Workshop prepared by:
Alastair Fleming, Education Department, Keele University – Group Leader
Alison Garside, Brine Leas School, Nantwich
Bernard Besly, ESEU Facilitator
Nicola Maddocks, ESEU Facilitator
Tonia Robertson-Rogers, ESEU Facilitator
Jane Essex, Education Department, Keele University – Editor
Hazel Benson, Peter Kennett, Chris King, Susannah Lydon, Cally Oldershaw - ESEU Editors

The Earth Science Education Unit
CBA1.040, Department of Education, Keele University,
Keele, Staffordshire, ST5 5BG

www.earthscienceeducation.com
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Chemistry of me at 16:
Teaching KS4 chemistry
Contents
Teachers
Support
Pack

Participant
Cards
Technician’s
List

KS4 Starter
KS4 Activity 1
KS4 Activity 2
KS4 Activity 3
KS4 Activity 4
KS4 Activity 5
KS4 Activity 6
KS4 Plenary
activity

Spot the Periodic Table – through the window
What am I made of?
The metal in me - calcium
The carbon in me
The iron in me
The hot air in me
The value of me – what am I worth?
Putting it all together

4
6
10
11
12
14
16
18

All Activities
All Activities

Summary
Start by looking through the window to spot the elements and compounds you can see
which form the environment around us. Then consider in Activity 1 what elements we are
made of and compare our composition with the lithosphere, atmosphere and hydrosphere.
Discover the calcium in our bones in Activity 2 and the carbon we contain in Activity 3.
Activity 4 looks at the iron in food that our body needs and Activity 5 investigates the air
we breathe. If we added up the value of all the elements in our body, what would we be
worth? Find out in Activity 6, before ‘Putting it all together’ in the plenary activity.

© The Earth Science Education Unit

3

www.earthscienceeducation.com

3j Time: 15 minutes Pupil learning outcomes: The things around us. There is a help sheet available. The view through the window (Starter Activity) Some possible answers to this activity are given below. Elements making up these compounds are ticked. Context: To consider the idea that ‘chemistry is all around you’ Common misconceptions: It is often not appreciated how few elements make up the majority of the environment in which we live.com . Resources: Participant cards Activity: Participants look through a nearby window and attempt to ‘spot the compound or element’. both outside and inside.earthscienceeducation. Many suggestions regarding which compounds participants might spot are given on the Participant Card and are not repeated here.Teachers’ Support Pack Chemistry of me at 16 Starter Activity: Spot the Periodic Table – through the window Introduction: This activity is intended as a warmup ‘ice-breaker‘ exercise. are made from just a few elements. © The Earth Science Education Unit 4 www. to stimulate thinking about how pupils might relate the chemistry they are taught to the world outside the window. Elements (un-combined) are circled. Follow-up: Pupils can continue to look for examples of common elements and compounds in the local environment on their way home from school. Key Stage: Chemistry KS4 National Curriculum Ref: Sc3 2g. 3a. This is best done in pairs or groups to encourage discussion.

vanadium or zirconium Spot that element. It cannot be ‘seen’ because either it is covered by a protective coating (paint. the salt. as a roof covering Element/symbol Lead – Pb Copper .Pt Carbon . Which elements (uncombined) from the periodic table above can you see? Circle the elements you can spot – answers are shown on the periodic table above. but the answers are likely to be quite similar – indicating that we normally interact with rather few elements in our daily lives. they shouldn’t do so. leaving just the grit behind 1. O2. Comment Often is dull due to a lead carbonate coating Pure copper is usually not visible.Zn Jewellery on a person – of gold. © The Earth Science Education Unit 5 www. Spot the difference. Ni. contain an unexpectedly large number of elements. It is also a mixture Salt – if a path has been gritted in the winter. Zr N2. W. However. it is neither an element nor a compound. • Constituent(s) Common alloys are iron with carbon. C and Pb are exceptions) NaCl This usually has a white surface coating of aluminium oxides Doesn’t become coated. Pupils might include the following – but. Co. titanium. CO2 Salt – sodium chloride What do all these compounds have in common? They are all insoluble They are all solids (unless water is visible) 2. but a mixture Air – but this cannot be ‘seen’ since it is transparent. niobium. it is usually coated with a weathering veneer of green copper carbonate compounds This usually has a surface coating of zinc carbonate minerals Aluminium .com . Ar. for the reasons given.Al What do all these elements have in common? They are relatively un-reactive – which is why they were chosen for this purpose Apart from carbon – they are all metals They are mostly different from those in the first list (Fe. V. Material Steel is iron alloyed with other elements for various purposes. plastic) or it has rusted to iron oxides/hydroxides. corrugated iron or in the metal steps of telegraph poles Aluminium – in ladders or car hubcaps Zinc . will not be there for long – it will dissolve in the next rain shower. Al. Silver – Ag. technically.Teachers’ Support Pack Chemistry of me at 16 Spot that compound. H2O.C 3. silver or platinum Diamond in jewellery may be visible A burnt area will be black with carbon Gold – Au. Nb. so stays bright – which is why it is used for jewellery 4. if visible at all. unusually. How do your answers differ if you ask which elements and compounds can be spotted in the ordinary room where you are now? Elements and elements of compounds seen outside but not in Elements and elements of compounds seen in the room but not the room outside There may be slightly fewer elements and elements in compounds in the room. Mo. Ti. Platinum . Material Lead. some items. such as light bulbs.C Carbon . Also. chromium. in flashings (edgings) on roofs Copper in pipes or. • • • • Chemical make-up Fe plus C. molybdenum.Cu Steel galvanised by zinc in wire fencing.earthscienceeducation. cobalt. Cr. All photographs can be found in colour on the Earth Science Education Unit website. tungsten. nickel.

there is much less iron than people usually think and phosphorous is often overlooked or unknown. With the lead-in and followup discussion. especially the atmosphere. the understanding that the properties of compounds are usually very different from the properties of the elements they contain. but not in the body). probably 20 minutes in all. but in different proportions. all made of the same chemical elements combined and mixed in different ways. biosphere). the names and main features of the Earth’s ‘four interacting spheres’: lithosphere. So there is a continual cycling of elements through each sphere. but do not. and see themselves as being made of different materials from anything else in the world. Ti and Mn are “extra” elements which look as though they might fit in place of C. N. hydrosphere . followed by the fourth – as below. National Curriculum Ref: Sc3. blood. Key Stage: Chemistry KS4 Lead-in: Introduce. All the interesting events take place at the interfaces between these spheres! They involve changes in chemical structure. of course. 6 www. © The Earth Science Education Unit Activity: Ask participants to complete the jigsaw. usually meaning chemical reactions. Note: The composition of the human body can be shown visually by assembling the elements in the correct proportions – as indicated in Appendix 1 to the Technician’s List on the final page. Point out (using diagram) that: (1) these spheres are. These elements are present in the lithosphere.com . which move the chemical elements between these spheres. but (2) that the essential differences between each of these are due to their different chemical structures: lithosphere – ionic lattices. and biosphere. hydrosphere. Al. Common misconceptions: It is often poorly appreciated that: the whole of the human body is made of the same ‘stuff’ (elements and their compounds) as the rest of the physical and biological world. biosphere – largely polymers.small molecules (low intermolecular forces). because an element such as sodium is highly reactive does NOT mean that its compounds will also be highly reactive – rather the reverse. Context: Consolidation of the concepts of elements and compounds. hydrosphere.earthscienceeducation. Cl and Na respectively. Some teenagers may not even appreciate that they are made of elements. (Note that Si. After participants have completed the jigsaw correctly – they complete the third column of the table. linked to a growing understanding of the patterns of the Periodic Table.small molecules and ions (relatively high intermolecular forces). a cycling which is essential to the existence of each sphere. atmosphere. hydrosphere and above all the biosphere. the understanding of the role of minerals in nutrition. Pupil learning outcomes: Understand that the human body is made of the same elements that make up the Earth. atmosphere . tissue etc. know the main elements in a 15/16 year old. atmosphere. • Jig-saw of the elemental composition of the human body copied onto card and cut into pieces Introduction: Begin thinking about what you are made of as you make the jig-saw – and how this compares with the make-up of the lithosphere.3a Time: Assembling the jig-saw should not take more than 5 minutes. understand that the elements are combined together to form different types of compound which form bone.Teachers’ Support Pack Chemistry of me at 16 Activity 1: What am I made of? Resource list: • Participant Card • Diagram showing the Earth’s four spheres (lithosphere. or remind the participants of.

It contains more nitrogen than the lithosphere and hydrosphere.03 none 10 1.13 2. The body contains less sodium than both the lithosphere and hydrosphere – but there is none in the atmosphere. The body contains more phosphorus and sulfur than all the others. Figures for the composition of the lithosphere are not used because they are more uncertain and less familiar than those for the crust.1 Less than 0.006 1. while some of the important elements in the human body and the Earth’s lithosphere are the same. the human body contains some important elements that are rare in the Earth’s lithosphere and visa versa. most like the lithosphere or most like the hydrosphere? None of these – it is like a combination of all three. but about the same as the hydrosphere.6 27.] The completed table shows that. It contains much more carbon than all of them and more hydrogen than the © The Earth Science Education Unit The human body has ‘more’. but less than the hydrosphere.1 Less than 0. but more than the atmosphere and hydrosphere. However. but the body contains more than the atmosphere and hydrosphere. Some possible answers to the questions they are asked are as follows.2 23 0. ‘hydrosphere’ and ‘biosphere’.earthscienceeducation.6 2.2 0.Teachers’ Support Pack Element Oxygen Silicon Aluminium Iron Calcium Sodium Potassium Magnesium Titanium Hydrogen Phosphorus Manganese Sulfur Carbon Chlorine Nitrogen Chemistry of me at 16 Percentage in the lithosphere* 46. 7 www.1 0. Extension activity: Participants consider a table of comparison between the chemical make-up of the human body. figures used in this column.1 0.1 0.7 8. • What are the differences and similarities between the chemical composition of your body and its surroundings? The human body contains more oxygen than the atmosphere and lithosphere. it also contains less magnesium and iron than the lithosphere but more than both the hydrosphere and the atmosphere • Is your body most like the atmosphere.1 Less than 0.1 Less than 0. the lithosphere.4 0.com . and elsewhere in these worksheets are for the composition of the crust. atmosphere and hydrosphere. for example. that a carbon atom on the end of your nose could well have been in a dinosaur’s big toe. It is useful to mention conservation of matter at some point – a constant recycling of elements means.8 2. either directly or through food.6 0.0 3. atmosphere and lithosphere.1 5. The calcium content of the human body is less than in the lithosphere. It contains less potassium than the lithosphere.14 0. ‘less’ or ‘same’ as the lithosphere more less less less less less less less less more more less more more more more Follow-up: Establish that there has to be a continuous flow of each element into and out of the body if this composition is to be maintained – a cycling of each element from one or more of the other spheres. The body contains more chlorine than the lithosphere and atmosphere but less than the hydrosphere.5 [* Note 1: The term ‘lithosphere’ is used here in a general way to mean ‘Earth’s rocky sphere’ comparing well with the terms ‘atmosphere’.6 2. but much less than the atmosphere. * Note 2: The plate tectonic definition of lithosphere (the material that forms the rigid plates) includes the crust (averaging around 15 km in thickness) and the upper part of the mantle – the lithosphere averages around 100 km in thickness.1 none 0.1 Percentage in the human body 61 none none 0.

earthscienceeducation.com .Teachers’ Support Pack Chemistry of me at 16 Jigsaw for Activity 1: What am I made of? © The Earth Science Education Unit 8 www.

earthscienceeducation.Teachers’ Support Pack Chemistry of me at 16 Diagram for Activity 1: What am I made of? The four ‘spheres’ of the Earth and how they are related © The Earth Science Education Unit 9 www.com .

Flame testing for calcium (Activity 2) Resource list: • Participant Card Small thin bones from e. Key Stage: Chemistry KS4. In the context of the ‘big picture’. Note: ‘brittle bones’ are caused by protein deficiency. and that phosphorus and oxygen are also needed for bones. such as the issues of calcium deficiency and osteoporosis.g.com . proteins and fats). Common misconceptions: Although pupils are usually aware of the three major organic components of the diet (carbohydrates. and how this fits into the recycling of calcium compounds in nature. Note the different chemical characteristics of the metal as an element and in a compound. but where? Can we find out what they are doing inside the body? Time: 20 minutes Pupil learning outcomes: Know how a few elements. This calcium is slowly cycled into and out of the bones. Also the wires are © The Earth Science Education Unit Follow-up: Discuss the flexibility of bone when calcium is removed. Immerse the bones in the acid about one hour before the activity takes place.Teachers’ Support Pack Chemistry of me at 16 Activity 2: The metal in me – calcium Introduction: What makes our bones hard? Try removing the ‘hardness’ and flame testing the solution that results. then ‘flaming’ them off . can be identified in their compounds by use of the flame test. eg. Context: The mass of calcium in the body (1 kg in a 70 kg person) is mainly there as one of the elements in bone. So calcium compounds form an important component of the diet. Understand why regular intake of calcium compounds is essential in the diet. where does the calcium in our bones come from? Here is an example of how the ‘calcium trail’ might work: • Underlying strata containing calcium compounds are weathered • Calcium is incorporated into the soil profile • It is absorbed through the roots of plants • Grass is eaten by cows • Cows produce milk • Cheese is made from milk • We eat the cheese . Activity: Show a sample of elemental calcium and a sample of a compound containing calcium. and the other end can be snipped off between tests to ensure a fresh piece of wire for each test). and of course more calcium is needed by children who are still growing. rabbit or chicken. [You may wish to show them again the reaction of calcium with water that they may have seen at KS3]. they often fail to understand that minerals are also an important component. including calcium. the day before. • Hydrochloric acid (1M) • Tweezers • Any calcium salt • Crushed limestone • Bunsen burner and heat proof mat • 10 cm lengths of clean thin ‘nichrome’ wire (NB It is not necessary to mount these in glass rod holders if they are long enough – they can be held between the fingers at the far end from the flame.and the calcium from it is cycled into our bones 10 www. 5 cm diam National Curriculum Ref: Sc3 2g Lead-in: We have a lot of calcium inside us Why? Calcium is a reactive metal so there is likely to be a lot of one or more calcium compounds inside us. It would also be sensible to set up a bone in acid some time earlier.earthscienceeducation. Know that a major role of calcium in the human body is as a component of bones. and among these calcium compounds make the largest contribution. Then ask them to carry out the ‘bendy bones’ and flame testing activities described on the Participant Card. • • best cleaned in preparation for each test by dipping in 5M HCl on a watchglass.but pupils will have to make do with 1M HCl for safety reasons) Wirecutters/tinsnips Watch glasses.

11 www.htm or http://www. We are born with the right composition – and keep it to the end! Resource list: • Participant Card • Bench mat • Stand and clamp • Boiling tube • Cold water and measuring cylinder • Tongs (mounting pins can be used instead) • Several different foods to burn. Context: This activity links the percentage of carbon (C) in the human body to the food we eat as the main source of carbon. Key Stage: Chemistry KS4. which have a high fat content and work well. protein and carbohydrates.earthscienceeducation. including the proportion of carbon. Avoid nut-based products in case of allergies. Include potato crisps. (see http://www. All photographs can be found in colour on the Earth Science Education Unit website.The carbon in me Introduction: Find out how much carbon is produced when food samples are burnt.com/SpontaneousCo mbust. Relay the ‘story’ of spontaneous combustion in humans – clothing may act as a wick and the body fat melts and vaporises like a candle. 3k Time: 15 minutes If we were to burn. Safety: Ensure boiling tubes are pointed away from faces.mysticalblaze.com/spontaneous -human-combustion-burning-issue. vegetable or mineral? Both animals and vegetables are organic. and one high in carbohydrate.com . Use eye protection. we are made up mainly of compounds of carbon.htm). Our own bodies would also produce carbon if burnt – but it is best to try it with food instead! Lead-in: Where do the carbon compounds that make up our bodies come from? Are we animal. Only the extremities (hands and feet) are left. although these can be difficult to ignite. oxygen with a few other elements. we would produce masses of soot! (mainly because of the fat content of our bodies).we are organic rather than inorganic. Discuss the meaning of ‘organic’ . Common misconceptions: It is often not appreciated that what we eat doesn’t make a difference to our composition. Be able to relate the soot formed when foods are burned to the proportion of carbon in the food. Understand the use of the terms organic and inorganic in the context of chemistry. Other foods could include one high in protein (a meat product). National Curriculum Ref: Sc3 2q.Teachers’ Support Pack Chemistry of me at 16 Activity 3 . © The Earth Science Education Unit Apparatus for burning foodstuffs under a boiling tube of cold water (Activity 3) Activity: Carry out the food-burning activity described on the Participant Card. minerals are inorganic. Pupil learning outcomes: Understand that the carbon in compounds in our bodies comes from the carbon compounds in what we eat.alternativescience. It can also be used to consolidate the standard word equation for the combustion of carbon compounds. hydrogen. from fats.

Even when simple minerals like quartz (SiO2) are introduced and seen to be simple chemical compounds. that Special K™ contained ‘iron filings’. not iron filings. there seems to have been no ‘official’ correction published. Context: Iron is a common element in the Earth’s crust. At this point the story of the KS3 SAT question set a few years ago could be told. If they had checked their facts. so perhaps it is not surprising that it is found in the human body. Common misconceptions: Many pupils do not think of rocks as being made of elements and compounds in the same way as the substances they encounter in the chemistry laboratory.com . The magazine ‘New Scientist’ heard about the question. may be used as a vehicle to address this. and therefore in the diet. National Curriculum Ref: Sc3 2g Activity: As the mixture of crushed cereal in water is stirred with the magnetic stirrer. that is used – an important difference. However there is much more to iron in the body than that. Apparatus for finding the iron in cereals (Activity 4) Follow up: This activity shows how the iron content in the cereal is increased by the addition of fine iron powder. the complexity and variability of rock composition seems to lead them to believe that rocks must be made of something else. For abler pupils.Teachers’ Support Pack Chemistry of me at 16 Activity 4: The iron in me Introduction: You may be surprised to find that iron metal is added to some foods. Refer to the dietary information for example on a packet of Kellogg’s Special K™ and ask whether they would expect the iron to be present as the element or as a compound of iron. failed to check what was behind it. and jeered at what it regarded as a ‘nonsense’ suggestion. as well as others in this sequence.what does it do? © The Earth Science Education Unit 12 www. Resource list: • Participant Card • Any fortified cereal e. Understand why iron is needed for haemoglobin in the blood and why some sources of iron in the diet are better than others. Time: 10 minutes Pupil learning outcomes: Know that iron is an essential element in the human body. Since it is unlikely that a school laboratory will have several magnetic stirrers. but what is its role . and the role of iron is central to the process of human respiration. that it had been checked out with Kelloggs. This activity. wrote in to correct the magazine. or as one activity in a circus. they would have found that the science was correct. Use the magnetic properties of iron to find out how much is in your breakfast cereal. this can be done as a teacher demonstration with pupil participation. so perhaps it is not surprising that it is found in the body.g. including teachers.earthscienceeducation. and above all that it is iron powder. the concepts of oxidation and reduction can be consolidated and widened in this activity. fine iron power adheres as a grey coating to the magnetic stirrer bar – to the surprise of most. Key Stage: Chemistry KS4 How could iron as an element be extracted from Special K™? Try the activity below. Special K™ • Water • Large beaker (1000 ml) • Magnetic stirrer with stirrer bar (preferably a clean white one) • Tweezers Lead-in: What is iron doing in the human body? Iron is a common element in the Earth’s crust. when this experiment was described and questions asked about what was happening. Although several scientists.

When the iron powder reaches the stomach. 5 – 6.earthscienceeducation. Why are iron compounds not used? The body requires Fe2+ for haemoglobin and ‘iron tablets’ contain iron(II) sulphate and are swallowed whole.Teachers’ Support Pack Chemistry of me at 16 Extension: Compare and contrast the amount of iron extracted from other cereals and discuss the differences. © The Earth Science Education Unit 13 www. (1996) Classic chemistry demonstrations. Acknowledgement: This activity is taken from: Lister. This can then lead into a wider discussion on the benefits and possible hazards of vitamin and mineral supplements. but it forms a useful example of the application of understanding of simple chemistry to their lives. But if this compound were to be used as a fine powder in the cereal it would dissolve and oxidise to Fe3+ before reaching the stomach. have about 7 mg of iron per 100g while un-fortified cereals have 1 – 2 mg iron per 100g. Special K™ packets quote 20 mg of iron per 100g of cereal.com . which are fortified at a lower level. London: Royal Society of Chemistry. Also try comparing and contrasting the compositional analyses of contents given on different cereal packets. T. iron eaten in powder form has no taste. it reacts with the hydrochloric acid in the stomach to form iron(II) chloride (and hydrogen). so providing Fe2+ just where it is needed! Importantly. the iron must be digested as Fe2+. while cornflakes. This story will need to be adapted to the level of the pupils in the class. If the iron content of the body is to be increased. All photographs can be found in colour on the Earth Science Education Unit website.

m.Teachers’ Support Pack Chemistry of me at 16 Activity 5: The hot air in me Resource list: • Participant Cards • 2 gas syringes. hydrosphere. Know that water intake comes both from drinking liquids and from eating such things as fruit and vegetables.com . Know the approximate percentages of the most important gases in air – nitrogen. we need a lot of air! But where did the air we breathe come from and what is it made of? Context: Human life depends on respiration. but in particular. with plungers loosely fastened with string. atmosphere and biosphere). copper turnings) see Technician’s list • Silica (glass) combustion tube.earthscienceeducation. most of which combined with hydrogen as water. p Time: 10 minutes Pupil learning outcomes: Know that the most abundant element in the body is oxygen.2 l. Lead-in: Can we live without air? Discuss the importance of air. Understand how percentages of the reactive and unreactive components in air can be found by using another element to remove the reactive component. National Curriculum Ref: Sc3. Common misconceptions: Many pupils think air is made mainly or even completely of oxygen. The average person breathes in about 14. 15 cm long • 2 short pieces of silica glass rod that fit loosely into the tube • 3 way tap to allow initial adjustment of plunger positions • Rubber tubing – short lengths to connect • Cartoon poster or OHT prepared to show a volcano with past atmospheric composition. For someone doing energetic exercise. to prevent them dropping out of the syringes onto the bench and smashing • freshly reduced wire-form copper (or if this is unavailable. the air intake could be about 30 – 40 litres of air every minute. Key Stage: Chemistry KS4. for which we need to draw on resources from all the Earth’s spheres (lithosphere.500 litres of air each day when resting. All in all. and they do not abandon this misconception even when they have learnt the values for the composition of air by heart! © The Earth Science Education Unit 14 www. and then arrows and clouds linking to present day atmospheric composition Introduction: How might the atmosphere of the early Earth have originated and how might it have changed to contain the gases that are vital to our lives? Investigate how much of the air we breathe is actually composed of oxygen. the gases of the atmosphere. oxygen and carbon dioxide. 100 ml.

Teachers’ Support Pack Chemistry of me at 16 Activity 5A: Name that gas The completed table should be as follows: Gas description Gas(es) These three constituents of volcanic gas either form the water of the oceans or dissolve in the ocean waters. Figure A9. The process has added an important gas to the atmosphere that is not found in volcanic gas This constituent of volcanic gas not only dissolves in the oceans but is also used by plants during photosynthesis This constituent of volcanic gas has very low density and so is easily lost from the atmosphere to outer space. All photographs can be found in colour on the Earth Science Education Unit website. This is a compound.earthscienceeducation. A. The Participant Card contains questions for those observing the demonstration.oxygen • What is the name of the main gas in air that did not react? .21% • What is the name of the gas that reacted with the copper? . The gas that remains is unreactive. Activity 5B: How much air is used when copper reacts with air? This is a teacher demonstration – described on the Participant Card (but not intended for pupils to do themselves). Explain that the copper reacts with something in the air to give the grey-black product that the pupils observe. depending on the temperature and the balance between such processes as evaporation and condensation During photosynthesis by plants. Acknowledgement: This activity is taken from: King. (1984) Chemistry. © The Earth Science Education Unit 15 www. York: Longman. 78% is nitrogen The grey-black solid is copper (II) oxide. These two constituents of volcanic gas are not very reactive and so remain in the atmosphere and their percentages have built up over geological time This gas is found in varying amounts in the atmosphere. this gas is released. The apparatus for reacting copper with air (Activity 5) Extension: Ask whether the pupils would expect any change in the mass of the copper during the experiment and why? (The mass of the copper increases as it becomes copper oxide). Acknowledgement: This activity is taken from: Hunt.A & Sykes. Sheffield: ESTA. It is a gas that has low atomic mass and so is found early in the periodic table ‘Cloud’ letter c • • • • • • Water vapour Carbon dioxide Sulfur oxides Nitrogen Argon Water vapour • Oxygen e • Carbon dioxide d • Hydrogen a b f Answers to questions on Participant Card: • What volume of air was set at the start? – 100 cm3 • What volume of gas was still there after passing it over hot copper? – 79 cm3 • So what volume of gas was used up in reaction with the copper? – 21 cm3 • And what percentage is this of the whole air? . & York. Of the remaining 79%. C.nitrogen Follow up: Discuss results and develop a word equation for the reaction that takes place. P. (1995) SoE1 – Changes to the Atmosphere. The reaction can be written as: Copper + Air → Product + Inactive air (79%) The 21% active gas in the air is oxygen.com .3. J.

Context: All living things depend upon minerals derived from the lithosphere. and most of the raw material we need for everything we use in our day-to-day lives also derive from the lithosphere.006 1.13 0.23 £ 34. Participants calculate the value of these elements EITHER in the typical 70 kg body OR in their own body if they know their own mass.69 £ 2.2 0.14 0.2 0.Teachers’ Support Pack Chemistry of me at 16 Activity 6: The value of me Introduction: How much are you worth? Use the prices to find out how much the materials that make up your body would cost if you were to buy them separately. and if possible to the range of mineral extraction for different elements that occurs. friends and as a citizen of your country.88 £ 3. mainly via the soil to the plants and then the animals that together form our diet. Key Stage: Chemistry KS4.09 £1173.g and 3. They then calculate the total value of the body.1 0.21 www. which are supplied mainly in our food.46 £ 272. and wondering what we ourselves might be worth as a collection of elements. Resource list: • Participant Cards • Geological map of the UK National Curriculum Ref: 3.32 8. Pupil learning outcomes: Be able to calculate the monetary value of a stated quantity of an element. This leads to the question of the economic cost of these elements.73 0.8kg 1. this idea can be linked to geological maps of the UK. Results for a 70 kg human body are as follows: Element Oxygen Carbon Hydrogen Nitrogen % of body mass from each element 61 23 10 2.0kg 1. Know that Britain is made of rocks that contain all these elements.2.earthscienceeducation.40 £198. or has occurred in the past. along with the mass of each element in a typical 70kg body and the percentage of body mass this represents. given the market value of that element.7kg 16. it is not a significant route for the major minerals. Understand that we depend upon the rocks of the Earth’s crust to supply our needs for many elements.0kg 770g 140g 140g 98g 95g 21g 4.4 1.00 16.90 £167. This is all bound up with the way elements are cycled in and out of the lithosphere. This process can be speeded up by asking each member to carry out the calculation for one element and combining all the results together at the end.43 £ 16.60 1. Understand in particular that the mineral components of our diet come from the rocks.40 £ 82. Since we live in Britain.5 Mass of element in a 70kg person 42. both for the biosphere and to provide our modern way of life. both by natural processes and by the processes of the mineral industry and waste disposal.3k Time: 20 minutes Lead-in: Where do we get the minerals in our diet from? By discussion establish that ultimately they must come from the lithosphere (or the Earth’s crust).com .2g Calcium Phosphorous Potassium Sulfur Sodium Chlorine Magnesium Iron Total value © The Earth Science Education Unit 16 Price per kg Value of element in 70 kg person £ 146.80 £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ 144.50 £1877. Understand that our ‘market value’ as a collection of elements forming our bodies has no real meaning in terms of our value as human beings! Activity: The Participant Cards provide a data table giving the market prices for 12 important elements in their bodies (taken from the 1997 Aldrich Catalogue). and that in a few places the rocks may contain enough of an element to be an economic source for its extraction. Common misconceptions: Some people think that drinking water supplies minerals for our diet.00 £ 21.83 0.60 £144.03 0.00 £790.07 18.17 110.90 £ 49. in different parts of Britain. and also perhaps by mineral supplements. While several trace elements may be supplied this way.00 £ 9.1kg 7. Then discuss what you are really worth – to your family.67 £ 1.

which consist of porous.com . permeable rocks (not large caverns underground!) while surface water is stored in reservoirs.earthscienceeducation. both in economic terms and also in terms of ethics! Extension: Consider the role of the water cycle and hence the presence of dissolved minerals in water supplies. reacting with it and dissolving substances. where rainwater has infiltrated the soil and percolated through the underlying rock. Consider biological mechanisms for maintaining steady levels of the elements in the body (homeostasis and excretion). © The Earth Science Education Unit 17 www.Teachers’ Support Pack Chemistry of me at 16 Follow-up: Discuss of the validity of the ‘elemental value’ calculated. Develop the understanding that groundwater is stored in aquifers. Relate this in particular to borehole abstraction.

earthscienceeducation. and acquire a broader perspective of the relationship between their own bodies and the world around them. q Time: 15 minutes (approx) Resource List: • Participant Cards Pupil Learning Outcomes: Revise the lessons learned in the earlier part of the workshop.Teachers’ Support Pack Chemistry of me at 16 Plenary Activity: Putting it all together Introduction: The elements in your body have been cycled through many places before they formed you.com . Key Stage: Chemistry KS4 Common misconceptions: Pupils may not realise that most of the common elements form compounds important in all of Earth’s ‘spheres’. L if dead H H L B B L A H B B B B if in animal L if in soil H if in sewage B H L B B H L L L L L H A B B B B A www. Element Calcium Natural example of element or its compounds • • • • Calcium carbonate in limestone and marble Calcium dissolved in ‘hard’ water Calcium carbonate in teeth and bones Calcium carbonate in shells • Another example? – Calcium dissolved in the sea Chlorine • • • • • Sodium chloride (‘salt’) in sea water Sodium chloride in rocks Chloride ions in plants Chloride ions in animals Another example? – Chloride ions in the soil Nitrogen • • • • • • Nitrogen in air Nitrate in soil water Nitrogen in bacteria in soil Nitrogen in protein in plants Nitrogen in protein in animals Nitrogen in urea • • • • • • Another example? – Nitrogen in excretion Sodium chloride (‘salt’) in sea water Sodium chloride in rocks Sodium ions in plants Sodium ions in animals Another example? – Sodium ions in soil water • • • • • • • • • • • • Carbonate such as limestone and marble Carbon in fossil fuel – coal Carbon in fossil fuel – oil and natural gas Graphite formed of carbon Diamond formed of carbon Carbon dioxide dissolved in seas Carbon dioxide in the air Carbon dioxide used in photosynthesis Carbon dioxide produced by respiration Carbon in carbohydrates in plants Carbon in carbohydrates in animals Another example? – Carbon monoxide in the air Sodium Carbon © The Earth Science Education Unit 18 ‘Sphere’ where it is found L H B B if living. Answers are as shown below. p. National Curriculum Ref: Sc3 2 l. Lead-in: Where (chemically) do you come from? Where else on Earth are the elements that make up your body found? Activity: Groups complete the tables on the Participant Cards. Where else are they found? Context: Re-visit some of the key elements explored in earlier activities and see where they are found in the wider environment.

Each group can take an element and show how it can be moved to another sphere.earthscienceeducation.g. rust) Oxygen used in breathing Oxygen produced by photosynthesis Another example? – Oxygen in iron ore (magnetite) Iron • • • • • • • • Iron in haemoglobin in red blood cells Iron oxide in ore (hematite) Iron sulfide in rocks (‘fool’s gold’) Iron metal crystals in igneous rock (e.g. fortified cereal) Iron compounds in faeces Another example? – Iron stained weathered rock surfaces H A A H L B B L B L L L H B B L Follow-up: When groups are clear where in the Earth’s spheres these examples are found – follow up with a discussion of how they are cycled from one sphere to the others. meat. as shown below: Element Calcium Natural example of element or its compounds • • • • • Calcium carbonate in limestone and marble Calcium dissolved in ‘hard’ water Calcium carbonate in teeth and bones Calcium carbonate in shells Another example? – Calcium dissolved in the sea ‘Sphere’ where it is found L ‘Sphere’ it can be cycled to H • Dissolved by acid rain H B B L H L • • • Deposited in stalactites Dissolved by water after burial Buried to form limestone H B • Used to form sea shells Biosphere (Plenary Activity) Lithosphere (Plenary Activity) Atmosphere (Plenary Activity) © The Earth Science Education Unit Process Hydrosphere (Plenary Activity) 19 www.Teachers’ Support Pack Chemistry of me at 16 Oxygen • • • • • • • • Oxygen dissolved in water Oxygen in the air Carbon dioxide in the air Carbon dioxide dissolved in water Oxygen reacted with metals (eg. basalt. granite) Dissolved iron compounds in rivers Iron in food (e. green vegetables.com .

3. Spot the difference: How do your answers differ if you ask which elements and compounds can be spotted in the ordinary room where you are now? Elements and elements of compounds seen outside but not in the room Elements and elements of compounds seen in the room but not outside . What do all these compounds have in common? 5. Spot that compound: Look out of the window – you can see many different compounds made of different elements. Spot that element: Which elements (uncombined) from the periodic table above can you see? Circle the elements you can spot.Participant Cards Chemistry of me at 16 Spot the Periodic Table – through the window 1. Tick the elements which make up the compounds you can spot. 4. A help sheet is available if you need help. What do all these elements have in common? 2.

N. Ti SiO2 Na2CO3 CaCO3 MgCO3 C. Mg. O. Fe CaSO4 H. quartz) Sodium carbonate Calcium carbonate Magnesium carbonate Plastic polymer chains are made mainly of: Resin – compounds mainly of: Primary pigment – commonly titanium dioxide Simple secondary pigments include: iron oxide. the solvent evaporated when the paint dried Human body Plants Constituent(s) Kaolinite – contains: Montmorillonite – contains: Illite – contains: Tricalcium silicate – contains: Dicalcium silicate – contains: Tricalcium aluminate – contains: Tetracalcium aluminoferrite – contains: Calcium sulfate (gypsum) Long chains of hydrocarbon molecules including: The most common minerals are made of the most common elements in the Earth crust: Silicon dioxide (silica sand. secondary pigments and colorants and a solvent. O. Si C. H. O. Al.Participant Cards Chemistry of me at 16 Spot the Periodic Table – through the window – help sheet The chemistry of common outdoor compounds Material Bricks/tiles – these are made from clays which are baked in a kiln to form bricks/tiles. Al Ca. with trace amounts of around ten others: Chemical make-up Al. Major cement constituents include: Bitumen (asphalt or tar) Rock – made of minerals (roofing slate is a rock) Glass – the main constituents of float glass – the most common form of glass today. Mg. H TiO2 Fe2O3 Cr2O3. H Ca. P O. C. Al. Si. Si Ca. K. H. Al. N. S. In dry paint. O. O. Si Ca. O O. Si. O. Ca. H. Si. used to give yellows. S. C. reds and browns chromium oxide giving green lead oxide giving red 99% of the mass of the human body is made of just six elements: Plants are formed mainly of the following elements. H Na Ca. Si. Ca. P. H K. O. Al. Fe. C. O. Clays contain clay minerals and the most common ones are: Cement – cement is usually mixed with sand in mortar or with sand and rock chips in concrete. N. Pb3O4 O. a primary pigment. are: Plastic – polymers Paint – include a form of glue (resin). Al. O. Na. Si .

6 2.6 27.6 2.1 Less than 0.7 8.1 Less than 0.1 5.1 0.1 Less than 0.8 2.1 Less than 0. Element Oxygen Silicon Aluminium Iron Calcium Sodium Potassium Magnesium Titanium Hydrogen Phosphorus Manganese Sulfur Carbon Chlorine Nitrogen • Percentage in the lithosphere Activity: • Put the jig-saw together correctly • Write the information from the jigsaw into the table below to compare the percentage of elements in your body with the percentage of elements in the Earth’s lithosphere Percentage in the human body The human body has ‘more’.0 3. • How similar is the composition of the human body to that of the Earth’s lithosphere? . ‘less’ or ‘same’ as the lithosphere 46.1 0.Participant Cards Chemistry of me at 16 Activity 1: What am I made of? Introduction: Begin thinking about what you are made of as you make the jig-saw – and how this compares with the make-up of the lithosphere.6 0. ‘less’ of it is lower or ‘same’ if it is about the same.1 0.1 Then complete the final column of the table by writing ‘more’ if the human body has a greater percentage of the element than the lithosphere.

2 0# Less than 0.1 0 0 * depending on *as carbonate whether air is ions damp or dry # unless sulfur # as nitrate dioxide present ions due to burning + as phosphate fossil fuels ions What are the differences and similarities between the chemical composition of your body and its surroundings? • Is your body most like the atmosphere.1 0 0 0 27. lakes.7 0 0 0 0.04 0.1 10.07 0.1% 1. seas) and atmosphere (the air) as well as the composition of the human body.6 0.006 0 8.0 0 0.8 1.03 Less than 0.6 86 61 0.6 0.14 0 Less than 0.1 A trace + 1.1 A trace # 2.03 0 5. Element Oxygen Carbon Hydrogen Nitrogen Calcium Phosphorous Potassium Sulfur Sodium Chlorine Magnesium Iron Aluminium Silicon Titanium Manganese • the hydrosphere (rivers.2 0 2.1 0 2.04 1. most like the lithosphere or most like the hydrosphere? .1 0.1 A trace * 23 Varies * 0.08 0.8 10 78.92 0.4 0 0. Average % in the following locations Atmosphere Lithosphere Hydrosphere Human body 21 46.008 Less than 0.1 0.6 0 0 0 0.13 0 2.Participant Cards Chemistry of me at 16 Activity 1: What am I made of? – Extension activity Look at the table below giving the average composition of the three parts of our environment.5 0 3.13 0. the lithosphere (solid rock of the Earth’s outer layers).

Use eye protection. rinse it off and dry it. and when clean repeat the test using a sample of powdered limestone. Activity 2A: Removing the ‘hardness’ • You have been given a small bone that has been covered in 1M hydrochloric acid and left for an hour or so. Activity 2B: Flame testing • Conduct flame tests on the known calcium salt provided and on crushed limestone. • Now dip the wire into acid. What colour does it give to the flame now? • Clean the wire again as before. Dip the wire into the solution from activity 2a and carry out the flame test. and then into a sample of a known calcium compound. Does this give a calcium colour? Where might the calcium in our bones have come from? Flame testing for calcium . We can’t use our bones for this test. • Pass the treated and untreated bones around the group. and • • hold it there until any colour from the wire in the flame dies away. • Repeat this until the wire gives no colour to the flame – the wire is now clean. • Holding the wire firmly at the far end.Participant Cards Chemistry of me at 16 Activity 2: The metal in me – calcium Introduction: What makes our bones hard? Try removing the ‘hardness’ and flame testing the solution that results. so we are using animal bones instead because they have the same composition as ours. Then compare it with an untreated bone. Is the colour given to the flame the same? Now use this flame testing method to discover if there is calcium in bones. • Remove the bone from the solution with tweezers. as follows: • Dip the flame test wire in hydrochloric acid on the watch glass. touch the tip of the wire into the bottom corner of a strong blue Bunsen flame.

• Wait until the food has burnt out. • Watch for condensation forming on the tube and dripping onto the food sample – it might put out the flame. one high in protein. and one high in carbohydrate.Participant Cards Chemistry of me at 16 Activity 3: The carbon in me Introduction Find out how much carbon is produced when food samples are burnt. • How much soot has been deposited onto the test tube? • Burn different food types e. Our own bodies would also produce carbon if burnt – but it is best to try it with food instead! Use eye protection. Light it in a Bunsen flame and place the burning crisp under a boiling tube half-full of water. Apparatus for burning foodstuffs under a boiling tube of cold water Activity • Hold a potato crisp (with a high fat content) with tongs. Do they all give the same results? .g. and ensure that boiling tubes are pointing away from faces.

• Remove the stirrer bar using tweezers and look at it closely. or in a pestle and mortar. Use the magnetic properties of iron to find out how much is in your breakfast cereal. • What do you see? . • Crush the cereal by hand. • Use a magnetic stirrer to stir the mixture for a few minutes.Participant Cards Chemistry of me at 16 Activity 4: The iron in me Introduction You may be surprised to find that iron metal is added to some foods. • Add about 500 ml water. Apparatus for finding the iron in cereals Activity: Iron grains in cereal – can you be serious? • Measure about 50g (or around one serving) of cereal into the beaker.

which we think is similar to the early atmosphere. and write the answers into the table. • Now work out which ‘cloud’ represents which gases. • Between these are arrows and ‘clouds’ (a –f) which link them. several billion years ago. It is a gas that has a low atomic mass and so is found early in the Periodic Table. This constituent of volcanic gas has very low density and so is easily lost from the atmosphere to outer space. • Study the information table below. depending on the temperature and the balance between such processes as evaporation and condensation. • It shows the composition of volcanic gas that comes from volcanoes today. This gas is found in varying amounts in the atmosphere. Gas(es) • • • • • • • • • ‘Cloud’ letter . Gas description These three constituents of volcanic gas either form the water of the oceans or dissolve in the ocean waters. This constituent of volcanic gas not only dissolves in the oceans but is also used by plants during photosynthesis. These two constituents of volcanic gas are not very reactive and so remain in the atmosphere and their percentages have built up over geological time. this gas is released.Participant Cards Chemistry of me at 16 Activity 5: The hot air in me Introduction How might the atmosphere of the early Earth have originated and how might it have changed to contain the gases that are vital to our lives? Investigate how much of the air we breathe is actually composed of oxygen. Activity 5a: Name that gas • Look at the cartoon provided. During photosynthesis by plants. This process has added an important gas to the atmosphere that is not found in volcanic gas. which describes the gases.

Participant Cards Chemistry of me at 16 .

The Activity • Set-up the apparatus well in advance. as shown in the diagram (add string to each plunger. during and after the demonstration. to stop plungers popping out. and a tap in the middle) Activity 5B: How much air is used when copper reacts with air? • • • • • • What volume of air was set at the start? What volume of gas was still there after passing it over hot copper? So what volume of gas was used up in reaction with the copper? And what percentage is this of the whole air? What is the name of the gas that reacted with the copper? What is the name of the main gas in air that did not react? • • • • • • • The apparatus for reacting copper with air • • • Pack freshly-reduced wire-form copper (or copper turnings) into the silica tube. use the syringes to push air to and fro across it As the copper is heated in air it becomes grey-black As the copper is heated the volume of air decreases When no more reduction in gas volume occurs turn off the Bunsen burner Leave the apparatus to cool Measure the volume of air remaining This will allow the observers to answer the questions on the Participant Card – as above .Participant Cards Chemistry of me at 16 Activity 5: The hot air in me Activity 5B is a teacher demonstration (described here for teachers only) Answer these questions before. using the tap to vent unwanted air Heat the copper strongly with the Bunsen burner As the copper is heated. using a short piece of silica glass rod at each end to prevent the wire pieces spilling out Set the apparatus with one syringe containing 100 cm3 of air and the other set to the zero mark.

Participant Cards Chemistry of me at 16 Activity 6: The value of me Introduction How much are you worth? Use the prices to find out how much the materials that make up your body would cost if you were to buy them separately. calculate the total value of the main elements in the body. calculate: EITHER: the value of the typical 70 kg human body as follows: • • • First find the mass in kilograms of each element in the body From the table. Activity You are provided with a data table giving market prices for twelve important elements in your body. Then discuss what you are really worth – to your family. For each element. and the percentage of body mass this represents. Use the same stages as those above. The table also shows the mass of each element in a typical 70kg adult human body. find the value of 1 kg of that element Now multiply the mass of the element by the value of 1 kg of that element OR: the value of your own body if you know your own mass in kilograms and can use the percentage composition column. . friends and as a citizen of your country. Finally.

006 Mass of element in a 70kg person 42.60 £144.00 £ 9.2 0.14/100 x X 0. in kg 61/100 x X 23/100 x X 10/100 x X 2.40 £ 82.4/100 x X 1.2g Price per kg Value of element in 70 kg person £ 3.4 1.40 £198.006/100 x X Mass of element in me.00 £ 21.03/100 x X 0.90 £167.1 0.2 0.90 £ 49.1kg 7.50 Value of element in me .5 1.43 £ 16.7kg 16.50 Data table for your own body mass of X kg Element Oxygen Carbon Hydrogen Nitrogen Calcium Phosphorous Potassium Sulfur Sodium Chlorine Magnesium Iron Total value % of body mass from each element 61 23 10 2.23 £ 34.4 1.00 £ 9.40 £ 82.60 £144.2 0.67 £ 1.8kg 1.0kg 770g 140g 140g 98g 95g 21g 4.03 0.03 0.5 1.5/100 x X 1.67 £ 1.006 Calculation of mass of element in me.2/100 x X 0.00 £790.90 £ 49.40 £198. in kg Price per kg £ 3.14 0.2 0.2/100 x X 0.14 0.1 0.00 £790.13/100 x X 0.13 0.43 £ 16.90 £167.1/100 x X 0.13 0.00 £ 21.0kg 1.Participant Cards Chemistry of me at 16 Data table for a 70 kg person Element Oxygen Carbon Hydrogen Nitrogen Calcium Phosphorous Potassium Sulfur Sodium Chlorine Magnesium Iron Total value % of body mass from each element 61 23 10 2.23 £ 34.

Participant Cards Chemistry of me at 16 KS4 Plenary Activity: Putting it all together Introduction The elements in your body have been cycled through many places before they formed you. B = Biosphere) Lithosphere Then add an example of your own – and show where it is found. The first has been done for you to help you (L = lithosphere. Atmosphere Biosphere Hydrosphere . H = Hydrosphere. Where else are they found? Activity Show in which sphere each of the examples over the page is found by writing the initial letter of the ‘sphere’ opposite each example. A = Atmosphere.

Participant Cards Chemistry of me at 16 Element Calcium Chlorine Nitrogen Sodium Carbon Oxygen Example of element or its compounds • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Calcium carbonate in limestone and marble Calcium dissolved in ‘hard’ water Calcium carbonate in teeth and bones Calcium carbonate in shells Another example? Sodium chloride (‘salt’) in sea water Sodium chloride in rocks Chloride ions in plants Chloride ions in animals Another example? Nitrogen in air Nitrate in soil water Nitrogen in bacteria in soil Nitrogen in protein in plants Nitrogen in protein in animals Nitrogen in urea Another example? Sodium chloride (‘salt’) in sea water Sodium chloride in rocks Sodium ions in plants Sodium ions in animals Another example? Carbonate such as limestone and marble Carbon in fossil fuel – coal Carbon in fossil fuel – oil and natural gas Graphite formed of carbon Diamond formed of carbon Carbon dioxide dissolved in seas Carbon dioxide in the air Carbon dioxide used in photosynthesis Carbon dioxide produced by respiration Carbon in carbohydrates in plants Carbon in carbohydrates in animals Another example? Oxygen dissolved in water Oxygen in the air Carbon dioxide in the air Carbon dioxide dissolved in water Oxygen reacted with metals (eg. rust) Oxygen used in breathing Oxygen produced by photosynthesis Another example? - ‘Sphere’ where it is found L .

Participant Cards Chemistry of me at 16 Iron • • • • • • • • Iron in haemoglobin in red blood cells Iron oxide in ore (hematite) Iron sulfide in rocks (‘fool’s gold’) Iron oxide crystals in igneous rock (e. Element Natural example of element or its compounds Calcium • Calcium carbonate in limestone and marble ‘Sphere’ where it is found ‘Sphere’ it can be cycled to L H Process • Dissolved by acid rain .g. meat. green vegetables. basalt. granite) Dissolved iron compounds in rivers Iron in food (e. fortified cereal) Iron compounds in faeces Another example? - Then – draw a table like the one below – and complete it for one of the elements above. An example shows you how to do this.g.

Avoid nut-based products in case of allergies. Hydrochloric acid (1M). and the other end can be snipped off between tests to ensure a fresh piece of wire for each test.The carbon in me • • • • • • • Participant Card Bench mat Stand and clamp Boiling tube Cold water and measuring cylinder Tongs (mounting pins can be used instead) Several different foods to burn.The metal in me – calcium • • • • • • • • • • Participant Card Small thin bones from e. to prevent them dropping out of the syringes onto the bench and smashing • freshly reduced wire-form copper (see photograph below) (or if freshly reduced wireform copper is unavailable. hydrosphere. Include potato crisps. Special K™ Water Large beaker (1000 ml) Magnetic stirrer with stirrer bar (preferably a clean white one) Tweezers KS4 Activity 5 . Jig-saw of the elemental composition of the human body. and then arrows and clouds linking to present day atmospheric composition KS4 Activity 3 .Technician’s List Chemistry of me at 16 Technician’s List KS4 Starter activity .but pupils will have to make do with 1M HCl for safety reasons) Wirecutters/tinsnips Watch glasses. with plungers loosely fastened with string. Also the wires are best cleaned in preparation for each test by dipping in 5M HCl on a watchglass.Spot the Periodic Table – through the window • Participant Cards • A room with a reasonable view from the window KS4 Activity 1 . 5 cm diam KS4 Activity 4 . copied onto card and cut into pieces KS4 Activity 2 .What am I made of? • • • Participant Card PowerPoint or OHT slides showing the Earth’s four spheres (lithosphere.g. rabbit or chicken. Tweezers Any calcium salt Crushed limestone Bunsen burner and a heat proof mat 10 cm lengths of clean thin ‘nichrome’ wire (NB It is not necessary to mount these in glass rod holders if they are long enough – they can be held between the fingers at the far end from the flame.The hot air in me • Participant Cards • 2 gas syringes.Immerse the bones in the acid about one hour before the activity takes place. 15 cm long • 2 short pieces of silica glass rod that fit loosely into the tube • 3 way tap to allow initial adjustment of plunger positions • Rubber tubing – short lengths to connect • Cartoon poster or OHT prepared to show a volcano with past atmospheric composition.The iron in me • • • • • • Participant Card Any fortified cereal.g. atmosphere. eg. although these can be difficult to ignite. the day before. then ‘flaming’ them off . using the lab gas supply . Other foods could include one high in protein (a meat product). and one high in carbohydrate. which have a high fat content and work well. The preparation of freshly reduced copper wire. It would also be sensible to set up a bone in acid some time earlier. biosphere). 100 ml. copper turnings) • Silica (glass) combustion tube. e.

g. so prepare a 3 box/block of volume 120 cm (5 X 5 X 5cm) covered in foil paired with a small sample bottle containing potassium under oil.g. so much the better! – displayed with due regard to safety in a clear container and labelled: ‘Calcium: 1kg’. A partly used reel of magnesium ribbon may suffice. displayed if possible in a transparent box labelled: Carbon: 16kg. then a nearly empty cylinder would be appropriate). • Carbon: 16kg of coke. so a smaller sample in a sample bottle attached to a block/box of 3 volume about 333cm (e. Failing this.g. when full probably contains somewhat less than the 43 kg of oxygen. If such a cylinder is available.2 g. a smaller sample displayed in the same way. Label: ‘Potassium: 140g’ Sulfur: 140g of flowers of sulfur or roll sulfur in a bottle labelled: ‘Sulfur: 140g’ (a school chemical store should have little problem supplying this!) Sodium: a sample of 98g of sodium (displayed under oil) may be possible in some schools. or use a box about 2 litre capacity (20cm X 10cm X 10cm) wrapped in coloured paper and • • • • • • • • labelled: ‘Nitrogen: 1. Failing this. but where not possible a smaller sample taped to e. wrapped in coloured paper and labelled: ‘Hydrogen: 7kg (volume as occupied by liquid hydrogen)’ • Nitrogen: a small nitrogen cylinder would need to be nearly empty to contain a mass of nitrogen approximating to the 1. • Hydrogen: the small size of laboratory cylinder probably contains somewhat more than the 7kg of hydrogen found in the human body.Technician’s List Chemistry of me at 16 KS4 Activity 6 .2g’ . a large box of approx. it should be displayed securely and clearly labelled: ‘Oxygen: 43 kg (gas under high pressure)’.8kg (cylinder almost empty)’. Failing this a box about twice the size as suggested for oxygen above. 10 X 10 X 6. 4 X 4 X 4cm) could represent 95g of liquid chlorine. Displayed securely and labelled: ‘Hydrogen 7kg (gas under high pressure)’.Putting it all together Participant Cards ---------------------------------------------------------Appendix 1. If possible a single nail of appropriate size will make the point quite forcefully! Otherwise iron filings in a sample bottle could be used. Optional . See the Data Sheet on the Participant Card for a table of the correct quantities. a box having a similar volume to that which that mass of element would occupy. but is the nearest approximation to this mass of oxygen in the body. but as with oxygen this would be the nearest approximation. Either way. attached to a box or block of volume 3 650 cm (e.The value of me – what am I worth? • • Participant Cards Geological map of the UK • KS4 Plenary activity .8kg (volume as occupied by liquid nitrogen)’ Calcium: a mass of 1kg is probably too much for the average school chemical store to provide. Label: ‘Chlorine: 95g (volume as occupied by liquid chlorine)’ Magnesium: 21g. 50 litres capacity (40cm X 40cm X 30cm). or the small size of oxygen cylinder found in some schools (less than 1 metre long). Label: ‘Magnesium: 21g’ Iron: 4.8kg in the body! Such a cylinder could be displayed with a label stating: ‘Nitrogen 1. 3 volume 60cm (e. wrapped in coloured paper and labelled ‘Oxygen: 43kg (volume as occupied by liquid oxygen)’. but otherwise a box/block 3 of volume 100cm (5 X 5 X 4cm) covered in foil paired with a small sample bottle containing sodium under oil. but if it can be done. but for comparability to the other gases. 7 X 7 X 7cm). labelled: ‘Phosphorus: 770g’ Potassium: it is unlikely that most schools will have 140g of potassium. label: ‘Iron: 4. charcoal or a high carbon fuel such as phurnacite. or a sample bottle with 21g of magnesium powder.g. a box of approx. • Oxygen: a standard medical oxygen cylinder. Label: ‘Sodium: 98g’ Chlorine: it is highly unlikely that most schools will have small bench cylinders of chlorine used for demonstrations (but if a school does.A visual representation of the human body The elemental composition of the human body can be illustrated visually as follows: • Prepare sealed and labelled samples of some common elements in the human body. Where possible each sample should have the same mass as contained in an average 70kg human body.5 cm) painted silver or covered with cooking foil. A box/block of volume 32 litres would approximate to 95g of chlorine gas. Phosphorus: 770g of red phosphorus is probably more than is normally kept in stock by schools.