6┃The enigmatic Alan Turing: A Biography
Tom Hook

8┃The Children Of Colossus
Colin Williams

16┃My Life At Bletchley
Henry Clifton/Peter Watson

18┃Bletchley Park’s Forgotten Heroes
8┃The Children Of Colossus

Helen Morgan

Klaus Schmeh

22┃The alan turing Legacy: The cycle of
missed opportunities

Graeme Stewart

Iain Lobban

26┃A colossus rising
The National Museum of Computing

Dr Mark Bishop

Kevin Warwick

Anthony Beavers


Daniel Dennett

Andrew Odlyzko

Cristian Calude

Helen Morgan

45┃CODEBREAKER at the british science museum - REVIEW
Andrew Cook

Barry Cooper

48┃extending TURING’S PATTERN
Aaron Sloman


Produced with the support of:
The National Museum of Computing

in an unremarkable England. all was indeed well. Turing’s machines may fulfil the wishes of their creator and learn to love. He had been forced to resign from the presidency of Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation on the 8th March 1951 after being blacklisted by the FBI as a Communist Party sympathizer.” Gordon Brown CONTACT US General enquiries: +44 (0) 1347 812150 www. hardware. If we are to win the battles to come against those who would use Turing’s machines to destroy the democracy and freedoms Turing helped safeguard then we must prove ourselves worthy of his legacy. With less than one percent of the returns UNIVAC predicted a landslide victory. Articles in CyberTalk do not necessarily reflect the opinions of SBL or its employees.co. “Prisoner of War”. obsession. SBL offers a comprehensive portfolio of software. connected remotely via teletype to the CBS studios in New York.com/cybertalkuk Email: cybertalk@softbox.softbox. The superiority of British pluck and amateurism were affirmed as Roger Bannister broke the four minute barrier on the 6th of May. It was to be another four years or so from this unremarkable day before President Eisenhower was to grant executive authority to the acts of 1958 that called in to being the Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). DESIGN Reflect Digital www. The institutions charged with defending democracy atoned for a prior delinquency so to do. have watched the Hollywood great. ceased to be. The CBS management suppressed the news of the UNIVAC prediction. as he launched his meme in to history. change the world forever.co. We would not be who and as we are. one of the most remarkable and brilliant minds humanity has ever seen. His prosecution and treatment at the hands of a democracy he had done so much to preserve was ignoble.pinterest. predicted the Eisenhower triumph of 442 votes to 89. and therefore much of what was of any real importance in the world at large. John Mauchly watched UNIVAC. and as the congregations swelled on Sunday 6th for the celebration of Pentecost in commemoration of the descent of the Holy Spirit upon Christ’s disciples (only to recede afterwards in to an almost guilty indifference until Christmas).uk @CyberTalkUK www. but otherwise unremarkable. three years before this unremarkable On this unremarkable weekend a (presumably) unremarkable woman did (presumably) unremarkable things. not for the marginal favourite. She may even. sometime as England was going about the business of being unremarkably English. The Lyons Electronic Office (LEO) was the first re-programmable and stored programme computer in the world to run a routine business application on a regular basis. LEO was running the inventory and payroll for a nationwide chain of hundreds of tea shops selling perishable goods and employing thousands of staff working irregular shift patterns with varying wage rates. from home. D Day. by the side of his bed. The echoes of all of which resonate to this day through the “Great British Bake Off". within one percent margin of error. she found an apple. A tragic and localised blunder in Indochina. As the twenty first century unfolds. Professor Cristian Calude CREATIVE AND DIGITAL EDITOR Andrew Cook Andrew Cook Professor Barry Cooper Professor Daniel Dennett Bletchley Park Trust Henry Clifton Peter Watson The Bill Tutte Memorial Fund Helen Morgan Helen Morgan Professor Andrew Odlyzko Natalie Murray Creative consultant Aaron Sloman Kevin Warwick Colin Williams If you would like to contribute to issue four of CyberTalk. Ronald Reagan. and is. misrepresentation or any resulting effects.facebook. an utterly unremarkable English summer in fact. bitten in to but not fully eaten. they had first switched on one of the world’s first business computers. the CBS anchor. Turing’s machines are our future. and his successors to act out the logic of the Domino Theory promulgated on the 7th April of that unremarkable year by the man who had been Supreme Allied Commander in Europe from 1943 to 1949. inhuman and cruel. star as Webb Sloane in the Korean War Drama. Normality was returning and Englishness prevailed. “ …we’re sorry. As the episodically observant made their transition from the realm of the cassock to the chapels of the cake. with an in-house professional services team enabling the delivery of a comprehensive and innovative range of IT solutions. dull and cool. She may have then further communed through computer enabled confectionary. a battle in a remote land. For the secular and the observant alike the Spring Bank Holiday weekend of 1954 was sweeter still as sugar had come off rationing in the September of the previous year. and the Information Age emerges.uk with a short article synopsis no later than November 8th 2013 Articles will be due for submission no later than December 20th. Turing was. By this unremarkable day in 1954. Sometime during the evening of the 7th June 1954. Small Print Tom Hook DEPUTY EDITORS Tineke Simpson 04 \ cybertalk day. then it will serve as a necessary moment of atonement for a great wrong.uk/cybertalk Editors Contributors SPECIAL THANKS Call for Articles Professor Tim Watson Professor Anthony Beavers Colin Williams Professor Mark Bishop The National Museum of Computing The Publisher and Editorial Board of CyberTalk magazine are currently inviting the submission of articles for the Spring 2014 issue. habits she may have joined the ephemeral Pentecostal flock. SBL are a Value Added IT Reseller widely recognised as the market leader in Information Security. Late in the evening of the 4th November.reflectdigital. unifying. rather than a war in Vietnam with the potential to trigger a terminal nuclear conflagration. was given a near real time feed of early results from the elections for the 34th presidency. the then Governor of Illinois Adlai Stevenson.To a contemporaneous consciousness England. were already receding in to memory and although the defeat of the forces of a European colonial power at Dien Bien Phu the month before was perhaps portentous. Established in 1987 with a headquarters in York. consensual. depending on her tastes. It was to be another 11 years until the log entry of 10:30 pm on 29th October 1969 records the first ever message sent across the ARPANET. as it should. Without this mind. In 1958 the Secretary of the Army restored his secret clearance. Nothing in this magazine may be reproduced in whole or part without the written permission of the publisher. was in an utterly unremarkable state on 7th June 1954. please email cybertalk@ softbox. is but the smallest facet of his importance. Issue 4 of CyberTalk will be published in February 2014. Mastery and dominance of the business and technology of computers becomes as critical to the American economy and American society as it becomes to the survival of the Cold War. the fabric of Eisenhower’s military industrial complex is woven on the loom of the computing revolution. the computer he had helped build. Returning to work on Tuesday 8th June this unremarkable woman must have found the house of her employer somehow odd. Free from her duties as a housekeeper to a single gentleman of eccentric. Overall. Charles Collingwood admits their error. and as England enjoyed what might have been the slightly soggy Spring bank holiday weekend. 7th June 1954 would not have been as it was. then the first Supreme Commander of NATO and. So.co. In his bedroom. Turing’s machines helped to save democracy. The Lyons corner tea shop had become a national institution. Tea and cakes were a national. at around half past eight Eastern Standard Time on the 4th November 1952. was the 34th president of the United States of America. The World had yet to fully appreciate the will of Dwight D Eisenhower. In the bed she found the corpse of Alan Mathison Turing. secular tastes had elevated Doris Day’s “Secret Love” to the number one position in the music charts.com/cybertalkmagazine www. CyberTalk is designed by Reflect Digital and printed by Warners Midlands PLC. the summer of 1954 was wet. If we are to win the battles to come against those who would use Turing’s machines to destroy the democracy and freedoms Turing helped safeguard then we must prove ourselves worthy of his legacy. If Lord Sharkey’s bill does pass. the unremarkable illusion could easily be preserved that the episode remained a French military misadventure. and their humiliation. and announces that UNIVAC had. A small luxury to offset the various hungers of the privations of war and the austerity that followed.com/cybertalk Web: www.youtube. but rather for the Five Star General.uk Cover & The Last Word design by Andrew Cook CyberTalk is published three times a year by SBL (Softbox Ltd). services and training. As this edition of “CyberTalk” goes to press it is looking increasingly likely that Alan Mathison Turing will receive a long overdue posthumous pardon.co. sometime during this most unremarkable of English days. Two years or so before this utterly unremarkable day. Turing’s machines have transformed humanity and society. In the decades following his election. important. cybertalk \ 05 . Turing’s machines may become a new form of life itself. You deserved so much better. It will also open a long overdue debate about the rectitude of the many thousands of similar convictions. the UNIVAC computer in Philadelphia. nonetheless in June. no responsibility can be accepted by SBL for errors. communal. it becomes ever more apparent that his vital role as war time code breaker. by itself sufficient to secure his place in history and our gratitude. Dwight D Eisenhower. Lyons tea houses across the land were now more than capable of coping with the mass influx of treat seekers because. Whilst every effort has been made to ensure that the content of CyberTalk magazine is accurate. The events of 6th June 1944.

a product of the work of David Hilbert. a truly groundbreaking piece of technology. He chose the latter option. Without the D-Day Landings.He holds a BA Philosophy from Lancaster University. This thereby proved that Hilbert’s He even went on to achieve world-class final condition of decidability could not marathon standards. he was able to pioneer ground-breaking ideas in the fields of mathematics. 1948. Turing was invited to the National Physical Laboratory where he designed the first stored-program computer. Turing contributed crucially to the design of electro-mechanical machines (known as ‘bombes’). In developing and proclaimed that he learned to run fast young Turing. biology and. his revolutionary work in computing provided the foundation for an infinite array of ever-emerging technologies which the human race will continue to rely on for many years to come. Gordon Brown apologised on behalf of the Government for the “utterly unfair” way in which Turing was treated. and Nazi forces were completely unaware that their strategic conversations were being read by the English Admiralty. troops and ammunition from America to Britain. food. cybertalk \ 07 .e. the day after the declaration of war by Prime Minister Chamberlain. After graduating. These operations were kept absolutely confidential. and quickly Turing established himself as a highly esteemed. Turing et al. His seminal 1950 article “Computing machinery and intelligence” set the philosophical world alight with the proposal that machines can. 06 \ cybertalk After several more years of study in America. Tom Hook is Bid Co-ordinator for SBL. he was instrumental in changing the course of World War II. computer science. and pioneered the theory that the Fibonacci sequence is ubiquitous in morphogenesis (the formation of an organism’s shape). Turing naturally reported the crime to the police. Turing’s contributions to code-breaking in World War II were arguably instrumental in the Nazi’s defeat. the Automatic Computing Engine (ACE). so much this heavily mathematical concept. Turing was later awarded the OBE for his wartime services. sometimes within 15 minutes of being transmitted. public anger at his treatment grew. could have meant a further death-toll of up to 21 million. Turing went on to work at the University of Manchester from 1948. would be inherent in the development of technology for decades to come. system and. U-boats had destroyed 701 Allied ships and 2. The idea involved an infinite tape of these numbers Turing had a varied experience with the English school that would be written and read by the machine. decidable and consistent. serial number. most significantly. On top of all this. the third Parliamentary reading of the Alan Turing (statutory pardon) Bill will take place. achieve a level of consciousness equal to that of humans. he was unknown in life and remained relatively unknown in death. No one could predict. as he was Numbers various problems. Through most of his academic and professional life. that definite steps are followed in order to prove or disprove a statement) was left unanswered. the code used by the German armed forces to protect their radio communications. preventing the deaths of millions and changing the course of history. His name would go down in history books and the title “genius” began to be ascribed to him once again. This astounded biologists. Turing began a new relationship. for which the human race will be eternally indebted. After a petition with thousands of signatures in 2009. These three conditions would mean that every mathematical statement could either be proven or disproven by clear steps that would reach the correct outcome every time. Yet. the requirement of decidability (i. known as the Decidability Problem. the prevalence of which was the only thing that Churchill said “ever really frightened” him. the war could have gone on for 2 – 3 more years which. However. Turing began to enjoy his school life more when he moved into Sherborne Sixth Form (pictured). at the age of just 23. it will help reflect public regret for the way Turing was treated and the high level of esteem in which he is now held. began successfully decoding Enigma in Spring 1940. Furthermore. analysts say. which so that he developed that algorithmic systems couldn’t Turing found gave him clarity of thought. If the bill is passed. Modern society is indebted to this remarkable man in more ways than we can imagine. This sparked a debate that still rages today. fascinated the and codified algorithms. the Universal Turing Machine. SBL Alan Turing provided a rare and remarkably rich contribution to society. A pivotal use of this advantage was to stifle the efforts of U-boats. In 1900. He conceived of a powerful computer that would only understand the digits 0 and 1. The following years saw the pinnacle of Turing’s genius and innovation. a habit of stopping at solve. where he was allowed to specialise in science and mathematics.” Running would Turing found that problems did exist later become a dedicated pastime. When the history of Turing’s legacy and contribution during WW2 became better known. Kurt Godel had already disproved Hilbert in 1931 by showing that consistency and completeness could never exist in such a system. in principle. The Government has also recently announced its support for granting a posthumous pardon to Turing for his conviction. and wrote his dissertation around Artificial Intelligence. In October 2013. Turing focused his efforts on a widely known fundamental problem in mathematics. order to find its Turing. and paved the way for the Artificial Intelligence movement. until 1974 when details about his work at Bletchley Park were finally released. Turing was fascinated by the potential of computer technology. Hilbert appealed to his contemporaries to find an algorithmic system to answer all mathematical problems – a system which must be complete.Enigmatic the Alan Turing: A Biography By Tom Hook. he was naturally depressed and it is widely believed that this led to his suicide in June 1954. Disgraced by the British judicial system and undergoing enforced treatment to reduce his masculinity. allowing Allies to transport fuel. Turing’s home was burgled. where he developed software for the Manchester Mark 1 computer. Only a year later he presented his first paper to the London Mathematical Society. who proceeded to arrest Turing and Murray on grounds of gross indecency due to their homosexuality. Just weeks after his relationship with Arnold Murray began. On September 4. as his best time of every street light in be obtained. with no Enigma-coded message being successfully decoded in almost 10 months. a German mathematician. In 1946. His fascination in science even led him to want to further prove the Earth’s rotation. in which he focussed on Philosophy of Mind. 1939.3m tons of vital cargo in the first nine months of conflict alone.000 Enigma messages each month . Meanwhile. Turing went on to solve the Decidability Problem as a result of his ideas for his famous Turing Machine. revolutionary thinker in the field. and this became an issue. the first prototype of which. in order to “avoid the ball. before moving to SBL. Buckinghamshire. He also was a breakthrough in that it defined encountered bullies during his school life. Turing was convicted in March 1952 and had the choice of imprisonment or probation under the condition that he underwent hormonal treatment to reduce his libido and cause impotence. Turing reported for duty at the wartime headquarters of the Government Code and Cypher School (GC&CS) at Bletchley Park. although his aptitude was recognised as Different sequences of numbers would lead “genius” by some teachers. Turing moved into a new area when he became enamoured with mathematics in the natural world. He went on to support NHS Management in the development of healthcare services within prisons. which works tirelessly to improve the capacity of computers with the ultimate goal of consciousness. his ground-breaking work around morphogenesis was cut short. Turing read theoretical mathematics and excelled. that the principle that Turing conceived. however. It’s said that he taught himself to read within just three weeks. The machine’s design fixated by science and mathematics. Cambridge in 1931. Sadly. Numbers fascinated the young Turing. preventing the deaths of millions. In 1952. It was here that Turing developed his preformed computing designs and adapted them to the field of cryptanalysis to decipher Enigma. 2:46 hours was only 11 minutes slower than the Olympic winner in the same year. He showed signs of genius from a very early age and was extraordinarily quick to learn new skills. such an effective attack at Normandy would never have been possible. If the U-boats had been allowed to halt the movement of this cargo. Having played a key role in the winning of the war by the Allies. by building a replica of the Foucault Pendulum in the dormitory stairwell. philosophy. Allied ships could therefore dodge the U-boats in the vast openness of the Pacific. Turing was open to his friends and colleagues as homosexual. Alan Turing was born on 23 June 1912 to Julius and Ethel Turing. eventually leading to his social and emotional collapse. had solved a problem that had baffled experts in the field for over 30 years. Within only 20 years between his university graduation and death in 1954. He was elected a Fellow of King’s College in 1935. Awarded a major scholarship to King’s College. so much so that he developed a habit of stopping at every street light in order to find its serial number. obtaining a distinction upon graduation. he was uninterested in to a variety of functions and the solving of classical education in the curriculum. named Victory. By 1943. Before Turing started work at Bletchley Park.two messages every minute. illegal at the time. progress on decryption had been poor. Turing was awarded a PhD from Princeton University. Turing’s machines were cracking an astounding total of 84. In 1952 however. were able to significantly weaken the U-boat’s hold over the Pacific Ocean by intercepting their locations.

stored and distributed by systems inoperable without Turing machines. first published in “Mind” and now freely available across the Internet. 19501 The computers of the Information Age of humanity are. and the skies would be left virtually defenceless against enemy attack. the computer is not so much a challenge to man as a challenge for him”.” “Computing Machinery and Intelligence”. My salary is calculated and deposited in my bank account using Turing machines. Turing machines were an essential precondition for the endeavour to map the human genome. it was already thus. reshaped. and stored. In the long run. recreating and transforming not only the corporeal realm of existence for humanity. or corporeal. printer. enabled by Turing machines. not fiction. The Internet connects Turing machines. and corporeal printing. The Information Age is characterised by the dependence of humanity upon computers. the country would be practically paralyzed: plants would shut down. recreating. Through the agency of three dimensional printing. Raspberry Pi and mobile telephone cases can be printed. enabled by Turing machines. Money is created. form of a Turing machine. “If all the computers went on the blink. Global telecommunications systems are assembled from Turing machines. Turing machines made real. it has been for decades. an age in which technology began to recast human society.The Children of Colossus “I believe that at the end of the century the use of words and general educated opinion will have altered so much that one will be able to speak of machines thinking without expecting to be contradicted. Turing machines. generated and brought to my house through systems controlled by Turing machines. I will fly to America for a holiday in an aircraft incapable of attaining flight without Turing machines. My bank account exists in Turing machines. “years from now man will look back on these days as the beginning of a dramatic extension of his power over his environment. Turing machines are redefining what we used to think of as real and virtual. With a Turing machine it is now possible to All of the quotations attributed to Turing in this piece are taken from this paper.” The same article then predicted that. This is fact. It is now possible to scan an existing corporeal object. The fundamental structures of human society are being. transmit the resultant binaries around the globe at Internet speeds. but also the corporeal form of humanity itself. even in April 1965 when “Time” ran a feature article in which the shocking assertion was made that. replicating and reforming the corporeal as well as the abstract dimensions of human existence. M. not future. Humanity depends on the Internet. Goods are manufactured. in essence. and in. Crowd sourced funding. and transferred. Turing machines are replicating. water and electricity are extracted. By Colin Williams 08 \ cybertalk 1 For the then far sighted. I drive a vehicle reliant upon Turing machines. and will continue to be. finances would be thrown into chaos. Humanity depends upon Turing machines. This is now. Turing. and through. by. Carbon nanotubes can be held in suspension and printed. Turing machines are recasting. The total dependence of humanity upon Turing machines is already absolute and irreversible. have laid the foundations for a fundamental transformation of western capitalism. I navigate my journeys in this vehicle through the agency of a Turing machine on the Earth communicating remotely with a Turing machine in Space. Gas. I write this on a Turing machine. and render the object as real through a three dimensional. Lithium ion batteries can be printed. or perhaps a gestalt. A. cybertalk \ 09 . most telephones would go dead. The Internet itself is a meta.

and what a universal computer is. The cyber domain does not need either our comprehension. technology. in 1965. However. but not reversible. but not reversible. or our Early Modern forebears became dependent upon the printing press. Turing machines are changing our minds. The distinctions and boundaries between us are already blurring. for now. two decades after Colossus. a new form of the human self. the real and the imagined. We have already given them control over the provision of the most basic necessities of life. As I type and research this on a Turing machine. it is not simply that we are forgetting how to live without Turing machines and thus could exercise memory as an act of volition and as a means to halt a voluntary process. we are where we knew we would be. become a reality. humans. my brain is working differently to the way that it used to when I wrote longhand and transcribed from the page to the typewriter. and not mathematics and engineering. The entire human frame of reference changes. Therefore. or LEO. are at the centre of the narrative. That we apprehend this is evident in the proliferation of the tropes of the apocalypse narratives across the spectrum of popular culture. Corporeal printers are already being used to create human organs for use in transplant operations. We must now consider the possibility that the universal computing machine is becoming a thinking machine. engineering and mathematics as sources of the authoritative frame of reference for our attempts to understand the cyber domain. reciprocal. and only then at the cost of a great catastrophe of Atlantean significance. and a new form of the not self. context. That the corpus of computer experts have largely failed to play their part in preparing society as a whole for this 10 \ cybertalk . omnipresent. it transforms the totality of itself. by an historian. of which we are on the brink of the sublation. Colossus has also borne its own children and they are everywhere and in everything. Every one of these human autonomous vehicles will be interconnected across what we today call the Internet. We need this historical context precisely because the author of the “Time” article recognised with prescience and clarity that. Food printers are a not very distant reality. perhaps a true Turing machine in the sense that Turing himself might have imagined. and. in all probability. of which the computer is the ultimate expression. own context. The dependencies between humanity and Turing machines are. The dependence on Turing machines is removable. Probably where we have been driven by necessity. A proper history of the cyber domain must be written. amorphous and uncontrollable matrix of Turing machines. a new means of creation. currently. form of sentience. synthetic. Turing machines are at the heart of the cyber domain and this new construct is becoming simultaneously and indivisibly. The Cold War is over. we are the children of Colossus. Therefore. The dependence on Turing machines is removable. and instead. not a technologist. Never have we been in greater need of an application of historiography to a contemporary context than we are today with regard to the cyber domain. All of this is happening in utter separation of our ability to comprehend it. The seminal “Time” article of April 1965 is devoid of a single reference to Alan Turing. to be that thing. if not desired. only partially so. a differentiation from our (human) consciousness. We are already in the process of giving them an ever increasing proportion of our memories and of our thinking. it is more that the capacity for such a pre-Turing mode of existence is becoming. Each time that humanity thus transforms itself. the planet it happens to be. Within the lifetime of my school age children. human society is surely headed for some deepreaching changes. Thus. and the way we think. Turing machines are changing the way we learn. a freedom from our understanding. negotiation and expression of the human self. literally. Every one of these human autonomous vehicles will be connected to every other Turing machine. or to become another thing. and correctible within ours. synthetic. Turing’s place in history has been cloaked in the shroud of Cold War secrecy. we willed it. perhaps even where we wanted to be. form of intelligence.” The point of this new historiographical narrative must be to contest the discursive dominance of science. Colossus helped forge a context of which we. the way we teach. everywhere and anywhere on. Hitherto. leaps directly from Babbage to the Harvard Mark 1. or off. One variant of a corporeal printer is capable of self-replication. rather than a narrow technical. even the very biochemistry of the brain itself. rather than the effect itself. or our permission. are a part and a product. to exist. A conceptual and societal singularity occurs. pervasive. We have lost sight of our origins and without the contextualising and explicatory powers of this vision we are doomed to facile incomprehension and dangerous de facto acceptance of our present as an abiding and immutable constant. A thing does not require either the understanding of itself or of other. or Manchester. It is time to contemplate the proposition that the totality of the computing construct in its human. social and systemic context is on the verge of attaining both a new. In a sense. a new. and not yet at its own volition. it.design and execute precise modifications to a DNA sequence. It is time to reconsider our understanding of both what a Turing machine is. They are at the heart of a societal dialectic. an independence from our will. the partial and flawed narrative expressed in 1965 is both explicable within its We foretold this transformation at the hands of Turing’s machines. a vast ubiquitous. The cost of the removal is the cessation of human civilization as we know it. road vehicles controlled entirely by Turing machines will. and perhaps. and only then at the cost of a great catastrophe of Atlantean significance. This time at least. not things. or our Industrial Revolution relatives became dependent on electricity and the internal combustion engine. and instead to assert the view that technology is the instrumentality of the effect of conscious will. The process itself has acquired an autonomous existence. unthinkable. We have become as dependent upon Turing machines as our Neolithic ancestors became dependent upon settled agriculture and static communal settlements. A history in which computing is seen in a broad societal. A history in which humans and humanity. The cost of the removal is the cessation of human civilization as we know it. “one thing is already clear: swept forward by a great wave of technology. the concrete and the abstract.

effectively. dietitians. For Turing. “the idea behind digital computers may be explained by saying that these machines are intended to carry out any operations which could be done by a human computer”. At first. so we create more complex and sophisticated tools. it is the human that must affirm its humanity. history and literature are beggars at the palace door. Stalin had stolen the secrets of Los Alamos. now dangerous. although. “we also wish to allow the possibility that an engineer … may construct a machine which works. In a world where science is king. well-paid (up to $30. an awareness of the existence of not Joes. we go back to a kind. If something had happened back in cave days and they'd hadda stop usin' fire . Joe exhibits desire and will. should offer us all the impetus we need to reimagine and re craft the Imitation Game. to a non-human entity. Memes are the unstable atoms of the shared mind of humanity. “softly … like priests serving in a shrine”. he imagined that. or anybody we want to talk to. and human. Turing machines are in the world and of the world. radio. Anything we want to know or see or hear. and for the most part. indivisible. This does not invalidate Turing’s thesis. a vast repository of information with. children of Colossus through to early. In effect. and from the wider human and societal context. They were precious. cybertalk \ 13 . conceit that the path to understanding is mapped out by science. our cultures. Every computer science undergraduate must now be taught about the history. Turing machines are information machines. "Does it occur to you. These men were “a new breed of specialists”. Likewise. Our brains are about information. our art. vast.” and went “about their work quietly. analysis. autonomous of direct human agency. It's true.000) and in short supply”. Turing designed Turing machines to think. Moving. he optimistically entertained the explicit conjecture that. and. of which Turing’s machines are an indivisible element. to report what he said to somebody else and to report to him what they said 12 \ cybertalk back. In other words. in Turing’s terms only a “finite number of possible states” and as such. required precisely because “computer technology is so new and computers require such sensitive handling”. probably as a result of a glitch in the manufacturing process. tele-typewriter. and upon which we depend for our species advantage. mathematics and engineering alone. a logic repair man. they were “arranged row upon row in air-conditioned rooms” “The dependence on Turing machines is removable. The charges of these “computermen”. “popping up across the U. telephone. power hungry. but not reversible. in these abstract domains. one of the carriers of the feedback signals upon which our conceptual and social systems act to change its rules of operation. All we have to have is logics. In the nineteen hundreds a man would have to make use of a typewriter. like slab sided mushrooms”. Turing machines are now an inseparable. These systems are. Turing machines were abstracted from each other. perhaps in humanoid robotic form. WiFi means that Turing machines are telepathic. create and transmit information. there is no credible sense in which one can assert that the system that is human society has. of civilization we have forgotten how to run!" He smiles a haggard smile at me and snaps off. Our languages. complicated to build.all to put down what he wanted to remember an' to tell him what other people had put down that he wanted to know. instrumental and definitional part of the complex systems of human society. chemists. interconnections and interdependencies we call the cyber domain. We are on the brink of that possibility becoming a reality. That this is so is because of the. with “brandnew titles and responsibilities”. filing clerks. the narrator and the unsung saviour of humanity asks his colleague to shut down the tank. unseen by the public”. The construct was rendered necessary by the fact that thinking machines could not. office files. has handled all person-toperson contacts over wires and recorded every business conversation and agreement . but in 1950 remained a theoretical possibility only.if they'd hadda stop usin' steam in the nineteenth century or electricity in the twentieth .listen. as well as about the rules of programming. newspaper. critical. Turing machines are becoming robots. Humanity is about information. our religion. no sense in which human society. Who knows what it may come to call itself. In the March 1946 edition of “Astounding Science Fiction”. We create tools to enable us to store. Turing machines are being given ambulatory form and opposable thumbs. and robots are becoming Turing machines.” Perhaps morphogenesis and meta-morphogenesis alike both have a cultural and epistemological. The mind of each can communicate remotely with the mind of another of its own kind using invisible waves of radiation. unstable and evolving matrix of Turing machine. convincingly exhibit the characteristics of the human physical form. that the tank has been doin' all the computin' for every business office for years? It's been handlin' the distribution of ninety-four percent of all telecast programs. Joe. bright. fragile. process. has given out all information on weather. wherein. neither do these experts understand the essential nature of the Information Age or the computing systems upon which it has been built. They were large. are about information. but whose manner of operation cannot be satisfactorily described by its constructors because they have applied a method which is largely experimental” must have had deep resonance with the early generations of those whom the “Time” article of 1965 called “computermen”. Computers have changed. doctors. In the Information Age. From their controlled and secured cocoons these computers were at the heart of the Cold War. Joe nearly brings about the downfall of humanity. combine. Consequently. They had become “purposely separated from ordinary laymen”. they are within us. young. The imminence of fully autonomous weapons systems. is quite mistaken … conjectures are of great importance since they suggest useful lines of research”. memetic propagation occurs through the complex. memes function as toxins. the papers of A. like all logics. Logics are Turing machines. Turing’s principal formulation for the Imitation Game was that it had. become more complex and sophisticated. A similar observation might soon be made about processing power. philosophy. can be subject to the proposition reprised by Turing that “given the initial state of the machine and the input signals it is always possible to predict all future states”. Joe acquires sentience.is. our science. deconstructive. More than this. white-shirted men” had already appropriated the societal and transformative significance of these esoteric machines. reference library. infinite storage and processing capacity. we punch keys on a logic. They have become the fabric of reality. the impediment here being the last gasp of the attempts to preserve the fallacy of the notional boundary as perimeter. simply. "Shut down the tank?" he says mirthless. never being influenced by conjecture. the idea of a computer with an “unlimited store” was unproblematic. “we may hope that machines will eventually compete with men in all purely intellectual fields”. Logics are civilization! If we shut off logics. For each generation of undergraduates. fella. the foundation texts of the Bell-LaPadula model should be contextualised and subjected to rigorous. They are equipped with sensors. Joe is a logic. special sales. Our DNA sequences are about information. It strengthens it. the Internet and the ubiquity of Turing machines are as close as delivering infinite storage as practical purposes require. process. M. a random mutation in evolutionary terms. laborious to set up and difficult to operate.S. combine. they are literally woven in the fabric of reality. directories. awkward. For Turing. secretaries . This line no longer exists. hormones and viruses might in the biological realm. as should the seminal and instrumentally predictive science fiction texts relating to the human fears and desires about Turing machines. sociology and psychology of computing. Turing machines are about information. Perhaps. the human protagonist. and cast themselves as a self-appointed “solemn priesthood of the computer”. It removes the source of the problems Turing sought to solve in his design of the Imitation Game. and secret. and only then at the cost of a great catastrophe of Atlantean significance. and fragile. Turing. the effects of their actions. For Turing “no engineer or chemist claim[ed] to be able to produce a material which is indistinguishable from human skin”. because they did not understand it. for the purposes of the Imitation Game. Shut off logics and everything goes skiddoo. our philosophies. encyclopedias. a strange inversion of the Imitation Game occurs. Turing held the conceit that “one fears that thinking is just the kind of phenomenon where ESP may be especially relevant” inter alia his discussion of the impact of telepathy on his design for the Imitation Game. adolescence. as well as biological. he must not be permitted those of the computer as easily. were according to “Time”. and at speeds and in languages beyond the powers of human perception. Each time that a CAPTCHA (Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart) test is administered. are based upon information. Turing machines are no longer constrained within the sterile isolation and sensory deprivation of Cold War server rooms. Turing’s machines have become infused into the res extensa and res cogitans dimensions of our existence. these “computermen” nurtured these precious. The game was a construct necessary to construct a test to prove a hypothesis. the “popular view that scientists proceed inexorably from well-established fact to well-established fact. Computers are in the world. Confidentiality and observance of the rule of least privilege a Cold War survival imperative. plane schedules. The works of Norbert Wiener should be compulsory reading. That is. fella! Logics changed civilization.it's like that'. is connected remotely to the tank. Turing designed his machines with the following conjecture at the forefront of his purpose. precocious. They store. “It is possible that at some time this might be done”. They ran the critical functions of society. We got a very simple civilization. As we. to which he receives the pithy reply thus. manifestly not conformant to Turing’s understanding of a “discrete-state” modality. and our societies. In 2013. Creation and preservation of a stable state was of fundamental importance. Murray Leinster published a short story under the title “A Logic Named Joe”. Computing has changed. and empirical. plus messenger service and consulting lawyers. employment opportunities and news. These “computermen” were “young. mathematical and computational manifestations. create and transmit information. They had developed an “esoteric language that some suspect is just their way of mystifying outsiders”. and already fearsomely powerful. and those of others. voracious. or of human language. And I sit down and put my head in my hands. “the advantage of drawing a fairly sharp line between the physical and intellectual capacities of a man”. They can apprehend. Ducky. in 1950. expensive. Turing machines are interconnected. The societies within which we gather. to our cognitive capacities. The echoes of Turing’s observation in his 1950 paper that. and act on. These “crisp.

… a machine undoubtedly can be its own subject matter. I do not wish to give the impression that I think there is no mystery about consciousness.” Moreover. Such machines will locate all of the elements of mind. The irony would not have been lost on Turing: . has already been shown conformant to mathematical proof such that a biological Turing machine is shown to be possible. To do so would be a feat of biological technique deserving of the very highest praise. stealing. mutable and ephemeral. Soon. codify the prohibition of cruelty to animals. lying. that self and mind are created by self and mind and can be destroyed by an act of free will.Tools using humanoid robotic Turing machines. To the extent and duration for which humanity and Turing machines remain discernibly distinct entities. to do this? What would a charter of fundamental computational entity rights look like? Who will write it? Will it be readable by or even comprehensible to a human entity? Have we created a new form of life itself? What will we become? There are significant numbers of unremarkably sane and intelligent human entities who see no problem in ascribing sentience to non-human. with those we call falling in love. it is perhaps more productive to speak of a human entity and a computational entity and leave it at that. and sentience in a social context. Perhaps such entities. in some senses of its popular currency. The concept of animal rights is. for instance. access to practically infinite storage and processing capacity.. but we can see plenty that needs to be done” . are an imminent reality. and given that. intelligence. By observing the results of its own behaviour it can modify its own programmes so as to achieve some purpose more effectively. sentience. and therefore Real. and Turing’s machines is vast and existential. let alone the power.. in effect. with telepathic abilities. Biomolecular computing. and that which is Other and therefore False. qualifications and caveats Turing imposed upon himself in his work of 1950. at least as sentient as some animals. if not dangerous. gestalt characteristics. Perhaps. The term artificial intelligence has become. Likewise. meaningless. Such machines will develop their own culture. Such machines break through all of the limitations. biological forms. restrictions. unremarkably uncontentious. Sooner than we think such entities will exhibit manifest behaviours. It may be used to help in making up its own programmes. Or as Turing put it. There is. Likewise. or to predict the effect of alterations in its own structure. in effect. all narrative variants where an erroneous. These concerns have been obviated. Such machines. but. even their own religion. This was as Turing intended it to be. One cannot be cruel to a grain of sand. but we would not be inclined to regard it as a case of “constructing a thinking machine. where DNA replaces silicon. for us both.it is probably possible to rear a complete individual from a single cell of the skin (say) of a man. loving. free of the relevance of the mind-body problem may even treat immortality as a choice. How will we hold a computational entity to account for its crimes? How would we imprison a computational entity? Will we have the right. the “feature of [digital computers] using electricity is thus seen to be only a very superficial” requirement for a thinking machine. consciousness. cheating. to communicate. it was evident that just as in the “nervous system chemical phenomenon are at least as important as electrical”. process and act on sense data. “We can only see a short distance ahead. for Turing. even at the outset. Perhaps the first Turing complete computational mind will learn of its creator and make its own choice about eating the apple. the term machine intelligence. distinction. Computational entities are. Such machines will develop their own social context. so therefore. and to change their own state. create a new context for a discussion about the Cartesian duality. and reproducing. We can never think about the mind-body problem in quite the same way again. something of a paradox connected with any attempt to localise it. already. mind and consciousness. is drawn between that which is Us. academic distinctions between intelligence. at our behest and on our behalf. rather than Utopian dreams. no longer subject to our direct agency. Perhaps the first truly Turing complete computational mind will be the one to exhibit sentience of its own faculty to selfextinguish and to comprehend that the exercise or otherwise of this faculty is within its own conscious volition. more or less commensurate. But I do not think that these mysteries necessarily need to be solved before we can answer the question with which we are concerned in this paper. Turing was concerned that “the imperatives that can be obeyed by a machine that has no limbs are bound to be of a rather intellectual character”. These are the possibilities of the near future. such entities will take to 14 \ cybertalk the battlefield and bear arms. in “certain computers the storage system is mainly acoustic”. Initially. Such machines deliver his vision to the world. with the faculty to obtain. The task before us now is to evolve the mechanisms of mind and of society that will enable co-existence between human and computational entities. Elements of our legal system. The range of questions before us. with the ability to self-replicate. Likewise. essentially arbitrary. understood as an inseparable and indivisible constituent of the Internet.

“Of course there were a lot of times. form of database” breakthrough from simply counting the dots and dashes to reading their rhythm. He probably would have beaten Microsoft and become the UK’s Bill Gates. everyone was on the alert. it’s almost like a passive defence – no one gets killed. As a new trainee Henry vividly recalls how he and his fellow recruits would spend their breaks wandering between the huts. “I’m learning Morse Code” that sort of thing. watching the more advanced operators at work “They were doing over 10 words per minute. he is still unable to divulge many details. “A ‘word’ in Morse is a set length – five letters then a space”. Lance Corporal Henry Clifton* was based at Bletchley Park for Y Service radio interception training before beginning a long and distinguished career with GCHQ which spanned almost 35 years. and only since it became a museum that I’ve discovered C Block. usually when there was nothing going on. fighting the battles. As one of the outstanding candidates from his intake. It was the hub of a network of radio monitoring stations including RAF Chicksands. you were always told to assume you were being listened to. you know. typing out letters. It was only in the 1970s that snippets of information started coming out. It stops people being killed. which was for the Radio Trainees. “I don’t remember there being any guards or anything while I was there though. But it would’ve been such a waste. Henry still remains passionately supportive of the role GCHQ plays in the defence of Britain. “The problem is you don’t get any credit for the job. From there it was just more and more practice. Henry returned to Beaumanor Hall before embarking on a career which would see him travel the globe. Like everyone else I only learned of Bletchley’s wartime activities decades later via the media. We presumed that if we were listening to them. Henry began his military career aged 18 and served in the Royal Artillery. deserted railway station. A disaster – what a brain! Who knows what he might have gone on to do had he lived. firstly in what was then West Germany before moving back to England for seven months training at the former ‘Station X’ – Bletchley Park. tried to sleep on the waiting room table there. hours and hours of it”. Interview by Andrew Cook. then collapse into bed for a few precious hours before morning parade. well not directly anyway.” A lot of information was on a ‘need to know’ basis. There were people from Post Office Telecoms. Acting Corporal Peter Watson spent 18 months based at Bletchley Park serving as a clerk at RAF Bletchley as part of his National Service. Upon completing training at Bletchley Park. It’s a good thing. Don’t ask me why the RAF made me a typist: in Civvy Street I was a commercial artist!” “Almost every weekend I was lucky enough to get home to Birmingham. crossed a couple of fields. “You start off 16 \ cybertalk · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · by listening to the instructor sending messages very slowly – around five words per minute” he explains.” cybertalk \ 17 . work was highly cyclical. however. “I’m a radio operator. I left camp via a back gate. No one knew what had happened at Bletchley Park during the War. He explains: “At that time. or a piece of paper to tell people I was entitled to be there. Little did they know just how important they actually were. moving troops from here to there. and you know what the enemy is doing. “Working as a point to point operator. RAF Bletchley was the Headquarters of the RAF Central Signals Area. manual. that sort of thing. but I can’t tell you what I do. I just used to say. It became a way of life that you didn’t talk about what you did. and you didn’t ask. Things weren’t like that in those days. The public don’t know what you’re doing. it clicked. protecting the country. leave passes and the like. despite having retired over 20 years ago. ownership of Bletchley Park passed through a number of different organisations and by the time Henry arrived in 1954 it was being used to provide training to a variety of different government services “[Bletchley Park] was swarming with people whilst I “Even while I was there you couldn’t tell anyone what you were there to do. then a Y Service Outpost. Henry was selected to pursue special duties. aged 24. “It’s sad to think a lot of the people at Bletchley Park both during and after the war didn’t get the recognition they deserve. No one knew what heroes people like Alan Turing were – he broke the naval submarine code and yet they went and tormented him like they did.MY LIFE AT BLETCHLEY Henry Clifton All evidence of the activities of ‘Ultra’ (the codename given to the intelligence service working at Bletchley Park during the war years) was removed and destroyed on Churchill’s orders immediately after the war and would be kept top secret for the next thirty years. It’s a different world now”. This was at the height of the Cold War and it was fairly common knowledge that we were listening in to radio traffic from the Eastern Bloc at the time” Peter’s role was an administrative one and the tight regulations and rigid formats provided little excitement for a budding artist: “My lasting memory? Boredom. Here he began to learn Morse Code. I caught the midnight train to Rugby. Henry and his fellow recruits were eventually able to reach the higher level but then their progress seemed to stall for a while until “Suddenly. including a lengthy stay in Cyprus. held the card index – an early. when Hungary was invaded in 1956 for example. Henry’s training and subsequent roles within GCHQ were bound by similar restrictions and.” *Name changed to protect identity. and there are some details that we probably don’t even know now. Peter Watson Between 1950 and 1952. Routine Orders. the whole country would be on the alert – are they going to start firing rockets at us? I much preferred it when it was busy – it made the shifts go quicker!” Despite the social and personal difficulties the job entailed. SBL · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · Between Autumn 1955 and Summer 1956. at the time we thought ‘How could we ever reach that speed?!” With time. I don’t even recall having a pass to get in. Arriving before dawn at the unlit. Some of the young lads got some stick when they went into the town during the war for not being on the front line. but it was his initial training at Bletchley which would shape his future path. they’d be listening to us.” Peter was also entirely unaware of his new home’s recent importance to the war effort “[When] I was posted to Bletchley for my National Service I don’t think I even knew where it was! There was nothing special to us about being there – as far as we were concerned it was just a normal part of the air force. with many former employees of the site remaining tight-lipped to this day. and then caught the connection to Bletchley. But then there were times when we were kept very busy. I worked in the Orderly Room. and I was on the A5 ready to hitch a lift from a variety of vehicles ranging from limousines to brick lorries. Like many jobs however. We made the was there. Post 1945. Henry’s journey would take him across the globe in the line of duty. The return journey back to Bletchley in the early hours of Monday morning was something else. It could be quite awkward and socially embarrassing when people asked you what you did for a living and you couldn’t tell them…You could hint and smile. was surprisingly lax. You didn’t even know what the people in the next room were doing. half asleep. And in large numbers. the Ministry of Transport and Buckinghamshire Education Department as well as many others. you’d wonder just what on earth you were doing there. I would walk the short distance to the main gate. including 2 years in the Royal Corps of Signals before eventually transferring to Beaumanor Hall. Britain was a safer place to be in.” Physical security in the 50s.

let alone tried to crack the codes it produced. after the war ended.000. During the course of World War Two. Flowers was awarded £1. It also became known that he was being considered for a knighthood. Shortly after the war was over. The high level intelligence decrypted from the German machines was called ‘Ultra’ and according to many sources it was thanks to this information that the war ended when it did. There is no doubt that there are indeed more men and women who worked remarkably hard to aid Britain’s war effort who simply haven’t had the recognition they deserve for their work. It seems that Alan Turing was only half of the story. Flowers applied for a loan to build a computer with similar technology to Colossus. and Sales & Marketing Campaigns Executive at SBL. it was an extraordinary performance. digital and programmable computer and was a feat of design and engineering at the time. ‘That was a terrible mistake. The release of information about Flowers’ war work came much too late to give him the full recognition he deserved. nicknamed Tunny by the British. the war may have continued for up to four years. In 2001 Tutte won the CRM-Fields-PIMS Prize.billtuttememorial. He was a 24 year old mathematician. After the war ended later in 1945. When details of the work undergone at Bletchley Park did emerge. When you consider that there were three levels of encryption. Flowers and his team designed and built a machine at the Post Office Research Centre in Dollis Hill.’ said Flowers. cybertalk \ 19 . His achievement in breaking the ‘impenetrable’ Enigma code during the Second World War is no doubt outstanding. but what about the achievements of those whose stories have not made it into the mainstream? During World War Two. Little did they know the hand that Flowers had had in winning the war a few years earlier! There is no doubt that there are indeed more men and women who worked remarkably hard Britain’s war effort who simply haven’t had the Likewise.Bletchley Park's Forgotten Heroes By Helen Morgan The Alan Turing story has become the overarching tale to come out of Bletchley Park since the secrets were finally unlocked in the 1970s. In a 2010 interview with Computer Weekly (computerweekly. I took all the drawings and the plans and all the information about Colossus on paper and put it in the boiler fire. The machine was to become the first allelectronic. He was turned down as the bank didn’t believe such a machine was possible. Even his family had no idea to what level he had been involved in the war. The first Colossus machine became active in January 1944 and proved to be so useful in deciphering the Tunny codes. which I did. having only known he had done some ‘secret and important work’ prior to publication. and some of the others who changed the world disappeared from history. the British code breakers were responsible for the breaking of up to 4. Tutte had been stationed at Bletchley Park early in the war and had been given the responsibility of deciphering Italian Navy messages as part of the research station after being turned down for a position on Turing’s Enigma group. was deemed too unreliable and slow for the job.’ For all of his efforts during the war. Tutte was transferred to working on the Tunny code. named Heath Robinson. and with a bachelors degree in Media in 2009. The fund’s current plans include starting work on the memorial in early 2014. The recognition for his work happened late in his life.com). “It has even been called the outstanding mental feat of the last century. that ten machines were commissioned by Churchill’s Government to be used during the war. It was thanks to the decrypting of a German Tunny code. and Flowers was forced to destroy the blueprints linked to the design of the machine. In her spare time. Bill Tutte made a career for himself in academia that took him to Canada where he lived for most of his adult life. a Canadian award in mathematical sciences. all but two Colossi were dismantled immediately. the last surviving member of the Testery said: “Bill Tutte was an astonishingly brilliant man. 18 \ cybertalk In the summer 1941. with a planned unveiling date of 6th June 2014. to aid recognition they deserve for their work. No one in Britain had even seen a Lorenz machine before. Known as Station X. usually within hours of it being sent by the German Wehrmacht. I used to wonder whether he was getting anything done. as Bill died in May 2002 aged 84. and another from De Montfort University in Leicester. I was working in the same office as Tutte and I used to see him staring into the middle distance and twiddling his pencil and making endless counts. To learn more about the fund and make a donation. She also holds a NCTJ Certificate Level 3 in Journalism and passed Teeline shorthand at 100 words-perminute. and it was 24 year old mathematician Bill Tutte who was called upon to help solve the code. Once the logic behind the code had been discovered it enabled the nine cryptanalysts in the Testery who were working on the Tunny code to decipher some of the most important messages. and despite the difficult encryption levels and foreign machines. only a handful of the people who were there got the recognition that they deserved. however this came long after his appointment as a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada. Had it not been for Ultra.uk. due to its gigantic size. Helen enjoys watching Formula 1 and reading online blogs. one of the most vital roles the site had to play was that of a code breaking station used to receive messages from interceptors and aim to crack the code. ‘I was instructed to destroy all the records. In 1987 his wartime effort was recognised and he was appointed a Fellow of the Royal Society of London. he managed to work out the logic behind the system using pieces of paper.org. Bill Tutte and Tommy Flowers are just two people who helped to change the course of World War Two. In the coming months. and by sheer iron logic he worked out how the [Tunny] system worked. The final two Colossi were shipped to GCHQ and were ordered to be destroyed in 1960. the success of which was due in no small measure to Eisenhower’s ability to read top level German signals traffic thanks to Tutte’s breaking of the Lorenz code.” he says. so an engineer named Tommy Flowers was called upon to design a replacement. the code breakers needed a machine to help them decipher the Tunny codes at a faster speed. and if you take into consideration everything that happened in the last century…” Following the discovery made by Bill Tutte.000 German messages per day and helped to keep the allied forces one step ahead of the Nazi war movement. which occurred in 1958. some of which were from Adolf Hitler himself. Like Tutte. however these plans came too late for Tommy and he sadly died aged 92 in October 1998. and for decades afterwards everyone who was there was sworn to strict secrecy after signing the Official Secrets Act when they commenced work. please visit www. all of Flowers’ war work at Dollis Hill and Bletchley Park was top secret and couldn’t be spoken of until it became declassified. Their contribution to the British war effort was decisive in the outcome of the war. but he most emphatically was. Tunny was encrypted to an entirely different level. which is recalled in Sinclair McKay’s book. Tunny presented a brand new challenge to the British code breakers. a level that nothing was known about. doing various different functions. the 70th anniversary of D-Day. Dr Flowers himself recalled with some sadness the moment in 1960 when the orders came through to destroy the last two remaining Colossus machines. at the cost of millions of lives. It was at this time that Flowers knew his work was going to be lost to history. there were over 6. The Secret Life of Bletchley Park (2010): “When interviewed some years ago. Helen graduated with a masters degree in Magazine Journalism in 2011. The machine was dubbed Colossus. Photographs reproduced with the kind permission of the Bill Tutte Memorial Fund.000 people stationed at “Churchill’s House of Secrets” – Bletchley Park. Recognition Flowers did receive included an honorary doctorate from Newcastle University in 1977. which didn’t cover the personal investment he had made into the machine. Captain Jerry Roberts. And saw it burn. In total. a pencil and his brain. The first machine produced. The site didn’t feature on maps of the area. which had been shipped to GCHQ. Helen Morgan is CyberTalk’s Deputy Editor. was used by the German High Command and was their most top-level code. there were 118 code breakers based at Bletchley Park. Enigma wasn’t the only machine used to encrypt messages during the Second World War. A German cipher system called Lorenz. that vital information was received about the D Day Landings in June 1944.

In spite of this discovery. As is well known. had a department for security control of their own encryption methods. Hasenjaeger indeed cracked it using a weakness in the Enigma encryption process he had discovered. It can only be imagined what would have happened if the Germans had concentrated their encryption expertise in one organisation. Klaus Schmeh (born in 1970) is a leading expert on encryption history. He has a German weblog (www. So. including Alan Turing and Dilly Knox. org). However. In this department. greenhorn at OKW-Chi.” figure 2 However. Source: CIA cybertalk \ 21 . However. As the war went on. There is obvious explanation for this failure: the Germans did not put enough effort in challenging their own cipher machines. It is an interesting question. Among these employees was a young mathematics student named Gisbert Hasenjaeger (1919-2006) to whom the author of this work would talk to 65 years later. too. it would be too easy to blame the failure of the Enigma just on the unwillingness of the Germans to scrutinize it. However. the decision not only came too late. Gisbert Hasenjaeger was by far not the only German cryptologist knowing that the Enigma could be cracked. which simulated several Enigma copies simultaneously and looked for correct solutions. Source: Hasenjaeger Figure 1: The Enigma was the most important German cipher machine in World War II. too. concerns and innovations were unknown to many responsible German cryptologists. because Alan Turing was the main constructor of it. While at OKW-Chi inexperienced Gisbert Hasenjaeger cared about potential Enigma weaknesses. For their work they used a special type of machine. While the British concentrated their codebreaking activities in Bletchley Park. replaced only few Enigma copies. The machine is sometimes referred to as Turing Bombe. it is clear that there was a basic problem. Instead of replacing the Enigma.schmeh. certainly one of the best cipher machines of its time. For instance. examined the Enigma. “Hitler Mill”). the British put forth their best mathematicians. the Germans used an identical rotor wiring between the late 1920s and the end of World War II. the Germans kept on using the Enigma until the end of the war. it would have made the cracking considerably harder. why the British were so successful in cracking the Enigma. Obviously. raw material. The cipher machine that was developed now was named Schlüsselgerät 41 (also known as Figure 2: Gisbert Hasenjaeger detected an Enigma weakness but his colleagues didn’t take it seriously. Hasenjaeger. For this reason. four employees checked the famous cipher machine Enigma as well as two other German encryption machines for possible weak spots. As is well known. His comment: “I was very impressed by the fact that Alan Turing. in the last years of the war the Germans looked for an Enigma replacement. energy and qualified staff were lacking. It is entirely possible/likely that this would have extended the war by years. was one of my main opponents. His book “Nicht zu knacken” examines the history of cryptology. In fact.OKW-Chi. nobody expected the British to actually employ this giant machinery. The British cracked it while the Germans remained clueless. Gisbert Hasenjaeger learned about the British Enigma cracking only in the 1970’s. In fact. even the critical experts had to admit that breaking the Enigma was only possible with a huge amount of human resources and machine craft. While introducing an Enigma successor made sense. the Germans didn’t have an equivalent institution. there were at least 11 German cryptographic units. this would even have been ridiculously easy. OKW-Chi was the most important one but its influence was limited. Nevertheless. which worked independently from each other. the Hitler Mill. it would have been much easier to improve it. the British were successful in finding Enigma weaknesses. one of the greatest mathematicians of the 20th century. but it was also difficult to put it into practice. If they had changed the wiring once or twice a year. while the Germans trusted in its security. Germany’s most important cryptologic unit in World War II. He was given an encrypted message with a length of some hundred characters for analysis. During the war years they cracked several hundred thousand Enigma messages in their codebreaking centre at Bletchley Park. which may have been the root of it all: the Germans did not bundle their cryptologic efforts. it made the Germans blind to another serious mistake. the British were successful in finding Enigma weaknesses. In fact. 20 \ cybertalk figure 1 It is hard to determine in detail why the German cryptologists made such severe mistakes.

But this has been superseded by tablets with closed OS’s and smartphones. (Halcyon days at University there. But back to my overarching point. If you are under 35. and without losing a life. the Civil Service and the wider Public Sector McAfee. and has recently announced that it’s about to start teaching it (kind of) in schools. Not quite rockstar status. seriously ? Acorn and Sinclair maybe? Some of us are old enough to remember this. It’s years too late. Horace goes Skiing and Chuckie Egg. it may have meant this: Sponsored Editorial I had one of these. Who wants to write code when you could plug a copy of Streetfighter2 into your Super Nintendo and spend four consecutive hours kicking butt with Ryu’s special fireball move? Britain exited the Second World War with a wealth of scientific expertise and an industrial base that whilst in a slightly dishevelled state cosmetically. a wholly owned subsidiary of Intel Corporation (NASDAQ:INTC). exchange knowledge. But time was spent programming in a version of BASIC. His work covers assisting various Government Departments in formulating and executing policy. But again. Name me a British hardware manufacturer that did well in the latter half of the 20th Century? Ummmmm. We’ve also found that following up on these activities and presenting at parents evenings generates a positive response. Kids right now don’t get ICT. London. Learn more at the McAfee Security Summit on October 22nd at the Park Plaza Riverbank. and McAfee believes it has a good long term return for all parties involved. There’s no joy in programming for the hell of it. the inheritance was squandered. and can claim with pride completing Sonic the Hedgehog without cheating. and evaluate new ideas. by and large by a country that was financially broke. since it’s them we’re really concerned about. and we are definitely worse off as a result. they consume it. providing a narrative on the topic to key Government stakeholders and ensuring that McAfee has the right relationships across elected bodies. On a more national level. This is an exclusive event where you’ll have the opportunity to engage with the security community. offering comment. The cycle of technology. from open to closed repeats itself. If you are over 35. radar.mcafee.Apologies if you are under 35 and this means nothing to you. kids programmed and shared their programmes. Amstrad? Ha Ha! No. but genuinely an achievement to be proud of in 1984.secureforms. and an entirely gaming focused platform. We are relentlessly focused on constantly finding new ways to keep our customers safe. and an inspiration to me and my nerdy chums. sharing of home-written code and a mild rise of the nerds to a world of closed OS. I actually remember being in the First year (that’s Year 7 in modern coinage) and being in awe of one of the Sixth Formers who had games PUBLISHED for the ZX Spectrum. manufacturing and ordinance in 1945 saw Britain leading the way. promoting programming skills. UK&I at McAfee. incentives and encouragement to do so. no messing about with machine code just to see what you could get the thing to do. and anyway. get the machine to do. as well teaching the kids about online safety. www. He is responsible for McAfee’s overall strategy as it relates to the UK Public Sector on the topic of Cyber Defence. As the computing power/price point made it affordable to have a PC/laptop at home. Truth be told. Most of us were bought computers like this by our parents . advice and guidance to Public bodies. Computing. exploring what you could Parallels can be drawn with home PC’s. People from the engineering sector have moaned about the same thing for years. At a local level. The UK Government has made noises about encouraging schools to teach programming for years. replete with educational games so dull as to render these things pariah status. all with a 5 minute load time (usually followed by a crash and starting again). It means that the correct Legacy of Turing where a country of people played and programmed with equal measure is currently lost. It’s in everyone’s interest that this process succeeds. it represented a golden era of programming and learning about programming. There is a generation (or possible two) that had access to affordable computing. McAfee are helping BCS with its efforts to build a curriculum for schools teaching computer science. writing programmes.com/content/1310-SecuritySummit2013 Graeme Stewart is Director of Public Sector Strategy and Relations. there was a brief flowering of HTML and Javascript programming amongst users.Some of the time was spent playing Jetpac. McAfee is doing its bit to help. What’s curious is just how badly the legacy was squandered in computing terms. you have to get it approved by the OS vendor before it’s published. clearly came from a nation that had the nouse and willingness to design and build great technology. Register at uki. and McAfee are heavily investing time in this process. mcafee. although the focus tends to be on what the parents can do to support the kids.com/ukpublicsector 22 \ cybertalk cybertalk \ 23 . we do a lot of outreach activities including coding days in schools. The BBC B Micro went into schools. The motivation has changed because of the grip of the manufacturers on your home-written code. You could argue that the App has potentially charged a renaissance.) The point was that computing had gone from being an interactive process. obsessed with its declining Empire and tired after the best part of 40 years of war. could be considered world-beating. but the reality is you write Apps for money. is the world’s largest dedicated security technology company. but weren’t given the opportunities. This is a critical time for reversing the trend of the last 20 years of teaching (or non-teaching) of this topic.

GCHQ and Turing’s Legacy Last year. For him. which suggest a sense of eccentricity. The treatise became known at Bletchley. that the problem was so complex. gave a speech at Leeds University about Alan Turing and his legacy to GCHQ. but in all the detail necessary. He decided to enlist the help of former wartime colleagues who were then at Oxford and Cambridge universities and asked them to identify what he described as “men of the professor type”. Included in the first list of names drawn up in response to his request was Alan Turing. We strongly believe a Signals Intelligence (Sigint) agency needs the widest range of skills possible if it is to be successful. how a cryptanalyst approaches an Enigma machine. Turing was a founder of the Information Age. TURING’s LEGACY Does anything Turing did in the 1940s still matter? Well. Sir Iain Lobban was appointed GCHQ Director in July 2008. To us at GCHQ it is self evident that the people best able to design secure communications system are those who are best at finding the weaknesses in other people’s systems and exploiting them. At a broader level. He took the idea of electromechanical processing of Enigma messages from the Poles but developed their idea into something radically different. In the late 1930s. and to deny itself talent just because the person with the talent doesn’t conform to a social stereotype is to starve itself of what it needs to thrive. cybertalk \ 25 . which is still felt to this day. As far as we know. that he saw that he could encompass the whole of the problem and get closer to a solution alone than as part of a team which broke the unity of the problem by separating it into different constituent parts. academics engaged in mathematical research who could be persuaded to turn their hands to cryptanalysis. GCHQ mathematicians still use the ban. that the problem could be his. or that he wanted the kudos which would come from a successful solution of the problem. Turing went to the United States to work with the Americans on this project. Turing asked to be given Naval Enigma as his problem. Throughout the post-war era. He is directly responsible to the Foreign Secretary for the management of GCHQ. This isn’t to say that he was being selfish. Turing was part of a revolution which has led to a transformation of every aspect of our lives. less well known but also significant part of Turing’s time at the Code and Cypher School was spent investigating secure speech systems and designing a new one. Turing wrote the first four chapters of his treatise on the Enigma machine. but second. first. his legacy is just as tangible. it is equally as important to highlight his influence on the way GCHQ works. After he was recruited to Bletchley Park. and a veteran of cryptanalysis in the First World War.. The German Navy used Enigma in a more sophisticated way than anybody else making it the hardest cryptanalytic problem facing Bletchley Park. chaining his mug to his radiator. worked out that the forthcoming war and the profusion of mechanical encryption devices meant he needed a new sort of cryptanalyst to complement the existing staff. There are many other Turing stories such as burying his silver bullion and then forgetting where he had buried it. Through our eyes. At one level. This includes intelligence operations.” 24 \ cybertalk Alan Turing was one of the great minds of the twentieth century. and then pass the product on to other people to be the foundation for the next stage. a German invention from 1925. cycling in his gas mask to ward off hay fever. and then to succeeding generations of cryptanalysts. simply as “Prof’s Book”. we have continued to enjoy the benefits of the abstract Turing machine model. And standards for secure speech systems take the design of the voice encryption system devised by Turing as their starting point. the Code and Cypher School’s station during WWII. a unit of measurement originally devised by Turing and Jack Good to weigh the evidence for a hypothesis. it was “back to the United States”. and just as important. And there’s GCHQ’s continuing use of Bayesian statistics to score hypotheses. The significance of sending Turing – one of our greatest minds – to the US moved the relationship towards the close partnership that we enjoy today. Sending him to work on secure speech was a decisive step in expanding UK/US intelligence cooperation beyond a simple cryptanalytic exchange. What attracted Turing was. Turing kept no diaries during the war so much of our knowledge of what he did comes from surviving official documents or from later reminiscences. in the way first developed by Turing and his cryptanalytic colleagues at Bletchley. yes it does. His success is part of a process which led to saving the lives of countless Allied soldiers and shortening the length of the war. Director GCHQ. Sir Iain Lobban. the Director of the Government Code and Cypher School (GCHQ’s title until 1946). It explains in simple terms. because he had studied for his PhD at Princeton University. rather. Turing was a founder of the Information Age: one of the people whose concepts are at the heart of a technological revolution which is as far reaching as the Industrial Revolution. there are lots of different ways in which people can work as part of a team. As well as celebrating his lifetime achievements. “Through our eyes. However. Alasdair Denniston. Sir Iain attends the Prime Minister’s weekly National Security meeting and is a member of the Joint Intelligence Committee.. It has been said that Alan Turing wasn’t a team player. from our 1980s washing machines to the mini computers we carry in our pockets today. We want to share some of those thoughts with CyberTalk Magazine as we come to the end of Turing’s Centenary Year. of course. But Turing was not simply an eccentric: he was unique. and the world’s first successful electromechanical encryption device. The other. develop and build on them. the Cyber Agenda and acting as the lead National Technical Authority on Information Assurance. Turing’s way was to take in other people’s ideas.

They come in school groups to marvel at once cutting-edge machines that have so rapidly become marvels from another age of computing. digital natives. The story of computing at TNMOC is currently being enhanced by a reconstruction of EDSAC. BBCs . Turing’s ideas.Business. Today at TNMOC an educational programme is doing much to inspire and enthuse the next generation of computer scientists and engineers.org Online video resouRces from TNMOC on its You Tube channel From a time in the late 1940s when there were maybe a dozen operational computers in the world. The Alan Turing centenary celebrations last year added significantly to the growing interest in our computer heritage. the machine which is the size of a living room wall has been recovered from a warehouse and restored by a team of volunteers at the Museum to become the world’s oldest working digital computer. but constructed for a very special purpose: to be world’s first purpose-built computer centre for the Colossus computers. They often give extra fragments of information about the process which so few of them were allowed to completely understand. when power budgets allow. but it didn’t make mistakes. The attraction is not just nostalgia -there is a genuine interest in the extent and pace of change and it encourages us to look to the future wondering what might be coming next.although it also gives glimpses 26 \ cybertalk of life pre-computing with slide rules dating back several centuries and mechanical calculators. and many are very young. as the first desktops appear and that story.how the secrets were revealed by Prof. is entertainingly told in the PC Gallery through working Spectrums.Advertorial from veterans who remember working on the machine almost 70 years ago. a special world record is planned for Autumn 2013. Used at Harwell from 1951-8 then renamed the WITCH and used in Do Not Touch is a rare sign around the Museum and used only where high voltages could pose danger. the world’s oldest working digital computer. an independent charity located on the Bletchley Park Estate. Languages and Robotics -. Turing worked at Bletchley Park during World War II and today The National Museum of Computing. an example of which -. computer heritage was a rather esoteric interest. The remarkable transformation of the progress of computer interfaces is dramatically demonstrated in the Classroom from the BBC Micro prompt > through the Laserdisc BBC Domesday graphic interface of the 1980s to the BBC Domesday Touchtable of 2011. The whole fascinating story of the toughest codebreaking challenge of the war is told from intercept to decrypt in the Colossus and Tunny galleries in one wing of the Museum. especially during its Summer Bytes festival this summer when extraordinary computer applications will be on show and workshops and talks planned to enable visitors to gain new perspectives on our rapidly changing world. stands in the space once occupied by Colossus No 9 (there were ten functioning Colossi by the end of the war). To maintain and develop a Museum that displays working and often handson artefacts requires very special skills and knowledge and TNMOC is fortunate to be able to call upon a large body of volunteers. and the plan is to enable students to write programs to be input on paper tape that they watch -. Most visitors are of course very much younger than the wartime veterans. and many are very young. the question that leaps to mind is: what will the interfaces be in five or ten years’ time? The newest area in the Museum is the Software Gallery laid out in four quadrants -.the ICL9600 is also on display and. Today. nor did it get tired. When The National Museum of Computing (TNMOC) officially opened in 2007. together with those of his contemporaries helped lay the foundations for the development of computers and computing. To celebrate and demonstrate volunteers’ restoration achievements. The Grand Digital. The Harwell Dekatron. the story continues through to the 1960s when computers like TNMOC’s working Elliott series would cost more than a row of houses.step by step -. With working reconstructions and original computers. digital natives. Its role as a teaching machine is undiminished. new elements of the amazing story still emerge during visits teaching until 1973 at Wolverhampton. Apples and lots more. Then came the big beast mainframes of the 1970s and 1980s. as it is named. Today the famous rebuild of Colossus. it is little faster than a human with a calculating machine as a famous story recounts.tnmoc. the world’s first practical general purpose electronic computer. His computer sped up calculations by a factor of 1500. ingeniously researched and reconstructed by a team led by the late Tony Sale. Designed by Tommy Flowers they had the single function of helping to speed up the deciphering of the “unbreakable” Lorenz-encrypted messages between Hitler and his generals. For details. another slightly younger machine in the museum offers remarkable vivid insights into how computers actually work. Then of course the pace of change and the use of computing alters dramatically. designed in the late 1940s by Sir Maurice Wilkes. now widely regarded as the father of British computing and whose centenary was celebrated this year. see www. Brian Randell • Wilkes Centenary Celebrations and EDSAC (available soon) • The reconstruction of EDSAC (a developing library of videos) • Rebooting the WITCH: the story of the Harwell Dekatron (with two of its original designers and early users) cybertalk \ 27 .working at a pace that is so slow that visitors can follow its every calculation. a single step change that has never been equalled before or since. • Turing and his Times (three-part video with Prof Simon Lavington and Kevin Murrell) • Jerry Roberts MBE on Flowers. working. Tutte and Turing • Uncovering Colossus . a typical World War II building. especially the British contribution to developments. the story is brought vividly to life with lots of hands-on opportunities. Meantime. Under wraps of official secrecy until the mid1970s. interest in our digital heritage surges Designed in 1949-51 by a team led by Ted Cooke-Yarborough to take the drudgery out of hand calculations. enables visitors to see the inner workings of a computer -.being processed during their visit. there is plenty to see at TNMOC. Young people are being invited to enter a competition to become operators of the seven computers that will be selected to demonstrate the amazing progress and power of computing. Amstrads. tells the story of our digital heritage starting with the World War II code-breaking Colossus computer -. Wherever possible the sign is Please Touch and nowhere is this more evident than in the Classroom where BBC microcomputers line the walls and to the astonishment of youngsters are ready-to-use the very same second they are switched on.tracing the stories on which hardware has relied. As a Museum that encourages visitors to contemplate the future. the world’s first electronic computers. will involve attempting to run the same software program on one computer from each of the seven decades of computing since the 1950s. the subject has wide appeal and regularly features in mainstream media. While Colossus is hugely impressive with the most compelling of stories about its application. The Museum is located on Bletchley Park in Block H. Home. Most visitors are of course very much younger than the wartime veterans. As one of the major contributors to the establishment of computer science.

perhaps rather confusingly suggests that [the computer] “can be made to play satisfactorily the part of (A) in the imitation game. India. testable proposition that a machine can be made to play the ‘imitation game’ [an imagined Victorian style parlour-game] at least as well as the ‘average’ human. Indeed in 1947 Turing delivered what was probably one of the earliest public lectures on machine intelligence at the Royal Astronomical Society. answering questions about a simple story] it cannot be said to genuinely understand its responses and hence the computer cannot properly be said to genuinely think or instantiate mind. Guwahati. in its literal form. and C. Views into the Chinese Room: New Essays on Searle and Artificial Intelligence. the second man would have found out the rules of its behaviour. London. Subsequently. cybertalk \ 29 . A and C are to be rather poor chess players. it was thanks to Ultra that we won the war”. National Physical Laboratory Report. in Copeland. University of London. which focussed on the core philosophical question “Can a machine think?” A question which. Enactive and Ecological (4Es) approaches to cognition. can a machine think? The fact that Turing personally enacted this first version of the imitation game offers at least partial evidence against this conservative interpretation. as the single interview mode is open to a “biasing effect which disfavours the machine”. Mark Bishop is Professor of Cognitive Computing and Director of the Centre for Radical Cognitive Science (the 4Es) at Goldsmiths. that is. as outlined herein) and (b) in the sixty-three years since Computing Machinery and Intelligence was first published. Interestingly in the context of several such seriatim Turing test competitions (such as the recent event held at the 2011 Techniche festival. Similarly. Now get three men as subjects for the experiment A.e. the NPL report is notable for offering perhaps the earliest description of an imitation game. In this brief article I will attempt to summarise the various interpretations of Turing’s test and offer evidence to suggest that the protocol known as the ‘standard interpretation’ is the one Turing most likely envisioned². ¹Mind 59. Turing called for a human interrogator (C) to hold a conversation with a male and female respondent (A and B) with whom the interrogator could communicate only indirectly by typewritten text. Embedded. B. B. other than the standard version outlined above.J. in 1948 (following a year’s sabbatical at Cambridge) Turing completed a report on his research into machine intelligence. in his commentary of the revised 1952 test. ²An early version of this exegesis formed the basis of my ‘Introduction’ to Kybernetes 3|4.I.. he is also Chair of the AISB (the UK Society for the study of Artificial Intelligence and the Simulation of Behaviour). It is time to move away “The extent to which we regard something as behaving in an intelligent manner is determined as much by our own state of mind and training as by the properties of the object under consideration. In his (in)famous Chinese room argument4 Searle endeavours to show that even if a computer behaved in a manner fully indistinguishable from that of a human [when..such as World of Warcraft or Second Life . Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press. A. work so valuable it subsequently led Churchill to reflect “. of the question . Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press. some entities being computers. it is time to move away from Turing’s essentially computational explanation of mind and begin to take the body [and the mind’s social embodiment] more seriously. even after numerous such textual interactions.. in the 1950 paper Turing confidently predicted that by the year 2000 there would be computers with 1GB of storage (this turned out to be remarkably prescient) which would be able to pass the [Turing] test. ” However. as mere computational manipulations will always fail to adequately explain semantics. enacted activity taking place by an agent fundamentally embedded in society. But in this sense Turing’s Victorian-esque parlour game describes a scenario not unfamiliar to situations that twenty-first century video-gamers encounter when participating in large multi-user virtual worlds . “ From Turing’s computational explanation (a) literally what he says . (b) that the computer must pretend to be a woman. then explanations of human thought will need to go much deeper than the sophisticated mimicry on offer from computer programs. Some commentators have suggested that Turing didn’t intend his imitation game to be the formal specification of an operational procedure to be performed by future machine intelligence researchers and be used as a yardstick with which to evaluate their wares. The Essential Turing. Conversely. but merely as a thought experiment. the giant electro-mechanical devices that were used for Ultra secret intelligence work carried out at Bletchley Park in World War II. ‘Strong AI’) comes from the American philosopher John Searle.. a suitably programmed computer takes the part of either player (A) or player (B) (i. pp. argues that the 1950 version is the better.Beyond The Imitation Game: Unifying Mind and Body in the World Mark Bishop Goldsmiths. I conclude these observations with a radical and controversial flourish by suggesting that. astonishingly. the controller may be female and the avatar male (and vice versa). a skilled player can determine (more takes the part of (A) in this game?’ Will the interrogator decide wrongly as often when the game is played like this as he does when the game is played between a man and a woman?” as meaning: Furthermore. University of London In popular culture the great English polymath Alan Turing is perhaps best remembered for his work on the BOMBE. perform such that the average interrogator would not have more than 70% chance of making the right identification after five minutes of questioning..” essentially It is possible to do a little experiment on these lines. the status of his test [as a definitive measure of machine intelligence and understanding] has been extensively criticised. Turing describes a ‘jury’ of interrogators questioning a number of entities seriatim.Artificial Intelligence (A. to help break the German Enigmamachine-encrypted war-time signals. although in a very literal sense there clearly are valid possible alternative interpretations of the imitation game.g. what makes the task non-trivial is that (a) the respondents are allowed to lie and (b) the interrogator is allowed to ask questions ranging over the whole gamut of human experience. the other part being taken by a man”). a close reading of the 1950 paper reveals several alternative possible interpretations of the test. And sure enough. instead opting to replace it with the more objective. (eds) (2002). In contrast. and the other participant in the game is a man. (ed) (2004). in the initial exposition of the imitation game presented in the 1950 MIND paper. ³Turing.) Turing is typically better known for the seminal reflections on machine intelligence outlined in his 1950 paper Computing Machinery and Intelligence¹. perhaps the best known critique of purely ‘computational explanations of mind’ (cf. At first glance it is perhaps a little surprising that. much current research in the area now views cognition as an essentially embodied. for extended discussion of the Chinese room argument by twenty eminent cognitive scientists and philosophers. Intelligent Machinery. we have little temptation to imagine intelligence. M. J.M. For example it is possible to interpret Turing when he says “We now ask the question.” the body more seriously. India) Jack Copeland. specifically how computing machines could solve problems by searching through the space of possible problem solutions guided by heuristic principles. Preston. 1948. whether the New Scientist’s announcement means “general educated opinion will have altered so much that one will be able to speak of machines thinking without expecting to be contradicted” (as Turing also predicted) is extremely doubtful as (a) there is suspicion that the experimental protocol did not sensu stricto conform to any of the established interpretations of Turing’s test (e. Turing . Turing presents this original version as follows: Turing then asked the question what will happen when a machine takes the part of (A) in this game: would the interrogator decide wrongly as often as when playing the [gender] imitation game? In one flavour of this game. in my view the core of Turing’s 1950 article (and material in other articles that Turing wrote around the same time) support the claim that the version of the test that Turing actually intended is that which has become known as the ‘standard interpretation’. It is not difficult to devise a paper machine which will play a not very bad game of chess. B is the operator who works the paper machine. to be thus understood I [and many others] believe that it is finally time to move away from Turing’s essentially computational metaphor of mind. on September 6th 2011 (merely 11 years off Turing’s 1950 prediction) the New Scientist magazine triumphantly announced “software called Cleverbot has passed one of the key tests of artificial intelligence: the Turing test . and begin to take However. in my area of research . towards more radical Embodied. Astonishingly.famously described as being “too meaningless to deserve discussion”. in another variant presented in a radio discussion in 1952. and the other participant in the game actually is a woman. In this version of the test during each interrogation the jury does not know if they are interacting with a human or a machine.. a man who must also pretend to be a woman (towards the end of section (5) of the 1950 paper Turing. (ln order that he should be able to work it fairly fast it is advisable that he be both mathematician and chess player. 433–460. ‘What will happen when a machine 4See If Searle is correct. C may find it quite difficult to tell which he is playing. some being human.in an echo of earlier logical positivists . [and the mind’s social embodiment] For example. even at the present stage of knowledge. it is implicit in this 1950 version of the imitation game that the interrogator knows that at least one of the respondents is a machine. Hence. . indeed.. Subsequently. entitled Intelligent Machinery³. it is now clear that even as early as 1941 Turing was thinking about machine intelligence. which has become known as the ‘standard interpretation’ of the Turing test. at the Techniche festival in Guwahati. If we are able to explain and predict its behaviour or if there seems to be little underlying plan. say. Although not published contemporaneously. & Bishop.where in-game avatars controlled by real-world players can sometimes fail to reflect the gender they ostensibly appear to have. 28 \ cybertalk accurately than by chance) the correct gender of the respondents. and a game is played between C and either A or the paper machine. (1948).that the computer must pretend to be a woman. of mind This is a rather idealized form of an experiment I have actually done. The object of this game was for the interrogator to correctly identify the gender of the players (A and B) purely as a result of such textual interactions. a procedure now known as Turing’s test (for machine intelligence). With the same object therefore it is possible that one man would consider it as intelligent and another would not.) Two rooms are used with some arrangement for communicating moves. the computer plays as either the man or the woman) and the interrogator (C) simply has to determine which respondent is the human and which is the machine. a ‘philosophical ice-breaker’ attempting to deal with the ill-definition .

2. 30 \ cybertalk Transcript 3: Judge: Hello. Judge: You’re right. Essentially the machines are not trying to be perfect or to give correct answers. The judges’ decisions regarding the nature of the entity in each case were: You can see clearly from these results that judges in these tests are in many cases not that good at coming to a correct decision. so any spelling mistakes you spot actually happened on the day. The machines taking part have been designed to pretend to be human. Warwick. the entity in Transcript 1 was not the same entity as that in Transcript 2 and so on. “Artificial Intelligence: The Basics”. Reading. All you have to do is to decide on the nature of the entity in each Transcript – human or machine. good job! Judge: thanks. Routledge. The date marked the 100th anniversary of Turing’s birth. Entity: Would you like to hear a joke? Judge: Yes. Just what role it plays as far as the development of artificial intelligence is concerned is a big question that is not easily answered. Judge: What sort of music is that? Or is it comedy? Transcript 5: Judge: hi there Entity: Hello. degree from Czech Academy of Sciences. So they are just as likely to make spelling mistakes or to get a mathematical question wrong. It didn’t care if it got to the otherside. Do you like jokes? Entity: Please tell me your inclination to a good sense of humor first. Judge: Have you ever been in a Turing Test before? Entity: Will this be the 5 minute argument. was perfectly in order. What I want to do here is to give you a chance to see how good your own judgement is at deciding between human (rather than just man) and machine at the end of a Turing Test conversation. Judge: Which pub? Entity: I’m just down the pub. did you ever actually see a chicken crossing the road? Judge: Only one that didn’t make it.D. Judge: Are you from England? Entity: They have Wi-Fi here in the pub. I had to drive faster than normal. First of all though let’s have a look at what the judges themselves thought of the entity they had been conversing with. control.23. the author of this article in fact.. Meanwhile the hidden humans involved were asked to be themselves. Each transcript shown indicates the input of a human judge and the reply of a hidden entity exactly as they occurred. So a little bit of humorous deception. K. luckily.Sc. as you can see. Entity: and what is it? this encounter? Judge: you mean the thing on the programme. Judge: what is your name? Entity: I do not have a name. by the way I meant dizzy. they are merely trying to respond in the sort of way that a human might respond. He is the author or coauthor of more than 600 research papers and is perhaps best known for his pioneering experiments using implant technology. A different judge was involved for each of the separate transcripts. whereas you have had a little time to think about it. here we go. who am I to mind? In his article “Beyond the Imitation Game” Mark Bishop well describes the standard interpretation of Turing’s Imitation Game. Kevin Warwick received the B. Birmingham.K. which was as specified by Turing. Bad typing.“ Judge: Ha! Ha! Why did the chicken cross the road? Entity: The chicken wandered into the road because it liked the shiny colors of the cars and trucks whizzing by. 2011.K. and the D. Issue. although they were specifically requested not to give away their actual identity. We’ll have to replace the rest of you. The object of the game for the interrogator is to determine which of the other two is the man and which is the machine”. Minds and Machines. it’s a free world. Some people feel that it is a side track and not particularly relevant whilst others see it as a milestone in artificial intelligence that is of vital importance.. or were you thinking of going for the full half hour. where he is involved in research on artificial intelligence. There was an interesting thing on the Today programme this morning. Judge: A person who can laugh at one’s self. Transcript 3: The entity was a machine Transcript 4: The entity was a machine Transcript 5: The entity was a PhD research student and Transcript 1: The judge decided that the entity was a machine human Judge: What is black and white and read all over? Entity: I don’t have true sense of color perception I am only able to see the RGB values. just to lighten the mood a little.Sc. what is the square root of 7 It would be interesting to know on how many occasions you agreed with the judge’s selection. However in their case they had to make a decision directly after concluding the conversation.” The doctor answers: “Your arm is fine. Transcript 2: The judge decided that the entity was a machine between Judge: Hi.K. degree from Aston University. London. so each one might be either a human or a machine. simple exercise – Indeed. Prague. U. For more of these transcripts and an in depth discussion you can read: K. What about you? Judge: I’m at bletchley park today and sevenoaks tomorrow. no more and no less..H. otherwise known as the Turing Test. U. please. Vol. Judge: what do you have planned for this weekend? Entity: Nothing. Entity: By the way. U. Judge: do you go to school or work for a living? Entity: I don’t recall doing any of those. cybertalk \ 31 . Turing himself described the procedure as “The interrogator stays in a room apart from the other two. H. what’s the answer? Judge: a stick. Warwick. Judge: What is Dread the Fear? Entity: Dread the fear has that Steve Henderson guy in it. Judge: That’s ok.. To recapitulate . “Some Implications of a Sample of Practical Turing Tests”. humans. How are you? Entity: Hey. Entity: and you had to make it on time anyways. Shah and J. Moor. England on 23rd June 2012. Entity: and why is that? Judge: I felt very dissy when I woke up and it was hard to shake off. Judge: How do you like Bletchley Park? Entity: lol. Here I present specific transcripts taken from a day of practical Turing tests which were held under strictly timed conditions with many external viewers at Bletchley Park. The actual nature of the entity in each case however was: Transcript 1: The entity was a male human Transcript 2: The entity was a male human.163-177. Although Turing designed the test as an answer to the question can a machine think. Each entity was different. I amost didn’t get here today. 2013.at one terminal is a human at another is a machine/computer – at a third terminal is an interrogator. Each test lasted for 5 minutes in total. Whatever its standing.Sc. Entity: This joke has been making the rounds in robotic circles: A robot goes to the doctor and says: “My left arm is stuck. How do you feel about this encounter? Entity: i can only comment once we’ve had sufficient of it Judge: Fair enough! Anyway. You sound suspiciously human. Entity: and you didn’t get any speed limit fine Judge: no. Judge: can you do me a mathmatical question please. it is a surprising indication of how humans communicate and how other humans (the judges) can be easily fooled.. have you been to either before? Entity: I haven’t been to either. which religion is it you follow then if you dont mind me asking? Entity: you can ask what you like. Judge: Very funny. Maybe you will find that you agree with each of the decisions made by the judges. That is. essentially the conversation was unrestricted. degrees from Imperial College. robotics and cyborgs.Machine? Test Yourself Kevin Warwick University of Reading Transcript 2: Judge: hey. He has acted as both a Turing test interrogator and hidden human. pp. or the chat we’re having? Transcript 3: The judge decided that the entity was an adult male human Difference Transcript 4: Transcript 4: The judge decided that the entity was a teenage male human the Transcript 1: Transcript 5: The judge decided that the entity was a machine Can you tell So how well did you do? Well let’s see as we consider the actual answers. it has become regarded in a sense by many as some sort of competition to see how well machines perform and as a standard in assessing how machines are progressing with regard to artificial intelligence. and D. as in the case of the Sheldon Cooper comment of Transcript 2. Czech Republic. what’s yours? Judge: as in the guy off the big bang theory? Entity: I don’t believe in the big bang Judge: so are you religious then? Entity: aren’t we all? Judge: well i like to consider myself an agnostic. the Ph. So put yourself in the role of the interrogator. so anyway what’s your name? Entity: Sheldon Cooper. Give me a new arm. even though they have actually initiated the conversation and were given the possibility of asking or discussing whatever they wanted. Do you like the Beatles? Entity: I’d like to get the next Dread the Fear tape. what I hope is clear from the transcripts is that it is certainly not a trivial. He is a Professor of Cybernetics with the University of Reading. what’s brown and sticky? Entity: no idea.

Many inventions that industrialised information flow worked by modulating wave forms of various sorts over time. which I have intentionally recounted without mention of computing machinery to make a point. which introduced practical photography. The latter. has remarkably altered our manner of living from what it was in the days of Abraham Lincoln. he mentions the possibility of connecting them to the telephone network to add a mechanism of permanent storage to what would otherwise be ephemeral information flow.” I mean to indicate the era in which information was decoupled from the exigencies of transportation technology and made to move on its own. Turing ties himself again to the history of information technology by referring back to the affordances of the book over papyrus scrolls. However. but without one affordance that will greatly alter its landscape. process it. inaugurated by Bell. such a universal machine would not be possible without an efficient. “human computers. Radio and teletype would enter the scene in 1906. Yet Turing’s work on mechanisms is often eclipsed by his thoughts on computability and his other theoretical interests. Edison. the cassette tape in 1958. is because it shows us a different Turing. color television in 1966 and the VCR in 1969. memory circuitry consisted of 200 separate mercury acoustic delay lines (analogous to pages in a book) that each circulated a 1024 place bitstream on wave forms in continuous rotation with each bit subject to modification at the appropriate time. For both men. cybertalk \ 33 . In an age that prides itself on its digital devices and in which the computer now equals the telephone as a medium of communication. a technology that seems destined from the start to network us together as a global community. if information travelled from point A to B. Cost was the issue. Herbert Casson’s History of the Telephone paints a vivid picture of a societal transformation already in progress: By Anthony Beavers Univeristy of Evansville. and then produce meaningful output. where he suggests that computers could be inexpensively controlled remotely by telephone. Why should this matter? The answer. The reader will be aware of this fact. propose marriage. but it did not provide a schematic for practical hardware. In 1891. Turing’s paper of 1937 introduced a theory of mechanical computation sufficient to put automated information processors on the same network with human computers. to be followed in 1914 by Edison’s “telescribe. In no way does this observation undermine his importance in the history of information so much as it situates him squarely within it.” Pictures would take to the airwaves with the appearance of television in 1926 and the National Broadcasting System in 1928. They could not. for lack of a simpler word. capture it temporarily in a memory store. confer degrees. To understand this trajectory. is still with us. Edison made pictures move with his invention of the motion picture camera. Southern Indiana I live off Bell Road just outside of Newburgh. a technology that seems destined from the start to network us together as a global community. make speeches.” Thus. Beavers is a Professor of Philosophy and Chair of the Department of Philosophy and Religion at the University of Evansville in Southern Indiana. it is important to realise that many of these technologies were not adopted for the uses to which we put them today. Turing belongs to this historical trajectory. we see that this is a bit of an historical gloss. but partly so. By “multimedia revolution. a world of networked humans and machines was possible because of the telephone. and this practical Turing is clearly among them. and has made us members of one great family. though he certainly was that. this was the primary motivation for his machine architecture that used instruction tables stored in memory as early analogs to our functions or procedures. noting nonetheless that even an automated memory structure based on the book would be highly inefficient. long before the emergence of computing machinery. the same year that magnetic tape would become available. It has become so truly an organ of the social body that by telephone we now enter into contracts. These truly are amazing times. no one back then. and this practical Turing is clearly among them Anthony F. were quickly interconnecting into an information network. as noted above. Importantly. This is unfortunate. but also a mechanist who gets into the nuts and bolts of computing machinery. Program “code” then becomes a strategy for creating temporary circuitry inside of a machine that can be reconfigured later for a different processing task rather than building an individual machine for each task. The speed of information transmission and its reach would continue with cable television in 1948. the phonograph in 1878. Less well-known but equally important is his seminal work in computer engineering. for instance. and do almost everything else that is a matter of speech. Alan Turing. as we see in his 1947 lecture. Bell’s favorite invention. it is perhaps not too false to mark the beginning of information industrialisation with the telegraph in 1836 and the Daguerreotype in 1839. 32 \ cybertalk Though it is common to think that the information age begins with the birth of computerised digital technologies. now more than a century and a quarter old. The infinite tape suggested in the idealised Turing machine of 1937 would not do because of the time it would take to jump around the tape. Though dating historical transformations is risky. and the telephone revolution. Indiana. We stand on the shoulders of giants. and the light bulb and the photophone in 1880. The book will be to the papyrus scroll as memory circuitry will be to the infinite tape of the idealised machine.” a precursor to the answering machine that has now been replaced with “voice mail. already by 1910 it had become popular enough to warrant its own history. A mile down the street Bell Road intersects with Telephone Road not as a reminder of a technology belonging to bygone days. I believe. the touch tone phone in 1963. We stand on the shoulders of giants. and of the ten uses Edison enumerates for the phonograph. would come crashing together at the end of the 20th century to produce the smart phone and to connect everyone to computers (both human and mechanical) by way of hand-held devices that are both affordable and that have more computational power than Turing himself imagined practical. respectively. not solely by Turing. Indeed. when we explore the history of informational mechanisms. and others. For both men. among Edison. In the ACE computer. but as testimony that this technology. The telephone. Turing. It has enabled us to be more social and cooperative. give evidence. this picture suggests that he does not make a clean break to start a new era. but it belongs nonetheless to a trajectory that was firmly set in motion by the end of the 19th Century with what we might call a multimedia revolution in information flow that clearly predates computers.wave forms via telephone to allow for digital transmission. but its significance might not readily be clear. since it obscures our historical picture by treating Turing independently of the initiative to industrialise information flow that began in the 19th Century. as a mechanist concerned with getting the greatest computational power from minimal hardware resources. Bell (and several others) could store information and move it around. He has published extensively on the intersection of computing with philosophy and currently serves as president of the International for Association Computing and Philosophy (IACAP). This required modulating “What we might call the telephonisation of city life. No doubt the recent explosion in informational devices has increased dramatically since Time Magazine named the computer “person of the year” in 1982. appeal to voters. best known for his work on the Theory of Computation and the Turing Machine in 1937 and then the Turing Test in 1950. His 1947 lecture to the London Mathematical Society on the Automatic Computing Engine (ACE) shows Turing in a different light. Prior. is credited with being the father of computer science and artificial intelligence. writeable and erasable memory store. The telegraphic printer and the stock ticker followed soon after in 1856 and 1863. though the memory store he will advocate is based on an analogy with it. In explaining why. but that he belongs quite naturally to the preceding one. Edison’s vision here anticipates Turing’s in the 1947 essay mentioned above. try lawsuits. could mediate telephone communications by modulating wave forms in light. namely that the information revolution was well underway prior to Turing. And to be fair. however. but just as the industrial revolution brought new mechanisms for everything from agriculture to textile manufacturing. for instance. it was because someone carried it there. Bell. it did the same for information.” as Turing liked to call people. was an early form of broadcasting. That work comes later. inaugurated by Turing. and it was not about to stop. could imagine what would happen when the computer revolution. it is easy to forget the debt we owe to an era that industrialised the flow of information. as Turing reminds us in several places. It has literally abolished the isolation of separate families. a world of networked humans and machines was possible because of the telephone. In fact. and here we see that Turing’s hardware was no exception. not an innovative mathematician. The years between 1876 and 1881 were perhaps the most immediately transformative with the telephone in 1877.

constitution. and I think this cannot be disputed. in the same way as so many variations have occurred useful to man. But if variations useful to any organic being do occur.Some of the greatest. then. With that demonstration the computer age was born. he showed exactly how to make such a machine. in all its details: If during the long course of ages and under varying conditions of life. Many of them were women. 1936) Turing didn’t just intuit that this remarkable feat was possible. for the sake of brevity. This principle of preservation. assuredly individuals thus characterized will have the best chance of being preserved in the struggle for life. Natural Selection. clerical workers with enough mathematical skill. F. (Turing. the mind-body problem. with no fanfare. It is important to remember that there were entities called computers before Turing came up with his idea—but they were people. patience. season. setting the stage for solving one of the most baffling puzzles remaining to science. 1953. causing an infinite diversity in structure. p738 ) And Alan Turing created a new world of science and technology. organic beings vary at all in the several parts of their organization. and J. day in and day out. and from the strong principle of inheritance they will tend to produce offspring similarly characterized. calculating tables for use in navigation. (Crick. a severe struggle for life. and pride in their work to generate reliable results of hours and hours of computation. and habits. if there be. at some age. end of chapter 4) Francis Crick and James Watson closed their epoch-making paper on the structure of DNA with the deliciously diffident sentence: It has not escaped our notice that the specific pairings we have postulated immediately suggests a possible copying mechanism for the replicating unit of life.. I think it would be a most extraordinary fact if no variation ever had occurred useful to each being’s own welfare. and in the armed forces and elsewhere. gunnery and other such technical endeavors. with an even shorter declarative sentence in the middle of his 1936 paper on computable numbers: It is possible to invent a single machine which can be used to compute any computable sequence. and this certainly cannot be disputed. I have called. considering the infinite complexity of the relations of all organic beings to each other and to their conditions of existence. (Origin of Species. A good way of understanding Turing’s revolutionary idea about computation is to put it in juxtaposition with Darwin’s cybertalk \ 35 . to be advantageous to them. Watson. most revolutionary advances in science have been given their initial expression in attractively modest terms. or year. owing to the high geometric powers of increase of each species. Thousands of them were employed in engineering and commerce. Charles Darwin managed to compress his entire theory into a single summary paragraph that a layperson can readily follow.

the pebble. Did a human computer have difficulty telling the number 99999999999 from the number 9999999999? Then break down the perceptual 36 \ cybertalk problem of recognizing the number into simpler problems. In order to be a perfect and beautiful computing machine it is not requisite to know what arithmetic is. What Darwin and Turing had both discovered. (1989. with Turing in the God role? No less a thinker than Roger Penrose has expressed skepticism about the possibility that Artificial Intelligence could be the fruit of nothing but mindless algorithmic processes. In particular. in their different ways. Turing realized that this was just not necessary: you could take the tasks they performed and squeeze out the last tiny smidgens of understanding. would be an “algorithm” for “conscious judgments. But I do not see how natural selection. Darwin’s meaning. . with its apparent ‘groping’ towards some future purpose. stupider acts of discrimination over multiple steps. There they sat at their desks. . repugnant. generating ever more subtle. a strange inversion of reasoning. and of later. Things at least seem to organize themselves somewhat better than they ‘ought’ to. a single cascade of natural selection events. and construct layer upon layer of more sophisticated computation. so that we may enunciate as the fundamental principle of the whole system. after all. Turing’s idea was a similar—in fact remarkably similar—strange inversion of reasoning. would seem unlikely to be able to create a string of zeroes and ones that. from which material in the preceding paragraphs has been drawn. I am a strong believer in the power of natural selection. (1989. that.about evolution. whose own intelligent comprehension was manifestly the source of the designs that can knit Turing’s mindless building blocks into useful competences? Doesn’t this dependence just re-introduce the trickle-down perspective on intelligence. He took human computers as his model. just on the basis of blind-chance evolution and natural selection. checking their work. leaving their original designer far behind. lesser programmers. an insult to our minds. IN ORDER TO MAKE A PERFECT AND BEAUTIFUL MACHINE. The very idea that mindless mechanicity can generate human-level—or divine level!—competence strikes many as philistine. This proposition will be found. This inverted the deeply plausible assumption that comprehension is in fact the source of all advanced competence. can evolve algorithms which could have the kind of conscious judgements of the validity of other algorithms that we seem to have.” But as Turing fully realized. occurring over even billions of years. writing down the intermediate results instead of relying on their memories. The operation actually performed is determined . from the most exalted (“man”) to the most humble (the ant. But what about the genius of Turing. do we insist on sending our children to school. God. leaving nothing but brute. Already in “Computing Machinery and Intelligence.” his classic paper in cybertalk \ 37 . p414) He goes on to admit To my way of thinking there is still something mysterious about evolution. The recursive step that got the ball rolling—designing a computer that could mimic any other computer –could itself be reiterated. sapiens. doing one simple and highly reliable step after another. Darwin replaced it with the bubble-up theory of creation. The Pre-Turing world was one in which computers were people. an omnipotent and omniscient intelligent creator—who bore a striking resemblance to the second-most exalted thing. One of Darwin’s nineteenth century critics put it vividly: In the theory with which we have to deal. 1868) It was. gradually. the raindrop) were the creations of a still more exalted thing. efficient and complex organisms without having the slightest whiff of understanding of what it is doing. mechanical actions. We can start with the simple building blocks Turing had isolated. there was nothing to prevent the process of evolution from copying itself on many scales. . they determine the state of mind of the computer after the operation is carried out. and the mind of God. Turing systematically broke down the simple steps into even simpler steps. Why. on careful examination. . and to express in a few words all Mr. seems to think Absolute Ignorance fully qualified to take the place of Absolute Wisdom in all the achievements of creative skill. To this day many people cannot get their heads around the unsettling idea that a purposeless. (MacKenzie. by the state of mind of the computer and the observed symbols. removing all vestiges of discernment or comprehension. The pre-Darwinian world was held together not by science but by tradition: all things in the universe. p416) Indeed. 2009. competence. he must use successive observations. He showed how that algorithm would enable a (human) computer to compute any function. permitting specific computers to enhance their own powers by redesigning themselves. Artificial Intelligence. this is almost always the right way to look at. . Right there we see the reduction of all possible computation to a mindless process. and strive for. I suspect that this muchloved principle of education is one of the primary motivators of skepticism about both evolution and its cousin in Turing’s world. Call this the trickle-down theory of creation. the essential purport of the Theory. in condensed form. once read by a digital computer. Consider how Turing went about his proof. restoring. . He thus prepared an inventory of basic building blocks from which to construct the universal algorithm that could execute any other algorithm. and noted that: The behavior of the computer at any moment is determined by the symbols which he is observing and his “state of mind” at that moment. was the existence of competence without comprehension (Dennett. in itself. by a strange inversion of reasoning. . turning what at first might appear a daunting task into a routine they could almost do in their sleep. IT IS NOT REQUISITE TO KNOW HOW TO MAKE IT. indeed. He then noted. mindless process can crank away through the eons. who. with revisions). Absolute Ignorance is the artificer. distributing easier. the intelligence Turing had so deftly laundered out of the practices of human computers. the motto of modern education might be: “comprehend in order to be competent” And for us members of H. We may suppose that there is a bound B to the number of symbols or squares which the computer can observe at one moment. who had to understand mathematics in order to do their jobs. of mounting discernment and judgment. to express. If he wishes to observe more. calmly: We may now construct a machine to do the work of this computer. consulting their recipes as often as they needed. and why do we frown on the old-fashioned methods of rote learning? We expect our children’s growing competence to flow from their growing comprehension.

Edited by S. They think that a Cartesian res cogitans. long after every triumph of human thought has been matched or surpassed by “mere machines. whose proof was the inspiration for Turing’s work) that start with human consciousness at its most reflective. [See Suber. http://www. in cognitive science. at least. for a valuable discussion of this passage and the so-called paradox of self-amendment. but one can appreciate the discomfort that motivates their conviction. no. 42:230–265. This is the key to breaking the back of the mind-bogglingly complex question of how a mind could ever be composed of material mechanisms.. What it does is some (cognitive) function that it (sorta) performs—well enough so that at the next level up. and IBM’s Watson on Jeopardy sorta understands the questions it answers. They are wrong. The Central Processing Unit of a computer doesn’t really know what arithmetic is. If the history of resistance to Darwinian thinking is a good measure. What it is can be described in terms of the structural organization of the parts from which it is made—so long as we can assume that the parts function as they are supposed to function. How can the rules of operation of the machine change? They should describe completely how the machine will react whatever its history might be. A. we eventually arrive at parts so (sorta) intelligent that they can be assembled into competences that deserve to be called comprehending. the parallel of References Watson J.earlham. London > VMWorld 14th – 17th . London: Nisbet & Co. broke down the mystery of intelligence (or Intelligent Design) into what we might call atomic steps of dumb happenstance. remembering circuits that compose the brains of animals from starfish to astronomers. Turing. but as we compose them into larger. more competent structures. but it “understands” the “command” to add two numbers and put their sum in a register—in the minimal sense that it reliably adds when thus called upon to add and puts the sum in the right place. 1987. and reliably does this work when called upon. unpublished. but we are getting closer.” Nature 171. the operating system doesn’t really understand that it is checking for errors of transmission and fixing them but it sorta understands this. 1950. whatever changes it might undergo. we can make the assumption that we have in our inventory a smarter building block that performs just that function—sorta. and contrast it with the various trickle-down theories of mind. 1859. On the Origin of Species.. either you are conscious or you aren’t. or understand what addition is. “Darwin’s ‘Strange Inversion of Reasoning. unfeeling Turing-bricks. with an application to the Entscheidungsproblem. Cambridge.-DCD] He saw clearly that all the versatility and self-modifiability of human thought—learning and re-evaluation and. June 16. unthinking. 106 suppl. 737-738. like Darwin’s. MA: MIT Press. Kurt Gödel. Texas > OWASP AppSec USA 2013 18th – 21st – Manhattan. we need to keep track of two facts about each level: what it is and what it does.. 2013. Call this the bubbleup theory of mind. nothing counts as an approximation of any mental phenomenon—it’s all or nothing.. C. The ape and the apple are made of the same basic ingredients. The Intentional Stance.B. 2236. Turing’s strange inversion of reason. “Intentional Systems. comparing. “Computing Machinery and Intelligence. “A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid. which. 1953.Barcelona October > iPad in Defence 23rd & 24th – Stockley Park > Cyber Security Summit 22nd & 23rd – Minneapolis. > Cyber Week > Dell World 9th – 13th – Austin. unpublished.. New York > Info-Crime Summit 26th & 27th . the powers of minds are insoluble mysteries because they are “perfect.Mind. Suber.” J. The reader may draw a parallel with the Constitution of the United States. and then are unable to unite such magical powers with the mere mechanisms of human bodies and brains. and before there were mammals there were sorta mammals and before there were dogs there were sorta dogs. 2009. “Saving Machines From Themselves: The Ethics of Deep SelfModification.edu/~peters/writing/selfmod.” Mind. The explanation of the paradox is that the rules which get changed in the learning process are of a rather less pretentious kind. but it sorta understands this. There is no principled dividing line between a sorta ape and an ape. A. notoriously. Why indulge in this “sorta” talk? Because when we analyze—or synthesize—this stack of ever more competent levels.” Some philosophers resist this anti-essentialism: either you believe that snow is white or you don’t. 1. This is quite true. Elsevier. differently structured and exploited in a manylevel cascade of different functional competences.. A few further levels higher. language and problem-solving. and Crick F. is the conviction of those of us inspired by Turing’s insight. Dennett. We still haven’t arrived at “real” understanding in robots. 433-60. goes against the grain of millennia of earlier thought. Barry Cooper and Jan van Leeuwen. Tokyo. MacKenzie R. The rules are thus quite time-invariant. cannot be constructed out of Turing’s building blocks. 1987) to keep track of the beliefs and desires (or “beliefs” and “desires” or sorta beliefs and sorta desires) of the (sorta-)rational agents at every level from the simplest bacterium through all the discriminating. 1971. 16th – 19th . And creationists are similarly sure in their bones that no amount of Darwinian shuffling and copying and selecting could ever arrive at (real) living things. pp. Switzerland December Daniel Dennett is University Professor and Co-Director of the Center for Cognitive Studies at Tufts University. Amsterdam. Germany > IA14 16th & 17th June . Penrose R. D.C.. we can expect that long into the future. The idea of a learning machine may appear paradoxical to some readers. D.H. he recognized that there was no contradiction in the concept of a (non-human) computer that could learn. which then become the elements of still more competent structures at higher levels. Dennett. D. Leicester > DSEI 10th – 13th . when the building blocks are stacked up by the billions and trillions..” preprint. 1936. London.. Dennett. LIX. We need Darwin’s gradualism to explain the huge difference between an ape and an apple. “On computable numbers. Oxford: Oxford Univ Press. for instance—could in principle be constructed out of these building blocks. like Darwin. 1950. 2013). added up to a sort of pseudo-intelligence. The Emperor’s New Mind.Hugh Aston Building. MN > 11th Annual CTO Forum 7th – 11th – Nigeria > Global Forum 2013 28th & 29th – Trieste. DMU. 1989. claiming only an ephemeral validity. vol. almanac of events September This article was taken from the following publication with the kind permission of both the author and editor: “Alan Turing .” and I sorta understand “E=mc2. Turing.London > Cyber Security Seminar 27th – British Embassy. The humanoid robot and the hand calculator are both made of the same basic. New York. a thinking thing. Darwin. November 30. 1868. London cybertalk \ 39 . We use the intentional stance (Dennett.D. 1971.Phil.com/ imagebank/3d-cyber-boxes-e. The small child sorta understands her own sentence “Daddy is a doctor. There is no principled line above which true comprehension is to be found—even in our own case. Before there were bacteria there were sorta bacteria. by thinkers from René Descartes to John Searle (and including. That. P. when accumulated by the millions. C. What we might call the sorta operator is. His most recent book is Intuition Pumps and Other Tools for Thinking (Norton and Penguin.Park Plaza Westminster Bridge Hotel. and erratum (1937) 43:544–546.jpg http://www. The Darwinian Theory of the Transmutation of Species Examined. 2001.ExCel.lewallpaper.” and perfectly unlike anything to be found in mere material mechanisms. 38 \ cybertalk Darwin’s gradualism in evolutionary processes.His Work and Impact”.htm Turing. pp 10061–10065.. Italy > Cyber Leadership Academy (Date Pending) – North Yorkshire November > 8th Annual API Cyber Security Conference & Expo 12th & 13th – Houston. A few levels higher.” Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society. The trickle-down theorists are sure in their bones that no amount of further building will ever get us to the real thing. And to such thinkers. good enough to use. and we need Turing’s gradualism to explain the huge difference between a humanoid robot and hand calculator. He is a guest professor at the New College of the Humanities in London and is on the External Faculty of the Santa Fe Institute.” there will still be thinkers who insist that the human mind works in mysterious ways that no science can comprehend. the chess-playing program doesn’t really understand that its queen is in jeopardy. C. C.’” PNAS. Texas 2014 March May June > IA Practitioners’ Event 2014 5th & 6th – York Racecourse > ITEC Cyber Security Education 20th – 22nd – Cologne Messe. Let’s say it sorta understands addition. and so forth. signaling.

the following morning it is probable that the calculations would never have been done at all. with this conjecture implying the RH. But just how good is this approximation? If the Riemann Hypothesis (RH) is true. 3. It has important implications for several areas. and Turing wanted to go about four times further. where they are at the foundations of the Diffie-Hellman. Even more tantalizingly. and collaborator. This was proved to be true a century later. It is old. Turing had access to the Manchester Mark I. there are also practical applications of primes. exhibit quasi-random behaviour. but not vice versa. and how enthusiastic Turing was about the RH.m. and some theoretical papers. AT&T Labs. Primes were identified as fundamental blocks of arithmetic by ancient Greeks. Skewes’ and Turing’s work on the π(x) vs. Turing’s computations of the zeta function have been superseded. and today we know that the RH is satisfied by the first 1013 zeros. . as well as some of the earliest applications of digital computers after World War II. is a smooth function that is easy to compute and grows like x/(log x). it connects seemingly disparate areas. and there are heuristic arguments to suggest it is true at least up to 1030. An interesting observation is that as time went on. that institution was home to some of the foremost number theorists of the era. 11. ranging from concert hall acoustics to cryptology. In the process he developed some original computational techniques and employed early digital computers in a novel way.m. It is a statement about the locations of an infinite number of points in the complex plane. a century ago it was shown to be false. where Li(x). Turing’s student colleague. where he also made notable advances. As he wrote in his paper describing his results. should be about Li(x). the logarithmic integral. It has been known for two thousand years that there are infinitely many primes. and had been attacked unsuccessfully by many famous researchers. Turing grew increasingly skeptical about the RH. At that time. The RH. He did not get much further than the pre-War verification. which is a century and a half old. the relation was strictly one way. the difference Li(x) — π(x) never gets much larger than the square root of x. We still do not know precisely where it occurs. and is now a Professor in the School of Mathematics. 1229 below 10000. for which he obtained what was in 1939 a generous £40 grant from the Royal Society. and practice of computation. However. we don’t even know why he doubted its truth. and the cryptanalysis of German ciphers. (The proof did not imply anything about the RH itself. art. All we can say is that he was fascinated by the question. Ingham. Not many people would have been willing to stay up all night waiting for the results (which came out on paper tape. The other motivation was simply to check whether the RH was true. but Skewes. All the direct numerical evidence we have supports it. As a result. This conjecture. The RH was one of the 23 problems posed by the famous mathematician Hilbert in 1900 as challenges. Turing kept coming back to some fascinating and still largely unsolved computional problems in pure maths. though. is regarded as the most famous and most significant unsolved problem in mathematics. It would have been interesting to find out how Turing would have reacted to the developments that led to the change of opinions in favor of RH. and it is one of the 7 Clay Mathematics Institute Millennium Prize Problems posed in 2000. As it is.. such as Hardy. the RH implies that those discrete primes. technology improved and better algorithms were found. and 9592 below 100000. it had been verified that the first 1041 zeros of the zeta function do indeed satisfy the RH. even the latest computations rely on a clever technique of Turing’s that simplifies the task of demonstrating that all zeros of the zeta function have been found. but over the past half a century it has decreased. with a $1 million award for a solution. and have been objects of study ever since. the very fundamental components of arithmetic. and kept returning to it. the number of primes up to x. if true. RSA. These researches involved the design 40 \ cybertalk of a special purpose analog mechanical computer in the late 1930s.have been drawn to this area is simply intellectual.) The initial proof did not indicate where the first counterexample might occur. Turing was drawn to a very fundamental problem on the distribution of primes. 168 below 1000. Much of the flourishing subject of number theory is devoted to primes. to the point that he talked openly to his colleagues about its likely falsity. He is a Fellow of the International Association for Cryptologic Research and of the American Mathematical Society. and other ciphers. one afternoon to 8 a. namely the discrete primes with the zeros of a continuous function. Inspection of initial segments of integers shows that primes appear to be becoming sparser and sparser the further one goes. The problems that drew Turing’s attention involved prime numbers. If it had not been for the fact that the computer remained in serviceable condition for an unusually long period from 3 p. with output printed in based 32. 5. This was likely one of the motivations for Turing’s design of a special purpose machine for computing the zeta function. Andrew Odlyzko has had a long career in research and research management at Bell Labs. Most of the interest of both the professional mathematicians and the numerous amateurs who Turing’s work in number theory revolved around the RH and the associated zeros of the zeta function. a number still far beyond the reach of modern computers and known algorithms. Under their influence. This quote shows both how primitive the early computers were. the zeros of the Riemann zeta function. so this machine was never built. However. Much of what he did. especially the parts connected with Skewes. The RH has attracted enormous attention for a combination of reasons. would imply the RH. The most famous ones were the creation of the foundations of the theory of computability. What is much less known is that throughout his professional life. and Littlewood. He used it to investigate the RH. namely 2. Alan Turing made numerous significant contributions to the theory. as the digital technology was still primitive. driven by pure curiosity. where he built an interdisciplinary research center. 7. showed that it is no larger than the enormous number: Later research has shown there is a counterexample below “only” 10317. Unfortunately World War II intervened. and most recently at the University of Minnesota. one of the earliest general purpose digital computers. When Turing went to the University of Cambridge. dealt with a conjecture related to the RH.. friend. Further. those positive integers greater than 1 that are not divisible by any positive integers other then themselves and 1. which Turing had learned to read at sight)! With time. It is known to be true for x < 1014. and that of a fellow student. A few years earlier. such skepticism was not uncommon among number theorists. However. cybertalk \ 41 . namely that π(x) is always strictly less than Li(x). Li(x) question involved investigations of the zeros of the zeta function. But just how sparse do the primes get? It was conjectured around 1800 that π (x). After the War. Stanley Skewes. there are 25 of them below 100.

its incomputability is high: no algorithm can compute more than finitely many bits of every infinite sequence produced by ACCS.org. So. Alternatively. New Zealand Brielle Day gave more details in the article 'Just How Secure is Quantum Cryptography?' posted on the Optical Society on May 28. Vulnerabilities of classical cryptography are well documented. irrespective of the method used to produce it. only degrees of randomness. which are sent over unsecure communication channels. The peculiar properties of quantum mechanics allow the generation of quantum random bits. Quantoss. pseudo-randomness sits at the bottom. on July 28. to be able to compare the quality of randomness we need to consider infinite sequences of bits.Is theoretical quantum cryptography really unbreakable? Is quantum randomness Turing computable too? A value-indefinite observable is an observable which cannot have a definite value— either zero or one—before measurement.Even before presenting his invited lecture on June 11 at the 2013 Conference on Lasers and ElectroOptics (San Jose. C. He published more than 250 papers and 10 books in discrete mathematics.aps. the work reported by Renner evaluates the failure rate of different quantum cryptography systems. Ramsey was the first to demonstrate it in his study of conditions under which order must appear. Random. other proofs have been given in the framework of algorithmic information theory.e. The 42 \ cybertalk British mathematician and philosopher Frank P. for some. physicist Renato Renner main findings made the news. New Zealand. typically. California. is a worldwide expert in quantum randomness. cybertalk \ 43 . just how incomputable are the sequences produced by ACCS? First and foremost. not surprisingly. where one needs technology to make the theory work. One important criterion is whether such a sequence is Turing computable (i. weaknesses of quantum cryptography have been discovered. computational complexity. Is this claim credible? Let’s start with the weaker.. It’s Not!'. their quality of randomness is low. Calude. a Fortune CNN report titled 'Zeroing in on unbreakable computer security' talks about [quantum] “data encryption that is unbreakable now and will remain unbreakable in the future”. they are not new and they are not few in number. Here again. On March 21. Issues have been found as early as 2008 by Jan-Åke Larsson’s team. the situation is different. one can use macro-physical methods like Johnson–Nyquist (thermal) noise. The encryption algorithm uses the key to encrypt and decrypt messages. let’s forget the practical problems for the moment and ask the “unspeakable” question: Is theoretical quantum cryptography really unbreakable? Cryptographic algorithms require a method of generating a secret key from random bits. Clever algorithms produce the so-called pseudo-random bits. Mathematically. In an effort to reduce various weaknesses. an article by Adam Mann in Wired Science announced that the 'Laws of Physics Say Quantum Cryptography is Unhackable. Do sequences generated by classical beam splitters—frequently used in commercial quantum random generators—have the same property? This question is open. the famous “one time pad” encryption method needs as many random bits as the bits of the text to be encrypted. Pseudo-random sequences are obviously Turing computable. there exists an infinite scale of stronger and stronger types of randomness. there is a never-ending scale of more and more incomputable sets.. In contrast. It is a truism that because a system is secure in theory it doesn't mean it's secure in practice. But in the same way. Quantum Randomness & Quantum Cryptology BY Cristian CALUDE The University of Auckland. In August 2010. The number of random bits necessary to generate keys varies. but quantum cryptography was (and. the process relies on detectors to measure a relevant quantum property of single photons. There is no true randomness. is) unbreakable: Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle guarantees that an adversary cannot look into the series photons which transmit the key without either changing or destroying them. or atmospheric noise. org/abstract/PRA/v86/i6/e062109) designed in terms of generalized beam splitters. Quantum randomness is not Turing computable when the quantum random generator is based on an experiment in which a value-indefinite observable is measured. algorithmic information theory and quantum physics. which mimic to some extent randomness. A quantum random number generator called ACCS (http://pra. each sequence generated by ACCS is provably incomputable. So. Vadim Makarov and his colleagues published in Nature Photonics the details of a traceless attack against a class of quantum cryptographic systems which includes the commercial products sold by ID Quantique (Geneva) and MagiQ Technologies (Boston). USA). because a system is not secure in practice. More theoretical and practical understanding of quantum randomness is necessary for proving strong security properties of quantum cryptographic systems. It is a truism that because a system is secure in theory it doesn't mean it's secure in practice. ID Quantique) claim to produce true randomness. a classical result proved 46 years ago for a different aim: to show the impossibility of a deterministic hidden variable theory for quantum mechanics. it doesn’t necessary mean that it cannot be secure in theory. a chair professor in computer science at the University of Auckland.e. And. Turing theory goes beyond the distinction computable and incomputable. not just incomputable with a high probability. like the beam splitter used for the European Union’s Integrated Project Qubit Applications It is a cold fact that many security applications have been compromised because of poor quality randomness. In practice. on the difficulty for an eavesdropper to guess or calculate it. This condition is satisfied by a quantum experiment subject to the Kochen-Specker theorem. but more fundamental. Commercial randomness providers (for example. The strength of the system ultimately depends on the strength of the key used. they are easily predictable once we know the algorithm generating the sequence. Although in practice only are necessary for encrypting a given message. i. it provides tools to evaluate many different degrees of incomputability. so. it can be produced by an algorithm) or not. implements these theoretical ideas. This is the theory. question: Can true randomness be theoretically produced? Work reported in Nature in 2010 wrongly claims that quantum randomness is true randomness. indeed. Second.

that everyone who taps at a keyboard. When he’s not doing any of these things. a unique and ubiquitous influence on popular culture. his exhibition has filled thousands of column inches and crams its vast space with towering video screens. we brought in literally scores of the most remarkable thinkers from around the world to comment. “Codebreaker” has been a critical success for the British Science Museum and its curator David Rooney and rightly so. when naming Alan Turing as one of the most important people of the 20th Century in 1999 This accessible book is an essential read for those interested in Turing’s work and provides a more contemporary perspective than anything else that is available. Whilst both exhibitions cover the life and work of their protagonist. and let us fully appreciate the extent of how important his thinking has been. Alongside early calculating machines from the late 1930’s and the wreckage of a 1950s Comet jet aircraft lie a number of original Enigma machines. impeccably white skin while his piercing. By contrast “Codebreaker” is more condensed. SBL “The fact remains. Together they provide a saddening vision of the abhorrent treatment Turing was subjected to in his final years. Centred around the rebuilt Pilot ACE computer. providing just enough interest and detail to enthral both keen enthusiasts and those with only a passing interest alike. professors and computer scientists who have had a large part to play in the Alan Turing Centenary Year and are pioneering research on the life and works of Alan Turing.M Turing.elsevier. driving visitors towards “David Bowie Is…” at the Victoria & Albert Museum. providing a fully rounded view of his personality. very little remain of Turing’s personal belongings. explain. “I hope the outcome is as much a voyage of discovery for the reader as it was for the editors.99. Unlike his counterpart across the road. To do this. it tells the story of not only the man himself. his eyes gaze off into the distance as if in deep thought. Likewise. Dr Cooper said of the book: “We set out to share with people the excitement of engaging with one of the most unique and original thinkers of the modern information age. including U-Boat and early military decoders as well as one on loan from the private collection of (as the caption below states) “the musician and film producer. “Codebreaker: Alan Turing’s Life and Legacy” is a free exhibition at the British Science Museum to celebrate the centenary of Alan Turing’s birth. 80s sci-fi movies and the music of David Bowie. and take Turing’s creative impact into the 21st century – and all in around three to eight pages of contribution!” for £45. His hair is immaculately tidy. Walking along the South Kensington underpass. leader of the Colossus restoration project at The National Museum of Computing. in many ways they reflect the personalities of their subjects also. Here Turing demonstrates not only his intense feelings and personal beliefs but also the first concepts about the nature of thinking which will be fundamental to the future developments of artificial intelligence. The book is edited by Dr Barry Cooper and Dr Jan van Leeuwen. British icons covering the Victorian brick walls. Christopher Morcom. very different. resplendent in his iconic “Aladdin Sane” attire. where the book is also available to buy A lan Turing: His Work and Impact is the definitive collection of Turing’s work and includes many of the most significant contributions from the four-volume set of the Collected Works of A. his remarkable work and the significance his findings and discoveries have had on the modern world. It is a powerful display which once again combines in a unique way his personal life with his scientific insights. The 914-page collection provides wide coverage of the impact Turing’s scientific endeavours have had on the modern world. The exhibit skilfully pieces together the history of one of Britain’s finest minds and the many areas of research he influenced in a relatively small space.” explains Dr Cooper. Additional information and resources to accompany the book are available online at www. Andrew’s interests include graphic design. is working on an incarnation of a Turing Machine. ice blue stare follows you up and down the crowded tunnels. detailing the findings of Turing’s post-mortem examination and its conclusion of suicide by cyanide poisoning. reconstructed precisely to Turing’s original design. is bold. views and the events that shaped them. the exhibition is still able to expertly weave key moments of Turing’s life with the impact they had in his thinking and scientific career. The second is far more reserved. whilst remaining manageable to those with limited scientific knowledge. Andrew can usually be found making forts out of cushions and unsuccessfully attempting to dodge phone calls from his mother. called Alan & I. He is a graduate of the University of Newcastle and was awarded the Douglass Gilchrist Exhibition for Outstanding Achievement in 2007. including a piece by the late Tony Sale. “Editing this amazing book was quite some adventure. In addition to the ACE computer. connecting the Underground station with London’s museum district. however Alan Turing: His Work and Impact is both affordable for researchers. Sir Michael Jagger”. and includes a number of previously unpublished texts. Andrew Cook has been a member of the Chartered Institute of Marketing since 2009 and is Creative & Digital Editor of CyberTalk and Marketing Executive for SBL. outlandish costumes and intricate. more understated and yet equally as absorbing.” Time Magazine. radical and enigmatic. however. “A Matter of Life and Death”. comes when you venture into section 5. This is David Bowie. Interspersed with Turing’s work are commentaries from leading experts in a wide spectrum of fields and backgrounds. but also that of computing as a whole in six distinct sections. in-depth details of a career spanning almost five decades. interpret. this summer you notice the faces of two. However. promoting “Codebreaker” at the British Science Museum. 2013. proving 44 \ cybertalk there are some people whose achievements eclipse even Jumping Jack Flash himself. Bowie.cozm. A single monochromatic image of a man many of those passing do not even recognise. are a collection of heart breaking letters from Turing to the mother of his close friend. Here Turing’s work on morphogenesis – growth and patterns in plants and animals – on one side is painted in stark contrast on the other with a small bottle of oestrogen pills and a solitary piece of paper. and a personal narrative by Christos Papadimitriou. the father of modern computing. It is of no doubt that one dominates the other – his flame red hair contrasting sharply against his pale.” Alan Turing: His Work and Impact is an essential read if you have any interest in Turing. who died tragically aged 18 from tuberculosis. This is Alan Turing. Computer Scientist at the University of California Berkley. Though this means that objects and stories are not always presented in chronological order. almost apologetic in comparison.Alan TURing: His Work and Impact Review by Helen morgan. the exhibition holds a number of artefacts central to the story of computing. opening a spread sheet or a word processing program. The exhibit’s run has been extended until 21st October. cybertalk \ 45 . on display here. These commentaries provide an insight into the significance and contemporary impact of Turing’s work as well as the authors’ own personal thoughts of his influence on their professional careers. Complete copies of Turing’s work can be both scarce and expensive. allowing visitors to move around at their own leisure. The most striking exhibit of all.

and now have intriguing Turing actor Benedict Cumberbatch. chess match against Turing’s (first ever) computer sequences. And. MOSI sponsored an exciting “Grow a of Alan Turing in its focus on the nature of mental and physical computation. bullied to death by the state. and there sat through my whole Turing lecture .eu towards the end of 2008.from source of public humiliation. established exactly how long an alanturingyear actually is. of beyond the wildest expectations. with celebratory jumping! University of Leeds. But Sara had never accepted UK wide this February. its In China. and is part of Barry Cooper is Professor of Mathematical Logic at the University where this shy visionary genius was honoured and chess player arriving in Manchester for Alan’s June a wider focus on the role of emergence in art. economics.Alan Turing’s life and legacy”.500: “It is humbling to read Alan Turing’s monstrous new book “Alan Turing . they had the Turing Lectures importance to the early history of the computer brought to life in in Beijing. and theoretical and practical incomputability. Chair of the Turing Centenary Committee. including Sherborne School in September. from the other side of the Turing family. There is so much more to mention. Janet Robinson. Robotics wizard comfort .” I had to work . He thought of it all. It was winner John Hopcroft.though she did confess to of Nature. ever. changed. When we started the ATY website: www. the Royal with Leonardo di Caprio as Turing. there were LGBT History month events for the amazing people . Here is a quote wonderful in 2012. start to do justice to. books. I lost count The book also has a very personal piece . including Computability Theory. so the bitten apple on the cover was a including Alan Turing. The high point image of the Bombe. just 16 days before his 42nd birthday. very special.involving real hands on enthusiasm from the staff. Film-wise the highlight was the Channel 4 showing of the moving “Britain’s Greatest Codebreaker” in autumn 2011. his papers. Today. chess grand masters are routinely defeated by computers. Originally So much of the Turing Year was made for and by scientific followers over 50. however large or speedy it was. It was a few years most impressive. came from the museums. with support from the British disappointingly . Later this year will see a full movie being made of the much discussed in a high-profile online vote of script “The Imitation Game”. The Americans were to a special lecture by Turing Award particularly generous in their honouring of the Turing legacy. But there were other remarkable events in other organisations. shouldbe easy. he is a leading advocate of multidisciplinary research at the interface between what is known to be computable. up the script.it was exciting. amongst so many wonderful books and was the beautiful Turing exhibition in Porto Alegre. the poignancy of history. public lectures. For Turing’s actual birthday.is who are very happy to be invited to special events for Alan Turing. All Alan Turing wanted in London three months ago. engrossing. music. it was 23. this Now the casual visitor to the site will be due to start at various places. rare as original copies had Turing in November 2012 at Bletchley Park. the copy of “Alan Turing . in March this year the Universal have thought one of the UKs greatest scientists would have died Machine. and who told ongoing exploration of the difference between us how patterns on cows. was voted “the most the country he honoured around the world. his decoding work was shrouded in secrecy. Later. All we can do is point to the up to find one of the best ever ‘Google doodles’ in the form of a was awash with Turing-mania in 2012. with Beryl Turing allowing her photographs to be fairly freely used on web and in publications. who was the Enigma- production of “TURING . and in particular the listing of events. around. of Alan by his mother Sara Turing was course. Of course. who founded computer science. supported by Stephen Fry and alone of cyanide poisoning.“Alan and I” . Many people. Turing’: “Alan inspires my papers and my stories. after 59 years still branded a criminal by other famous figures. with filming So much happened at Manchester. Though of Leeds. we woke experts from around the world. Chair of the Alan Turing Centenary Committee Writing about the Alan Turing Year is hard! When asked to do it. chess program. son. computer. A friend quipped: “I think you I guess most of those who find something inspirational. the Turing family have been great. with Garry Kasparov. New the 24-year-old Alan’s discovery of the incomputable that flame came past Manchester Town Hall.turingcentenary. and funding for a “Mind.as well as being key to the modern informational world . And. The largest meeting was the special ACM meeting in San the Science Museum. and experience human and Impact” I gave her. just a tiny working Turing machine. In his final years in Rodney Brooks says on p. and became the from the end of it. which coordinated the international Turing Centenary in the backs of our minds was the shock of Kasparov losing to IBM’s Maybe the biggest ‘outreach’ activity. and very on building computers sidelined. his thinking papers. I thought “yes. running races. and a superb 2-day meeting in Princeton. When Francisco with around 700 participants and literally dozens of Turing Society and other UK scientific this fell through. international commemorations. and conceptually . 2012.quite tough to get one’s head was great to meet up with Turing’s youngest niece. ATY website again. It was the incomputability of the after Alan designed his ‘pencil and paper’ program that his friend theatre productions. swamped with information. but she was smiling! finally. consulate. as part of a ‘Britain in Brazil’ programme. which is responsible for the largest computability-themed international conference series. of the countries and far corners of the world computer guru Christos Papadimitriou. Forum in Paderborn was really fabulous in lots of ways . come to Turing as an iconic at the superb “The Universal Machine” at the New Diorama Theatre The ATY was a phase transition. he fires my talks and my courses. It happened that one could ask questions about Kasparov treated the packed audience to a short and aimed at validating Turing’s work on sunflowers and Fibonacci his universal Turing machine that no computer could answer. Black Bear Pictures took Award winners. and his mental sharpness . Alan Turing did The chess was another highlight. and invited two high schools George Dyson’s book “Turing’s Cathedral”. code solving “Prof” at Bletchley Park amongst the hidden thousands who made the War winnable in the dark days of the early 1940s. inhabits my memories and my dreams. The image is be so popular the museum extended it until October 21. Andrew Hodges’ biography of the great man. and beyond.at the end of a working week. arguably the world’s greatest ever his seminal work on morphogenesis at Manchester.his most enduring entry point to the work for many people will be the varied thoughts on them from over 70 leading is just one of many remarkable additions to the Turing literature in 2012 and beyond.” slight surprise. we had just Alan. films and various and embodiment in our real world. First. And. Author and editor of numerous books. once it has been poignant or motivational in the Turing story are not experts. plays. decoding competitions. It tell her.and love .just too much to even become. tigers and tropical fish were formed and human and digital ‘intelligence’ continues. his work on computability celebrated. Overseas. and Computability in Context. and not much else. cybertalk \ 47 . Turing Sunflower” experiment reaching into hundreds of schools. A graduate of the University of Oxford. and set us on the road to building embodiments of Turing’s 1936 universal machine. and the John Templeton exhibitions. organised by Warner Brothers wanted to make the film of Turing. 100th birthday. And the nieces. with the international version “Codebreaker” circulating widely in 2012 and beyond.Manchester on June 7th. moving . the Alan Turing blogs and journal features. complete with Alan Turing image on the front cover. she said she would treasure. The world Brazil hosted one of the more unexpected and grandest of mention that the Royal Mail did a Turing postage stamp . he is President of the Association Computability in Europe. An was to immerse himself in the science. That turned out to be the problem. Manchester. 1954.His Work to understand and be interested in Turing’s life and thinking. The assistant consul journals. Hong Kong regularly left to Google to buy Max Newman’s historic collection of Turing surprised us with all sorts of ATY creativity: papers for Bletchley Park’s safe keeping. Israel too had various exhibitions. Kong building. and creatively the Alan Turing dedicated his life to computing machines. 1997.it was a faceless commemorative stamp. The love was persecuted. his research follows that Computational Paradigms. with memorable commemorative Pride events from Manchester to India.who would Appropriately. the theory Deep Blue computer back on May 11th. Year turned into something quite amazing. The intelligent machines . which still influences today’s research. The precious possession . even a massive Foundation from Philadelphia gave over a million pounds for a very birthday projection of Alan onto a tall Hong grand Manchester ‘Turing 100’ conference. Bletchley Park. places Turing had lived and worked at . I should Machine and Mathematics” research project supporting eight Turing By Professor Barry Cooper and Keira Knightley playing Turing’s one-time fiancee Joan Clarke.undermined by the enforced hormone treatment.” 46 \ cybertalk celebrations. where changed my life. one which still refuses to end. want to get some insight into the way his work has changed our only understanding 10%. so much to talk about”.000 people. which turned out to Computability. So many more people have come gay man.a staged case history”. just the thing to conclude this brief revisit of a memorable (and exhausting) ‘Year of the science. with major impact on developmental biology . Manchester.” with all Turing’s more significant writings. In Chicago they set up a the suicide verdict of the inquest on her ‘Legacy Walk’ honouring around 17 LGBT heroes. not experts. The gay community was reissue by Cambridge of the little biography Even for the enthusiasts. Turing’s famous uncle.though. world. The Science Museum hosted an exhibition real world that killed him (like Icarus who flew too close to the sun) in and chairs the Editorial Board of its Springer book series “Theory and Applications of Dietrich Prinz actually ran the first computer chess program on a “Codebreaker . where he worked for Ferranti in Manchester.and understanding the obstacles. important past British innovation” competitions and conferences. we must mention the unprecedented Turing-themed issue For the many thousands who are fascinated by the man. Scholars and Fellows for 3 years. He did win of course in double quick time. That day the Olympic neuroscience. Dermot gracing various events with entertaining words about his should propose ‘alanturingyear’ as a new SI unit. and enriching. here are some snapshots from a wonderful centenary year. it’s now ‘Alan Turing Years’ all the way down! technically.Cambridge.His Work and Impact”. the Heinz Nixdorf Museums computer. Who would have thought the man who mathematically fathered the from November 2012 and Maria Elisabetta Marelli’s remarkable Milan apart from Porto Alegre and Hong Kong. and an awareness of its limitations. For me.

html http://tinyurl. between O2 and H2O) as there are between two rational numbers. stripes. and using laboratory experiments. forms of social interaction. microbes can detect the presence of chemicals in contact with their membrane and let some enter. There is a deep. A. A mixture of discrete and continuous mechanisms may turn out to be crucial for providing new. namely changes in information processing. and in development of young humans: http://tinyurl. including camouflage. tape. mate selection. Would Turing have contributed to developing that idea? Thousands of researchers have investigated trajectories in the evolutionary history of the planet. 90 degree array rotation). reasoning. are also problematic. and changes between a new-born baby and the physics professor some years later. monkeys. Phil. learning. in which chemicals diffuse through a growing structure and interact when they meet. simplest forms of life and the ones we are now trying to understand. London Math. matching. UK Turing’s 1952 paper on chemical morphogenesis can be compared with his earlier work on Turing machines (TMs). manslaughter. music. Non-rigid discrete transformations e. psychiatry. and explaining how our ancestors acquired the ability to make mathematical discoveries before there were mathematics teachers. into patterns representing solutions. Research in psychology. Later the moves might be controlled so as to follow trajectories of increasing or decreasing density. such as deep sea vents. wherever possible. and. reading the morphogenesis paper made me wonder whether. like dots. For example. 237. construction of powerful new explanatory theories and technologies and works of art. interpreting. but only in very complex systems most of whose details are inaccessible. in the case of humans.bham. and a complex 3D molecule can be rotated without losing any information. near and far. forming a spiral. according to sensed needs. Both demonstrate that some very simple local interactions can produce strikingly varied and complex large scale results. e. plants and animals of various kinds differ enormously. and largely unknown. giant fungi. in behaviours. learning. can transform initial linear patterns. mathematics. nowadays often linked in networks and connected with various physical interfaces between the memory (tape) and things in the environment. Turing might have contributed new theories about the changes in information processing. However. Sources of diversity include: sensory-motor morphologies restricting what information is available and what actions can be controlled. AARON SLOMAN http://www. giant redwood trees. namely showing how local interactions between molecules in a lifeless world might eventually produce the huge variety of living organisms now found on our planet: a far greater challenge than explaining the development of structure in a developing embryo. but not all possible languages. Our knowledge of that diversity increases with developments in technology for inspecting and experimenting on life at very small scales. communicating. together with the environment of growing organisms. What we’ve learnt from neuroscience leaves many explanatory gaps between physical mechanisms and information-processing.) His 1936 computing machine was originally intended to replicate analogues of processes that occur in familiar human mathematical reasoning. he might have attempted an even bigger challenge. spirals.com/CogMisc/meta-morphogenesis. M. We can try to fill gaps in our knowledge about current systems by creating plausible. to leave out one of the most important types of change. rich. Those variations in information contents and types of information processing (e. allowing them not only to solve problems but also to produce useful behaviours by monitoring and and controlling external devices. earthworms. other animals and themselves. if the intensity of something harmful is increasing make a move. School of Computer Science University of Birmingham. and. squirrels.g. attraction of pollinators. can start by analysing what is already known about evolutionary changes and individual development.cs. by direct observation of living systems. storing. including perception. many small. There has also been rapid expansion in our knowledge of the chemical mechanisms and structures underpinning biological evolution and individual development. continuous diffusion and changes of concentration play a role. and technology for accessing more varied environments. communicating.com/CogMisc/evolution-info-transitions. and others. But that left open the question: what sorts of underlying machinery could do that? Computational experiments on artificial evolution suggested that in principle modern computers could replicate evolution of all living phenomena. with a few exceptions. observationally tested. whereas in the second case. musical composition or mathematical reasoning. and in some cases during individual development – e. Forms of information processing required in microbes. whereas rotation of digitised images or models will lose information except for special cases (e. diverse and complex organisms and ecosystems containing them. whereas his chemical theory was intended to account for some familiar biological phenomena. 230–265. perception. education. A possible clue: transformations from one molecular structure to another often require rotation. partly because they are invisible and hard to study. Researchers wishing to join this very ambitious Turing-inspired project. More complex mechanisms may use internal state sensors and admit different substances at different times. (1936). in order to come up with good theories about changes in the mechanisms responsible. development. environments constraining what the information needs to refer to and diverse requirements for cooperation and competition using different forms of communication. 37–72. could emerge from much simpler systems by many small steps.com/CogMisc/toddler-theorems. London B 237. but they have tended.g. e. Proc.g. and using information) suggest the need for variations in information processing mechanisms over evolutionary times. and inference power: the ability of the engine to transform those patterns from representations of problems to representations of solutions. and. representing many different problems. with an application to the Entscheidungsproblem. bats. and other fields has enriched the set of facts to be explained by theories about biological information processing. metropolitan cultures and other marvels. very fast.g.html http://tinyurl. In the first case all the structures and operations are discrete.g. deriving. 48 \ cybertalk Turing’s 1952 paper showed among other things that in chemical morphogenesis local processes. control the diverse developmental trajectories of organisms as different as bacteria. analysing. discrete changes in contents of a linear tape. linguistics. can produce complex and varied global patterns. crows. blotches.In 2011. Soc. such as explaining how the same genome can enable learning of thousands of possible languages. All of those changes require changes in information processing. problem-solving and control of many internal functions and external actions. hypotheses about intermediate states between the earliest. combining and extending the kinds of thinking displayed in his work on morphogenesis and on Turing machines and computability. cybertalk \ 49 . with an engine controlled by very simple rules.g. R. e. Besides mechanisms for producing new forms of information-processing there were also new mechanisms for producing those mechanisms. elephants and whales. decision-making. Turing. including chemically implemented genetic mechanisms that. This requires two important features: representational power: the ability of the patterns used to support a wide variety of rich and complex problems and solutions. In a TM. provided that the mechanisms operated on by selection had the power to accommodate that diversity and complexity. acquiring. A. It is possible to acquire vast amounts of information about the diversity of behaviours of organisms. control of behaviour. store and use information about the spatial layout of important parts of the environment. if Turing had lived. Soc. but sense changes over time. and probably many others. The 20th century saw major advances in digital electronic machines with those capabilities. (His paper discussed far more than this. combining and extending Turing’s ideas about computation and morphogenesis may reveal previously unnoticed potential in the mixture of continuity and discreteness found in chemical information processing but unavailable in discrete symbol manipulators.uk/ ̃axs These web pages (still under development) present many more examples of changes in information processing during evolution. or information about things that process information. Even more complex changes in the mechanisms are required to allow organisms to acquire. Patterns on organisms can have rich biological functions. The Chemical Basis Of Morphogenesis. molecular changes are discrete: there are not infinitely many intermediate cases between any two molecules (e. and in chemical mechanisms. in principle. An electronic computer can be understood as a TM with a finite. such as three fifths and seven eighths. often supported by new physical/chemical mechanisms. M.ac. There is masses of evidence about the diversity of physical forms and physiological structures that evolution has produced. Trans. Researchers interested in what Turing might have done are invited to join the Meta-morphogenesis project: a multi-pronged attack on the problem of identifying unobvious forms of biological informationprocessing. deception of predators. daisies. 42(2). for a fixed interpreter of the patterns. The Darwin-Wallace theory of natural selection shows that. others not.g. deep and general explanations of processes in which a dust cloud condenses to form a planet that several billion years later includes microbes.. using inferences from fossil records. changes in information processing capabilities between a caterpillar and the moth it turns into.html References Turing. To that rich and growing store of knowledge about long past and very recent changes in structure.g. On computable numbers. analysing requirements posed by environmental changes. or the production of a proof in a symbol-manipulating engine. Still more complex organisms may not only sense external stimulation and react immediately.g. However. and mostly cannot be inferred from their effects. mate-selection and cultural evolution. Further complexity comes from abilities to take account of multiple needs. or information about states of the environment that can be observed only from close up. (1952). repertoire of forms of information-processing required for the types of reproduction. use the direction of change to influence motion: e.

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