Surface Tension and Surface Adsorption

Date Performed: September 3rd, 2014

Date Due: September 10th, 2014

Kiran Vekaria ____________________________

which allows to graphically find the surface concentration. The Gibbs absorption isotherm can describe this relation. Also.Objectives: The purpose of this lab is to find how the surface tension of the solution is related to the capillary action of the surface. this lab shows the relation of concentration to the surface tension of the solution. From this the surface excess is used to describe the behavior of how the concentrations congregate within the bulk of the solution. .

00036 0.10 0 [n-but]f (mol/L) 0 0.00051 0.08 0.8 0.6 0.92732E10 ΔHeigh t (m) 0.011 0.2 0.3 0.4 1.1 1 Calculated values of the radius of capillary tube and surface area: M of n-butanol (g/mol) ρ of water (kg/m^3) Accel due to gravity.0136 0.08 0.8 0.2 1.4 1.2 1.7 0.7 0.0005 0.4 0.1 0.4 1.00080 0.8 1.0005 0.1 1.3 1.2 0.10 0.2 0.2 1.4 0.3 0.4 0.0725 0.7 1.08 0.9 Height (cm) 2.00073 0 Height Measurements: Tria l 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 [nbut]f 0 0.0096 .0005 0.0118 0.08 0.9 1.05 0.2 1.9 1.3 1.3 1.0005 0.0162 0.80665 0.2 1.05 0.0184 0.6 1.3 1.5 0.8 0.05 0.1 0.8 0.6 0.00051 0.8 1.1 0.00080 0 0 0 0 0 Dillutio n (mL) 0 100 100 100 100 200 100 200 100 ΔDilut e (mL) 0 0.11 0.00055 0.00000 0.8 1.4 1.05 0.00036 0.5 1.0104 0.6 1.5 0.08 0.8 Height (cm) 2.2 1.0124 0.97 9.7 1.3 1.00051 0.2 1.g (m/s^2) γ (N/m) Radius of Capillary Tube (m) Δr (m) σ(m^2) 74.16 0 [n-but]I (mol/L) 0 0.0232 0.8 Δ[n-but]f (mol/L) 0.1 1 1 1 Height (cm) 2.3 1.0005 0.0005 0.1 1 0.00022 0.08 0.6 0.8 Δ[n-but]I (mol/L) 0 0.0005 0.0006373 42 1.2 1.1 1.5 1.0005 Average Height (m) 0.1 1 1 Height (cm) 2.37358E05 5.0005 0.Data Sheet: Serial Dilution Calculations: Tria l 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 V nbut (mL) 0 50 50 50 50 125 75 175 100 ΔV (mL ) 0 0.12 999.9 Height (cm) 2.

059296 3.9162907 32 0.8 59.63423E -05 8.01644061 1 9.1854E06 1.6 44.3025850 93 1.06 0.2039728 04 0.0001002 -05 72 log([n-but]) 2.2231435 51 .648 0.2 14.472 0.48121E05 0.61743E -05 2.4 29.47607E -05 5.6931471 81 0.296 0 Calculated Values of Surface Excess: Slope (s^2/kg) Surface Excess (mol) Graphs: 1.42206E18 3.05406697 1 3.412 0.94532E -05 6.6094379 12 1.5108256 24 0.69318E05 8 0.49826E05 6 0.1 3 ρ of nbutanol (kg/m^3) 0 Δρ of nbutanol (kg/m^3) γ (N//m) Δγ (N/m) 0 0 0 7.83391E 0.04110821 1 2.884 0.7 51.824 0.02684740 6 1.03796796 5 2.Calculated Values of Surface Tension: Tria l 1 [nbut]f 0 2 0.03750940 7 7 0.29476E -05 7.5 37.82841E05 4 0.236 0.3 22.03676E -05 4.25489E05 2.00E-05 -2.03125E05 5 0.3566749 44 0.88616E05 9 0.

000637342m ρgh kg m (999.97 3 )(9.0005m=1.0232 m)2 m s 2(0.80665 2 )(0. N ) 2γ m −5 ∆r= Δ h= 0.80665 2 )(0.0232m ) m s 2(0.f(x) = 0x + 0 R² = 0.0725 The error propagation equation for this calculation is as follows.374∗10 m 2 kg m ρg h (999.97 3 )(9.0725 .97 Sample Calculations: Calculations for r of capillary tube: This calculation is used to find the radius of the capillary tube used in the experiment: N ) 2γ m r= = =0.

0184 m)(9.0184 m)(7.4812∗10 m 2 m ) Conclusions and Discussions: (σ ) −18 From above.0005 m) +… 2 )( ) ) 1.80665 ( 0.412 3 9.0006373 m ) m3 s2 (0.80665 2 )( 0. This shows that as the concentration of the solute n-butanol increases in the solution the surface tension will decrease.18∗10 2 m The error propagation equation for this calculation is as follows.80665 2 )(0.412 kg m )(9.0184 m ) 7.01644 3 ) =1.0006373m) 3 m s −6 N =9.374∗10−5 m kg m ( 0.Calculation for γ: This shows the general form of the surface tension calculation: γ= hρgr = 2 (0. Δ γ= √( Δ γ= (√ ( 2 2 ρgr hρg hgr Δh + Δr + Δρ 2 2 2 )( 7.42206∗10 mol .412 ) ( 2 ) 2 kg m 9.80665 2 m s (¿) 2 ¿ …¿ ¿ ´¿ ( ( )( ) ´ 2 m (0.0006373 m) s kg −5 Δ (0. This happens because there is a tendency for the solute to create a gradient . it can be seen that the surface excess is n2 =−2.

with a higher concentration near the surface. This would allow for better accuracy of the measurement then trying to measure height of the column. Also. this would allow for measurement of solutions where the solute will congregate near the bottom of the solution. As there are more particles of the solute at the surface there is a less uniformity. a better method for measuring the surface tension could be used. . For future labs.