHEXEEREP]XMGWEW security tools and being smart about what they put back into the open source community. ±8LEROWXSXLISVKERMWIVWJSVEVVERKMRKXLMW-X[EWXLIFIWXIZIRXSJMXWX]TI- have attended and I will be back next year!!” (IPIKEXI*IIHFEGO 8LVSYKLSYXXLIX[SHE]WSJXLIIZIRXXLIVI[EWERI\LMFMXMSRJIEXYVMRKEVIGSVH WXERHWWLS[GEWMRK[IPPORS[RERHIQIVKMRKZIRHSVWERHTVSJIWWMSREPFSHMIW TVSZMHMRKG]FIVVIPEXIHWIVZMGIWMRGPYHMRK1S(() 7--74&'7ERH%41+±%W well as dedicated vendor presentations and workshops.16'spoke on IEVP]MRWMKLXWJVSQXLIXSTI\TPEMRMRKLS[. Tom Loosemoore. introduced the work of the VIGIRXP]JSVQIH2EXMSREP'VMQI%KIRG]ERH8MRE.  Planning for the next IA Practitioners’ Event is already under way and will see the IZIRXVIXYVRMRKXSXLI=SVO6EGIGSYVWIMRIEVP] 'SRXEGXXLIIZIRXWXIEQEX7&0 .IEHSJ9/ )RKEKIQIRX')689/KEZIERMRXIVIWXMRKMRWMKLXMRXSXLISTIVEXMSRSJ')68 9/ 1EVO(IEVRPI]'LMIJ(MKMXEPERH-RJSVQEXMSR3J½GIV.-873* 1SVIXLEREHIPIKEXIWEXXLIIZIRX[IVIVIKMWXIVIHEW-87IGYVMX] 3J½GIVWERHXLIVI[IVIGPSWIHWIWWMSRWEZEMPEFPIJSVXLIQVYRRMRKEPSRKWMHIXLI main programme each day.SPQIW. the quality of speakers and attendee interaction made this years’ IA Practitioners’ Event even bigger and better. Government Digital Services. Mario Kempton. Deputy Director Delivery Strategy. yet. Head of Security at NCA. explained how breaking projects down into bite size incremental HIPMZIVMIWMREREKMPI[E]LEWIREFPIH+(7XSHIPMZIVE½VWXGPEWWYWIV I\TIVMIRGIERHLS[+(7MWYWMRKMRWIVZMGIQSRMXSVMRKXSIREFPIEVETMH response to any problem. both the delegates and ZIRHSVWFIRI½XJVSQXLIJEGIXSJEGIRIX[SVOMRKSTTSVXYRMX]XLEXXLII\LMFMXMSR EVIETVIWIRXW²WEMH2EXEPMI1YVVE]1EVOIXMRKERH)ZIRXW1EREKIVEX7&0±8LI-% Practitioners who attend the event value the chance to get hands-on with the latest technologies and to ask questions of the manufacturers.

org) CESG had a strong presence in the exhibition area with a number of technical and policy staff on hand during the day.whitehatrally. they offered an hour of dedicated tea XMQIWYVKIVMIWEXXLIMVWXERHEXXLIIRHSJXLI½VWXHE]EPPS[MRKHIPIKEXIWXSTVI FSSOETTSMRXQIRXWERHWTIRHXMQI[MXLEWTIGMEPMWXSRESRIXSSRI. (See more at http://info.EX6EPP]ERSVKERMWEXMSRJSVQIHMRF]MRHMZMHYEPWJVSQXLI 9/-RJSVQEXMSR7IGYVMX]MRHYWXV][LMGLSVKERMWIWRSRGSQTIXMXMZIQSXSVWTSVXW events to raise funds for charities working with vulnerable children. In addition. 6IJVIWLQIRXWEXXLIIZIRXEVIWIVZIH[MXLMRXLII\LMFMXMSREVIEXSQE\MQMWIXLI RIX[SVOMRKSTTSVXYRMX]JSVHIPIKEXIW[MXLXLIMVTIIVWERHSYVI\LMFMXSVW8LI)ZIRXW 8IEQMWHIHMGEXIHXSFYMPHMRKVIPEXMSRWLMTW[MXLZIRHSVWRI[XSXLI-%4VEGXMXMSRIVW´ )ZIRXERHEP[E]W[IPGSQIWWYKKIWXMSRWERHVIUYIWXW8LII\LMFMXMSREPWS LSWXIHXLI.LMXI.)ZIRXW$WSJXFS\GSYO  for more information.

” (IPIKEXI*IIHFEGO ±*MVWXPIXQIWE][LEXEJERXEWXMGNSF]SYERH]SYVXIEQHMHTYXXMRKXSKIXLIVERH running yet another successful IA Practitioner event.” Exhibitor Feedback Brought to You By ±8LEROWXSXLI organisers for arranging this. It is up to the data owner to assess the risk and take appropriate counter measures. As both a delegate visiting the stands and listening to conference presentations and as a Director for the IISP manning our stand and taking questions and queries from members and CCP applicants I found again.” 8LI-%4VEGXMXMSRIVW´)ZIRXMWGSRWMWXIRXP]TVEMWIHF]FSXLHIPIKEXIWERHWTSRWSVWJSV the quality of its speakers. Thank you again. 8LIPEWX[SVHSRXLMWGEQIJVSQ')7+WXEXMRKXLEX±8LIVIMWRSXERH[MPPRSXFIE check list for achieving network security. ±-XLMROXLMW]IEVW´IZIRXLEWFIIRI\GIPPIRXEGPIEVMRWMKLXMRXSLS[ Government Departments are working. As might be expected throughout the conference there was considerable interest in the then imminent implementation of the changes to the Government Protective 1EVOMRK7GLIQI8LIETTVSEGLYRHIVXLIRI[+SZIVRQIRX'PEWWM½GEXMSR7GLIQI MWJSVMRGVIEWIHPSGEPEYXSRSQ]ERHEGGSYRXEFMPMX]8LIKYMHMRKTVMRGMTPISJXLI +SZIVRQIRX'PEWWM½GEXMSR7GLIQIMWXLEXEPP+SZIVRQIRXMRJSVQEXMSRLEWEZEPYI and requires a basic level of protection and individuals are personally responsible and accountable for exercising good judgement in securing the information. how Suppliers are working with them to achieve IA Compliance. that the conference provides an excellent opportunity to update myself regarding current policy.SVSRIXSJI[  basis to discuss their concerns and get answers to any questions they had. exhibition and organisation and enjoys its reputation as a must attend event in the IA calendar. 8LIIZIVTSTYPEVRIX[SVOMRKHMRRIVSRXLIIZIRMRKSJHE]SRITVSZMHIHJYVXLIV opportunity to build relationships. It was the best event of its type I have attended and I will be back next year!!” Delegate Feedback & . Pre-dinner drinks and excellent food and wine [IVIIRNS]IHF]HIPIKEXIW[LSXLIRWIXXPIHHS[RXSPMWXIRXSXLIGYWXSQEV] EJXIVHMRRIVWTIEOIV8LMW]IEV[IMRZMXIH8:TVIWIRXIV4IRR]1EPPSV][LSKEZIER interesting and amusing account of her journey from being in her own words “a total waster to a champion rally driver”. network and provide support and guidance to members and applicants. It has been very useful that vendors had to discuss a topic without too much sales pitch.

UK OWASP APPSEC EUROPE Cambridge. UK 23 . Singapore ST14 NORTH Manchester. UK 7-9 CLOUD WORLD FORUM 2014 London.26 SECURITY & RISK MANAGEMENT SUMMIT Washington D.18 PRIVACY ENHANCING TECHNOLOGIES SYMPOSIUM (PETS’14) Amsterdam.23 RSA CONFERENCE ASIA PACIFIC & JAPAN Marina Bay Sands.24 BLACK HAT USA Las Vegas. UK AUGUST SEPTEMBER 2-7 17 . UK 25 8. Greece PSN SUMMIT London.C.26 3-4 10 .EVENTS lmanac AofEvents 2014 CYBER WEEK 2014 June-SEPT at De Montfort University 9/+VIIGI97%%YWXVEPME.19 26 IFSEC INTERNATIONAL 2014 London. USA RYPTO 2014 . USA 19TH AUSTRALASIAN CONFERENCE ON INFORMATION SECURITY AND PRIVACY (ACISP 2014) Wollongong. UK THE CYBER SECURITY SUMMIT London. Netherlands 22 .ETER&VE^MP'LMRE-XEP]4SPERH'EREHE JUNE 23 . UK 17 .21 3-5 9 -11 22 .11 IA14 London. UK CFET 2014 Canterbury. Australia 8 16 .)9634)%2 CONFERENCE ON CYBER WARFARE AND SECURITY ECCWS-2014 Piraeus.

26 17 19 8. INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON THE SECURITY OF INFORMATION AND NETWORKS Glasgow.-))) (LATINCRYPT) THIRD INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON CRYPTOLOGY AND INFORMATION SECURITY IN LATIN AMERICA Resort Costao do Santinho.softbox. Brazil INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON TRUST.17 17 .29 8 -10 7-28. China 25 4TH CYBER RISK AND DATA PROTECTION INSURANCE FORUM London. UK Visit www.15 SELECTED AREAS IN CRYPTOGRAPHY (SAC’2014) Montreal.6(INTERNATIONAL CRYPTOLOGY CONFERENCE) California. UK 14 .18 Hugh Aston Building.12th September 2014 JULY 16 . Poland 9TH INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON SECURITY (IWSEC 2014) Hirosaki.)8. De Montfort University 8 -12 CYBER WEEK Leicester. Japan TDWI BI SYMPOSIUM London. USA 9TH CONFERENCE ON SECURITY AND CRYPTOGRAPHY FOR NETWORKS %QEP½-XEP] 27 . UK 6(-28)62%8-32%0 CONFERENCE ON CRYPTOGRAPHY AND SECURITY SYSTEMS (CSS’14) Lublin.co. UK  24 .uk for more information . Canada 8th . SECURITY AND PRIVACY IN COMPUTING AND COMMUNICATIONS Beijing.

co.uk/cyber talk cybertalkmagazine $']FIV8EPO9/ . cyber talk@softbox.uk www.co.softbox.