From Followers to Leaders

:
The Apostles in the Ritual of Status Transformation
Acts 1-2

Nelson P. Estrada

A Dissertation Submitted for the Degree of
Doctor of Philosophy

Biblical Studies Department
The University of Sheffield

Sheffield, England
July 2001

in

Estrada: From Followers To Leaders

ABSTRACT

This thesis is a study of Acts 1-2 using perspectivesfrom the social sciences. The study is
focused on the twelve apostlesof Jesusand attempts to understandthe processand purpose
of their change of status from being followers to becoming the leaders of the Christian
community. Specifically, this thesis employs the model of Rituals of StatusTransformation
as its primary theoretical framework in order to clarify and define the stagesand phasesof
the apostles' statustransformation.
The primary purpose of the status transformation is to promote the leadership
integrity of the apostles. This leadership integrity was put into question becauseJudas
-a
member of the Twelve - betrayed Jesus. Judas' betrayal brought social embarrassmenton
the apostolateand thus necessitatedthe author's campaign to show his readersthe apostles'
statustransformation.
A major part of this study is the suggestionof a plausible solution to the questions
surrounding the function of the pcricopes of Acts 1:12-14 and 1:15-26 in relation to the
Ascension and Penetecost events. Contrary to the common view that the prayer of
unanimity between the Eleven apostles,the women, and Jesus' family in the upper room is
simply an empty interval in preparation for the coming of the Spirit on the day of Pentecost,
this thesis proposes that the pericope is propagandistic intended to win support from the
clienteles of the women disciples and Jesus' family.

Thus, while the Ritual of Status

Transformation serves as our main theoretical framework, this thesis uses other socialscientific models to fully explore the social conditions within the said pericopes. In the case
of Acts 1:12-14, the model of patronage/brokeragetogether with the mechanics of social
networking has been employed.
The sameperspective applies to Acts 1:15-26. Again, contrary to the more popular
view that the election narrative is the fulfillment of the promise of Jesusto his apostlesin
Lk. 22:30, we suggestthat the setting is the stageof the apostles' ritual confrontation before
the presenceof the 120 believers. This ritual confrontation is understoodwithin the concept
of honour and shame which works interactively with our theoretical framework. This
concept is able to bring out our suggestionthat Peter's speechis an apologetic speechin
behalf of the apostles- attempting to defend their honour and leadershipintegrity which was
marred by Judas' betrayal of Jesus.

Estrada: From Followers To Leaders

ACKNOVMEDGEMENTS

Thank you to Rev. Dr. Loveday C. A. Alexander, my thesis supervisor. Her expertise, as ever,
I have relied upon, and her counselhas been invaluable.
Thank you for the scholarshipsgrantedby the British OverseasResearchScheme,the Langharn
Trust, Christ Church Fulwood, Asian Theological Seminary,and other Trusts.
Thank you most of all to the three ladies in my life: Mitzie, my wife; Karen and Nikki, my
daughters. They, more than anyone, have had to endure the costs of my journey to a Ph.D.
degree,and they have done so without a moment's complaint. To you I dedicatethis thesis.

Estrada:FromFollowersToLeaders

ABBREVIATIONS

ABD

Anchor Biblical Dictionary

AAET

Ancient Near Eastern TextsRelating to the Old Testament

ANRW

A ufstieg und Niedergang der romischen Welt

AS77

Annual SwedishTheological Institute

AM

American 7heological Review

BAGD
BDF

Bauer, Arnt, and Gingrich.A Greek-EnglishLexicon of the New
Testamentand Early Christian Literature
Blass, DeBrunner, Funk. A Greek Grammar of the New Testament.

BevT

Beitrdge zur evangelischenYheologie

Bib

Biblica

BJRL
BJS

Bulletin of the John Ryland Lihrwy
Brown Judaic Studies

B7B

Biblical TheolpSyBulletin

BZNW

Beihefte zur Zeitschrift ffir dei neutestamentlicheWissenschaft

CBQ

CatholicBiblical Quarterly

EvQ

EvangelicalQuarterly

ExpT

ExpositoryTimes

MR

Harvard 7heologicalReview

ICC

InternationalCriticalCommentary

IDB

Interpreters'Dictionaryof the Bible

Int

Interpretation

ISBE

InternationalStandardBibleEncyclopedia

MAR
JAC

Journal of theAmericanAcademyof Religion
Jarbuchfiir Antike und Christentum

JBL

Journal ofBiblical Literature

JETS

Journal of the Evangelical 7heological Society

JHS

Journal of Hellenic Studies

JRS

Journal of RomanStudies

JSNT

Journalfor the Study of the New Testament

JSOT

Journalfor the Study of the Old Testament

JTS

Journal of Aeological Studies

Estrada: From Followers To Leaders

L CL

Loeb Classical Library

LSJ

Liddell-Scott-Jones. Greek-EnglishLexicon

NCB

New Century Bible

NCBC

New Century Biblical Commentary

NICNT

New International Commentaryof the New Testament

NICOT

New International Commentaryof the Old Testament

NovT

Novum Testamentum

NTS

New TestamentStudies

RSR

Religious StudiesReview

SBT

Studiesin Biblical Yheology

Sev

Studia Evangelica

SJT

ScottishJournal of Theology

TDNT

Theological Dictionary of the New Testament

TS

Yheological Studies

TynB

TyndaleBulletin

VetT

YetusTestamentum

VVFBC

Word Biblical Commentary

ZNW

Zeitschrififfir die neutestamentlicheMssenschaft
Zeitschriftfür die wissenschaftlicheTheologie

ZWT

Estrada: From Followers To Leaders

TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION
Chapter One
1.1 Methodology
1.1.1 What is Social-Scientific Criticism?
1-1 What are Models?
.2
1.1 Two Types of Models: The Environment and Cross-Cultural.
.3
1.2 The Rituals of StatusTransformation
1.2.1 TheRites ofPassage by Arnold van Gennep
1.2.2 TheRitual Processby Victor Turner
1.2.3 TheRituals ofStatus Transfo rination by Mark McVann
1.2.3.1 The Elements of a Ritual
1.2.3.2 The Processof a Ritual
1.2.4 The Model Applied: The Prophetic Role of Jesusin Lk. 3: 14: 30
1.2.5 The Model Applied in Acts 1:3-2:47: An Overview
1.2.5.1 The Ritual Elements in Acts 1:3-2:47
1.2.5.2 The Ritual Process:Thesis Plan and Hypothesis
1.3 Summary
1.4 Other Considerations The Role of Commissioning Accounts in
Luke-Acts: Contributions from B. J. Hubbard and T. Y. Mullins
1.4.1 Commissioning Accounts: Their Form and Themes
Table 1
FIRST STAGE: SEPARATION
ChapterTwo
2.1 The Ritual Elementsin Acts 1:3-11
2.1.1 The Apostles as Initiands
2.1.2 Jesusthe Ritual Elder
2.1.3 The Symbol of "Forty Days"
2.1.4 The Two Men in White Robes
2.2 The Initiands and Their LeadershipRole
2.2.1 Current Researchon Patronage
2.2.2 Halvor Moxnes' Hypothesis
2.2.3 God as Patron and Jesusas Broker
2.2.4 The Apostles as Brokers
2.2.5 An Example from The Acts of Peter
2.3 Summary
ChapterThree
3.1 The Ritual Processin Acts 1:3-5
3.1.1 PhaseOne - Acts 1:3-5: The Initiands are Separatedfrom Society
and Enter the Ritual Process
3.1.1.1 The Author Legitimises the Apostles as Initiands
3.1.1.2 The Forty Day Separation
3.1.2 PhaseTwo - Acts 1:6-8: Changing the Initiands Preconceived
Ideas
3.1.2.1 A Delayed Eschatology

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1 The City of Jerusalem:The Centre of Leadership 4.2 The Upper Room: the Setting of the Transition Stage 4.1.3.1.4.1 The Ritual Elements in Acts 1:12-14 4.1 The Function of 1:12-14: A Survey 5.3 The Eleven with Mary and Jesus' Brothers 5.1 The Leader-ApprenticeType of Ascension Stories 3.1.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 3.3.1.3.1 The Ritual Elementsin Acts 1:15 -26 6.1 rumuctq in Acts 1:14 as the Women Disciples 4.1.1.2.1.1 What Are Inside Views? 3.2.7 No Forrn of Protest 3.1.2.1 Jesus' Family in Luke-Acts 5.2.4.4.1.2.2 Inside views Through Focalization 3.1.4 Mary and Jesus' Brothers 4.2 The Identity of the Women Disciples 4.5 Luke 24 and Acts 1: An Overlap of Events 3.3.1.4 Summary 129 129 130 136 136 140 141 148 148 153 165 168 Chapter Six 6.1.4.1.1 Peter as Spokesman 171 171 173 .2 The Focus on the Apostles 3.2 Summary 84 85 89 89 90 92 93 94 98 100 103 104 107 109 ill.1.2.4 As the ReaderBegins to Read Acts 1 3.1.2.1.1.2.2 An Imminent Eschatology 3.2.2.2' Ogoftga86v in Luke-Acts 5.2.Acts 1:9-11: The Initiands ExperienceComplete Separation 3.2 Distinction by Enumeration 5.3 Synthesisand Proposal 3.1 Redundancyand Repetition in the Ascension Story of Acts 1:9-11 3.3.6 Jubilance or Conflict? 3.2 The Separationof the Apostles from Jesusin Acts 1:9-11 3.1.3 PhaseThree .1.4.1.1 The Function of the Assuranceby the Two Men in White Robes 3.1.2 Summary 118 119 119 122 123 124 125 126 127 129 ChapterFive 5.1.5 Mary and Jesus' Brothers as a Single Unit 4-.2.4 The Complete Obedienceof the Initiands 3.1 The List of the Apostles' Names in 1:13 5.1.4.3.2.1.3.3 The Women in the Upper Room 4. 114 116 SECOND STAGE: TRANSITION ChapterFour 4.2 The Initiands in Transition 5.3 Focalization from Without or Within 3.1.3.1 The Ritual Processin Acts 1:12-14 5.1.2.3' Ogoftga56v in Acts 1:14 5.4.3.3.1.2 The Eleven with the Women Disciples 5.1.

1 How Honour is Gained 6. in Acts 2: 1 8.3.2.3.2 The Purposeof the Election Narrative from a Historical Method 7.4 Against Pentecostas a New Sinai 8. 22:30 7.2.3 Summary 174 177 177 179 181 184 186 186 188 Chapter Seven 7.1.1 Exodus 19 and 20 8.7 The Final Choice to ReplaceJudasis Left to God 7.6 The Purposeof the Criteria on the Replacementof Judas (Acts 1:21-22) 7.2.2.2.3 Some Rabbinic Writings 8.2.2 One of the Twelve 6.3 Judas 6.2 The Repetition of Ent T6 Abr6 8.3.1.1.1.1 The Feastof Pentecost 8.2.1 De Decalogo 8.2 Honour and ShameDefined 6.4 The Number of LanguagesSpoken 8.2.1.1.5.4 Is Acts 1:15-26 the Fulfillment of Lk.3 The Twelve Apostles for Twelve Thrones? 7.2.2 The Election Narrative as the Fulfillment of Jesus' Promise in Lk.3.1.1.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 6..3. 22:30? 7.3 The Babylonian Talmud Shabbath88b 8.8 Summary 210 211 212 THIRD STAGE: AGGREGATION ChapterEight 8.2 Examples from Philo 8.1 The Book of Jubilees 8.1.2 The Purposeof the GrotesqueDescription of Judas' Death 7.1 The Deeds and Death of Judasas the Fulfillment of Scripture 7.3 Summary 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 222 223 223 223 225 226 227 231 232 233 234 235 236 189 190 190 190 193 196 200 202 206 207 .3.2.1 The Suffix "Iscariof 6.1.3 The Universal Characterof the Gift of the Spirit 8.1.3.2 De SpecialebusLegibus 8.2 Election by Casting of Lots 6.2.3 The Traitor 6.1.1.1 The Natural Reading of rlcivcF-qin 2: 1 8.2.1.1 The Twelve as a Distinct Entity 7.2 rIdvcF.1.2 The EsseneSect in Qumran 8.5 Peter's Speech:A Caseof Diminished Responsibility 7.2.2 Pentecostas a CovenantRenewal? 8.1 The Ritual Elements in Acts 2 8.3.1 The Ritual Processin Acts 1:15-26 7.1.5.2 Group Honour 6.1.3 That Luke was Influenced by the Moses/Sinai Traditions 8.

1 A LeadershipCrisis 9.1.When the Spirit RestedUpon Them 9.2 A StatusTransformation 9.5 Summary 238 238 239 241 242 245 Thesis Conclusion 261 247 253 254 257 259 Appendix: Twelve Thrones for Twelve Apostles? A Study on the Redaction of the Saying in Mt.4 Prophecy. 19:28.1.3 The Apostles Are Formally Presentedto the Society 9.1.4 The Society Recognisethe Twelve 9.1.3 The Endowment of the Spirit in an Installation Rite 9.2 The Catalogueof Nations as Representativeof the Universal Society 9.1 The Ritual Processin Acts 2 9.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders ChapterNine 9.5 The Significance of the Endowment of the Spirit Upon the SeventyElders 9.1.271 Bibliography 284 .

. "The Role of the Apostles." in the Witnessofthe Gospel. Minnesota: 'ne Liturgical Press. pp. 78-79. Luke (Peabody.1992). Clark. in 1: 15-26.eds.. T. 178-180.1998). pp. Tyson feels that the leadership issue should be clear before the Pentecostexperiencetakesplace. The answerto thesequestions of solicited many opinions. C.. (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. 1994). Schweizer. 1 (Edinburgh. 3A survey on current researchconcerningthe purposeof the Election story in Acts 1:15-26 together with bibliography is provided in our discussionof the text in Chapter Sevenof this thesis. A. p. 39. 59. He states. K.TheActs ofthe Apostles (Collegeville."4 J. Peterson. Johnson. the the transformation. L. H. Judas had to be replaced before Pentecostbecausethe integrity of the apostolic circle of Twelve symbolized the restoration of God's people. vol. Further discussionand bibliography is provided later in this thesis. The question we ask is why? What is the relevance of these episodesin the in has Why the midst of to tell these the stories author chosen apostles' change of status? the Ascension and Pentecostevents? 3 however. instance. 1984). Marshall and D. Barrett. As for the relationship of the commissioning account in Acts 1:8 and the Spirit's outpouring in Acts 2: 1-4. seeC. 1961).. author said completion. p. Most has these. in to the two took the ascent apostles' processof readersof episodeswhich place These episodesare the gathering in the upper room in 1:12-14 and the election of Matthias in 1:15-26. 1.. For the a majority of election narrative with sharea common ground. 2Seefor example E.The TheologyofActs. 63-76. Church Order in the New TestamentSBT 32 (London: SCM Press.Massachusetts: Hendrickson. 4L. B. pp.. Stronstad.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders INTRODUCTION Chapter One The commission to be witnessesin Acts 1:8 together with Jesus' departurein 1:9-11 marks the beginning of the apostles' transformation from followers to leaders! Their baptism and in Acts 2: 1-4. T.7he Charismatic TheologyofSt. Johnson statesthat. by day Spirit Pentecost ýýseen as the completion the the of empowerment on 2 his before tells However. of such a status leadership.T&T Clark. NT scholarsagreethat the primary purpose of Matthias' election is to complete the number of the apostlesto twelve. 1CER. . TheActs ofthe Apostles.

Such is the meaning of the before 15-26. That the "restoration of Jacob precedesthe outpouring of the Spirit (Ezek." so should the fulfilment of Jesus'promise in Lk. R. the number of apostles must be twelve." in Int 42 (1988). The for is be the judges thrones twelve there twelve on cannot common senseunderstanding 6 down to eleven. 1972). what we if be What twelve? the to that the the we apostlesshould number of addressing need ensure addressthe election of Matthias primarily as a matter of sociological concern rather than as the fulfilment of Jesus' promise in Lk. 1997). .B. be replaced in a ceremonyintended to determine divine choice. p. "The Emerging Church and the Problem of Authority in Acts.Jesuspromises to reward his apostlesfor their faithfulness to serve asjudges over the twelve tribes of Israel in the new kingdom. 75-112. 137.4ccomplished. Cf. pp. 4cts (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press. 7he Things.5 The consensusthat the purpose of the election is to bring the number of the apostles to twelve is based on the understandingthat this event is the beginning of the fulfilment of Jesus' promise in Lk. We will deal with Denova's view in detail later on in this thesis. order restore original number clear.Denova attemptsto answersuch a question. In the said passage. 70. Tyson. twelve tribes of Israel when the supposedtwelve apostlesare What sensecould we make of the election story if it is not read from the perspective is if just have In the not primarily story whole election cited above? other words. Denova. Jervell. 6AIthoughF. Luke and the People of God (Minneapolis: Ausburgh.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders For Luke. Even in Acts 1: Matthias the the selection of narrative about Pentecostexperience it is important that the leadership of the church be absolutely Judas In traitor the the to the must of apostles. 22:30. 22:30 should take place before the Spirit's coming in Acts 2. p. She suggeststhat it is the "prophetic order of events" which forces the author to place them where they are. 22:30? Could it be that the enrolment of Matthias into the exclusive group of the Twelve is a responsewithin the backdrop of a "challengebrought by honour the to the about of apostles as a group riposte" situation -a challenge Judas' betrayal of Jesus? And that such a betrayal has equally severe moral and social just integrity leadership for than the arrest the the of apostles other of group consequences and death of their leaderJesus? 5J. Seealso J. 39:25-29).4mong Us: Prophetic Tradition in the Structural Pattern ofLuke-.

1971). 22:30 is not a factor. p. 1998).J. From a tradition-historical perspective. was executed by Herod leaving another vacancy in the apostolate. 8E.Haechen. we also read later on in Actsl2: 2 that James. 21:30.3 Estrada:From FollowersToLeaders We raise these suggestionsbecauseof the questions which historical studies have left unanswered. This directives is fact do Jesus by to the that the any not recall giving we question compounded 7 Eleven concerning the matter at all. 220. J. if the purpose of the election is for the completion of the Twelve. "It is striking that Jesus himself should not have appointed the new apostle during the forty 8 .not even the author gives any indication in Acts that the election of Matthias in fulfillment of the promise of Jesusin Lk.one of the Twelve. In other words. Fitzmyer points to the early community as the one who is called to fill in the gap left in the Twelve by Judas' death. there must be another reason behind the urgency to conduct an election. TheActs ofthe Apostles: A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary(New York.yet. days. Doubleday. As Haenchen observes. Fitzmyer. is it in first how More Judas the need to replace the to place? was replace Judasrelated to the whole narrative of the apostles' statustransformation? The same question applies to 1:12-14. 164. p. With these issues. For instance.TheActs of the Apostles (Oxford: Basil Blackwell.historical approacheshave failed to fully explain the need for Peter's elaborate speechon the death of Judas (a speechwhich occupies half of the whole election narrative). So whose idea importantly.. 22: 30). . What is the significance of this event in the apostles' transition from followers to leaders? Some have suggestedthat this pericope is 7Furthermore.one begins to speculatethat if the promise in Lk. Israel to the to the then twelve tribes need what of as death in such a grotesquemanner in the first place? Could not the samegoal of completing the Twelve be achieved without having to depict the betrayer's death so vividly'9 Furthermore. and that this was so in order to fulfil the promise of Jesusfor the apostlesto serve is describe Judas' judges (Lk. we do not find any call for another election.

"" We feel. YheActs oftheApostles."10 Still others take it to interval.K. 61." The women disciples and Jesus' family have a social significance in the author's campaign to promote the apostles' leadership status.there is the issue of the presence Of in family) Jesus' (namely." nor does it fit in with the general notion of "preparations for Pentecost. "L. the least the upper room. Acts 1: 12-14 leadership On therefore not simply an this status. G. conduct apostlesand whole of Twelvereceivethe Spirit's baptism? We suggestthat what we are dealing with here in 1:12-14 is the significance of the family disciples Jesus' to the author's agenda of promoting the and groups of women is hypothesis. what is so special about the groups of women disciples and Jesus' family that they were honourably mentioned in favour of the other followers of Jesus? What is the before in the by locating the this to upper room occurrence achieve author attempting before brethren body the completed 120 the and an election. 10C. "empty simply an be a general notion of "preparations for Pentecost. Yet again. Barrett. two women and other groups of at in brethren 120 the (considering the same the of presence of number people present all "upper room" [1: 15]). 33-34. Acts oftheApostles (Valley Forge. p. Johnson. apostles' "empty interval. Wbile true that the maybe general status of women women ancient societies 9J. p. T. that there is more to 1:12-14 than what hasjust been suggested.TheActs oftheApostles. Dunn. pp. however. Pennsylvania:Trinity Press. 1996). why has the author chosenthe women and Jesus' family to be those described as in unanimity with the Eleven apostles? How is this related to the general notion of "preparations?" Some commentatorssuggestthat the apostlestogether with the in Spirit for in family "one the Jesus' the to coming of accord" prepare prayed women and Acts 2.D. . We propose that Mary and Jesus' brothers representa significant clientele in the Christian community. 15.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 9" Others say "a piece of stage setting. The sameidea applies with the it in disciples.For instance.

13E. 1993).Estrada: From Followers To Leaders is not necessarily equal with that of men.36 (Chico. 191. " To put it more precisely. . C. CA: ScholarsPress. F. J. that the whole processof the apostles' status transformation is the author's means of "legitimation. Brooten. pp.1985). Marshall. J. we submit these proposals because of the questions which the traditionhistorical method has not satisfactorily answered. 1982). 109-27. We believe that Acts 1-2 is not just the story of Jesus' ascensionand the coming of the Spirit on the day of Pentecost. WomenLeaders in the Ancient Synagogue: Inscriptional Evidence and Background Issues. p. A. the author of Luke-Acts neededto legitimise the apostles' changeof status. and B.Jesusand Judaism (London: SCM Press. P. The episodesin 1:12-14 and 1:15-26 are found between the Ascension and Pentecostevents becausethey are issues so crucial to both the author and his readersthat they need to be resolved before the apostlesfinally receive their confirmation as leaders. Rather. 100. p. therefore. Sanders. Alexander. there is enough evidence to suggest that the in disciples the women audience Lukecommand an unofficial representationof women Acts or of the Christian community. "Amica Pauli: The Role of Phoebein the Early Church. 5-14. We will discussmore on this issuein its designatedsection (Chapter Five of this thesis). The Preface to Luke's Gospel. 12Cf. 67-85. Phoebe and Lydia may have had their own clientele as they too have been known to serve as Christian patrons. Whelan. but also becauseof two significant social issues: the 13 by betrayal Judas' Jesus the embarrassmentto the group of apostles caused of and . significance of the apostles' relationship with other disciple groups. pp.Brown Judaic Studies.12 Again. Seealso A." in Ancient Society 6 (1975).L. these from tell the their transformation the transformation story chapters of apostles' status being the former followers of Jesus to becoming the new leaders of the Christian community. Literary Convention and Social Context in Luke 1: 1-4 and Acts 1: 1 (Cambridge: CambridgeUniversity Press. from being followers of Jesusto becoming the leaders of the Christian community." in JSNT 49 (1993). "Roman Women and the Provinces. Quite helpful is the contribution of C. pp. We propose. not only because of the leadership vacuum created by Jesus' departure.

" in TheBeginnings of Christianity. 1933). A detailed explanation on the conflation of traditions is provided by Kirsopp Lake in "The Death of Judas. 22:3. pp. TheActs ofthe Apostles: A Socio-Rhetorical Commentary(Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. pp. 1991." In other words. Acts 1:17). p. 122.1996). Judashas not been known as a characterindependentfrom the title "a member of the Twelve. 11-27. 7-10. Luke-Acts has been consistent in emphasisingthat Judas was "one of the Twelve" (Lk.a member of the Twelve. J.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 6 We will work from the hypothesis that the replacement of Judas is primarily intended to blot out the social shamehe has brought upon the apostolate. 1982). pp. Ltd. 15Adetailed treatmentof this issuecan be found in W.14 NT scholarship. Fitzmyer. pp. the referenceto the title "the Eleven apostles" in the early chaptersof Acts immediately suggeststhe absenceof one since they have been 14Adiscussionon this issueof how tradition has expandedthe story on Judas' death is in Chapter Six of this thesis. Klassen. it is probablethat his deedsandhis membershipof the exclusiveTwelve havegravelyaffected 16 the reputation of the whole group.. 22-30. 1992). pp. The conflation is from stories and legendson how Judashas come to be known 15 is he follower Judas The that was a who as almost synonymouswith evil. 17. Moreover. . Up until Judas' replacementby Matthias in Acts 1:15-26. Maccoby. F.This proposed hypothesis is not without a basis. "To call someoneJudasis the height of insultý" J. YheSacred Executioner (London: Thames& Hudson. 22 1.the inner circle of Jesus' apostles. could actually have betrayedJesus. "Who Was Judas Iscariot?" Jewish Quarterly (199 1).146-153.but more seriously. Judas Iscariot and the Myth ofJewish Evil (New York: Free Press. 8-13. not only evil of betrayedJesus. 137. It is a hypothesis which assumesthat the Lukan community of believers were gripped with the horror of the fact that Judas. for exwnple.. that he was a member of the Twelve . Part 1. 16CEB. Seealso H. FoakesJacksonand K. (London: Macmillan and Co. TheActs of the Apostles.1998). arguesthat the Judas accounts in Lk. Oxford: Maxwell-MacMillan. 22:3-6 and Acts 1:16-20 are a conflation of other earlier traditions concerningwho Judasis and what he standsfor. Witherington III. eds.47.p. not least in the development of tradition about Judas and his sin. Lake.Judas: Betrayer Friend of or Jesus?(London: SCM Press.

We will attempt to show why the author has specially focused on the women and Jesus' family despite the other possible groups of disciples who have followed Jesus. It is therefore most unlikely that Judas and his deeds were viewed independently from his office and membership in the Twelve. T.5). as one of the Twelve "who became a traitor" (in the list of Luke 6: 16). who was called Iscariot and was numbered among the Twelve" (Luke 22: 3). whenever Judas was mentioned. the one named Judas" (Luke 22: 47).Fitzmyer. to work from the assumptionthat Judas' failure could not have been viewed as his alone.p. Even the reference "he was numbered among us" 6u xaTijptOgTjgtvo. L. Mark 14: 10. but also of his betrayal of Jesus. The whole "Judas tragedy" is a tragedy that has affected the 8 statusof the whole group! We will also attempt to work from the hypothesis that the author's portrayal of unanimity between the apostlesand the other character-groupsin the upper room (1: 12-14) masks the probable differences between the apostles and the women disciples and Jesus' family.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders originally twelve. p. Johnson. "one of the Twelve. 38.25. 'gCf. The projection of unanimity betweenthe apostlesand the women disciples and Jesus' family is a crucial factor in uniting the Christian community of Luke-Acts to recognise the new role and statusof the apostles. "Satan entered into Judas. John 6: 71. "He had been numbered among us and was apportioned a share in this ministry of ours" (Acts 1: 17). fiv kv ýgiv in Acts 1:17 emphasisesthe fact that Judaswas one of the twelve apostles. That ministry Judas chose to desert. "Who betrayed him" (Mark 3: 19. Matt. 7he Acts of the Apostles. 17 We intend.TheActs ofthe Apostles. It is an absencewhich everyoneunderstoodto have come about. 17J. therefore. 220. not only becauseof Judas' death. 10:4.47. Matt. 26: 14. 13:2. Luke is merely echoing the horror that early Christians sensed. As Fitzmyer observes.43. 12:4. cf. a horror reflected in the various qualifying phrases added to his name. 18:2. .

While he suggests the probability of Luke being aware of the tradition in John 2 1. not only of social rank. has succeededin redeeming the honour and have integrity To leadership Eleven the the achievedthis. the outpouring of the Spirit upon the apostles (2: 1-4). Specifically. Luke 24: 34) but either does not have sufficient data to relate or does not choose to tell the story. 15:5). The Acts of the Apostles. of promoting was able to convince his readers that the Eleven apostles have gone through a serious transformation. 3-5). . Witherington states that. he has not discussed anything at all concerning the links between the two gospels. This role among the disciples is presumably to be accounted for by the fact that Jesus appeared to Peter personally and restored him (I Cor. Luke 22: 54-62).Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 8 The author of Luke-Acts. the author apostles. the speechof Peter on Judas' betrayal and subsequentelection of Matthias (1: 15-26). 22:54-62)19to becoming the strong and reliable leadersof the Christian community. Speaking on the character of Peter in Acts 1: 16. This is especially striking in view of Peter's denial of Christ. we designateActs 1:3-2:47 as the narrative by image Luke-Acts the the of the Eleven apostlesthrough such a which author of promotes for in instruction Jerusalem The the to transformation. probably the former. D. It is a status transformation. Jesus' the enumeration of the apostles' the of ascension promise namesplus the waiting and praying in unity with the women and Jesus' family in the upper room (1: 12-14). and wait remain process of status father (1: (1: 9-11). Witherington III. This required (as we have disciple known demonstration groups and the of unanimity with other stated) a excommunicationof Judasfrom the "Twelve" sealedby the election of a suitableand Eleven The the themselves Matthias. and the gathering of the 191am not sure how Witherington deduced the possibility of Peter's restoration solely from I Cor. a role that is to continue in the next few chapters in Acts. What one notices inunediately about this section is the leadership role that Peter assumes. that status means change of qualified replacementin denied Jesus (including followers Peter from being transformed the who are unreliable Lk. leaders by (including from (firstly) "moral") the and of readers expected virtues (generally) the society (in this case. p. We suggestthat there is a processof transformation and that this can be understood in the events of Acts I and 2. 15:5. we believe. which is the last major episode prior to this in Luke-Acts in which he was a prominent figure (cf. 116. but primarily of the Luke-Acts. a tradition Luke knows about (cf.the Christian community).

G. "20 We propose that the episode in Acts 1:12-14 makes historical sense when read with the understanding of the social concepts of the family.1 Methodology Issuesabout statustransformation. The question now is how do we best demonstrate this kind of reading on Acts 1-2 which primarily involves these two important tasks: (1) the author's intent to show to his readersthat the apostleshave gone through a serious transformation. Eleven apostles beside him (2:547) are all designed by the author to campaign for the apostles' leadershipstatus. ed. the restoration of honour and integrity. pp. Likewise. 1999). we 20p Esler. 1.valuesand symbolswhich characterised the early Christian communities of the NT. Seealso D. 3-27. kinship. and the patron-client relations in the setting of Luke-Acts. Social-Scientific Approaches to New TestamentInterpretation. Specifically.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders Peter have from different together the of with the with preaching crowd who come places. 1994). and (2) that the episodes of 1:12-14 and 1:15-26 are necessaryand crucial stagesin this statustransfonnation process? Our quest for the method by which we can best demonstratethe kind of reading we have suggestedleads us to the discipline of social-scientific criticism. Horrell. and the desire to win the loyalty and support of other disciple groups are interactions between the author and his readersinvolving the "interrelations. TheFirst Christians in Their Social Worlds: Social-Scientific Approaches to New . p. TestamentInterpretation (London: Routledge. D. . the episodein 1:15-26 is best appreciatedwhen one readsit with an understandingof the social concept of honour and shame. As a whole. 2. G. we suggestthat Acts 1-2 is the narrative about the apostles' status transformation with the episodes of 1:12-14 and 1:15-26 serving as crucial social issues needing immediate attention and solution before the confirmation of the apostles' new leadership status. (Edinburgh: T&T Clark. Horrell.

pp. more particularly in the field of human sciences. the employment of the social sciences including sociology. we need to briefly justify our preferenceto use the method of social-scientific criticism. The developmentof various innovative studies in the past three decades21however. especially 1:12-14 and 1:15-26. the results still fall short of convincing explanations. 138-174. Elliot..10 Estrada: From Followers To Leaders intend to use models from the social-scientific approachto help us show the plausibility of the proposed reading we have suggestedfor Acts 1:3-2:47. before we describe and discussthe model we have in mind. Social-scientificcriticism is definedas. However. the historical method has given all it could give to make sense oSýthe function of 1:12-14 and 1:15-26 in the narrative of Acts 1-2.problemswhich havebeenlockedup throughthe centuriesbecauseof the wide social and cultural gap between the writers in the biblical world and the present world we the modem readerslive in. 22P. This method. more specifically what models are and how they are helpful in the interpretation of biblical texts. that phaseof the exegeticaltask which . biblical is known Social-Scientific and economics as criticism. 1. . Yet despite this.F.1. can now have plausible explanations. 2. 1993).has opened up new insights on biblical historicalproblems. anthropology. We will do this by first defining the method. analyzes the social and cultural dimensions of the text and of its environmental context 21Acomprehensivebibliography on Social-Scientific Criticism and Social-Historical Studies has beenprovided by J. social psychology.". The questionswe have raised on the narrative of Acts 1-2. Esler. TheFirst Christians in Their Social Worlds. 22 in interpretation. H. p.1 What is Social-Scientific Criticism? In our opinion. Kat is Social-Scientific Criticism? (Minneapolis: FortressPress. We will then discussthe current issuesabout the method.

and to make use of their scientific theories.. " in Neotestamentica22 (1988). In fact. The sudden 23J.but becomesa necessityif we want to understandthe text properly. 24 C.. The social sciencesfocus attention on the "synchronic" relations. p. clinical conveyor of meaningby means .1995). in that they study the emotional.methodologiesand the results of their studies. Barton sharesfour important contributions of the method to biblical exegesis: 1. theory. P. Applied to 1:12-14. Barton. other equally of a sharedsign literary text. the next logical step is to move into the domain of the human sciencesproper. pp. Green. One of the main "gaps" this thesis will attempt to solve is the problem of who and how many were the first recipients of the Spirit's baptism in Acts 2: 1-4.. that is on the by by is to the a complex one another related actors social way meaning generated web of culturally-determined social systemsand patterns of communication.H. p. Elliott. van Staden. . 69-74. for example. ideological. sociological and other aspectsof a text. (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. Spirit's fulfilment for the the coming. This is recognisedby literary critics. 2. B. Social-scientific analysis is useful also in helping the interpreter of the NT to fill the gaps in understandingcreatedby the fragmentarinessof the texts as sourcesof historical information. S.C. human Many typical characteristicsare caughtup into system. . fflat is Social-Scientific Criticism?.Strategiesfor Interpretation. 338. ed. P. 25 The author's representationand the readers' reading of the text involves an interaction within a given social system. the the and with women of apostles meeting While the historical method focuseson the activity of the charactershaving unity in prayer. Now if texts do have theseaspects. van Stadenstrongly adheresto this view and states. J."A Sociological Reading of Luke 12: 3548. social-scientific criticism themselves of preparing helps us to focus on the social relationships of the characters. 7. it is immediately obvious that a text is not sterile. relationships which seem so 04- important for the author and his readersthat they necessitatedthe mention4his 25 episode. this step is not only desirable. the text is not independentfrom the social understanding which is mutually sharedby the author and reader. psychological.11 Estrada: From Followers To Leaders through the utilization of the perspectives. and research of the social . 23 sciences. In other words.and we concedethat they do. 24S. we are able to ask about the significance of the in family Jesus' disciples the upper room. "Historical Criticism and Social-Scientific Perspectivesin the New Testament:' in Hearing the New Testament. models.

therefore. Mary and What qualifies this as a "gap" is the fact that only the eleven apostleshave actually received instructions from Jesusto wait for the Spirit's empowerment in Jerusalem(Acts 1:4-5. Menzies' reasonsinclude. to the assumption that what is important about the NT are its theological propositions. and that true understanding has to do with the interpretation of the words and ideas rather than. the apostles. So. in Jesus' charactersmentioned 1:12-14 (i. that is. despite the presenceof the other charactersin the story. will resolve this "gap. 24:47-49 as well portrays only the apostlesmiGhave received Jesus' instructions to go and wait in Jerusalem for the "promise of the father. 1.4cts (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press. 26Again. specifically with the model which we intend to read the narrative of Acts 1-2. seefor example FL Menzies. the apostles serve as the main actors and subject. implying more than twelve were present. more than twelve languagesare recordedto have been heard.. 176. Social-scientific criticism to to the tendency offers a corrective strong . this conclusion is supportedby the repetition of tni %6cttn6 in 1:15 and 2: 1. the potentially universal characterof the gift is stressedin 2: 17 and 2:39. ..the women. abstracted somehow from their literary and historical setting. or!"t"heneglect of. 2. 1. 8). the of people are all same room at same number 26 brothers). if one takes it that the Spirit has come to fill all who were in the houseand that all spoke in tongues. Empoweredfor Witness:TheSpHt in Luke-." Social-scientific criticism. n. e. 3. the embodiment and performance of NT faith in the lives of the people and communities from whom the text comes or for whom it was written. since the 120 are presentin the preceding verses. p. 1994).an issuewhich we will discusslater." We will show that. therefore it would be strangeif any of the disciples presentwere excluded from the gift of Pentecost. primary recipients of the Spirit's empowermentin Acts 2: 1-4. it is the most natural reading of ndvm. 3.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 12 in lead brethren 1: 15 120 the modem reader to assumethat this the can of appearance including in the previous the time.. 4. For the reasonswhy some scholarsview that the 120 brethren are the first recipients of the Spirit's baptism in Acts 2: 1-4.how then do we reconcile Jesus' "exclusive" instructions to the eleven apostles against those (the 120 brethren) who were said to be present in the same room when the Spirit came? The issue is compoundedby the fact that Lk.. "theological docetism" in many circles.

4cts (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press. compare and contrast the kind of values we the modem readershave. First.but to reflect. . understandingof ourselves as readersof the text.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 13 As such.. as we have proposed. Scepticism on the application of social-scientific criticism to biblical texts has also been expressed.. Studies on Pentecost. Powerfrom on High: The Spirit in Israel's Restoration and Witnessin Luke-.. for instance.TheDeparture ofJesus in Luke-. our aim is to understandhow the apostles(as main characters)are presentedby the author in a narrative where two significant eventstake place. 27Forsuch focuses. Turner. Social-scientific criticism will help us attain this objective. Barton observesthree basic reasons.4cts: The 4scension Narratives Context (Sheffield. 1987). one of the focusesof this study is not primarily on the significance of the Ascension and Pentecosteventsin the narrative of Acts 1-2. will show us that it is possible to read the election narrative of 1:15-26 as a responseto a challengeposed against the integrity of the apostlesas leaders.27 While thesetwo eventshave inspired theological propositions (especially on Jesus and his ascension. Tle social scienceshelp us to recognize that our acts of interpretation are not neutral.and the Spirit on the day of Pentecost)from many modem Christian circles. Parsons.was brought about by Judas-a member of the Twelve. The use of the conceptual model of honour and shame. 4. However. the scepticismon the use of social-scientific criticism in NT exegesishas also been directed particularly againstthe book of Acts. Specifically.. Social-scientific criticism increasing our the also offers of possibility . the other hand. for updatedreferences.2000).not only the conceptof ancientvalueslike honour and shame. in Sheffield Academic Press.on .The question against the apostles' integrity. 281nterestingly.seefor exampleM.seeM.. the employment of the social sciences in NT exegesis has been 28 by The objections basically fall under two perceived some as completely unfruitful . By being able to identify and draw the line of what is ours as againstwhat is religious tradition -a tradition conditioned by ancient values or social forces -a better and more objective understandingof the text is possible. What is also helpful in this exerciseis the ability to learn. is vast.

S Hill. Marshall and D. Esler adds C. and B. they will most likely be introduced under related categoriesbut not the specific heading of any social-scientific or sociological approach. This may be attributed to: 1. but not for interpretation using the tools of the social sciences.have been branded as reductionist since they explain the diversity of social behaviour by referencesimply to economy. Lucan Theology(Cambridge: CUP. The rise of historical criticism as the recognisedmethod of the scientific investigation of the Bible since the Reforrmtion and Enlightenmentperiods. for example. The strong ecclesiastical/doctrinalinterest in the historical veracity of the apostolic witness. objection expression t32. eds. Lucan Theology. propositions. . pp. Turner. Marxist theories. The problem of epistemological debate.and limited is deemed in interpretation Here."The Social Identity of the First Christians: A Question of Method in Religious History. the the since very method. 4." in ThePenguin Dictionary of Sociology. A. 1994). The Theologyof. The particular Protestant(including Pentecostalist)interest in the testimony of Acts to the church in the apostolic times.presuppositions leaving from that the the text no room scientific perspective. "On Applying a Sociological Tlieory to Biblical Studies. Petersen. 2.the 30 functioning is itself. C. Second the the text of the practical an objection on readers.p." JSOT. Esler. 14. "Reductionist. Scholarslike Judgeand A. 19 (198 1). This texts. The successand growth of archaeologyas a major historical discipline able to fill out or even verify the "historical geography" of the world and of the early church. 29Anattempt to account for a range of phenomenain terms of a single determining factor. Esler.S. 11 (1980). pp. Secondis the dominancein scholarshipof issuesto do with the historicity of Acts. 30p F. Third is the problem of how to deal with the nature of the Acts material itself. 201-17. 32p F.A. 459-72. 5. a purely method reads means for the religious factors which may have conditioned the ancient writer. If ever there is one." S. tha enumerates sociological or socio-scientific studieson Acts are almost non-existent. (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. 1987). 31E.p.This is the question on how to respondto the issueof the supernaturalin the book of Acts. 4cts. S.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 14 its because First the of those simply whole method are who completely rule out categories. N. Malhcrbe view that "Acts is amenableto interpretation as a sourcefor the social history of early Christianity. (Penguin Books. pp. Abercrombie. Communityand Gospel in Luke-. Barton. It is not surprising that Acts has been approachedmainly from a historical point of view." in Witnessto the Gospel." YheJournal ofReligious History.4cts: TheSocial and Political Motivations of . "Sociology and Theology. Yd edition. 95-106. Judge. pp.1998).4cts: TheSocial and Political Motivations of . H.eds. the characters. 12. 3. I. Rodd. social sciences use of they are "too dependentupon contemporarypatterns to assist in understandingfirst century 31 He in Judge's " finds its full E. Communityand Gospel in Luke-. 34849. in This "reductioniSf'29 nature. which are primarily presuppositions .

With regards to the first objection. 3. Sociological models must be historically tested or "verified" before they can be applied. As to the second objection.this meansthat they must closely fit the historical data to which they are to be applied. sociologists begin to recognisethat while the method of sociological criticism may explain a given phenomenon.such explanation is partial.political. We are convinced. otherwise they will be discarded. Judge is espousingan empirical hunt for "the social facts of life characteristic" of the New Testament world. Sociological models are "defined" with respect to particular cultures. Presumably. It is possible to carry out historical "field work" prior to the use of models. that we find the use of models from the method of social-scientific criticism as the best way to addressthe questionswhich we feel the historical method has failed to answer. That sociological models ought to be historically verified or validated before they are applied to the text .is the sameconviction we hold in our study of Acts 1:3-2: 14. free from theoretical presupposition. religious. and even 33 be behind the other reasons the existence of the same phenomenon. may well This. Both of these objections have aptly received rebuttals from biblical scholars who have found the method very helpful in exegesis.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 15 1. Factors like economics. We do not in any way claim that the narrative of Acts I and 2 can only be explained from the method and models we are proposing. Esler arguesthat Judge's points are all inconsistent. There are other possibilities why the narrative has beenpresented by the author in such manner. social-scientific exegetesfind that this is no longer the case. This hinders their being applied to first century society. Ours specifically focus on the possible social implications behind the sequenceand relationship of the events. of course. however. In other words. For instance. 2.

34p F. pp. R. B. Again. Esler is precise in saying that it is quite impossible for a researcherto collect facts without subscribing to a whole range of theoretical presuppositions.g. 9-30. .. Esler. Communityand Gospel in Luke-Acts. a specific of no such as a purely objective approach Esler believes that "by not consciously and deliberately acknowledging and reflecting upon his or her preconceptions. Esler. 15.p. 38Apoint we hope this thesis will help to strengthen.especially the caseagainstthe use of the method in the book of Acts. is into there thing words. the historian runs the risk of imposing modem notions of categorisation. More and more exegetesare becoming aware of the 38 in biblical texts. Wilson. Furthermore. 37 In reality. He but to tools them social akin primarily not as mental constructsor research renders it insists has long "as to the that the situation some analogy as comparativematerial strongly is quite unnecessarythat it correspondexactly. F. 1973).. 15. In other field inquiry. .Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 16 laws. Communityand Gospel in Luke-Acts.to suggestthe possibility of carrying out historical "field work7 prior to the use of models. Communityand Gospel in Luke-Acts.p. The employment of significant contribution of this method studying the 33P. 13.p. but also that the traditional historical mode of analysis is defective precisely in as much as it fails to utilise concepts and perspectivesfrom sociology 36 and anthropology. Esler. The case for using the social sciences in biblical exegesis is most thoroughly establishedby demonstratingnot merely that this is a useful additional approach to the text. F. Esler adds.p. Esler.p.04 Sociologists have also been aware of Judge's secondobservation. Those producing models and typologies have tended to strip these models of their spatial and temporal 35 increase in historical their applicability markings to research .. 14. 14. 37p F. Magic and the Millennium: A Sociological Study ofReligious Movements ofProtest Among T?Ibal and Third-World Peoples (London: Heinemann. Communityand Gospel in Luke-Acts. 35E. scholarswho discouragethe use of the social-scientific method in biblical studies have not been very successful. Esler. cited from P. 36p F. Communityand Gospel in Luke-Acts.

Esler. is the general expression for the ideas and been have "theories" in "typologies" used and perspectives employed exegesis. on the other hand.I. and Paradigms. Barbour. H. a model " is an abstract simplified representationof some real world object. . A theory is based on axiomatic laws and states general principles... "at is Social-Scientific CKticism?. so action 1. 1962). 6. A2 the behaviour of a complex system for particular purposes. quoted from J. " p. -A3 event." p. It is a basic proposition through which a variety of observations or statements become link between by A theories and contrast..F. p. H. Quoting Ian Barbour. end. he suggeststhat a model is "a symbolic representationof selectedaspectsof . p.1. "Review of David Horrell. 40P. 254.F. YheNew TestamentWorld. . model. 43Cf.control or prediction. M. or interaction constructedfor the purpose of understanding. fflat is Social-Scientific Criticism?. 42Cf. 1981). pp. quoted from J. p. a model is something less than a theory and something more than an analogy . explicit use of and comparative Providing a simple definition of what models are has been difficult. we can obtain present. For further reading on this issue. Communityand Gospel in Luke-Acts. seealso B. New York. way of observations. Malina. 41P. Models. 23 1. 25-47. Black. Elliott. 254. For Bruce Malina. Bruce Malina. "Review of David Horrell.2 What are Models? The practitioners of social-scientific criticism use models in the interpretation of biblical texts.p. although 40 "distinctive has "model" however.. 4 1. The term "model. 16. Models and Metaphors (Ithaca. "The Social Sciencesof Biblical Interpretation. Camey suggeststhat. 41. Elliott.Cornell University Press. Elliot attempts this by pulling together different definitions in order to give a dynamic description.Insightsftom Cultural Anthropology (Atlanta: John Knox Press. acts as a explicable. A model will employ one or more theories to provide a simplified (or 39P. Thomas F. " in JT5 (1998) 49. Esler.F." according to Esler. In the to term the the come represent elsewhere. Esler. p. Myths. -U+kjL by interpretation biblical integration the a very characterised approachii of social sciencesand "41 theory method.17 Estrada: From Followers To Leaders human formulae in indeed "piercing the of stereotypesand conventional assists models 09 far in that the a more clear-sightedview of the past.

.. . for instance. 4. Elliott adds. TheFirst Christians in Yheir Social Worlds: Social-Scientific Approaches to . having the ability to make 46 comparisons and thus finiher see what the text holds and what it does not. TheFirst Christians in Their Social Worlds: pp. 50j H. 48M Finley. Esler.modified. Esler. the model servesto exposeand asknew questions. . pp. Esler.. and .p. . Elliott. Because a model is consciously structured beforehand. p. "Social-Scientific Criticism of the New Testament:More on Methods and . TheShapeofthe Past: Models and Antiquity. The texts must supply the answers.And if indeedthe modelg-A7 is model not appropriate to the text that is being investigated. 4 1. should adjusted. it functions as a measuring tool. . do not function as an eliminating tool where the model is favoured and maintains its structure as it disintegratesthe text.however.not the In reality.44 45 Models help to identify the values and perspectives of the interpreter. is determined by the types of social phenomena to be analysed and explained and by the 44CET. 4. replaced. is measuredby how they "clarify and explicate the theories and assumptions of the researcher. 46p F. pp. and social 50 processes.. 1985). ".. In other words. YheFirst Christians in Their Social Worlds. the choice of what models to apply. according to Elliott. 8.or even The usefulnessof models. "a model is not a set of pigeon-holes into which data is slotted. Models. 1994). "Social-Scientific Criticism of the New Testament:.." Semeia35 (1986). 47p F. p. 43p F.pp."49 They ought to "reveal and explain the properties and relationships of social behaviour. social structures. 49j H. Elliott. F Camey. Elliott. p. In the investigation of the biblical text. 66. Therefore. New TestamentInterpretation (London: Routledge. 12-13.18 Estrada: From Followers To Leaders an experimental or a generalised or an explanatory) framework which can be brought to bear on somepertinent data. The comparisons. H. the model and not the text 48 be discarded. quoted from J. the use of models brings to the surface what are the properties of ancient social and cultural systemsas against what may simply be the modem reader's late-twentieth century worldview. 12-13. Ancient History: Evidence and Models (London: Chatto Windus. Plat is Social-Scientific Criticism?. 12-13.

53D. " p. He finds two reasonswhy this is so: First. however. It is argued that the issue is not whether we use models or not. interrelationships. 54D. "can lead the researcherto view the evidence in a particular way.(or interpretive criticism) involves the "total immersion in another culture by a trained observer?' SeeP.assumption. the term is renderedalmost entirely vacuous. Horrell. 255. first .. if every presupposition. however. 56Horrell. p.. Such a move. Esler. Horrell. be but Horrell that "should not to warns a guide research. Esler. F. 216. For Horrell. Elliott."51 There are.P. 90-91. 52p F.p. indeed. Modelling Early Christianity. G.H. p. Modelling Early Christianity. 1996). "Social-Scientific Criticism of the New Testament. G. G. Anthropology: Student's Guide to 71eory and Method (Toronto: University of Toronto Press. Instead. F. . common objection point 52 data. Barrett.perspectiveor theory should be called a "model" then.analogy. 55Cf. any modem interpreter investigating the biblical text 56 is his hence The her a question model. approaches or 51J. quoting S. 9. exegeteswho hold that the use of models misleads rather than helps the is just have A (a that models tend to mentioned) we exegete. or to 53 be He emphasisesthat models '.Estrada:From FollowersToLeaders 19 theories which the researcher holds concerning the nature. assumethat a certain pattern of conduct must 54 interpreters it. G. Esler. Model-users aptly respond back. 4. and importance of thesephenomena. " in JSNT 78 (2000). In other words. pp. a product of cannot avoid their own presuppositionsin their choice of models and that they shape the 55 way they seethings. whether consciously or not.we use models all the time. This usually happens impose "alien and inappropriate frameworks on century especiallywhen interpretersbegin their investigation with a model. Interpretivism. " Models and Methods in Social-Scientific Interpretation: A Responseto P. F.Horrell suggeststhe method of "interpretivism7' as a more workable social-scientific approachin biblical interpretation. according to D. and the term little"Wrana convenientlabel to describethe widely acceptedtruth that human becomes perception is never purely objective or detached. "Review of D. Horrell. 90-9 1. Esler. 4-8 for the issuesbetweenmodel-usersand interpretivists. pp. . He believes that using this term in a very generalway is highly unsatisfactory. study with certain presuppositions. Horrell. finds the term "model" usedbroadly to refer to theory or ideal-types. " Models and Methods in Social-Scientific lnterpretationý' pp. present.

9 October 2000. Mine is plainly the general types which is basically classified into two. C. The debateis really about what assumptionswe should "9 adopt. F.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 20 fact he interpreter is the that the of or she approachesthe text conscious modem whether 'how imagining beforehand.. Carney proposes. G.F. 60CEP. seeT. keeping it does. JSNT 78 (2000). A. not whether we model or not." at the Biblical StudiesDepartmentseminar. Or as do (quoting T. 7. For the discussionof Carney's five main types of models. TheShapeof the Past. T. 58J. Cameys) 'they control us. TheShapeof the Past. F. Two Types The Environment 1. goal secrets within. but these are essentialif we are to addresscultural experiencedifferent from our own in terms we can comprehend. p. F. "Review of D. 59P. The aim is whether the text will provide some answers that are historically plausible or 60 its intact. we not control them. p. Eherg-Pedersen. 5.the term is in dangerof "obfuscating" the significant differences betweenthose who usesa "model-based" approachand those who favArLw"interpretativeapproach. G. Elliott. pp.1. Models will have built into them certain modem assumptionsand perceptions. Carney. pp.. social and cultural 62 Cross-Cultural. Second. Elliott "every As of points out. " p. F.' Esler puts it. 'If we use them 58 . "Review of D. Esler. 44-45.Citation ofAuthority in Paul and in the Jewish and Hellenistic Schools. 109." D. of reconstructing with a model it was back then' necessarilyinvolves the use of some conceptual model. Horrell. Horrell. 13-34. seminartitle Paul Beyond the Judaism-HellenismDivide. not. " p. has been If If text the the remains achieved. I 11. Modelling Early Christianity. Nat is Social-Scientific Cilticism?.1% 57Cf. p. Horrell. A paper originally presentedby her at the proceedingsof the 1997 Rolighed conferenceunder the ed. Esler. T.F. F. unconsciously. 62The needto mention this issuewas brought to my attention during Dr. G.H.Models and Antiquity. . not. 109. L. Carney.. Esler. Alexander's reading of her seminarpaper entitled "IPSE DLX7T.Sheffield University. The interpreter then resolves to find another model in order to make historical senseof the biblical text which has been locked up in centuries by its respective 61 dimensions. p. 61P.3 and of Models: 63 in biblical There are at least two types of models which social-scientistsuse exegesis. 85. A 63Different from the five main types of models which T.

Meeks in his book TheFirst Urban Christians: The Social World of the Apostle PaUl. Md.. 66 Together with these." the "language of separation. Also.21 Estrada:From FollowersToLeaders 64 developed from First is the model which is conceived or the environment of the teXt. These included the "language of belonging.ed." and the "philosophic or rhetorical schoolS. 69p F. Ascough. Benko and J. Shaping Thought andAction (Mount Airy. p. . S. text concerned. eds. 2." the "voluntary associations. J.Meeks. F. and application of models. TheFirst Urban Christians: TheSocial World of the Apostles Paul (New Haven: Yale University Press. "Collegia..Meeks Christian fellowship boundaries Pauline define to the attempted of also and nature of groups. S." in Early Church History. Esler. pp. Models from this type are those which are drawn from the field of the social sciences and are developed by 69 human behaviour. R. (Valley Forge: Judson. The First Urban Christians. in imported from outside the social and cultural milieu of these models are not other words. institution.. 68 Tlie second type is known as the "cross-cultural model. 1983). pp. Meeks.. 1998).: Lomond Publications. R. 1971). The First Urban Christians. Meeks. P. seeJ.types." " purity do boundaries. 68Cf. TheFirst Christians in Their Social World. . The model. 65W. 1984). Models ofReality. The principle behind this model-type is that the empirical researchon investigation of the social dimensions of early Christianity can be greatly enhancedwith "the assistanceof over a century of researchinto arguably similar areasof human behaviour "For a collection of essayson the concept. identity " " "autonomous to the the and encouragement and of an 67 mission.65 Meeks' quest to understandthe formation of the ekkIesia in the time of the apostle Paul sought to develop a model of "group formation7 solely on what is found or available in the Pauline writings and its NT contemporaries. 74-84. O'Rourke. 66W. Richardson. "at Are TheySaying About the Formation of Pauline Churches?(New York: Paulist Press. instead. Wilken. good available or presentwithin demonstratedby W. His models therefore include insights from the nature and composition of the "household. p. Review of Horrell. Philosophical Schoolsand Theology. 67W. ." the "synagogue. 257.has been structured and defined from what is basically has been biblical A this type the example of environment. Esler. 84-107.

Social-scientific criticism is the method which enables us to "pick and choose" among these models and theories on offer to see which are most likely to help in producing historically plausible readingsof the biblical texts. Esler. and social psychologists. 71Cf. Berger and T. P. A Treatise in the Sociology ofKnowledge (England: Penguin Books. 1.. As we have stated before. 72Cf. Review of Horrell. review of Horrell. pp. we now move to discuss the specific model we have in mind. p. 254. The discipline of the social sciences has "objectivated"71 and formulated these patterns into theories and models by which they can be used and tested in the study of societieswhether they be in the presentor in the past. In particular. TheSocial Constniction ofReality. p. 1966). . L. From these ideas. sociologists. 253.F. F.P. To explain further how we will go about doing this. K Marx (1818-1883).P. it is the cross-cultural type of model which will serve as our theoretical framework. 65-109. the ascensionof Jesus is not only the story of his departurebut also the beginning of the apostles' assumptionof the leadershipresponsibility over the Christian community.72 In this thesis. Thereis no doubtthat onecanreadin Acts 1-2the apostles'changeof statusfrom followers to leaders.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 22 70 by conducted anthropologists.2 The Rituals of Status Transformation. Luckmann. Emile Durkheim (1858-1917). Esler. 70P. we conclude that Acts 1-2 is a narrative telling the process of the apostles' statustransformation. Nor is Pentecostsimply the story of the Spirit's arrival but also the event which confirms such a leadership responsibility upon the apostles. This principle works from the assumption that certain patterns of human social activity are shared and maintained through the centuries by various societies both ancient and modem. Berger is a sociologist who developedhis theories from the pioneering studies of such as Max Weber (1864-1920)..

Estrada: From Followers To Leaders

23

One of the tasks we have aimed to do is to study this status transformation process
We
1:
15-26.
1:
12-14
function
historical
the
the
and
episodes of
of
sense of
and make
believe that we have a model from the method of social-scientific criticism which will help
A
"is
"ritual,
transformation.
The
the
that
this
of
status
rituals
of a
aim.
model
us achieve
by
is
in
is
the
the
the
perceived
world
participant understanding way
ritual a meansof aiding
form
is
"symbolic
its
in
It
of
a
their social group and a way of participating
patterns.
expressionwhich mediatesthe cultural core values and attitudes that structure and sustain a
society.,

)73

We proposethat the way the eventsin Acts 1-2 are sequencedand narratedyiel&-

his
help
to
the
readers that the
author
convey
certain social symbols, symbols which
leaders.
leaders
from
followers
have
been
their
to
transformed
apostles
-

Social

74
is
It
have
the
transformation
this
as
rites ofpassage.
classified
processof
anthropologists
higher
level.
level
from
from
domain
to
to
another
one role or status
one
another,
a passage

1.2.1 The Rites ofPassage by Arnold van Gennep.
One of the most significant pioneers in the study of ritual behaviours in its relation to the
dynamics of individual or group life is that of the French scholar Arnold Van Gennep. His
75
insights
in
has
)
de
(originally
1908
Les
opened up new
published
work
passage
rites
through the comparative analysesof social worlds. His studieswere moved by the desire to
76
behaviour.
This meant the
understand and give rational explanations on religious
investigation of its "historical origins, making comparative analyses, or presenting

73M.McVann, "Rituals of StatusTransformation," in TheSocial World qfLuke-Acts, J. H.
Neyrey, ed., (Peabody,Massachusetts:Hendrickson, 1991), p. 334.
74Aterm first used systematicallyin anthropology to denotepublic ceremoniescelebrating the
transition of an individual or group to a new status,for example initiation ceremonies.The Penguin
Dictionary ofSociology, Yd edition, N. Abercrombie, S Hill, and B. S. Turner, eds. (Penguin Books,
1994), p. 360.
75A.van Gennep, TheRites ofPassage, trans. by M. B. Vizedorn and G. L. Caffee (Chicago:
The University of Chicago Press, 1960).
76A.van Gennep,TheRites ofPassage, p. vi.

Estrada: From Followers To Leaders
07

functional interpretations.

24

His investigation, however, was careffil not to conduct the

in
from
its
He
bits
the
works
of
and
pieces
and
alien
social
setting.
examination
phenomena
from the "tradition of positivism - the insistence that general laws of social processshould
be derived from empirical researchrather than from metaphysicalspeculation.)978
The major contribution of van Gennepis his study of ceremonieswhich accompany
an individual's "life crises." It is from this that he formulated his theoretical framework of
79
de
rites passage. In this framework, van Gennep identifies three major phaseswhich the
individual or group goes through: separation,transition, and incorporation. These phases
are based on van Gennep's understanding of the dichotomy of things, specifically of the
sacredand the profane. S. T. Kimball, writing the introduction to the English translation of
van Gennep's TheRites ofPassage, explains:
dichotomy of the sacred and the profane
is a central concept for
the
...
...
understanding the transitional stage in which an individual or group finds itself
from time to time. The sacred is not an absolute value but one relative to the
situation. The person who enters a status at variance with one previously held
becomes"sacred" to the others who remain in the profane state. It is in this new
condition which calls for rites eventually incorporating the individual into the group
and returning him to the customary routines of life. These changes may be
dangerous,and at least, they are upsetting to the life of the group and the individual.
The transitional period is met with rites of passagewhich cushion the disturbance."

Van Gennepmade it clear that his interest in not in the rite itself but their order. He finds
that the order within rites is basically the same, a pattern of the rites of passage. Kimball
also noticed that van Gennepwas able to show the "existence of transitional periods which
81
sometimes acquire a certain autonomy.,, Finally, van Gennep declared that there was a
connection between the actual spatial passageand the change in social position. This

77A.van Gennep, TheRites ofPassage, p. A.
78A.van Gennep, TheRites ofPassage, p. vii.
79A.van Gennep, TheRites ofPassage, p. vii.
BOA.van Gennep, TheRites ofPassage, pp. viii-ix.
8'A. van Gennep, TheRites ofPassage, p. x.

Estrada: From Followers To Leaders

25

connection is "expressedin such ritualization of movements from one status to another as
an 'opening of doors."82
The impact of van Gennep'stheoretical framework can be measuredby the extent of
responsesto his propositions. Severalhave sought to use his ideas, incorporated them into
the literature, attacked, defended, and expanded them.83 Some of the more significant
84
Gennep
from
A.
R.
Radcliffe
Brown
E. D. Chapple and C. S.
responsesto van
are those
,
Coon85 These scholars extendedvan Gennep's identity of the "crisis" which the group or
.
individual experience. According to Kimball, Chapple and Coon investigating the precise
nature of the "crisis" helps in understandingthe "disturbance" within individuals or groups.
86 Kimball statesthat, "van Gennep
commented upon the disturbanceswhich changesin
status produced in the individual, and he saw rites of passage as devices which incorporated
87
individual
into
in
Radcliffe-Brown
an
a new status
a group.,,
such rites actually function as "restorative

adds to this the idea that

of the moral sentiments which had been

disturbed through the changes in social life ofthe group. ,88

A more popular expansion of van Gennep's framework is that of Victor Turner.
Specifically, Turner's book The Ritual Process89 contributed valuable insights into van
Gennep's "transition" phase to which Turner formulated his liminality-communitas stage.

82A. van Gennep, TheRites ofPassage,
p. x.
93Earlier notable studies
would include A. M. Tozzer, Social Origins and Social Continuities
(New York: Macmillan Co., 1925); G. Bateson,Naven (Cambridge, England: University Press, 1936);
C. A. DuBois, ThePeople ofAlor (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1944); M. Mead,
Growing Up in New Guinea (New York. Blue Ribbon Books, 1930).
"Cf. A. R. Radcliffe-Brown, TheAndaman Islanders (Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press, 1922).
85E.D. Chapple and C. S. Coon, Principles
ofAnthropology (New York: Henry Holt & Co.,
1942).
86A.van Gennep, TheRites ofPassage,
p. xiii.
87A.van Gennep, TheRites ofPassage, p. xiii
88A.van Gennep, TheRites
ofPassage, p. xiii; italics mine.
89V.Turner, TheRitual Process: Structure and Anti-Structure (New York- Aldine De Gruyter,
1995).

Estrada: From Followers To Leaders

26

This stage is crucial to our study of the function and relationship of 1:12-14 and 1:15-26
within the apostles' ritual of statustransformation in Acts 1-2.

1.2.2 The Ritual Process by Victor Turner.
Turner is also a social anthropologist interested in the study of group life. He recognised
that van Gennep's theoretical framework indeed shows structural similarities in rites, either
of statustransformation, puberty, death, marriage,birth, healing, "to which they all operated
as a way of marking life processin the experienceof the people among whom he had lived
"90
worked.
and

Yhe Ritual Process is the product of Turner's study on a particular group, the
Ndernbu people of northwestem Zambia. This is where Tumer differs from the other
scholarswe have cited above. "Where van Gennep... had sought to organize all of cultural
from
field
Turner
superorganically,
argued
specific
making
generalizations,
practice
global
data."91 He applied van Gennep's schima of rites de passage into a specific people-group
context. Turner then was able to analyse where the tripartite processual scheme of
separation,transition, and incorporation helps in the study of a particular social context. In
developed
lacking,
Turner
the
made expansions and
van
areas where
scheme seems
Gennep'sframework.
One of these expansions,as we have stated earlier, is on van Gennep's "transition"
stage. Turner introduces the term "communitas" into the samestageto representthe type of
bonding between the initiands. This happenswhen the liminal subjects share comradeship

9OV.Turner, TheRitual Process,p. xi.
91FLD. Abraham's foreword in V. Tumer, TheRitual Process,p. xL

Estrada: From Followers To Leaders

27

with each other as class, rank, wealth, or social status are broken down even as they all
92
submit to the ritual elders and experiencethe equality of sharing a common predicament.
This liminality-communitas stage servesas an important stage in the processof the
rite of passage. It is when, according to Turner, the subject experiences the "limbo of
,, 93

statuslessness.

The individual or group going through the process is "betwixt and

between7the statusor role that has been designated.94 This description is very helpffil if we
are to understandthe function of the author's report about the events which happenedwith
the apostles between the time they were commissioned by Jesus in Acts 1:8 and the
confirmation of their new statusby the baptism of the Spirit in 2: 1-4.
But why do we find van Gennep's theoretical framework and Turner's expansion of
the same helpfiil in our exegesisof Acts 1-2? The answer lies in the plausibility of Mark
MeVann's study as he attempted to use the model on Jesus' status transformation in the
gospel of Luke.

McVann called his model the "Rituals of Status Transformation"

(altematively RST).

1.2.3 The Rituals ofStatus Transformation by Mark McVann.
Mark McVann's study is found under the category of "social dynamics" in the 1991 project
95
Context
Group
Social
Yhe
World
Luke-Acts:
Models
for
the
Interpretation.
entitled
of
of

McVann's work, "Rituals of StatusTransformationin Luke-Acts: The Caseof Jesusthe
Prophet" is a slightly modified version of Turner's model. What follows is a summary of

92FL L. Cohn, "Liminality in the Wilderness," in TheShapeofSacredSpace: Four Biblical
Studies (ScholarsPress, 1981), p. 10.
93V. Turner, TheRitual Process,p. 97.
94Cf.FL Cohn, "Liminality in the Wilderness," p. 10.
"Edited by J. H. Neyrey, (Peabody,Massachusetts:Hendrickson, 1991).

Estrada: From Followers To Leaders

28

McVann's propositions. From there, we will show how McVann's RST will serve as the
model and theoretical framework in our investigation of the apostles' status transformation
in Acts 1-2.

1.2.3.1 The Elements of a Ritual.
The rite of passageinvolves elementswhich help effect passageto the new role and status.
Ritual elements are what comprises the ritual itself. They include primarily the initiands,
the ritual elders; and the symbols (or sacra):
A. The initiands are the people who, individually or as a group, experience the
96
They are the ones who are ordained to take on the new
status of transfortnation ritual.
roles and statusesin their society after they have gone through the ritual process.
B. The transformation from one status to another is presided over by a person or
persons qualified to supervise the transition and certify its legitimacy. These persons are
07

known as "ritual elders.

The ritual elders may function as models for the initiands

becausethey are the "professionals" who embody the core values of their society.98 They
field
by
having
this
the
the
and they command
authority over
society as
are recognised
initiands
from
These
take
the
the
that
society.
elders
and
authority
people
within
respect
into a cleansing processby which they instil new ideas and wipe out the old preconceived
99
is
before
They need to enact these measures if the
the new status
confinned.
concepts

960therterms referring to the initiand (from initiare "to begie) are sometimesemployed by
both Van Gennepand Turner. These include, "passengers," novus - "new," "fresh," or neophyteneos-futon,"newly grown." Cf V. Turner, Dramas, Fields, and Metaphors: Symbolic Action in Human
Society (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1974), p. 232.
97V. Turner, Dramas, Fields, and Metaphors, p. 336.
98M.McVann, "Rituals of StatusTransformation," p. 337.
991nsomesocieties,the ritual elders may beat their initiands, withhold food or sleep, taunt or
insult them, strip them of clothing, or any other measureswhich debasesthe initiands' self confidence
and pride. Cf. M. McVann, "Rituals of StatusTransformation," p. 337.

Turner.100They play significant roles during the ritual because formal induction "Ritual the the are sacred symbols ritual.but about cosmologies. Dramas.p. Turner. 101Turner explains further.2. Cf.values. transition. the symbols may come as skulls. Dramas. Fields. With primary referenceto the ritual. and Metaphors: SymbolicAction in Human Society (Ithaca: Cornell University Press. p. he employs the termspreliminal. books. they are taken out and exhibited before the initiands as a part of their instruction in the basic facts of their culture. 1974).or as communications engineerswould no doubt have it. and ensurethat they concentrateon the values and attitudes of their society which are concentratedsymbolically and highlighted in them. p. McVann's contribution is the expansion of Turner's "liminality-communitas" with the addition of the phase which he calls "ritual confrontation. whereby society's deep knowledge is transmitted from one generationto another. margin. 102VTurner.M. . V. Likewise. or even candles. They are known to represent bizarre. The ritual symbols (sacra) take various shapes. as "storage bins" of information. andpostliminal.2 The Process of the Ritual. 337.3. 338." This thesis will adapt MeVann's stagedescriptions: 10OIn the rituals of somecults and other religious groups. masksrings. "Rituals of StatusTransforrnation:'p. liminality-communitas nature of such a stage. and cultural axioms. liminal. and Metaphors. visual and auditory. 102 Turner expands van Gennep's "transition7 stage by emphasising the and aggregation."101 1. They provide a focus for the initiands during their liminality. 239. Regardless of the specific status transformation or the particular ritualising society. the fundamental stagesin any rite of passageremain largely the same: separation. operateculturally as rnnemonics. At in familiar to them things seem a way make are combined such yet aspectsof crucial points. not about pragmatic techniques. Van Gennepusesthe serial terms separation. V. The Ritual Process. These symbols. the to their people responsibilities statuses order carryout C.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 29 initiands are to come out of the ritual as new people and understand their new roles and in before in their societies. Fields. 166. . or at and conclusion of they are objects out of the ordinary. with referenceto the spatial transitions. and re-aggregation. McVann.

their personal identities and relations. They are believed to leave "secular" time and enter into a sacred "timelessness.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders A. . 2. In other societies.p. Liminality'05 requires the initiands to abandon their previous beliefs or habits. In the liminal stage. The initiands go through the ritual of separation. 94. with others in their society. these are placeswhere accessto it is difficult and maybe deemedsacred. any status they had is lost as well. V. prayer. from "103 (a in from 'state') the or social structure. Becausethey are "losf' from the culture during the time their status is ritually recreated. 30 Separation is a major part of the ritual process. the initiand undergoesa symbolic death to his old life and is in the process of being reborn to a new one. Separationof time is the moment when the initiands are thought to be removed from the normal flow of time. a set of cultural conditions point Any initiand undergoing status transformation experiences separation in three ways: separationfrom people. 105From. It "comprises symbolic behaviour signifying the detachmentof the individual or group either from an earlier fixed both. and of time: 1. B. YheRitual Process. at times by exclusion. of place. Liminality-Communitas. It can be a place known for receiving special revelations from spirits or gods.p. 339." In this case. immobility) or forced activity (singing. His situation in the ritual is often likened in the lore to being in the womb or the 103 V. Separationfrom people takes the initiands away from the ordinary rhythm of the society. Cf." p.the initiands go through the phaseof liminal personae ("threshold people"). Turner. Turner. dancing). "Rituals of StatusTransformation.g. ideas.McVann." It can be a time of inactivity (e. 95. 7he Ritual Process. the Latin term limen meaning"threshold. silence. which is more often supervisedby the ritual elders. such places are ideal sites for such rituals. 104 3. and understandings. 104M. Separationof place may be the designatedplace of initiation.

the focus on common humanity. TheRitual Process. Its purpose is to test the overall skills of the initiand before he/she is reincorporated into the society. He is out of time and space. 38-39. This is the time when all inequality among the participants are broken down and is replaced by equality and unity. 11OV.Turner. "Liminality in the Wilderness. Dramas." p. and an "all for one. is the positive side of this process. pp. a realm where they are "in between7 107 always an uncertain place. Communitas108on the other hand. one for all" spirit often develops among the initiands in a rite of passage. suspendsroutine and represses status differences." in TheShape ofSacred Space: Four Biblical Studies(ScholarsPress.Turner. 1981). communitas refers to the initiands' recognition of their fundamentalbondednessor comradeshipin the institution into which they are being initiated. 38-47. '06 The initiands (in some cultures) are perceived as dangerousor as pollution to those outside the ritual processbecausethe initiands exist in limbo. 337. 109V. It appearsto function as the product's "quality test" conducted internally by people in their own camp before they are 110 into intend leadorserve. 10.L. 1967). V. In certain ritual transformations.McVann. a threshold being.someform of ritual mock battle or hostile confrontation as a final step is seenas the initiands' achievementand public recognition of their new status. Turner. " cf. Liminality. p. C. Ritual Confrontation. pp.p. Cohn. therefore. In some instancesreal . 7he Ritual Process. 100-02. to darkness. Communitas.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 31 wilderness. to invisibility. to bisexuality. Fields. to an eclipse of the sun or moon. and Metaphors. He is sexless or androgynous. "The Rituals of StatusTransformation. TheRitual Process.p. cannot be consideredapart from liminality.pp.Although it . the to community which they aggregated 106R. 108Aterm in Latin preferred by Turner over "community" to distinguish the "modality of social relationship" from an "area of common living. 96. The confrontation is usually a mock test initiated by the ritual elder or selectedleaders of the community. It is the communion of equal individuals who submit together to the general 109 authority of the ritual elders. can then emergeinto the foreground. 96. TheForest ofSymbols: Aspectsofthe Ndembu Ritual (Ithaca: Cornell University Press. 107M.

and statuses. and (b) he acts aggressivelyagainstsin. 341. They can be trusted and respect can be attributed." pp. the ritual 113 initiating into John Jesus the prophet's role. fulfilling for initiands have their new that the the requisite capacities now acknowledges roles within it.however. 3: 14: 30. Cf. 341. on the other hand.McVann. McVann. "Rituals of StatusTransformation. McVann.prophets. "Tlie Rituals of Status Transformation. 113McVannstates. as an example of the prophet's role which Jesus is going to be. TheHymns ofLuke's Infancy Narratives (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press. while in others." p. larger The the other on society. in some way."Luke's description of John's behaviour in 3: 1-20 leavesno doubt that John fulfills his role: (a) he remains"holy" or separate. 14-98. as the one presents violence occurs. That Luke used this material becauseof two possible . they remain partially on its margins since they are thought to retain accessto powers and forces which make them dangerous. "Rituals of StatusTransfbrmationý'p. McVann. 1.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 32 D." p. there is a controlled and highly focusedexpressionof hostility and tension such as that which occurs in a challenge-ripostesituation. McVann identifies Lk. John the baptiser. 343. In addition. the tradition on the miraculous conception has been deducedfrom the accountsfound in Lk. 34041. It is John who serves. After the ritual.2. undergo only partial aggregation." M. StephenFarris.McVann obviously has Jesus as the initiand. 11'McVann adds. or priests. that thosewho have been initiated into particular roles such as shamans. 1985). the initiands become "' useful to the society as they take up their new responsibilities. 112M.M. While they provide indispensable servicesto the society.4 The Model Applied: The Prophetic Role of Jesus in Lk. dangerous.suggestionsthat Luke utilised traditional material in forming his version is supported. 3: 1-4:30 as the narrative where Jesus' ritual of statustransformation occurs. pp. Aggregation (or reincorporation) happenswhen the ritual initiation is completed. The role which Jesushas been transformed to after the ritual is that of a prophet. taking with them their new roles hand. It is the narrative which shows the changing of Jesus' role from private person to 112 public prophet. Becauseof thesetwo accounts. For ritual elements.with new rights and obligations. is the ritual eldcr. 1:18-20. The initiands are no longer seen as threatening. Though Jesus is superior to John.or unreliable. 1:14-17 and Mt. "The Rituals of StatusTransformation. This is the time when the initiands return to the society.apart from society at the Jordan.

3: 3. p. Schweizer. For a discussionon the parallel prophetic ministries of John and Jesus. implies be followed.8) 6. McVann. he will be separatedfrom pollution such as being drunk from wine in 1:15. TheBirth ofthe Messiah: A Commentaryon the Infancy Narratives in Matthew and Luke (London: GeofrTeyChapman.McVann. discerns disguised evil (3: 7-8) 4. trans. (London: John Knox Press. conflict with sinners (3: 19-20) 3.. 1984). 1977). holy figure (1: 15-17) 2. p. But Luke's narrative presents John as Jesus' ritual elder: an. ed. Brown. 3: 1-20 shows that he is holy. narratives already figure in 1:1-17. In the infancy holy is in is described John being John the a called role of a prophet. has been set apart from society. John the Baptiser is an explicit model of prophet for Jesusthe initiand. preaches repentance (1: 17. 115McVannarguesthat even in Luke 1-3. D." M. Green. 15. 263. "Rituals of StatusTransformation. Jesus. and he acts 114 aggressivelyagainstsin.9) conflict with evil (4:3-13) discernsevil hidden in the tests (4:3-13) justice proclaims (4: 18-19) preachesrepentance (5:32.33 Estrada:From FollowersToLeaders Luke has consistently presented John in tenns of this description. John's behaviour in Lk. faces rejection (7: 31-33) Son of God (4:3. "Rituals of StatusTransformation. 114M. as the following comparison suggests:' 15 John the Baptiser Jesusthe Prophet 1. Luke's to that studied model story the role into which he is initiated. The historical facts concerning John's actual relationship with Jesusescapeus. the presence of the Spirit in him describes him as powerful in 1:17." p. is to show the parallels betweenJohn's and Jesus'prophetic ministries. Bright and E. p." pp. in the mechanicsof the ritual. 13:3. proclaims justice (3: 10-14) 5. This is odd since Jesusas Christ is superior to John. " The Spirit and Power: The Uniformity and Diversity of the Concept of the Holy Spirit in the New Testarnentý"J. 250. McVann adds. E. The Good NewsAccording to Luke.Int 6 (1952). Debor.. .41-44.5) facesrejection (4:21-30) reasons: First.is to show Jesus' superiority over John.seeR. Jesusis inferior to John. 344-45. "Thus Luke establishesa link betweenJesusand John to show that the mantle of prophecy is passedto Jesusin a valid ritual process. exemplary prophet and learned having John. However. Jesushas not yet been transformed into the statusof prophet until he undergoesthe ritual of statustransformation. and second. 343.

1950). like A." this cluster of symbols informs the reader that the criteria for the transfer of prophetic power and authority from John to Jesusis firmly establishedwithin the tradition of Israel's prophetsand has been divinely ordained. temple.118 Second. place. and by His acceptance of John's baptism identified Himself with the people whom He cameto save. re-entry He then identifies the symbols of the ritual in Act 1 (3: 1-22) as the following: 17 116 from heaven' (John Spirit (dove). McVann identifies the three types of separationwe mentioned: of people.he was divine and therefore sinless?" M. McVann. For ritual process. "For how could Jesushave beenbaptized for the forgivenessof sins. Rather." p. E. it is not the kind of ritual we are proposing. 49. Some studies seethe significance of John's baptism as a ritual. 18:14. Jesus' baptism by John signifies Jesus' desire to be separatedfrom sin. tests and demons.g. 1977). 36. Hunter who concludedthat. 4:33. Exek. J. 1:24. but also an uncleanoaceof madnessand starvation. Taylor has noted. Hunter. when according to the Christology that developedafter his death. p. McVann first divides the narrative into three acts: Act I." p. Others have simply dismissedthe . M. p. " Cf. M. Jordan the the the genealogy wilderness with at lengthy into (4: III Jesus' 14-30). M.a place of promise and renewal. the Jordan river functions principally as a boundary symbol. "Rituals of StatusTransformation. They are elements in situated the sceneof a ritual combat. 262. 11713oth the Spirit and Voice are ancient symbols which constitute God's intervention into human affairs. 4: 1-13). the and prophet . Jesus"discerned the hand of God in John's mission." A.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 34 For ritual symbols." Jesus' baptism by John should be understoodas symbolic of the transfer of "prophetic power and authority. settings such as desert. Jordan River Voice Baptiser).Jesustoo had 116ForMcVann.mountain. Ps. 68:34. E. McVann. Deut. McVann suggeststhat in the ritual context of "baptism-investiture. As West of the Jordan is the world of humanity and culture. M.John and Jesus in 3: in (4: 23-38 (3: 1-22). 118Again. "Rituals of StatusTransformation. and time. TheImmersen John the Baptist Within Second TempleJudaism (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. as J. The Work and WordsofJesus (Philadelphia: Westminster. However. and scripture.1997). It signals that a dramatic changeis about to take place. Act the society as narrator's aside). "Often the solution is given that he (Jesus)wished to humble himself by participating with the sinful in this important ritual. Taylor. another cluster of ritual elements appear. Thus. the devil. Act HJesus 1-3. Jesus encountersthe separationfrom people in three ways.within the ritual context of "baptism-investiture. It representsthe final reach of extent of culture. First. p. 346. East is the wilderness. 346. The elementsinclude Jesusas the novice prophet." Historical approachesto the sameevent has been a conundrum for many theologians. In Act H (Lk. GrantýJesus (London: Weidenfield and Nicolson.

The first is that of the devil's suggestion that Jesus historicity of the whole "John baptising Jesus"event. While it is in the role of the his his during he time testing.Lk. in Act I (Lk. the spatial setting of Nazareth should not be disregarded. prophet McVann proposes. Jesusexperiencesseparationwhen he abandonsall humancompanyandtravelsaloneinto the desert(Lk.therefore. Under the ritual confrontation. As readersseeJesusbeing confronted by the devil (Act 11.35 Estrada:From FollowersToLeaders been separatedfrom his family at Nazareth. liminal. 4. 350. Taylor's 7he Immerser. p. McVann again identifies three tests. H. And third. g. Jesus' temptation by the devil is clearly the event. transferred then time" the and of world a moment of wilderness to mountain. "Rituals of StatusTransformation. an experience he shared with others who went to John to Furthermore. that the role was ambiguous. that Jesusenjoyed communitaswith John when he experienced 120 be baptised. and then from mountain to temple. E. 4: 113). We will elaboratefurther on this comment later on. n. 119M. of undergoes ritual. 52. . 3: 1-22). his baptism. His status. Jesus' sojourn and experience at the Jordan shows how his status is unclear. It Jesus is the halted the time the a with of encounters as narrator narrates narrative 19 kingdoms "all Jesus frame At the the time outside of the time sees one point. TheMission andAchievement ofJesus: An Examination of the Presuppositionsoffew TestamentTheology (London: SCM. 4: 1). the encounter with the devil in the wilderness contains the ritual element of Liminality-communitas. R. Separation of time is found when Jesus enters the time of his testing in the desert." p. As for separationof place. of readers! from is instantaneously Jesus in (4: 5). McVann points out that this was a place of an altered time.however. 1954). Fuller. remains unclear or liminal. they wonder whether Jesushas really inherited the mantle of prophecy passedto him by John. 262. For liminality-communitas. Further bibliography on this issuecan be found in J. i. and whether he is now a prophet. The is devil. The baptism marks the point where Jesusleavesthe establishedculture of his hometown for the wilderness of Jordan. e.McVarm.. p. 12'ThatJesussharesunity with John and the others who were baptised is quite unclear from this thesis' perspective.

" Jesus returns after undergoing a radical changeof role and status as a result of the ritual of status 123 transformation. from student to teacher . The new factor in the situation is the devil. since God's messengers will protect him (4: 11)..McVann. He cites:... 4: 14-15: "And Jesusreturned in the power of the Spirit into Galilee. And he taught in their synagogues. McVann proposes. Marshall notes that.McVann. The secondtest takes Jesusto a high place by the devil (4:5). 2: 5 1. The Gospel ofLuke: A Commentary on the Greek Text (Exeter: Paternoster Press. He seesLk. who attempts to deflect Jesus from obedience to God and hence from the falfilment of the messianic task laid upon him by God.that Jesus is follower. but the point is rather that Jesus is obedient to God's will in Scripture . 354. 166. But Jesus knows better. "Rituals of Status Transfbrmationý'p..obedience being one of the major features in the liminal status which the initiand experiences during the ritual of status transformation. 122M.. 1978). p. I. "This test intensifies what was implicit in the previous one: whether to be God's client and dependon God as patron exclusively for glory and authority or whether to be the devil's client and so 121 in Jerusalem. Marshall. even God. H. a report concerning him went out through all the surrounding country. " p. Bultmann.being glorified by all. from chaos to order . and not that he wins by superior dialectical skill. His abstinencefrom food suggestshis him from former the undergoing the process of status and patterns separation transformation. This the test to turn should understood stones should Jesusas initiand hasjust endedfasting for forty days. It is also important to note how Marshall sees the temptation event as a display of Jesus' obedience to God .Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 36 background from be that bread (4: 4). 271-275). receive the Holy City. 354. . "Rituals of Status Transformation. John's longer docile to leader the or a novice prophet... of nor child no _fromfollower starting out as somewhat "subordinate" to John but coming out of the ritual as an anointed prophet.contrasting the orderly world of the villages and synagogues to which Jesus returns to coming from the chaotic world of the wildemess. This new setting has radical implications for Jesus' identity and career. 121M. He will suffer a fidelity for death in Jerusalem. The devil suggests to Jesus that a prophet need not suffer or die. 123McVann enumerates the different aspects which go with Jesus' change of status and role. to their unyielding prophet's rejection. is his The the temple the third test these of setting as patronage. 122 Finally. It has been argued that this reduces the story to the level of a rabbinic Streitgesprach in which Jesus overcomes the devil by a superior knowledge of Scripture (cf. McVann describesJesus' aggregation.

A.vv. We will do this in eachstageof the ritual which we will designatein Acts 1:3-2:47. 15-26: Ritual confrontation is experienced by the initiands. 9-11: The initiands experience full separationas Jesus - ascendsto heaven. C.we will give an overview of how this study is going to progress. It is also interestingto add that Jesus' first contact with society after the ritual is with his hometown in Galilee and home synagoguein Nazareth (Lk. The Eleven apostlesdefend themselvesbefore the presenceof "Rituals of StatusTransformation. . Our basic outline for the Ritual of StatusTransformation will be the following: First Stage. In this section. 12-14: The initiands enter into the full state of liminality as they return to Jerusalemand seclude themselves into the upper room. Phase One w.Estrada:From FollowersToLeaders 37 1. 6-8: The ritual elder commissions the initiands. B. SecondStage-Transition: Acts 1:12-26. B.Separation: Acts 1:3-11." p. In this phase. This will not only show us our thesis plan but also lay down our hypothesis in detail. A. PhaseThree w. Like McVann. PhaseTwo w. the Eleven apostles experience the strong cmnaraderieor communitas. PhaseOne w. we intend to seehow this model will support the hypothesis we have proposed for the reading of Acts 1-2. 4: 14.16).2. Phase Two . Now that we have briefly surveyedthe structureof the RST. we will first identify the ritual elementsbefore dealing with the ritual process.5 The Model Applied in Acts 1:3-2:47: An Overview. 3-5: The apostles as initiands enter into the ritual with Jesusas ritual elder. 355.

Estrada:From FollowersToLeaders 38 the one hundred and twenty brethren in relation to Judas and his act of betrayal.Aggregation: Acts 2: 1-47.1 The Ritual Elements in Acts 1:3-2:47. the focus remains on the Eleven. Third Stage. The apostles are the only ones whose honour and leadership integrity is in question. They are the ones who will undergo the ritual of status transformation.vv. they are the ones who need justification by undergoing the transformation.the apostlesgraduatefrom their initiation and are installed as new leadersof the community. B. A. of consistent with our hypothesis. This also means that when we get to the episodeswhere the Eleven apostlesinteract with other characters(such as in 1:14 and 15). 5-47: The apostlesare formally presentedto the crowd delivering his Eleven Peter the the and with standing with picture of is further The the reflected of community speech/challenge. The other charactersplay secondaryor "supporting" roles. acceptance have first 47 the their converts. Ourpoint (as we will is to attempt argue) that Acts I and 2 is a story exclusively about the apostles. as apostles 1. We should note that the author does not introduce any other characterinto the narrative until the apostleshave returned to Jerusalem(1: 12). It is the story is This their transformation.2. thus. The introduction of the othercharactersin 1:14 (thewomen. PhaseTwo . andJesus'brothers)cruciallyhappensonly after the Eleven apostleshave been identified individually by name (1: 13). until v. We see the baptism and empowerment of the Spirit as a symbol of God's affirmation through the rite of installation.Mary. . 14: After the transition stage.5.w. The apostles are the initiands. PhaseOne .

Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 39 The ritual elder of course is Jesus. 10). 1. The messageof Peter and the miracles will likewise play a significant part as ritual elementsin this act.We also find the symbol of Peter standing before the crowd with the Eleven as very crucial. Jesus). Jesus' brothers.the mention of the fulfilment of the scripture. Tumer. e. the cloud and heaven in Jesus' ascension. In Acts 1:3-11. the Holy Spirit. we also find the following elements: the prophet and leader (i. the filling of the house. the elements include the settings in Jerusalem. undergoing the ritual of status to the see situation . Judas and the manner of his death. and the casting of lots. and the utterance of other languages. to the the and emphasisedeven as early as one who gives commissionsthem for the mission they needto carry out. There is also the significance of the author's particular attention to details concerning the multitude and where they have come from.the rushing like a mighty wind. For 1: be the apostles. Yhe Ritual Process. Peter and the meaning of him "standing among the brethren".2 The Ritual Process: Thesis Plan and Hypothesis. There may still be other symbols we have not mentioned. Mary. the mention of John's baptism of Jesusand thus the baptism of the Spirit. the women. 66 we discoveredthat very often decisionsto perform ritual were connectedwith crises in the social life of villages (V. the book of Psalms.the significance of forty days.and the two men in white robcs. We intend to discussall thesefurther later in their correspondingchaptersof this thesis. the upper room.5. the one hundred and twenty people." the sound from heaven. p.2. we see the elements of the "day of Pentecost. For Acts 2: 1-14. the enumeration of the names of the apostles." This is exactly what we in Acts 3-2: 47. the tonguesof fire. His credentials as the ritual elder are clearly initiands is instructions He 1: 3. Acts 1:12-26.

Actually. In this stage there are three phases: (1) Acts 1:3-5 is the separationof the apostles as initiands from all contact with society. (2) the in 6-8 is 1: the secondphaseof the ritual separation. They are alone in the presenceof Jesus. two which presents and that the apostlescompletely understandand obey what Jesuswills. initiand (Lk. is the author's method of showing the initiands' full obedience to the ritual elder's instructions. We will argue that the absenceof inside views from the apostles.47). These symbols include the "forty days" Jesusfasted in the wilderness as he was in confrontation with Satan (T t- 4:2).40 Estrada: From Followers To Leaders transformation is the key element in addressing an impending crisis in the Christian in is the It the trust the community of and approval concerns a crisis which community.a leadershipwhich was seriously maligned becauseof the betrayal of Judas who belongs to the apostolate. leadershipof the Eleven apostles. (3) the third phaseis the ascensionaccount.their ritual elder. 3: 1-4:30 and applies them to the apostles' situation. As reflected in our basic outline. We will argue that the author intends to use the same symbols in Jesus' RST to pattem and legitimise the apostles' status transfonnation. However. the (1: 3) begins Eleven the they the the time enter process at when ritual separationof apostles by into (2: 14. the first stage of the ritual is separation. Jesus' ascensionin 1:9-11 will be . 3: 15-17).that the Eleven apostleswere commissionedby Jesus.despite Jesus' announcementof the parousia delay. It is an account account commissioning important issues. the apostles' the time the they ends are aggregated society and separationis initiated and highlighted in Acts 1:3-11. What follows is the plan by which we intend to present the designatednarrative of Acts 1:3-2: 14 in the form and pattern of a ritual.the Lk. The author in this stage takes the symbols from Jesus' own ritual of status transformation in Lk. and the reminder of the fact that John as the ritual elder baptised Jesus .

this time without their leader . Liminality is emphasisedwhen the apostles return to the city of Jerusalem. we also find this is be (as In to to the argue) subtly propagandic.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 41 but from departure Jesus' the as the apostles' separation apostles. status. Jesus between their heightening the the apostlesand picture of separation meansof The secondstageof the ritual is the transition and it portrays the liminality of the initiands. the consummated of It is also in this phasethat the Eleven experiencecommunitas and camaraderie. disciple groups who were with them in the upper room. not as from Jesus. This social appeal is known otherwise as networking. other words.Jesus. The pericope of 1:12-14 discloses quite a complex social issue. While we see this event as a time when the apostles strongly experiencetheir communitas. we will give a brief background on the concept of patronageand discusshow networking plays a significant part in it. The liminal. . Moreover. We suggestthat the enumeration of the apostles' names in 1:13 is not merely the author's way in but the they contrast with the other who apostles who are of re-introducing are. therefore. is the concept of patronageworking interactively within our theoretical framework of RST. apostles not come until the promise any rank or status commissioned as of is father in Acts 2. viewed primarily. What we have. Under this section. a significant aspect of patronage. author we will attempt event appealing to win more support from other groups by showing the unanimity of the apostles with the women disciples and Jesus' family. The apostlesare at a stagewhen they are practically stripped does Their title. rather.the apostlescompletely experiencethe utmost test of separation drama Jesus' We the to ascensionas the author's of will attempt read and segregation. leader. In this phase. statusof the Eleven apostlesbecomesmore pronounced in 1:12-14. the seclusion in the "upper room" heightens the apostles' separationand liminal.

Finally. In incriminating Twelve. The strict criteria which were set up in order to check the qualifications of whoever is going to replace Judasis designedto address a "moral" concern not just a "number" issue. we find the concept of honour and shameworking within the framework of RST.the Eleven apostles. we will attempt to show that this is an election primarily aimed at reclaiming the leadershipcredibility of the commissionedapostles.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 42 More importantly. speechon speech in defence of their group . defence. unlike most modem scholarswho place emphasison the completion of the number of the apostles to twelve. Here too. . Becausewe see 1:15-26 as a ritual confrontation. In other words. It is a speech declaring Judas' excommunicationbefore the presenceof the rest of the one hundred and twenty persons (a number which some suggest to be symbolically representing the ruling body of a community). it is in this phase that the apostles as initiands experience their defence depicts 1: 15-26 Acts the the apostles' election narrative ritual confrontation. In Peter's twenty a and persons other words. we will attempt to argue that the election of Matthias can be read as primarily addressingthe need to solve the moral crisis. Judas' their the the associationwith against evidence of (as in behalf Peter that the other of apostles and not necessarily speaks we will point out hundred brethren for body the one scholarsclaim) a spokesman whole of numbering almost is death (1: 16-20) (1: Judas' 15). We will show that this is also the method which the author uses to assurehis it God himself that was who choseMatthias -a divine choice which allays the fears readers of a possible repeatof a betrayal coming from the group. the casting of lots is a method by which God gets the final choice in Judas' replacement. the crisis engulfing the honour and integrity of the Eleven apostles.

ritual process. We have statedthat the eventsin Acts 1:3-2: 14 show how the author of Luke-Acts promotes the leadershipof the Eleven. presents the . One of the main intentions for this promotion is to blot out the effect of Judas' betrayal of Jesus. the sight of the apostleshaving their first converts in 2:26-27 shows that indeed the Twelve have been redeemedin their honour and integrity as leaders of the community of believers. This is also the rite where the author God's have his to that the seal of complete with graduated readers apostles wishes show is (b) Acts 2: 5-14 them. We suggestedthat the author's campaign to promote the Eleven is best understood from a social-scientific perspective. In this thesis. we believe. The model by which we can study the said promotion is that of the ritual of status transformation. Peter and the Eleven apostles now stand before the crowd which by Jesus. as he was part of the Twelve. different duties from begin to their as commissioned came nations and perform Finally. This is the third stageof the RST and it is also where we would As McVann's to we may recall. of suggest some modifications want McVann seesJesus' baptism by John as an event which initiates Jesusinto the time of trials and testing by the devil in the wilderness.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 43 After the initiands have faced and passedtheir ritual confrontation. we propose that the apostles' baptism in the Spirit in Acts 2: 1-4 may be viewed as a ritual validation or graduationbefore they are incorporated into society. The aggregationprocessis in two phases:(a) Acts 2: 1-4 is the initiands' ritual graduation. had serious social implications.3 Summary. the narrative where we see the process of the approval upon initiands' aggregation.It is a phasewherethe initiandsare formally recognised in their role by the superior chancellor or ritual elder/s. Acts 1:3-2: 14. Judas' betrayal. 1. they are now preparedto be aggregatedinto society. especially for the honour and reputation of the apostlesas a group.

more so . We suggest that the mention of the other disciple groups in the is Acts 1: 12-14 pericope of not only to emphasiseunity amongst the disciples but is this underlying intent to win the trust of other disciple groups such as the women and those of Jesus' ami y. now hands down this role to the Twelve. We propose that the grotesque description of Judas' death. Jesuswho served as the people's broker to God.for example. We would like to bring out the significance of the election narrative in 1:15-26 with the help of the conceptual model of honour and shame. will cover the issues of the apostles' role as the peoples' is before is God The the who ultimate patron. These models primarily include the concepts of patronage. However. 3: 1-4:30. coming out of the ritual as the prophet of God. role of representation that of a representative broker.who was then a private person. we also mentioned that while the model of the Rituals of Status Transformation serves as the theoretical framework of this study. This objective is attainable through what is known as the concept of networking. Patronage. networking. in honour however.Estrada:From FollowersToLeaders 44 leaders be followers Jesus' to the and new the transformation of once exclusive group of God. It is this role which this study wants to extend further within the theoretical framework of the RST. to the of people representatives We proposedthat the transformation of the apostles' statusresemblesthe processof Jesus' status transformation in Lk. define discuss We the them and and shame. One of these social issues with which patronage covers is the intent to win the approval of the patron's clientele. went through a comparablestatustransformation. other underlying issues by imbedded in be Acts 1: 3-2: 14 will studied employing complementary sociological interpretative models. and narrative where they are mainly found. will. the dramatic show of leadership on the part of Peter. Jesus.

This concernsthe study how is Acts I Commissioning be Our to on a traditionas a of account. Hubbard and T. Talbert. as crowd presentation leaders declares baptised. 4cts. "New TestamentCommissioningForms. ed. Especially in Luke-Acts." in JBL 95/4 (1976). in before 2: 11. the the the of the new author and presents apostles were after Christian community by showing Peter standingwith the Eleven and giving his first speech. we will discuss the apostles' baptism in the Spirit in Acts 2: 1-4 and their Clearly. Mullins 125 . aim able elaborate historical approachfails to provide answersto what seem to be minute yet important issues surrounding the narrative of Acts 1-2. we find it necessary to give a brief summary of a more common approachto the study of the sametexts this thesis is dealing with. 603-14. can conducting was set up with the strict criteria in honour the andshame the narrative. "The Role of CommissioningAccounts in Acts. & T. we have particularly chosen the studies of B.Estrada:From FollowersToLeaders 45 if be before the appreciated that election. Y. Hubbard. . Hubbard 124and T. oneunderstands conceptof Finally. 1978). In order for this thesis to effectively show the benefits of the method and models of socialscientific criticism. J.. Y. 124 B. C. Mullins." in Perspectiveson Luke(Edinburgh: T. 1. pp. . For this purpose. H. pp. 1215T. J. 187-98. Mullins on the "Role of Commissioning Account " in Luke-Acts. Y. The Role of Commissioning Accounts in Luke-Acts: Contributions from B. J. the the apostles' graduation and aggregation. Clark.4 Other Considerations.

TheSeýQevelation God (Philadelphia: WestminsterPress. of 130CEGen. 35: 9-15. 4: 4-10. 1956): 254.K Kuntz. 130 in Old Testament commissioning accounts the yield a consistent structure. pp. 567-91. 249. "The Role of CommissioningAccounts in Acts. 22: 1-16. "ConsiderationsConcerning the Office and Calling of the Prophet. Ezek. 250. Hubbard ir 132 arguesthat the author employs such a format andAbecomesthe vehicle of his theology. The dream of the priest Ishtar: Oppenheim. 1: 1-11. 187-98. pp. 15: 1-6.Habel. This tradition is believed to have been passed down to Luke-Acts. Hubbard. 129j.J. 1 Chm. 3: 14: 16 (1 and E). . 11:28-30." pp. K. Thut-mose's commission by Harmarkbis to be king of Egypt: ANET449. ANET 93. B. 1: 1-3: 15. Josh. From the OT.Baltzer. Habel J. Kuntz His survey claims that the previous works of and . 131Cf. 31: 14f." in HTR 61 (1968). J. Baltzer N. 17: 1-14. 22: 22-35. Hubbard.J. The readersare familiar with such a genre and understandwhat literary function it serves. 25 If. 49: 1-6. 6. K. Oppenheim." in Z4 W 77 (1965). 12'N. lsa. 15-27. 23-25. 103.46 Estrada:From FollowersToLeaders 1. 1967). 6: 11-24. 3: 1-4: 1a. "Commissioning Stories in Luke-Acts: A Study of their Antecedents. 26: 1-6. Deut.Utnapishtim's commission to build an ark: Epic of Gilgamesh. . The Interpretation ofDreams in the Ancient Near East (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society. 297323. and Ezra 1: 1-5. The appointment of Rekh-mi-Re as Vizier of Egypt: ANET212f. Nurn. Judg.4. Jff. 28: 10-22. basing his study on the 127 128 129. 41: 3745. becauseLuke-Actswas heavily influencedby the LXX. Nabonidus' commission to build the temple at Ekhulkul: Oppenheirn. "Tbe Form and Significance of the Call Narratives.1 Commissioning Accounts: Their Form and Themes. I Kings 19: 1-19a. 12: 1-4a. Hubbard126began his investigation with the Hebrew Bible. cf A. 1 Sam. Exod. its commissioning accounts can actually be traced from the ancient non-biblical tradition. 6: 2-13. 24: 1-9. Form and ContenV' in Semeia VIII (1977). Hubbard attempted to analyse the non-biblical accounts and found some striking similarities. 46: 1-5a. 131 Hubbard'sthesisis to showthat. The legend of king Kcret: ANET 14346. 3 1.7: 1-6. p. 1: 1-10. The dream appearances of Isthar appointing Hattushili as priest and king . t27K. The dream of Djoser: Oppenheim. 126B. Leo. The commissioning accountsin some ancient non-biblical texts sharethe same structure. 132B.

13:1-3. I have supplementedthesedescriptionswith Mullin's definitions. 134 133 in in in Mark instances: Matthew ten two the thirty seven are . seventeenare in Acts . 137Jn. The commissioned 141 is in bewilderment. 28: 1-8. 2: 8-18. and an air of mystery 133 For the study of the form of eachNT commission account." pp." p. . 5: 1-11. 16-20. The scene of commissioning normally involves the interruption of the normal activities of the person or group being commissioned. pp. 24:36-53. 16:24-34. Confrontation (CONF). 26: 12-20. 135Mk 11: 1-10. 2. 9-10. and one in Revelation While both Hubbard and Mullins disagree on where some pericopes in the accounts belong. 12:6-10. 16:9-20. a brief introductory remark providing circumstantial details (time. J. 104-05. "New TestamentCommissioningForms. 23: 11. 136Lk1:5-25. Lalsoexamined 135. 9-18. 605-06. 7:30-36. 10:1-17. one in John 138 139. 14OThe following descriptions are taken from B.overall situationof stage addressed)sets follow. gospel of six are 136 137. 7:20-28. The person or deity giving the commission is understood as one with power and authority.47 Estrada:From FollowersToLeaders found by Mullins Y. 9-29. Mullins adds that after the orientation of the task the commissioned needs to undertake. 607. 30-33. 22:6-11. 9: 1-8. "Commissioning Stories in LukeActs: A Study of their Antecedents." in SemeiaVIII (1977). 134Mt. 10:1-8. hangs person often a stateof over the event. T. 26-38. 20: 19-21 138Acts1:1-12.Form and Content. At times. Introduction (INT). "New TestamentCommissioning Forms. 14: 22-33. Especially in Luke-Acts. 15:11-31. Y. seeT. Mullins. 11-15. 1:10-20. 14-38. 139ReV. Hubbard. 141T. 22:7-13. 11:4-17. Mullins. Especially in Luke-Acts. 12-16. 27:21-26. there is often a radical changewhich the person is not prepared to undergo. they neverthelessagree on the description of the elements which compose a commissioning 140 account: 1. Mullins. where the deity or the commissioner appearsand confronts the individual to be commissioned. 17: 1-8. is individual be to the to the of what place. 17-21. Commissioning accounts in the NT wA%.Y. Luke .

Mullins noticed that in some cases the reassurancemay be placed even before the commission is given (e. where in some casesthe individual reacts to the presenceof the holy by way of an action cxprcssivc of fear or unworthincss. Mt. He adds that 142T. Hubbard notes that. often assuming a new role but has been the also the given.g. either one or the other of these elementsusually is found in the commissioning account. times. Reaction (REAC). which mission commissioning account signals. 21a). "New TestamentCommissioningForms. the protest functions to measurethe effect of the commission. at task. Or. The REAC or PROT are two elements appearing with least frequency. Reaction normally functions to show the unreadinessof the personbeing commissioned. Lk. Protest (PROT). 608. Commission (CONW). and to the yet covered. Thesereassuringstatementsare usually uttered after the COMM or PROT." etc.y. not only official statusof the commissionedas the agentduly authorisedby the commissioner. Mullins. where the individual is told to undertake a specific task which in involves in (e. and Jn.. This rcaction shifts the focus of the reader from the commissioner to the commissioned person. p. 4. to indicate thus the progress of that person toward accomplishing the 142 disclose distance The reaction and protest serves. 28: 10a. there is the general response of the commissioned to the commissioner. 6. upon the person commissioned. it can also be questioning the word of the deity or commissioner.Estrada:From FollowersToLeaders 48 3. Either way. However.*a statementssuch as "fear not. 5. This life the that element of prophet). similar functions. . where in some instancesthe individual respondsto the commission by claiming that they are unable or unworthy to carry out the commissioner's command. 20: 19c. For Mullins. It also setsthe stagefor the feature of reassurance." "I am (will be) with you. Reassurance(REASS) is when the deity or the commissioner i?. Reassurancesfunction to dispose any remaining resistance. 5: 10b. g.

This becomesmore emphasised when one understandsthat only eleven instancesare found in Genesisand twenty-sevenare in the whole of the OT. "New Testament Commissioning Forms. usually in a less formal way. 147B. 4. Reference to standing or a command to stand or rise indicates that the person who stands(or is commandedto stand) is acceptedas a representativeof the commissioning 143T.recurring themesalso define 146 their structure: 1. 144T. Reference to a Voice or Vision focuses the the subjective experience of on commissioned. Mullins.focuseson the objective experienceof the commissioned.it fixes the temporal or spatial relevanceof the commission. 191-92. Y. pp. the "143 protesthasto precedethe reassurance. p. Hubbard. Especially in LukeActs. 146Adaptedfrom T. "New Testament Commissioning Forms.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 49 "usually the protest will be absent where the reassurancecomcsearly. 33-65. the largest sourceof commissioning stories in the NT are found in Luke-Acts (ten in Luke and seventeenin Acts). 7. Time and Place . Y. Referenceto an Angel . . 609. The commissionedis often seento immediately begin to carry out the mission. Hubbard's analysis of the OT commissioning accounts in his essay The Matthean Redaction ofa Primitive Apostolic Commissioning (Missoula. Conclusion (CONC) is the ending of the commission. "New Testament Commissioning Forms. " pp. based on B. "New TestamentCommissioningForms. 3.J. 14'I. 611-12. the conclusion functions to show the conunissioned person's attitude after accepting the 144 commission. 609. 609-10. MT: Scholars Press. Y.147 2. As we have noted earlier. Hubbard does not consider this feature as a theme: the INT does not normally indicate any temporal or spatial reference. "Commissioning Stories in Luke-Acts: A Study of their Antecedents. Mullins. in any case. Y. 145In thesecommissioning accounts. Mullins. 1974). p. Form and Content. pp. " pp. At times. Mullins. J.

J.Form and Content. Table 1150 LUKE 1:5-25 1:26-38 2: 8-20 5: 1-11 7.41 -5 -25-30 148B. 193.19. 10:1-17. 13-14 3 21 lb 20b 8 35a 4 36b 12 29 9c 8-10a 13B-17 31-3." Perspectiveson Luke-. Hubbard4"The Role of CommissioningAccounts in Acts in . 14-38 as commissioningaccounts. and 18:7-11." p. It is a final theme found in some accounts which normally places the commissioned person engagedin prayer after receiving the task from the commissioner. Mullins have Acts 7:30-36 but misses5: 17-21a. There are also someminor disagreementsbetweenHubbard and Mullins on the scopeof some commissioningaccounts.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 50 person. "Commissioning Stories in Luke-Acts: A Study of their Antecedents. 24: 1-9 as a commission account. however. 15OTable I is adaptedfrom B. 149B.4cts. Prayer. 6. 148 5.12b 36 6-7 44-48 18 34 13a. 192.21-5 30. Thus.this feature is addedby Hubbard as a theme to the commissioning stories. 7: 20-28. Mullins doesnot seeLk. For the book of Acts. J. Hubbard.1 have. Y Mullins' additional entrieswhich are indicated in italics.36-738 10 15-20 10b 11 23 24-28 16 17 31 12a 13 37 38 8-9 5b 49 50-53 21 9 35b 5a 37. 15:11-31. 22:7-13.p." p. Mullins considersLk. J. integratedT.8:26-30. Hubbard. "Commissioning Stories in Luke-Acts: A Study their Antecedents.The commissioneris thus pictured in an authoritative role. .35 11-12 4.which emphasisesthat the commissioning person is in control of the situation. This I have opted not to mention. in addition to the Hubbard list. Hubbard sees a similarity when the one who commissions is referred to as standingbefore the commissioned.10c 22 2-15 22-24 10-11. Hubbard indicates that this theme functions to "indicate that the individual is in an ideal position to receive the "149 commission from God or his messenger.Form of and Content.20-28 10:1-17 15:11-31 22: 7-13 22: 14-38 24: 1-9 24:36-53 INT CONFR REACT COMM PROT REASS CONCL 5-10 26-7 8 1-2 20 la 11-20a 7 14 1-3 36a 11 28 9a-b. Referenceto fear . 193.

27b-28 1-3a 10a 1-2 9-10a 30a 4-5a 6 1-2 8 7-8 6a 12 17 Ila 12 21-23a 3-5. 7b-9 13 18a llb 13.19-20a 32 7 7b-8 2b 9b 9b lOa-b 14-15 l8b.15-16. 7 4a 17 -- 7a 14a 7-8 20 33-34a 26b.10 19 30b.9 17-18 30a (4-13).32b 4a.Estrada:From FollowersToLeaders ACTS 1:1-14 5: 17-21a 7:30-36 8:26-30 9: 1-9 9: 10-19 10:1-8 10:9-23 10:30-33 11:4-12 12:6-12 13:1-3 16:8-10 18:7-11 22:6-11 22: 12-16 22: 17-21 23: 11 26: 12-20 27:21-26 1-2. 32a 26a. 29a 3b. l4b-15 23b 6 31. 4b-5 10b 3 lOb-12 30b 5b-6 7a 2a 9a 9a 6b. 29b 6a 11-12 5-6 13. 30 6b 8-9 15-16 17-19 4b 7-8 20b 21-3 31 33 9 10-12 11 12 (2c) 3 (1Ob) 10a 10 11 (10c) 11 (15) 21 llc (17a) 24a 16 19-20 25-6 . 21 Ila 15-18 24b 51 11 13-14 -14 -8 9 -- 19-20 -- 12-14 (19-20) 21a 34b 35-36 (39) 27a.

The crucial difference between the gospel and Acts is that the apostles as initiands do not have the introductory background which Jesushas from the infancy stories in Luke.1:911: The initiands experiencefull separationasJesusdeparts. 1:12-26 as the Transition (LiminalityCommunitas)stage. elder. Thus we have. In each stage. 1:5-2:52. PhaseThree . 2. the readers of Acts immediately find themselves right in the beginning of the ritual processitself In Acts. Unlike in Jesus' ritual of status transformation (Lk. Acts 1:3-11 as the Separation stage..1. This is where McVann's information on who Jesuswas before the ritual (i. e.we will first identify the ritual elements and then the ritual process. honour and shame)work within the narrative.Estrada:From FollowersToLeaders 52 FIRST STAGE: SEPARATION Chapter Two We begin by following our suggesteddivisions for the narrative of Acts 1:3-2:47. as private person)works for . 1:1-4).networking. The separationstagehas three initiands Jesus One 1: 3-5: The Phase the as ritual with enter ritual apostles as phases. PhaseTwo . As we read the text within the framework of the Rituals of Status Transformation. we will note how the other conceptualmodels (patronage.1 The ApostIes as the Initiands. While the gospel also has this dedication (Lk.1:6-8: The ritual elder commissions the initiands. Acts 2: 147 as the Aggregation stage. 3: 1f). it is however followed by the infancy narratives of Lk.1 The Ritual Elements in Acts 1:3-11. 2. the author begins with a preface including a dedication to an individual nwned Theophilus. The author does not begin his narrative with the scenewhere the initiands are portrayed into first the entering stage of the ritual process.

C." pp. Y_ Barrett. dmoaE6.5). 273-77. 1: 2b. 67-69.2). he had tkeMkovco3 description ("whom the of an chosen") ob. The this of c6q to author's point need establish and emphasise fact in it. assumesthe unity and continuity of 2 in Us later discuss thesis. echo of phrase Spirif ) which modifies ob.c6q 6ucoac6kotý in 1:2. This study. in that the number 1: 2 to z6%otq any other characters ought not in identity is 1:13 establishesthe scope of Eleven the precisely of apostles established and . 3Codex D adds ical ticeXEvue xTpbaaewro ebayyektov ("and commandedthem to preach the gosper'). 4B. 13. Witherington III.pp. All we are 1M. This would mean that the Eleven were the exclusive recipients of Jesus' commission (1:7-8). that they were the ones who primarily witnessed Jesus' ascension(1:9-11). and that the command to remain in Jerusalemand wait for the promise of the father was directed principally to them (1:3-5). ' In our case. The include dcnocr. %ot.p. .however. TheActs ofthe Apostles. Metzger. Acts ofthe Apostles. would include the Other supporting evidence for the scope of EcE. McVann.pp. the two books. "Rituals of StatusTransformation in Luke-Acts: The Caseof Jesusthe Prophet. Our statementsabove do not in any way dispute the possibility that there were other disciples with the Eleven when they were with Jesus before his ascension.4. 2A discussionrelevant to this thesis is found in ChapterThree (cf.1. The Textofthe New Testament. 5A related discussionon this issueis found in ChapterEight of this thesis (cf. SeeB. And by this we mean only the Eleven apostlesof Jesus. 34243. 8. an assumptionwe will The apostlesare the initiands. Previous the to this the nveibgaro. of qualifying phrase 5td dyiou ("through Holy 6: is Lk. 4 -Mkaco These two attributive phrases identify our 5 initiands to be none other than the Eleven. therefore. trying to construct who the apostleswere before they became Luke drawn have be to the Christian leaders to which the way the all communitywould of directly points the reader in 1:1.Estrada:FromFollowersToLeaders 53 him. 107.2. 3. The introduction is important.

. .have beenwith the Twelve constantly up to the time of Christ's ascension. p. the obrot in 1:14 has startedto include others." namelY Joseph Barsabbas Justus and Matthias (cf 1:23-26).and that later on. simply claims "narrative progression." in Political Issues in Luke-Acts."In fact. This meansthat the last two candidates. Quesnell. Haenchen. For Acts be to the to of working solution what seem conflicting scenarios episodes instance. (Maryknolb N. placing them in Jesus' company until his ascension. would have passed this requirement. . on the other hand.The Acts ofthe Apostles.there is the criterion which is set up in 1:22.54 Estrada:From FollowersToLeaders Acts 1-2 is that the the the trying to speaks of of case narrative plausibility simply establish fundamentally of the Eleven apostles as the subject. 7B.specifically from the model of Rituals of StatusTransformation is an advantage. E. The RST requires the 6Q. p. Witherington 111. J.. This is where approachingthe text from a social-scientific perspective." He admits that the dt'q in 1:3 indeed refers to the 8 apostles. Y. J. Haenchen's proposal is open-ended and allows room to accommodate all charactersthat appear in the story other than the Eleven. 213. Acts 1:21 makesno senseunlessJoseph Barsabbas and Matthias. 1983). In this passage. This in effect makes it difficult to sustain the argument that the Eleven were the only ones who received Jesus' commission. "J.91 Some scholarspropose solutions to break this deadlock. p. Cassidy and P. Fitzmyer.in brackets. The need to establish the subject of the narrative is important if one has to fmd a in 1-2. . As Quesnell has suggested. Scharper. as well as the larger group from among whom Luke says they were selected. " The Women at Luke's Supper. Fitzmyer. R. And once this proposal is accepted then all other issuesand characterswithin the narrative take a secondaryplace. 139. addsthe allusion of "helpers" being presentwith the apostlesin the events leading to Jesus' 7 ascension. : Orbis. Acts ofthe Apostles. 62.the candidatesfor the election of Judas' replacement are required to have been with Jesus "beginning from the baptism of John until the day he was taken up. eds.

the narrator's emphasisfalls not much on what Jesus had done (in contrastwith Lk. even from a literary perspective. %ev 9Wewill pick up on this discussionwhen we reachthe issue concerning the issueon who really were the first recipients of the Spirit's baptism in Acts 2: 14. From a general description of Jesus'post-resurrectionevents.4. narrator.that they are the "chosen ones" of Jesus(1:2). The changein mode is subtle.the narrator places the eventsafter Jesus' resurrectionwi . This is clearly a typological referenceto the forty days Jesuswas in the wilderness being tempted by the devil in preparationto enter his public ministry (Lk. the implied reader seesthe apostles 10 lead in the as characters narrative. In doing so.2.rL43 and 49. As the narrator begins to focus on the apostles.n the duration of forty days. 4: 1-2). .Estrada:From FollowersToLeaders 55 interpreter to sort out early in the ritual processwho are the initiands. That the apostlesfunction as the subject of the narrative is not something this thesis has simply concocted. 24) but to whom Jesus did it (his apostles).a change in the mode of narration from showing to telling occurs. Furthermore.the narrator employs ical auvcx%tý6gevoqnapýyyet. For instance. a discussionwe reservefor Chapter Nine of this thesis. one can detect the deliberateeffort of the narrator to show that the apostlesindeed take the lead role right from the very beginning of the opening scenesof Acts. Nor is it something which has been observedby the use of socialscientific approach alone. imphed reader. making therefore the other characterstake supporting roles. 10Abrief description of what we meanby implied author.1. In fact. Once this is done. the narrator places the dt'q (whom) to begin the sentenceof 1:3 which immediately follows what he had substantive just statedabout the apostles. Alluding to another "forty days" at the end of Jesus' public ministry brings a closure to the characterof Jesusand pavesthe way for the entranceof the apostlesas major charactersin their own right.1.and narratee is in 3. the initiands function consistently 9 in is asthe subject the whole ritual processuntil the statustransfonnation completed. From this position.

1:4b). 9:9.McVann. 24: 18. the nature of the promise of the father has more details as the author associatesthe promise with the baptism of the Holy Spirit (1:5). Jesus. 34:38. Additionally. .as McVann states. or tcsting. and (4) ' in for the Jerusalem father."is symbolically charged. Gen. 1Kings 18:8. 7:4.g.12. Moreover."12 In Lk." p.25). "Rituals of StatusTransformationin Luke-Acts: The Caseof Jesusthe Prophet. in contrast with Lk. the mediation of God's law to Israel (Exod. this figure resonates with the OT references to forty days or years of "preparation. (2) appearedto them (the Eleven apostles)during forty days. 13 E. Jesus is said to have (1) presentedhimself alive after his passionby many proofs.the charging of the apostlesto remain in Jerusalemand wait for the promise of the father (1:4).56 Estrada:From FollowersToLeaders atnCtq (and while staying with them . (3) spoken to the apostlesabout the kingdom of God." The mention of forty days. who was designated "beloved son" at the "We will discussmore in detail how thesecredentialslegitimise Jesus' role as the ritual elder in the ritual processsectiom 12M. The credentials of Jesus as the ritual elder are stated in 1:34. is concernedwith the sojourn of Moses and Israel in the desert.4. The significance of this instruction is enhanced by the narrator as he emphasisesthe fact that the command came from Jesus himself ("you heard from me". 2. however. 34:28) So too.13 The Symbol of "Forty Days. 24:49.. 8:2. Exod. Moses spent forty days on the mountain in preparation for the climax of his prophetic career.17."13 McVann suggests. Israel's forty years were a time of testing to see if it would rely exclusively on God and whether its transformation to the status of God's holy people would be effective (seeDeut. the referenceto the forty days of Jesus' testing is a time-ft=e ritual.1. ) to pick out what is apparently a most important episode..2 Jesus the Ritual Elder. 350. waiting. 4: 1-2. In the tradition familiar to the readers. the promise of the commanded apostlesto remain and wait 2. The single most important cluster of Old Testament references for this narrative.

27. and other through the (forty days or years) "tour of duty. authenticatedby "many proofs. Rather. .p. He states. the effect that positioning certain material first has on the reader. not to allow Jesusenough time to make appearances> but to assurethe reader that the disciples are "fully instructed" (see Acts 20:20. 15M. 350." p. we want to add that the phrasehas something of the characterof validating insignia symbolically pinned upon the individual or group which functions to testify to the character's worth.The appearanceof the resurrectedJesusbefore the apostlesfor forty days. assurance. C. Parsons. but to validate the apostlesas the initiands (or the ones who are being commissioned). It is an however. the author's of we author's promotion actually display of Jesus' authority is not to justify Jesus' position as the ritual elder." (tv noUoIg cF-icgijptotq. It will be recalled that the primacy effect.Estrada:From FollowersToLeaders 57 Jordan. echoing how Jesushad victory over the devil. not only to convey the "full instruction" of Jesus upon the apostles. prophet and preparation for a public careeras But how does this mention of "forty days" of Jesus' appearanceto his apostles have Eleven? As help the the arguedearlier." the apostleshave eamedthe same. 195.4cts.C. its meaning helps to validate the reasonswhy the apostlesare designatedto be Jesus' have OT just like In Jesus the gone characterswho successors. 1:3) not only suggests how much time they all spent together. Becausethe forty days is a symbol-ladenritual time. In the context of Luke-Acts.TheDeparture ofJesus in Luke-.15 The symbol of forty days indeed serves as an assuranceto the readers. is important in establishing a positive identity for the disciples in the book of Acts. now undergoesa forty-day period which climaxes in a ritual testing of his 14 holy loyal God's man. "Rituals of StatusTransformation in Luke-Acts: The Caseof Jesusthe Prophet. that is. other words. the author deliberately takes this insignia 14M. This is also why we seethat M. 31). Establishing the disciples as reliable and legitimate successorsof Jesusis a major task of the opening narrative in Acts.McVann. The period of forty days is needed in Acts. Parsons' suggestionis a bit lacking.

it was very fitting for the charactersof "two men in dazzling apparel" to stand beside the women and explain what had happened(Lk." Lk. "liminality" the the carried over the now which exiles. 24:2-3. The women reacted with fear. the mention of forty days represents is being Jesus.58 Estrada:FromFollowersToLeaders from Jesus(and all its other representationsin the OT) and places it upon the apostlesas a legitimating tool. Israelites.coupled with the description of the attire of dazzling apparel. not only divine messengers.gives away the notion that thesetwo men were messengersfrom God. The function of the characterof these two men is crucial if one is to understandthe function of the other two messengersin Acts 1:10-11. 2.1.. 24:5a). The women who were to bring spicesfor the preparation of Jesus' body were said to be "perplexed"16or "uncertaW' upon seeing an empty tomb.as we will explain later on. And while they were still in a state of perplexity and uncertainty. In the ritual process. . In Lk. The description of what they were wearing and how the women reactedwhen they revealedthemselvesconveysthat they were.4 The Two Men in White Robes. The reaction of reverence. l6dcropito-Oatfrom dmWEcc). The two men in Lk. yet. and of also onto the experienceof the apostlesin their rituals of statustransformation. 24:4). 24 were there to explain to the women that Jesushas risen from the dead. that the messagethey bring is reliable and true. the initial signs of Jesus' resurrection indicated that the stone which covered the entranceto the tomb was found rolled away. with reverence("as they were frightened and bowed their facesto the ground . 23:55b). The body which was supposedto have been laid down inside the tomb was missing (cf Lk.but more importantly. .

Estrada:From FollowersToLeaders 59 The description of the two men in Acts 1:10-11 is very important in the closing if (even that in From Acts. The language of trust. Jesus' these two the messengers return apostles' assuranceof in in issue helpful (an further the time of separation the ritual process) explain very we will by the ritual elder from the initiands. In is longer Eleven the the our study of the of readers a question no are promising is divine delivered by RST. and the 171le model of the rituals of statustransformationhave beenusedby social scientistsin studying an individual's or group's passagefrom one statusto another. men when their messageabout effect. alive "white robes" also appearand stand by the apostlesin Acts 1:10. absenceof the twelfth apostleand the restorationof their moral We also mentioned that the author is attempting to win the trust. childbirth passages. and loyalty. the author's program of networking. support. the credibility of the two men in dazzling apparel has already been establishedand substantiatedin Lk. e. adulthood. The status transformation is not only because of the apostles being commissioned to be Jesus' witnesses(Acts 1:8). 24 and are not the sameas the two men in Acts 1). in is is two The being that therefore. This show of unity we called networking. but also a transformation which guaranteesthe community that their for leaders longer has Matthias Judas' the tainted that are no new made up with sin. Jesus true. 24. and 17 integrity.. i. and loyalty of other disciple groups by showing the unity of the apostleswith the women disciples and Jesus' family in the upper room (1: 12-14).pregnancy . 2.2 The Initiands and Their Leadership Role. support. The hypothesis we have set up earlier revolves around the proposal that the author is appealing to his readers to trust and support the apostles as new leaders. and passages. the validity of what they for Acts. Jesus' the argues one perspective readers' ascension episodeof the two men in Lk. Thesewould include territorial birth bethrothal puberty and and childhood.

It is this quality which we believe has been shatteredby Judas' betrayal of Jesus. etc. Georgia: ScholarsPress." in Witnessto the Gospel: The TheologyofActs. "'To defirte the meaningand scopeof the apostles' leadershipin this study is too broad and demanding.(Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. we leadership is behind in 3-2: 47 Acts 1: the to the the essence promote propose. xxiii. 174-75. Leadership and Discipleship: A Study ofLuke 22: 24-30 (Atlanta. This nature or quality of leadershipis the knowledge and assurancethat the presentor incoming leadersare reliable and trustworthy. 1. have to betraying these with the nature of the something all apostle replacementof the leadershiprole which the apostlesare expectedto perform once they have been installed and are aggregatedinto the society. The nature of the leadership the apostlesare to assumeis not heirarchal leadership but rather a leadershipbest explained from the perspectiveof Patronage/Brokershipconcept. Y. This. Petersen. p. 169-190. Yet. Nelson. seeA. Marshall and D.especiallypp.H. "The Role of the Apostles. But with their negative track record looming over them (the case of Judas' betrayal and his membership to the Twelve) drastic measuresneed to be taken. 1994). Without the community's patronage to the Twelve. leaders leaders The the their time. the meaning and function of their roles and statusesare null and 18 void. Clark. C. The needto convince the Christian community that the apostlesare their new leaders loss because because but Judas' the of confidence also of people's arises.the passagefrom one life to anotherusually found in funeral rites. author's effort of the apostlesto the Christian community. Our focus is on the specific nature or quality of leadershipwhich if absentwill render all leadershiproles ineffective. . van Gennep. CE A. Seealso P. the role and status which the apostles full its fulfillment discharging trust and support of the be the with will only see will community whom they will be serving.pp.TheRites ofPassage. In other words. and marriage.one can endlesslydiscussabout the leadershiprole of the apostlesas teachers. The apostlesas new leaderswill have to prove that they can better provide for the needsof their people. the questionon the leadershipintegrity of the Eleven persistedin the Christian community in Acts.eds. For further discussion on the failure of the religious leadersand the effectivity of the apostles' leadershipin Acts. there are also thosewho have centredtheir studieson the apostles' performanceof miracles in relation to their mission as Jesus' witnesses. And becauseJudasis one of the Twelve.not only of sin.60 Estrada:From FollowersToLeaders do itself. For instance. Othershave focusedon the apostles' role as church leaders.1998). who were supposedto serve as their upon religious of mediator to God have made it more difficult (if not impossible) for them to accessGod.

Ancient historians have primarily focused on the relation of earlier and later workings of patronagein the imperial period.Massachusetts:Hendrickson. and political scientists on structuresand operations of social phenomenain industrial and pre-industrial societies. we opt to use the model 19 brokerage.1939). 21G. on the function of the topic in the field of imperial politics. ed. 241-68.Moxnes. leadership leadership. pp.1 Current Research on Patronage. In a survey done by John H.networking. " in TheSocial World of Luke-Acts: Modelsfor Interpretation. The conceptsof patronage. Elliott on the statusof researchconcerningpatronage. The first were the studies of ancient historians in the context of the Roman world. (Peabody.he finds three traditional yet unrelated fields. the RST will serve as our theoretical framework for the study of the narrative of Acts 1-2.Estrada:FromFollowersToLeaders 61 The apostlesas leadersare expectedto serve as brokers between God (the ultimate patron) and the people (the clients). They differ. The suggestionsinitiated by Syme20 Alfi3ldY21and de . 20R Syme. 77zeSocial History qfRome (London: Croom Helm. . 19H. To understandthis leadership role. honour and shame are models needed in order for us to understand the specific and individual social contexts of the episodeswithin Acts 1-2. however. The second is the researchby anthropologists. J. TheRomanRevolution (Oxford: Oxford University Press.AlMdy.. "Patron-Client Relationsand the New Community.2. Within it are other conceptualmodels interactively working in this theoretical framework. 1985). Neyrey. sociologists. Jesus' by Moxnes Halvor the of a nature of suggested on It is a leadershiprole which Jesushas passedon to his apostles. The third is the researchby exegetesand students of the social world of early Christianity. . As we have statedin our Methodology section. 2. 1991).

1969).Network Analysis: Studies in Human interaction (The Hague: Mouton. Von Werden und Wesendes augusteischenPrinzipats (Munich: C.Saller.Gellner and J. the conditions which contributed into. Barnes and Noble. Eisenstadt with 22G. behind. F. Mitchell.62 Estrada:From FollowersToLeaders Ste. 29E. Carney. . that Saller's study has not considered how the Roman system of patronage functions in the broader. perspectives characteristics of different articulations of patronage. Camey'7 was able to show how the historical and social description with attention to the . or even inside the language. C. Elliott notes. each other. (New York." in the British Journal of Sociology 5 (1954). Personal Patronage Under the Empire (New York: CUP. Elliott. H.1937). de Ste. 24E. historical have been limited. Seager.70 B. Saller. 1958). Foreign Clientele (264. C.M. 28j H. social sciences complement and of perspectives relevant research however. eds. the cross-cultural that very and where ancient approaches include These the analysesof the social science and political perspectives. approach covers results literature which this specific field of researchhas produced.. and haveled RichardSaller26to understandpatronageas a socialinstitution working Gelzer25. YheShapeofthe Past: Models andAntiquity (Lawrence.ethics. like T. M. Croix. 23 24 together with the seminal observations of von Premerstein . 26R. 1973). 1982). evolved place and changes greatly within and the impact it has created on social systems. Badian. Boissevain and Mitche1130. and politics of ancient societies. Beck'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung.trans. 33-48. CroiX22. " Suffragium: from vote to patronage. 27T.von Premerstein. 1977).Patrons and Clients in Mediterranean Societies(London: Duckworth. Waterbury. its its it its has development to the emergence.E.) (Oxford: Clarendon.Schmidt. . 43. Badian . TheRomanNobility.F. 23A.Boissevain and J. pp. R." p. "Patronageand Clientism. 1975). Social scientific studies on patronagehave attemptedto achieve something in a field is. Such are the essaycollections of Gellner and Waterbury29. 30J..and also the social consequencesit field in The this therefore vast an extensive amount of carries. eds. cross-cultural scope. KS: Coronado Press. 25Gelzer.or as possibly relevant for the early Christian 28 scene.

1981). Patronage and Development (ContemporaryPolitical Sociology. D. 32SN. eds. biblical exegeteshave not paid much attention on the significance of the patronage conceptual model in biblical interpretation. Honour. no entries are contained in the standardreferenceworks. Elliott observesthat. Boissevain . 44. Eisenstadtand R..Political Clientism. 1964).Gellner and J. Lemarchand. The third field of research is that of exegesis and biblical social world analysis. .. 3. 1984). 37j H.Filends offriends: Networks.. few articles have patronageas their central focus. . "Patronageand Clientismý" p. 36j. Roniger. pp.N. no systematicstudy is yet at hand. Family and Patronage: A Study ofInstitutions and Moral Valuesin a GreekMountain Community(Oxford: Clarendon.K Campbell. Gellner and WaterburY34. 33D. Martin's Press. Eisenstadtand L.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 63 Lemarchand31and Roniger32 Articles and monographson patronagein the Mediterranean . and methodswhich are instrumental in explaining the workings of the phenomenon of patronage"as a meansfor structuring social relations and social exchangein accord with the structures. Manipulators and Coalitions (New York. Clients Friends: Interpersonal Relations and . 175-205. 33 of the New Testament:cf the works of Gilmore .Boissevain. large.and nonns of the society at 37 . 1977. Waterbury. Gilmore. providing both a tool for analysis and interpretation of texts and contexts of the early Christian period. "Anthropology of the MediterraneanArea. The primary contribution of the researchis its ability to develop theories.Patrons and Clients in Mediterranean Societies..values. and the Structure of Trust in Society (New York: CUP. Occasional referencesto the institution in current studiesof the early Christian social world 31S. conceptual models. eds. 35J. Despite the extensive studies done by the social scientific method. writings societieshavebeenattractiveto scholarswho aretrying to readthe Mediterranean 35.Patrons. Elliott. 34E. and Campbe1136. 1974). Beverly Hills: Sage." in the Annual Review of Anthropology II (1982).eds. This approachhas greatly illuminated the social world of early Christianity.St.

1986). to the about relation consequences of " relationships. TheFirst Urban Christians: 77zeSocial World theApostle Paul (New of Haven: Yale University Press. "Praying with Luke. 28. for example.E. pp. Stambaughand D.g. 42j H. Patronage and Power. referenceto the gospel of One of the latest studiesusing the patronagemodel in the New Testamentis that of John K. 1992). Meeks.H. Chow.-A Study ofSocial Networks in Corinth (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press. John Pilch illustrates the nature and activity of religious prayer with 43 Luke. 214-20. "Patronageand Clientism. also to the saints) replicates 42 on the symbolic level of religious belief the social relationship of client and patron. 40J. baptism the the the to the and eating of of offered pagan by in brought Paul's teachings the existing patronal. In his book Patronage and Power: A Study ofSocial Networks in Corinth.p.64 Estrada:From FollowersToLeaders (e. L. pp. 38W. can understanding model very relations Bruce Malinaý'. 41B.A. 43j. implication dead. TheNew Testamentin Its Social Environment (Philadelphia: WestminsterPress. . was able to discuss how in the early and later church the presumedrelationship of prayerful devoteesto God (and later. 198639) describe but fail to 40 the phenomenon. Stambaugh and Balch. Balch. 45." in 7he Bible Today 18 (1980). "Patronageand Clientism. Malina. 44J. Chow. food idols. 221-25. Chow attemptsto investigate some of the behavioural problems in the Corinthian church by analysing the status of the patronage relationships amongst the Corinthian members. "What is Prayer?' in TheBible Today 18 (1980). 1983). 198338. . 44. He before disputes issues incestuous to the the a settling of pays closer attention of relationship." p.K. Elliott. comprehensivelyexplain Only a handful have attempted this and they have demonstrated how the patron-client in in biblical be helpful texts their social contexts. Elliott. Meeks. Pilch. 39J." p. judge.j. From the same series.

Neyrey. characterisations work 48 influence to serves relationships between Luke and his audience. 241-68. ed. J. p. 46 2. It is Moxnes' portrayal of the apostlesas brokers which this study wishes to extend. (Peabody. 4('Me following discussionis basedmainly on Moxnes' work. one work stands out as it has successfully investigatedthe featuresof social conflict and economic interaction. This does not primarily concern the issue of how Luke renders historical facts. (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press." in Luke'Litera? y Achievement. Marshall. place system represented benefactorand patron. while Jesusand the apostlesare their true and reliable brokers. pp..G.L H. To begin with. M. Moxnes has the following general hypotheses: First. would) His descriptions and in his by his The the two-volume of actors are coloured evaluations.Moxnes. "Patron-Client Relations and the New Community. we need to have a generalunderstandingof Moxnes' reading of patronagein Luke-ACtS.C.2. 95. Downing. Tuckett. 40. TheEconomy of the Kingdom: Social Conflict and Economic Interaction in Luke's Gospel (Philadelphia: Fortress. the author's presentation of history (as any writer 47 is influencing his with the purpose of readers. The GospelofLuke. Halvor Moxnes in The 45 New in his Relations "Patron-Client Kingdom the Economy of the and and article Community" arguesthat Luke redefines the patron-client relations by portraying Jesusand the kingdom of God as opposing the unequal dependencyrelations of the patron-client is in its how God by Pharisees the ultimate the shows and. 1991).Massachusetts: Hendrickson. ed. 1988).2 Halvor Moxnes' Hypothesis. 1995).65 Estrada:From FollowersToLeaders In the study of patronage in Luke-Acts. Collected Essays." in TheSocial World ofLuke-Acts: Modelsfor Interpretation. Rather. more 45H. colouring The intent to influence will become very obvious and useftil in our discussion of Acts I and 2. Luke's writing of history is not in the tradition of history writing of his time. p. . 48F. "Theophilus' First Readingof Luke-Acts. 47Cf.

2. Silverman's that in " He in "reality. the interplay between values and behaviour is crucial in the understanding of whether what is actually happeningin the narrative is an application of the ideal meaning of patronageor the lack of it. between interplay and action. Jesus' mediation between God (the patron) and the people of Israel (the clients) broker. loyalty from his clients." also presents role as a He himself is a functions him. There ought to be. has also as a clients under when provides patron who is.3 God as Patron and Jesus as Broker. he broker he However. 16:13). Lk.2. actually pattern)" and In other words. the his (Lk. as Judaism teaches. The author clearly wants to announcethis motif at the look " Patron. legitimate Twelve the of witnesses as promotion of Secondly. he broker functions The for his than to as patrons who are more powerful clients access . known broker is his A as a "middleman. Reading Luke-Acts from a perspective of the patron-client relations will show that God is the ultimate benefactor and patron. the values and know "how people actually behave (etic analysis)". "ideal" studies on advice picks up and patronage investigate in forth first "set that to can we our concepts such a way clearly patronageought important is It "49 to between belief behaviour. "what is supposeko happen (cognitive " (emic happened "what analysis). 1: 46-55 beginning people of gospel and very demands God hand. On God the supreme their to other as sole provider and protector. "The As 1: 68-79).66 Estrada:From FollowersToLeaders for Acts the issue how into the the campaigns author of of particularly when we venture Jesus.no other "patrons" but him (cf. Moxnes discussesthe significance of being able to distinguish between S.

80-101. man can a why a 50 the client's spiritual relations. funding its for To constituents. 21. In the major part of Luke's narrative. The author of Luke-Acts intends to show how true brokerage ought to be. 1991). cultural needs of the clientele. 177-319. of block but instead it. thesereligious leaders block the peoples' need to reach for the ultimate patron. observance 49Although. such as religious 51 for God. "Patronageas Myth. to these who are supposed etc. 50U. Host. in the to community come of or salvation need who are try to use the Torah to stop them by meansof argumentsbased on legality. Gowler. Moxnes' states for examplethat. brokers to the same client. the not scribes and priests. 10. The faithful been have to their leaders Pharisees. 13: 14). local from the be have to allocated requested and and other resourceswould sometimes be belongs. there but the can also religious aspects. instance to they access not every becomesthe theme of severalof the conflict scenesbetween them and Jesus. " in Journal of Religious Studies 61 (1971). CE S. Pharisees According to the almost and scribes. in Luke. pp. .Enemy and Friend: Portraits ofthe Phariseesin Luke and. P. Silverman. his local heads the under provinces over all as the more powerful patron who Relations between the broker and clients can also cover not only the economic or be different Thus. Guest. Brown. see D.7.People but leaders healing Jesus.p. Thus.Estrada:From FollowersToLeaders 67 large for of groups of area a covers a patron who of clients a representative or a mediator its be likened town broker-patron to the A population and ruler of a certain may clientele. This do facilitate God. The governor may-then viewed governmentunder which the town or province jurisdiction. 51Fora discussionon the failure of thesereligious leadersas brokers for the people of God. community leaders are representedby heads however. brokers the to people roles as Instead of providing accessto God. synagogue. sabbath be leaders (5: 6: 2. " in Patrons and Clients in Mediterranean Societies. 4cts (New York: Peter Lang. This means that for every aspect of needs which a client or to brokers the access of clients' means as serve may representative require. major projects and needs of provide serves as the clients. Silverman arguesthat the emicletic contrast is not the samething as the contrast between"real" and the "idear' as theseterms are usually used in anthropology. pp. group of clients between be broker " "holy That thegod and is the main sourceor patron. "The Rise and Function of the Holy Man in Late Antiquity.

Jesususesan establishedorder of status and honour in his society when he says. Jesus responds by contrasting the kings who lord it over their subjects and leaders. This poses a serious challenge to the other religious parties who claim the sameaccess. In other words. one who sits at table. 256. therefore.Estrada:From FollowersToLeaders 68 "brokers" (or "friends") do not fulfil their function." p.LIL 4: 16-19. 7: 16.such as himself. Jesusthen brings himself into his illustration by saying "But I am among you as one who serves. Jesusis a broker. Jesus the to them to as regarded of who among was apostles' question 22: 24-27. and broker. who actually serve. Moxnes. 13:13. What we see. "Patron-Client relations and the New Community. The responseof the people giving praise to God indicates that he is the ultimate sourceof the healing (5:25-26. 2." Moxnes aptly summariseshis study on the role of Jesusas a broker by showing that the meaning of power which has always been identified with the centre. Jesusas broker has accessto that power. which in turn has been identified with the lowly who reside mainly in the 52H.52 And indeed in the healing stories in the gospel. his healings or other powerful acts are performed in the name of God or with the power of God. patron. is a complete reversal of the concept of leadership and in in leadership Luke-Acts. 3. and the meaning of service. the to good example and ought as portrayed wrongly in be "greatest" Lk. or one who serves? Is it not the one who sits at table?" (22: 27). . 53Cf. The the narrative of patronage and representationof patronage Luke-Acts reveals the author's attempt to show a contrast between how patronage has is One functioned it by how be Jesus. "Which is the greater. 18:43). This suggeststhat Jesuswill fill that neededrole of friend. Jesusclearly functions as one who shows 54 53 illustrates God benefactions Moxnes that: of accessto the . 1.

In Luke have both been the so. The institution of the patron is of roles is not of the disciples The transformation of roles becoming visible in Luke's description of the disciples of Jesus ushersus into one of our primary hypothesesof this thesis . it also hecomes visihIe in Luke's description 56 ofJesus. Moxnes adds." p. Thus. 56H. Seizing the his apostleswere in a dispute regarding who among them is the greatest opportunity after 54H. This passagedoesnot only speakof Jesus'teachingto his apostlesabouthumility. But not so with you. but the greatness traditionally associated with the role now intimately linked with the act of serving. . rather." p. "Patron-Client relations and the New Community.and the leader as one who serves" (Lk.Moxnes. 2. the lesson is that of the complete reversal of the concept of leadership. "Patron-Client relations and the New Community. "Patron-Client Relations and the New Community. "The kings of the Gentiles exerciselordship over them. 55H. let the greatest among you become the called youngest. Italics mine. 55 The author of Luke-Acts has always defted the true sourceof power as God. Rather.69 Estrada:From FollowersToLeaders discredits in doing Jesus. It is a leadershipwhich is expressedby service to its people. It is not that which blocks accessto God. seen as present peripheries. This leadershipis no longer that which oppressesand places burdens on its clients.2.(19:45-46).the role of apostlesas brokers leadership God. 260. temple as an institution when Jesuscleansesand strips it of its power as centre.4 The Apostles as Brokers. A new definition and form of leadership/patronageis seen in the gospel." p. 258. is preserved. and those in authority over them are benefactors. is It to the this the that of upon the people of role places responsibility apostles. 22:25-26). This transformation only confined to Jesus. Moxnes. There is a strange transformation of the very concept of patronage.It is alsothis crucialrole which wasseriouslymarredby Judas'betrayal. 260.Moxnes.

is another form of reversal. 7he Gospel ofLuke (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. He adds. p. pp..Green.however. ". the apostleswere called by Jesusto share in his power and authority. Their mediation and service to people defines the role as that of a benefactor/broker. 766-67. he is what one would call a "benefactor-patron. 22:24). roads or bridges. 59Sponsorships of public eventsor festivals. however. 22 is a clear description of the Twelve as taking on the role of brokers. This service. they 57J. constructionsof public buildings. 6: 12-16. 22:28-30). can rightly claim power and authority.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 70 (Lk.leaderslive to serve and not to lord over their people. He rightly observesthat the transposition is only possible becauseof what Jesus had earlier taught his apostles (Lk. .1997). He emphasisesthe transformation of the apostles' role and their status. This." . In return.59 Benefactions by the indeed rich elite were expressedprimarily by their service to the citizenry. "Patron-Client Relations and the New Community. 58H. do the opposite. Moxnes notes that even as early as Lk. Jesus can speak of the .260.57 Luke understands the present structures of leadership in the society but redefines -"-A. leadershiproles of the apostlesonly after having transformed the conventional relationship between the benevolent performance of leadership and the reception of elevated status. Their role with Jesusin preaching and healing (9: 1-6). 22:24-27). places them as mediating between God and his people. but in a wholly unconventionalway. when all theseare done in the name of public service and at no expenseto anyonebut the patron. Greatnessis defined by service.58 Benefactors.Moxnes. Jesus uses the contemporary understanding of how leaders lord over their instructs leadership He themto this and corrects wrong notion of oppressive subordinates. is not reciprocatedby power and honour.. Only after Jesushad taught his apostleswhat proper leadership is does he reward them their faithfulness and assignthem a kingdom in which they will sit on thrones and judge the twelve tribes of Israel (Lk. This farewell scenein Lk. plus their call to service. charitable donations especially to the poor. Jesuswants his disciples to lead. according to Green.

Estrada:From FollowersToLeaders

71

honour
by
by
legitimated
the
the community. Honour and
of
and
status
rendering
were
statuscome by placing them into public offices. The cycle continues only within the circle
of thosewho have wealth. The wealthy who servereceive prestige. As we have stated,this
prestige gets them into public positions.

Public positions in government enjoy the

it
in
honour
brought
Thus,
the
the
with
advancement
and status.
pattern of gift-giving
obligations for service and honour.

Lk. 22: 24-27 breaks "with the patron-client

its
at
most crucial point: a service performed or a favour done shall not be
relationship

transformedinto statusandhonour."60
This is not to claim that Jesuswas teaching against benefactions.61Rather, what we
is
the emphasison the benefactionswithout the reciprocity of prestige and honour.
see
can
The apostlesare leaderscharacterisedprimarily by service. As they are to "sit on thrones as
judges," that is, central authorities, they are at the sametime to 'serve. 62

The benefactoris anotherform of a patron, an equivalent of the emperor on a smaller scale.
As the emperoris to the empire, the benefactoris to a city or a local community. He is known to do
benefactionsand in return, he is honoured with recognition either through dedicationsby inscriptions
on walls or brassplates, or the naming of bridges and roads which he financed to construct (Cf. H.
Moxnes, -Patron-Client Relations and the New Community," p. 249). The public honour, of course,
becomeshelpful in time of elections. The demonstrationof generosityis reciprocatedby the loyalty of
his clients, the inhabitantsof the city or the local community, especially in securingvotes for a much
covetedpublic office when the seasonfor the local elections come.
Benefaction was also a meansof maintaining social order. The maintenanceof public roads
also meant the assuranceof an unbinderedpassageof supplies which the city or province regularly
needs. The benefactorwho is responsiblefor this good deed is honoured either by epigraphic
inscriptions or literary declarations. The purpose of which is not only to praise the good acts of the
benefactorbut also to encourageother financially able people to do the same.For further discussions
and examplesof benefactionsin the first century, seeB. Winter, Seekthe Weyare ofthe City. Christian
as Benefactorsand Citizens (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans,1994).
011.Moxnes, "Patron-Client Relations and the New Community," 261.
p.
61"Thepoint of Lk. 22:25 is that Christianswere
not to operate in an overbearing and
dictatorial fashion as Gentile kings and those in authority who were commonly called 'benefactors.'" B.
Winter, Seekthe Welfareofthe City Christians as Benefactorsand Citizens (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans,
1994), p. 40, n. 50; contra D. J. Lull, "The Servant-Benefactoras a Model of Greatness(Luke 22:2430," in NovT28 (1986), p. 296.

Estrada:From FollowersToLeaders

72

2.2.5 An Example from the Acts ofPeter.
The conceptof benefactionswhereby the apostles,as benefactors,do not serve in return for
honour and prestigebut instead give all glory to God as the ultimate patron has been evident
in some traditions. One good example is found in the Acts of Peter (AN).

In a study

63
by
F.
Stoops
R.
Jr
this propagandic literature written in the middle of the
produced
,
secondcentury containsthe earliest surviving accountof the conflict between Simon Magus
and the apostle Peter outside the canonical book of Acts. It promotes the apostle's victory
over Simon Magus on occasions of miracle contests, showing that Peter's miracles are
64
demonstrations
Christ's
for
his
to take care
actually
own.
Just as Jesushas taken the opportunity to reversethe predominant understandingof
benefactionsin order to teach his apostles,the author of the AN has also turned around the
traditional patronageconcept where the Roman patron was obliged to protect and care for
his client and expect to receive honour and loyalty in return. In the APt, Christ also offers
protection and support in times of need. However, the author emphasisesthat Christ is
more than just the potential patron. As Christ rewards his loyal clients with material
benefits (expressed on the level of miracle stories), he also gives knowledge, spiritual
65
future
salvation.
guidance,and
In the APt, the author appealsto the wealthy elite who are either already patrons or
in
the Roman society. These patrons are useful, not only becausethe
patrons
potential

patrons' wealth usually is the means by which Jesusprovides for the needs of his

62H. Moxnes, "Patron-Client Relations and the New Community," 26 1.
p.
63R. F. Stoops,Jr. "Patronage in theActs ofPeter, - in Semeid38 (1986), 9 1.
p.
64R.F. Stoops,Jr. "Miracle Stories and Vision Reports in the Acts
qfPeter, " Ph. D.
Dissertation, (Harvard University, 1982), pp. 181-92.
65R.F. Stoops,Jr. "Miracle Stories and Vision Reports in the Acts
ofPeter, " pp. 181-92.

Estrada:From FollowersToLeaders

73

66
followers but also "in a period of competition and expansion in as much as the presence
,
the
to
the
group as a
of
reputation
contributes
of
society
of wealthy and prestigious members
whole....
well.

Winning a patron to the faith normally meanswinning the patron's clientele as

9567

As the author of Luke-Acts has redefmedpatronage,the author of AN did the same.
In the APt, there is the integration of human patrons into the community of believers in
human
influence
is
Christ
The
the
that
the
to
of
role and
sole patron of all.
order emphasise
Christ.
loyalty
have
been
limited
dilute
divert
to
the
to
the
of
clientele
so as not
or
patrons
Even the apostle Peter has sought to speak of his limitations and inadequacy in order to
focus the reciprocation of honour to Christ. Stoopsrightly suggeststhat,
When Peter acts a broker of the benefits that flow from Christ, he may be worthy of
honour, but he is a broker who always steps aside so that the primary relationship
between Christ and believers will be a direct one. The apostle is allowed to
function at the centre of a patronage network only for the purpose of bringing
68
into
lasting
CIfiSt.
the
people
more
network anchored on

Stoops concludeshis study by making an important observationthat is crucial to our
thesis. He notes that despite the problems which human patrons create in the relationship

66Stoops,as an examplerelatesthat, in the story of Eubula the contestbetweenSimon and
Peter becomesa contestfor both a convert and patroness(APt 17). Eubula's conversion is constructed
around a vision revealing the identity of a thief (cf. Cicero, On Divination 1.25 and Lucian, Alexander
the False Prophet 24). Since Simon is the thief, the story functions as part of the contest itself. It
probably formed the climax of the lost part of the work set in Jerusalem. In this story Eubula must
decide whether Simon or Peter is the true "man of God." For her it is also a question of which of the
two is the appropriatechannelfor her benefactions(APt 17). Peter insists that Eubula must choose
betweenSimon and the living God and that her decision must be basedon deedsrather than words.
When Peter assuresEubula that her lost property will be recovered,he reminds her that the
her
important
her
is
than
the
wealth. BecauseEubula is wealthy, her
recovery
of
of
soul
more
recovery
conversionnaturally makesher a benefactressof the other believers, especially the widows, the
orphans,and the poor. However, the concluding frame of Eubula's story does not treat her as a leader
in the Jerusalemcommunity. Rather, her conversionand donationsare another instanceof Christ's care
for his own. R. F. Stoops,Jr.,"Patronagein the Acts ofPeter, " p. 94.
67R.F. Stoops,Jr. "Patronagein the Acts ofPeter, " p. 93.
68R.F. Stoops,Jr. "Patronage in the Acts ofPeter, " p. 95.

74

Estrada: From Followers To Leaders

between Christ and the believers, the author thought the model of patronage was an
69
Christian
appropriate vehicleforpropagation ofthe
message.
This observation is basically true in pursuing our interests in the events of Acts 1.
We believe that the values of patronage,together with the other conceptualmodels (such as
social networks, honour and shame) are working interactively within our theoretical
framework of RST. The successof the author's appeal to promote the apostles as Jesus'
witnesses and leaders of the Christian community would also mean reaffimning the
reliability of the apostles' testimony which in turn is crucial to the conversion of the people,
leading to the growth and expansionof the church.

2.3 Summary.
In this chapter we have discussed two items. The first is the ritual elements of the
separationstage. These elementsare what comprisesthe symbols of the initial stageof the
ritual processin Acts 1:3-11. The elements include the apostles as the initiands; Jesus as
the ritual elder; the meaning and significance of the forty days time-span which the initiands
and the ritual elder spendtogether; and finally, the role and function of the two men in white
robeswho played significantly in the separationbetweenthe initiands and the ritual elder -a
separationwhich ushersthe initiands into the complete limbo of statuslessness.
The second part of this chapter digressesslightly from the ritual discussion. The
section is about the leadership role which the apostles as initiands will be transformed to.
We indicated that the reason for the author's campaign for the leadership status of the
apostles is the loss of the trust and full support of the community for the apostles. We
statedthat this mistrust is due to one of the Twelve being the betrayer of Jesus.

69FLF. Stoops,Jr. "Patronage in the Acts qfPeter, " p. 99; Italics
mine.

This

Estrada:From FollowersToLeaders

75

languageof trust and loyalty is a languagepresent in patron-client relations. We suggested

that if we areto properlyunderstandthe voice andtone behindthe author'sappeal,we can
best understandthis from the concept of patronage,a concept which we believe is the basis
of the relationship between the apostles and the Christian community. We pursued this
conceptby stating that Jesus' leadershiprole was that of a broker, the broker who servedas
the middleman between God (the ultimate patron) and the people (the clients). This role
is
brokerage
now handeddown to the apostlesto fulfil.
of
The next chapter attempts to understandhow all these ritual elementswork within
the context and the theoretical framework of the RST. The chapter is the ritual processand
it primarily dealswith how the apostlesas initiands enter the stageof separation.

Estrada:From FollowersToLeaders

76

Chapter Three
3.1 The Ritual Process in Acts 1:3-5.

We designatedActs 1:3-11 as the Separation stage. We then identified its ritual elements
initiated.
defined
leadership
being
In
the
to
the
an aspectof
and also
role which
apostlesare
this chapter,we will now attempt to investigatethe ritual process.
We find at least three phasesin this stage. PhaseOne is 1:3-5; PhaseTwo is 1:6-8;
and PhaseThree is 1:9-11. Under each phase is a characteristic feature of a separation
stage. In phase one, we have the author legitimising the apostles as initiands. Phasetwo
shows the cleansing of the initiands' preconceived ideas. Together in this phase is the
initiands' absolute obedience to the teachings and instructions of the ritual elder. Phase
three portrays the initiands' experienceof complete separation. Here we will find Jesusthe
ritual elder leaving the initiands on their own as they prepare for their ritual confrontation in
Acts 1:12-26.

3.1.1 Phase One - Acts 1:3-5: The Initiands are Separated From Society and
Enter the Ritual Process.
3.1.1.1 The Author Legitimises the Apostles as Initiands.
Fresh in the memories of the readersis the betrayal of one of Jesus' apostles(cf. Lk. 22: 16). Thus, the first task the author needs to do is to defuse the readers' apprehensionsby
presentingthe credentialsof the Eleven apostles. The author needsto explain what qualifies
the apostlesas initiands and legitimate successorsto the leadership! This is exactly what

11).G. Horrell, "Leadership Patternsand the Development of Ideology in Early Christianity,"
in Social-ScientificApproaches to XFw TestamentInterpretation, D. G. Horrell, ed., (Edinburgh: T&T
Clark, 1999), pp. 309-37.

1999).2 with qualifications. L. follow Jesus' indeed Eleven to the that the after the readers oneswho are are 217orlegitimisation in general. Luckmann. 4Cf. The author (1: 3a). Turner. deSilva. pp. 9-11. insignia. not author of the separation stage. as of clothing.wear have no status."V. Berger. The Social Construction of Reality. P. a broker or representative simply because of his blood ties with the patron. The Liturgical Press. Berger and T. a relationship client relations. TheNarrative Unity ofLuke-. between It how disparity it the the the the and ritual elder shows crucial as emphasises (and boast by the fact to at all compounded the nothing virtually of ritual with apostlesenter in betrayer). coupled with the fact that the Eleven were the recipients of representatives. also This is not so in involuntary is family the kinship In patron's the as recognised of a member situation. seeP. TheSacred Canopy: Elementsofa Social Theory ofReligion (New York. ". patron endorses patron's representative. 95. or even a strip only as monsters. Tannehill. 4cls. A.property.. Jesus that by the and the of this and majesty power readers of reminding achieves (1: 1his be to is the Jesus successors the apostles this same one who chooses and ordains 2 5). One of which is in 1:3 with the phrase"presenting himself alive after his passionby many proofs". . Clients are his beyond loyalty honour to the patron's representative and attribute expected to 3 In the caseof the apostles. R. steps of the Eleven as initiands.the introduction by the author early in 1.3)" God to "the instructions things on the Jesus' attempts concerning reign of on 5 leadership. 3SeeD. 110-146. L.77 Estrada: From Followers To Leaders first in begins his the The One in Phase account. but because the the representative/broker.pp. TheRitual Process. Turner's words. pp. 155-171. we find first legitimising by but the ritual process. demonstrate liminal beings to that they go naked. 1990).p. associations..not only because of the representative's qualifications.Anchor Books. may be disguised They. TheHope of Glory: Honor Discourse and New TestamentInterpretation (Collegvifle: Minnesota. impress (1. Jesus' legitimacy implies the had he (Jesus) "whom as the apostles of the phrase chosen7' 4 This phrase.. Judas humiliating the with their association . This phraseis initiands. . 5Thenarrative also openswith the description of the ritual elder's credentials. p. The author's legitimisation of the apostlesstrikes an important chord in the patronloyalty to the is In that express clients primarily voluntary. 13. secularclothing indicating rank or role .

time resurrection. but above all it was the personal self identification of the familiar Jesusthat was the paramountfactor. In Acts 1:3. Torrance explains. Space. we can see the start of the initiands' separationfrom the society. who spoke and ate and drank with them as he willed. there are thosewho simply focus on the mention of forty days in Acts 1:3 as the time separatingEaster and Pentecost.the Ophites believed that there were eleven or twelve years. The inclusion of the note in is last days between Jesus days be the forty together the apostles and what supposelto of is very significant.1.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 78 3. Elijah fasted for forty days. 28). lasted Flood the the the which readersare reminded of stories of sectioW. . 4: 1-13.6 The author obviously usesthis symbolically-laden label to parallel the days" Jesus' "forty wilderness experience. Jesus' transformation own status within We suggestthat the author and the readers are well aware of the rich meaning of "forty" days (or years) which tradition has earned. nor many alive after passion not enough say that he continued to teach the apostlesabout the kingdom of God.1. eighteen months separatedthe resurrectionand ascensioneventsof Jesus. For instance. 7See2.there is the "forty years" of wandering in the wilderness by the Israelites (cf Lev. Ezra was not Notably.3. p. Of days"is "forty in RST the the the the the of phrase meaning of perspective significance it Jesus' For Jesus the together the seems author. F.1976). Its meaning is not just drawn from Lk.2 The Forty Days Separation. resurrectionwas And so after Easterthere is somethinglike a history of the risen Jesuswho came and went amongthe disciples.1. T. for example. Time and Resurrection (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. after and apostlesspent " by his himself Jesus "presented to that proofs. 26. 4:2. Torrance. 83. in such a way that he could be touched and seento be no apparition. These examples are what I would raise as good examplesof how historical approacheshave limited the perspective of reading the biblical text. Eusebiusmentions the belief that the length of Jesus'ministry after his length the the as same of his ministry before the Resurrection. It is argued.that in the days of the Valentinians. Apart from what we have enumerated in the ritual elements for forty days. Deut. an experience experience with own apostles' in Lk. Moses was forty days and nights in the mountain.

7-23. also the separationexperience. that the priests now hold out to the scatteredsons and of old Israel. Israel." pp. to the their true story. The wilderness freedom in in between in Egypt depicts transition a people slavery and narrative Canaan. "Uninality in the Wildemess.they viewedthe wildernessasa chaoticplace hopes.the Babylonianexiles. with which Into the story of the wildernessmarch. and this is the vision. 11P-L. 7 1. the explains the unique role on wilderness motifs.the wildernessgeneration.who haveisolatedandregardedthemselvesasthe Cohn Again Pentateuchal. . 9R. own understand experience. for be years. 9. all ruled to sought 8 for forty days. Christ Ascended.the exiles projectedtheir own fears and beforethem. years experienced who of it because by the provided a paradigm exilic writers samewildernessmotif was also adapted 10 Cohn to their argues. Israel Goliath forty days. Donne. Crisis and Story: Introduction to the Old Testament(Palo Alto: Mayfield. 1979). L. Humphreys. themselves settled and space." p. For He is by Cohn Robert L. Cohn. 217. p.The way in which the narrativefunctionedparadigmaticallyfor Israel is highlightedwhen its preoccupationsare seenin comparativecontext againstthe backgroundof thoseothertransitionalgroups." p.A Study in the Significance of the Ascension ofJesus Christ in the New Testament(Exeter: PaternosterPress. n.12 8B. Egypt the to the wilderness. 101-lumphreys adds. Cohn. "Liminality in the Wildemess. 1983). attempted read own situation out of adds. 12PLL. Cohn. forty David. "Liminality in the Wilderness.L. 19. W. They themselves thus saw new communitywas createdout of chaosor " for being the "wilderness" the new.Like generations in journey. the the terrifying which a coordinates space-time yet as and marchas a in despair. of exile purgedof the old andprimed Likewisethe Qumrancommunity.Estrada:From FollowersToLeaders 79 lay forty Ezekiel for Eli Joash. not or saw societies were but on the move and waiting the fulfillment of divine promises. All threegroups. of has been exceptionally vivid in the "wilderness" stories in both the OT and NT. for his challenged side on What we seemto find particularly important about this forty-days motif is not only This liminality but initiands' length their the experience. 8. drawn from the ancient story of their past. In the priests' narrative the chosenpeople are last seenas pilgrims moving through alien land toward a goal to be fulfilled in anothertime and place.the Qumranians in be in time to transition. p. days. K. Solomon. study example 9 "liminal" the time experience cf the space: a and of as a narrative paradigm wilderness of in The forty from Canaan Israelites.

ideas." the same applies with the apostles' experience in Acts. The initiands 13 be from factors hinder full to that their all cleansed are may or complete transformation.Estrada:From FollowersToLeaders 80 The author of Luke-Acts understandsthe significance of this motif. habits.2 PhaseTwo . is the changing of the preconceived move. the elders see to it that the preconceived ideas about society. The second is function again a of the author's legitimising technique. in short. as the forty days motif carries with it the rich history depicting the trials and testing.or persuasions)must be left behind. ideasof the initiands. ritual elders see to it that all previous "baggages"(such as beliefs. status. and that this was done despite strong reservations against the Eleven's moral integrity to lead the community becauseof their former associationwith Judas. As the intiands enter into their liminal status.Acts 1:6-8: Changing the Initiands' Preconceived Ideas. This forty days motif is for the author a paradigm or a construct. The changing of preconceived ideas is highly characteristic in the separationstage. and relationships. We believe that the author wants to achieve two things: First. When he has extended its application from Jesus in Lk. about life itself . the author immediately makes a very important move to assurehis readersof the apostles' leadership in This the perspective of the RST. 4: 1-13 to the apostles here in Acts 1:3-5. The place where Jesuswas transformed from the statusof is to person prophet private now adapted by the author to tell his readers of the status transformation of the apostlesfrom followers to leaders. worthiness.1. "in order to accomplish the transformation of the initiands. and the training and triumph of the characters who experienced liminality in the time and space of their respective "wildernesses. After justifying to the readersthat the apostleswere the ones chosenby Jesusto continue his mission. the purpose is not only to convey the time of instruction spent by the apostleswith Jesus. 3. 13Or as McVann puts it.

where a similar remark is madeby Cleopason the road to Emmaus. 2. 4cts of the."a blank in that knowledge those is inscribed the the respects of group. Jesus' immediate response (Acts 1:7) -a response which is actually short of but issue the " "no. 103. The author of Luke-Acts achieves this changing of preconceived ideas in a subtle factor hindering be the to He to the apostles' targets most seems what particularly way. Fitzmyer.p. Kingship in Israel had been known in the remote past from the time of the monarchy before the Assyrian and Babylonian Captivities. and wisdom slate.). on which .SemonehEsreh 14 and Qaddis 2. 205. They should be if has to they Israel's to effective are change restoration understandthat their concept of leadersof the community. kingdom to the the their transformation restoration of understandingof status following because the this reasons: of say 1. The very first words which the author assigns to the apostles in Acts I is a is legitimate (1: 6). Cf. The question formulates a hope for the restoration of an autonomouskingly rule for the Jews of Judea. C. We Israel.. "As Fitzmyer confumis.) even in Roman times. has to correct the apostlesof this misconception. After the initiands are corrected. J. 14 pertain to the new status. It Israel's question considering a restoration question about that Jesus has already been resurrected and is expected to lead and see the 15 fulfilment of such restoration. also the of urgency and significance only saying not reveals declaresthat the apostles' understandingof Israel's restoration is wrong. 14V. "Rituals Status ' M. Since Jesusdid not wrest the governanceof Judeaftom the Romansduring his earthly logical him for his fbHowers it to to or put a natural question as the risen LordL was ministry. caUedupon God for the restoration of the kingship to Israel and also of David's throne. C. 337.Estrada:From FollowersToLeaders 81 Turner explicitly states that the neophyte in liminality becomes a tabula rasa . TheRitual Process.Jesusgives them instructions on in Jesus Luke-Acts: The Case Transformation McVann. 24:2 1. the of of out! wiped are Prophet. ." p.. Lk. in the more recent past in the Hasmoneanpriest-kings (before the Roman occupation of Judeaunder Pompey in 63 B. 4postles.p.they still speakas JudeanJews on behalf of "Israelý" The ancient Jewish prayers. Jesus. Though the disciples who pose the question are Christians.the ritual elder. Turner. and in the caseof individuals like Herod the Great (37-4 B.

p. 3. the eldersinstill new ideas.The TheologyofSt. Luke. this to the the alteration response undertake of ideas imminent in debunking about any expectation Luke-Acts deactivatesthe senseof on urgency on the realization of Israel's restoration and the discharging of roles by its divinely appointedleaders. Did Jesus change the program of Israel's restoration. ConzeInmnn.. A brief review of the current discussion on Lukan eschatologywill be helpffil. "H. had into distant Luke to the early expectation of eschatological.Harper and Row. This sceneis consistentwith Turner's observationthat. The answerto thesequestionsdwells on Luke's eschatology.1.Turner. . TheRitual Process. (New York. did the apostles really misunderstandthe concept in the first place thus necessitatingcorrection of a preconceived idea? These questions need to be addressedin order to support our argument above..assumptions. 1961).Estrada:From FollowersToLeaders 82 the next stepsto take which would lead to their status transformation (1: 8). Geoffrey BuswelL trans.an issuewhich hasinvited varying views.2. After that.. We will basically present the two popular views: Delayed and Imminent eschatology. altered future. 103.. 16V.. and understandingsthat the initiands will need to function effectively when they assume .. we will give our analysisand proposal. Hans Conzelmann's book Yhe Yheology of Saint Luke17has become a classic in Lukan back Conzelmann his Luke to the original that push proposed sources scholarship.1 A Delayed Eschatology. 16 their new roles at the aggregationrite.consummation in insistence delay Conzelmann's Parousia. or..

Estrada: From Followers To Leaders

83

between
"discrepancies
by
his
the
Conzelmann arrived at
conclusions weeding out

18
been
have
from
ideas.
,
Working
Luke's
ideas
Luke's
what should
own
the
sourcesand
of
in
book
Joel
from
Spirit
the
the
of
quoted
the intendedor original meaning of the coming of
days.
"
In
"last
the
Luke
believes
time
table
the
Conzelmann
that
of
Acts 2: 17ff,
expanded
Church
the
the
instead
Spirit's
the
period of
eschaton,
arrival signalling
of the
other words,
in
face
the
is
Spirit's
its
this
and
to
persecution
of
the
church
takes place and
strengthen
role
fulfillment of her missionary task.19 The results, therefore, are transformed conceptsof the
20
Spirit,
Jesus,
the
and the nature of the church.
of
personand work
Ernst Haenchen,likewise, wrote his commentaryon the book of Acts with the motif
Conzelmann's.
direct
than
his
His
delay
Parousia
statementsare more
guiding rule.
as
of
He states,
This expectation of the imminent end was not fulfilled. When Luke wrote Acts,
Paul had been executed and James the brother of the Lord had died a martyr;
Christians had been burned as living torches in the gardensof Nero; the Holy City
Christians
By
lay
in
Yet
this
its
Temple
the
many
on.
world went
rubble.
and
18.For
He
Vqa;
he
forward
Luke's
cites that as
veccivoia.
and
conceptsof
example, puts
Mark usesthe term WtWi; as a definite eschatologicalterm (e.g. 8:24), serving as "prelude to the
Luke,
For
to
&6M.
it
"
Luke
dissolution,
according
totally
the
with
and
replaces
avoids
word
cosmic
Conzelmann,OX14n;speaksof the fate of believers. By changingthe word to dwdy1cyl,the immediate
expectationof eschatologicalconsummationis suppressed.
With gecdvotcc,Conzelmannbelieves that Luke imperceptibly alters its meaning compared
instance,
For
Acts
in
(i.
Q,
Mark,
it
is
Luke's
how
sources).
special
material,
sources e.
used
with
is
in
Jesus'
different
Luke
1:
15,
Mk.
and
the
term,
preaching,
message
omits
places a
comparedwith
Theology
The
for.
Conzelmann,
H.
John
Baptist
from
distinct
ofSt.
the
the
calls
repentancewhich
made
Luke,p. 98.
19H.Conzelmann,The TheologyofSt. Luke, p. 96.
200f particular importanceto Conzelmannis Luke 16:16: "The law and the prophets were
it
is
kingdom
God
John;
the
the
everyone
enters
then
and
preached,
of
good news of
since
until
included
John
"
is
to
the
This
that
the
the
taken
to
and
extended
old
order
mean
epoch
of
violently.
Baptist; John was a prophet in the Old Testamentmould. Then came the middle epoch - the ministry
filled
Holy
Christian
Church
the
Finally
Jesus.
the
the
the
community,
with
of
when
epoch
came
of
Spirit endeavouredto carry on the work of its risen Lord (the story of which Luke seeksto unfold in
the book of Acts). According to Conzelmann,this third period was essentialto Luke's theological
Jesus
Christians
because
the
at any moment, while others
of
were
expecting
return
some
programme
had
By
disillusioned
becoming
the
that
occurred.
not
already
projecting the end
second
coming
were
into the unforeseeable future, but also assuringhis readersthat it would come, Luke sought to assure
both parties.
Seealso Erich Grasser,who in 1957 argued that Jesus himself expected the Parousia to
be immediate;he did not allow for a long delay, and passageswhich suggestotherwise actually
der
den
Problem
Panisieverzogerung
in
Synoptischen
Das
Christians.
the
early
among
originated
1957),
77.
Topelmann,
(Berlin:
der,
4postelgeschichte
EX'Aangelein
p.
und

Estrada:From FollowersToLeaders

84

false.
however,
If,
imminent
the
the end
that
the
end
of
was
expectation
recognized
21
was not to come soon, when would it come?

To answer the question of "when," Haenchenpresentstwo possibilities. Either the "last
things" are presently happening,or they are to take place in the indefinite future. Haenchen

believesthat the author Luke worked out his eschatologyby taking "the chronological
dimension

himself where and how God's work of history proceeds
seriously
and
asked
...

,, 22

in time.

3.1.2.2 An Imminent Eschatology.
Contesting Conzelmann's theory are those who seeLuke's strong call for vigilance because
24
A.
J.
Matill
0.
FranciS23
impending
F.
Both
and
an
eschatological
consummation.
of
imminent
for
Arguing
by
Conzelmann
to
the
the
a
consistent
camp.
views proposed
object
Luke
Francis
Matill
to
that
was an apocalyptic activist whose
and
set
out
prove
expectation,
is
in
imminent
End.
to
the
writing
effect
only purpose
Between the two, Matill is most enthusiastic about his findings. His study is very
detailed and is determinedto balancethe suggestionof a Parousia delay. For Matill, LukeActs was written also with a senseof urgency and emphasison the imminence motif. Thus,
one should expect a "delay-imminence" picture of Lukan eschatology.
Matill outlines his study of Luke-Acts somewhat randomly. He starts off with the
emphatic apocalyptic passagesof Lk. 21. He builds from the discussion of the "Apocalyptic
Hope" that resoundsboldly from the samechapter and then goes into smaller passagesfrom

21E.Haenchen,TheActs ofthe Apostles,p. 95.
'E. Haenchen,TheActs ofthe Apostles,p. 96. Ernst Kasemann,meanwhile, drew attention to
the composition of Acts and stateddryly that "one doesnot write the history of the church if one daily
expectsthe end of the world. " SeeW. C. Van Unnik, Luke-Acts: A Storm-Centre in Contemporary
Scholarship: Studies in Luke-Acts, L. E. Keck, J. L. Martyý et al, eds. (London: SPCK, 1963), p. 24.
23F.0. Francis, "Eschatology and History in Luke-Acts" in JAAR 37 (1969).
24A.J. Matill, Luke and the Last Things (Dillsboro: Northern Carolina, 1979).

Estrada:From FollowersToLeaders

85

Lk. 3: 18 to Lk. 23:27-31 but which would help define Lukan Apocalypses. From the
apocalyptic theme, Matill proceedsto study the "de-apocalypticizing" found in Luke-Acts.
Using Lk. 16:16 as his main text, Matill admits the neutralizing function of passages
25
John
the Baptist.
pertaining to the ministry of

3.1.2.3 A Synthesis and Proposal.
It is possible to say that exegetestoday reap the fruit of Conzelmann!s hypothesis without
accepting its every detail. He has certainly drawn attention to Luke's emphasis on the
history of salvation, and his work on Lukan eschatology,as mentioned previously, has had a
lasting influence on subsequentscholarship. It is this issue that we now want to understand.
It has been contendedby Conzelmann,and by many others, that Luke's eschatology
26
was worked out againsta peculiar community situation. For example, in the Thessalonian
correspondence,Paul expected the Lord's return at any moment (though he was more
circumspectin some of his later letters). He even had to admonish those who had given up
their earthly living to await the great day (2 Thess.3:6-13).
Mark's gospel is also thought by many to have been written at a time of high
27
eschatologicalexcitement. But Luke, so the argumentgoes,was composedat a time when
Christians were having to reckon with the likelihood that the end was not coming as soon as
they had expected. Many people had regardedthe destruction of Jerusalemand its Temple
in A. D. 70 to be the event which would bring in the reign of Christ, but it is likely that by the
time Luke was written, that event was already in the past.28 Reactions to this delay of the
Parousia were twofold. In the first place, there were those whose apocalyptic fervour led

25A.J. Matill, Luke and the Last 7hings, pp. 182-207.
26H.Conzelmann,The TheologyofSt. Luke, pp. 131-32.
27P-Hiers, "The Problem of the Delay of the Parousia," p. 146.
28H.Conzelmann,The TheologyofSaint Luke, p. 113.

Estrada: From Followers To Leaders

86

them to announcethe imminent end of the world. In some casesthings were getting out of
hand, and somepeople were going so far as to identify themselveswith the coming Christ.
So, in his apocalypse,Luke has to warn his readers against such people (Luke 21:8-9):
"Take heed that you are not led astray; for many will come in my name saying, 'I am heV

29
is
hand!
'Do
time
be
,
and'The
at
not go afterthem ... the endwill not at once.
On the other hand, some members were becoming disillusioned over the delay, and
Luke had to assurethem that the Parousiawould undoubtedly occur, even though its time
could not be stipulated. The parable of the importunate widow (18: 1-8) seen6to be aimed
partly at them. At one level, of course, it can be seen as teaching the value of persistent
prayer, but the upshot of it is that one should not lose heart if one'sprayers are not answered
immediately, for God will not delay long over those who petition him earnestly. It is
difficult not to seehere an "aside" for those who were becoming disheartenedover the delay
of the Parousia.
A further pertinent feature of Luke at this point is his use of "realised" eschatology.30
This is the view that God's kingdom had, in a sense,already come in the person of Jesus.Of
particular relevance are the following two verses: "But if it is by the finger of God that I
cast out demons,then the kingdom of God has come upon you." (11:20); "The kingdom of
God is not coming with signs to be observed;nor will they say, 'Lo, here it is! ' or 'There!' for
behold, the kingdom of God is within you" (17:20-21).
From a cursory glance, it seemslikely that Luke has in mind a realised eschatologyin
which the end or the future is somehow able to break in upon the present. If the kingdom is
to be consummatedin the future, it has already been initiated in the earthly life of the
believer.

29CEH. Conzelmann,The TheologyofSt. Luke, p. 114, 3.
n.
30Aview initiated by C. H. Dodd, cited from J. W. Bowman, "Eschatology

of the NT, " p. 140.

Estrada: From Followers To Leaders

87

Is Conzelmann's proposal valid? One of the main contentions of Conzelmann is that
Luke filled the lacuna between the presentand the unforeseeablefuture with the concept of
history.
However, one should not overstatethe case for Luke's supposedlack of
salvation
interest in eschatology, for his interest in salvation was to some extent dependenton an
idea
The
of the kingdom breaking into the present (10: 9,11;
eschatological awareness.
11:20; 17:20-21) is seen as the lead to its consummation, and it is significant that the
is
in
followed
17:
20-21
directly by the 'Q' version of the apocalyptic discourse
statement
(17:22-37). Lk. 12:35-48 is concernedwith being preparedfor Christ's return, and while in
12:45 the possibility of a delay has to be reckoned with, the emphasisis really on readiness
for an event, the time of whose occurrenceis unknown. The samemessageis spelled out in
21:34-36. Thus, one can say that, while Luke certainly did envisagea delay in the Parousia
it
by
he
had
if
because
been
delayed
forty-five
for
the
time
already
was
years
only
some
lest
by
be
he
disinterested
in
it.
had
Christians
the
they
to
alert
was
no
means
on
writing importance,
for
in
is
but
it
is
Luke
imminence
that
the
the
of
end
were caught out,
not
of
its
by
Luke,
John
T.
Carroll
best
kind
that
this
stating
suddenness.
of
view
explains
rather
introduced
history,
in
depict
delay
to
the present age as
the
writing
was
motif
order
of
who
Carroll's
In
of
expectation.
words,
one
Luke wrote in a setting in which parousia,delay and a period of worldwide mission
were data of history. In such a context, in order to maintain parousia hope as a
credible position, it would be necessaryfor him, in constructing his narrative, to
show imminent expectationto have been inappropriate during the ministry of Jesus,
the early years of the church's mission, and at the destruction of Jerusalem(hence
the element of delay). The prominence of delay in Luke-Acts does not, therefore,
31
imminent
hope
in
Luke's
time.
rule out
own

Nolland confirms this. In simple terms, he adds that Luke "continued to expect the
his
"
Parousia delay is an indisputable fact, but parousiawithin
own
generation.
parousia
31John T. Carroll, Responseto the End
offfistory: Eschatology and Situation in Luke-Acts,
(Atlanta, Georgia: ScholarsPress, 1988), p.36.

Estrada: From Followers To Leaders

88

32
find.
is
hard
delay crisis actually
to
Therefore, in referenceto the earlier question we asked,(that is, was there really a
in
Israel's
the
program
of
of
plan
restoration
change

w, were the apostlesuTong in their

first
in
the
place?), we suggestthat there was really no changeof plans since Jesus
concept
has already clarified this earlier, for instancein Ik 12 especially in v. 45.33 This meansthat
the apostlesindeed misunderstoodthe timing and program of the parousia in the first place.
This fact, therefore, supportsour previous suggestion. Jesus,the ritual elder, had to
initiands'
the
preconceived ideas about Israel's restoration. Since Luke's
change
is
eschatology already clear as early in Lk. 12, the readersare already aware of this concept.
The scene in Acts 1:6-8 intends to show the readers of what and how the apostles were
"cleansed" from their preconceived ideas. In other words, Acts 1:6-8 does not primarily
function to inform the readersof any changesin God's program of restoration but to clearly
in
the
the processof the apostles' statustransformatiom
crucial
phases
show
This leads us to another important aspect in the author's quest to make his readers
do
be
has
This
the
to
transformation.
with the
convinced
of
apostles'
something
and
see
surprisingly non-reaction of the Eleven to the news of the Parousia.delay. To be more
for
is
be
learning
the
them a major
were
apostles
why
silent
after
what
supposolto
of
precise,
God's
for
been
in
has
Israel?
Why
the
there
of
program
plan
no referenceto any
change

life-long
"inside
be
devastating
blow
the
to
to
of
apostles'
a
vie-As" what could a
expression
fact,
In
this study observesthat it is not simply the silence of the apostlesas a
expectation?
it
if
Rather,
the apostleswere deliberately muted by the author until they
seems
as
group.
first
in
Acts 2:46-47. This observation becomesmore apparentas
their
converts
produced

the authordoesnot hold backthe insideviews of the othercharactersin the narrative. For
32J.Nolland, "Salvation-History and Eschatology,- in 1171ne-ss
to the Gospel: 71e 77ieologyof
Acts, I. H. Marshall and D. Petersm eds. (Grand Rapids: Eerdrmns, 1998), p. 65.

35J. Obediencethrough silence happensto be a key feature among the initiands undergoing the V.2. have in house they the the wondered" as and witnessed alleged commotion were amazed (2:6-7). We proposethat the apostles' silence is again consistent Aridimthe fi-ameworkof our study . p. .Tarnbling adds. how they function in the narrative. and what they convey to the readersof the story. Open University Press. 34V. "Salvation-History and Eschatology. The more the reader learns about the innermost motives 33J.4 The Complete Obedience of the Initiands.2. 103.4. becausethey can influence the reader subliminally in favour of a characterin the story.the complete obedience of the initiands who are undergoing the rituals of status transfonnation.1.1.. the reader is placed at the center and made to feel personally addressed. 3. 3. Turner transformation. Both ideology and narrative offer individuals pleasurableimagesto identify urith. Nolland. " Narrative and Ideology (Milton Keynes.1 What are Inside Views? "Inside views" simply refer to the emotions and feelings of characterswho are in the story. England. as . Presentationof consciousnessand inside views are effective means of controlling the reader's sympathy. reader to penetrate the mind of the character as well as to Stanzelputs it more precisely by stating that. 1991)..and to demonize others and to seefictional charactersas people they might feel in "real life.p.Turner.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 89 instancehe describesthe multitude with the inside views of being "bewildered they and .. Writers and critics encouragereadersto identify with certain characters. TheRitual Process. 67.. in ideology. status of confirms that "submisiveness and silence" are rituals indeed key characteristics-34To demonstratethis feature of obedience through silence as being presentin the narrative of Acts 1-2 we need to understandwhat inside views are." p. 67.. One of the main purposesof expressinginside views in a narrative is its ability to allow the 35 identify with that character.

pp. biography. A. This is in contrastwith ancient historiographieswhich focus more on eventsrather than characters. 3713ecause the book of Acts is a narrative it employs the servicesof a narrator. seealso g. Narratology. p. particular. who are themselvesvoices of ideological positions. . Peter. that g. (Cambridge: CUP. p. the charactersseemto be remote and distant 37 from the reader of the narrative. narrator or a character subject may either in Acts For being described by the example. kinds literature least is Ancient Grcco-Rorrmn Acts? three of narrative: yields at of narrative biography. Aune.36 Without the expressionof inside views. Polybius. 1988). Narratology. M. pp. Introduction to the 7heory of Narrative. Powell. 9. 245. pp. Po%%vlL "at Criticism? Narrative (Minneapolis: Fortress.1987). M. Stanzel.4.A Theory ofNarrafive.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 90 for the behaviour of a character. E. Von Boheemen.g. because has focused On Acts 91-94. forbearance. Inside views are presentedby meansof focalization. 70. Blackwell. 1990). "The Conventions Genre in From Society Luke-Acts.TheActs ofthe Apostles (Oxford. the common is history. (Ithaca. 1971). pp. 118. A. p. and so on. at the outset. Charlotte Goedsche. 136-37j. tram. New York: Cornell Univcrsitty Press. and it can be a sourceof misrccognition as we identify with people who are not us.Bal. M. C. 1989). 1984).Also D. L Wending. Mohr. book is is Luke-Acts lbe in Acts. pp. Introduction to the 7heory ofNarrafive. 788 1. D. C. 39M.B. the more inclined he tends to feel understanding. Narrative Discourse Revisited. character or an event normally another 36F. 128. (Toronto: University of Toronto Press. The similarities of Luke's and Act's prefaces (e. Josephus Lucian Herodutus. Paul. occassionaly may or character 3. the the and other of on characters other pp.but primarily an ancient biography (PLA. 1992). cdL(New York. TheNew Testamentin Its Literary Environment (Philadelphia: WestminsterPress. Crossroad. CE C.Yet. Tambling.2." J. Talbert. E. p. Scholarsare still divided in their opinions regarding Acts' literary identity.C. P_Burridge views Luke-Acts.J. in be The the the object.1..trans. Focalization happenswhen the subject 3) focalized)40. 74.1994). Burridge. in respectto the conduct of this character. Herner. disciples. pp. 9. JEhatAre the Gospels?:A Comparison %ith Greco-RomanBiography (Cambridge: CUP. 40M. is also 38"Literaturecan be alienating to somereaderswho cannot make such an identification. 72-78. But what kind history. subject. This may make it difficult for readersto identify with the 39 in lead to the misrecognition of the character the story. L Barr and J. Powell. that neither or of novel. Levin. p. Narrative and IdeoloV. Rhat Are TheySajing About Acts?. Genette.1985).K.tolerance.tram. and such as of prefaces with other contemporary Jewish Wars 1:1-2) led somescholarsto conclude that Luke-Acts is an exampleof hellenistic historiography (e. Haenchen.. The from describes (the (the point which elements are viewed an object is however. believed to comprise the three kinds of genre. 8-9. " New Perspectives Biography Classical the the of ofBiblical and of Literature. story.2 Inside Views Through Focalization. not as a historical monograph.B al. Talbert. 11hatis a Gospel?: 7he Genre of Canonical Gospels (Philadelphia: FortressPress. and novel. 133-35. 63-88. hand. p. C. TheBook ofActs in the Setting ofHellenistic History (Tabingen: J. consensus Miat Are 7heySa)ing About Acts?. A.1977). p.

the narrator is mostly the subject who focalizes on the apostles. .3 1).the narratorsof the gospelsspeakonly in the third person (with few exceptions:Lk. the one presenting or perceiving is not internal or a characterwithin the story. Knight distinguishesthe two functions better by stating that. 1:14-16.the object. assembly. 20:5-15. 1998). characters narrator not part of 74. Jn.Rimmon-Kenan. The implied author of Acts. the narrator speaksthrough the characterof Peter as he madehis appealto the other disciples for the replacementof Judas(1: 15-22). 21:24) and are not charactersin the story-. Introduction to the Theory ofNarrative. He or by from from J. Tlie narrator is a rhetorical agent who guides the reader through the narrative. "external focafimtion is felt to be close to the its is agent. the "we" passages:16:10-17. the subject is focalizing from outside the story. p. his is the text to text. does he The is takes the and nor what place. in which case he is known as an "unreliable narrator. Narrators differ in their method of narration.Narrative Fiction: ContemporaryPoetics. When external focalization occurs. introduces him to its world and charactersand supplies the perspective from which the action can (or should) be viewed.g.Bal. The subject who focalizes can either take an external or internal stance relative to 41 the Story. in other words. Luke's Gospel (London: Routledgc. Distinct from the implied author (and the characters) is the narrator. 74. the narrator of Acts sometimesappearto be a characterin the story (e."42 The narrator narrating 43 He presentsthe story without him getting involved normally takes the external position.Narrative Fiction: ContemporaryPoetics (London: Methuen." (Luke's Gospel. Aý Powell. 42S Rimmon-Kenan. However. Peter becomes the subject who was describing Judasas the object. The his external of narrator shows readers the upper room. His is "perception the themselves. Narratology. 43A story can be an event or sequenceof episodeswhich are connectedto eachother in order of happening. the example in it. 1983). Also. it is the voice of a narrator which the implied author usesin order for him to tell his story. p.The author of Acts is simply an implied author as presupposedby the text itself. . p. the reader narrative reconstructed and vary stance may she Knight. 1:3. Some expressthemselvesin the first person while othersuse the third person. He may disagree with the implied author.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 91 1-2. and vehicle thereforecalled 'narrator-focalizer. 44S. in 1:15-22 when Peter gives his speech about Judas. 25. 27: 1-28:16). 41M. p. 74. For example.M. Nat is Narrative Criticism?. through the events which story rendered or experiencing is that of the narrating seýfmther than that of eaperiencingsetf" 44 Acts 1:12-14 is a good focalization. According to Rinunon-Kenan. In our case. 21: 1-18. may not necessarilybe the narrator of the text. In other words.p. The narrator may or may not be a characterin the story (he is not in Luke). 29.. on the other hand.p.

The reader"gains sure accessinto the 48 Descriptions of feelings and emotions are presentand can be carried out by either .3 Focalization from Without or Within.Rimmon-Kenan. narrator place of any of inside is the upper mom. story. p.Parsons.p. yet only actions are presentedý sacrifice thoughtsremaining opaque. saddledhis ass. Rimmon-Kenan suggests that the object can be focalized either from "without" or "within. 75. TheDeparture ofJesus in Luke-Acts. 74. Peter's speechon Judasis a good example (1: 16-20). 22:3 : 47 "So Abraham rose early in the morning. 48M. taking place of what remote observers Internal focalization. in focalization. within object another focalizer. is in Moreover.Narrative Fiction: ContemporaryPoetics. 46S. p. and took two of his young burnt for his he him. 45SRimmon-Kenan. . on the other hand.Narrative Fiction: ContemporaryPoetics. Focalizationfrom within is simply the opposite.1. . 47SRinunon-Kenan. Isaac. 76. describing form Generally. 3. "characterthe type takes the this a of story. " to to the told about place of which went and arose . takes place inside the event. as narrator perceives as characters apostles focalization is therefore internal. and and son and cut wood men with is Abraham God had him. .Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 92 his in The the the readersarejust the and take characters said event. .4. the the offering. feelings his his his and external son. And Judas through the the within event. 179. p..2. A the cited example good outward manifestations with only Kenan is Gen. focalizer than the the no the outside of story rather when longer just a narrating self but an expefiencing setr He is part of the event.Narrative Fiction: ContemporaryPoetics.45 Again.. "46 Focalization from without is the subject's perception of the object by Rimmonbeing described. This happens is focalizer it. Not only do we find focalizing but Judas Peter two these the the that we also acts as subject object see Peter.

p. Both an external and or an external (character-focalizer) can penetratethe feelings or thoughts of any given character/sin the 49 The difference. Parsons cites the ascensionof Jesus in Acts 1:9-11 as an example where internal focalization takes place.he not only ascendsinto heaven."-51 3. gazing heaven. Parsonsadds that. is that an internal focalizer does his focalization inside the Story. Luke's Gospel. p. Again. Knight rightly explains this point by stating that. the reader is left standing beside the disciples. When Jesuswas gone. 51M. 179. not from the perspective of a from but the perspectiveof the disciples.4 As the Reader Begins to Read Acts 1. We cannot say much about Luke' first-century readers since we do not know where the GospeI52waswritten and first rcadL But we can make a series of judgements about the "implied reader" by asking how we as readers react to the 53 has in the signs which author placed the tCXt. hearing what they hear and seeingwhat they see. Our concern in Acts 1-2 is its meaning to the actual reader's reading of the text. 53J. be they a Christian in the first century or a reader of Luke today. Parsons. Just as there is a "real reader" of a text. p. The reader isin a sense.1. 50 story. 50M. over the shouldersof the disciples. p. The Departure ofJesus in Luke-Acts. 76. He relates that the story is told.Knight.all eyesare heavenfixed. "The gentle rebuke of the lhvo messengersis meant as much for the earsof the readeras for the disciples . Narrative Fiction: Contemporary Poetics. .4. When Jesusascends.he is also taken from the eyesof the apostles by the cloud. however. so there is an "actual reader.looking remote narrator. although clearly a reader today will find Luke a different text from a reader in the first century. Yhe Departure ofJesus in Luke-Acts." The actual reader is the person who reads the text.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 93 (narrator-focalizer) internal focalizer internal focalizer. 179. 36. 49S Rinunon-Kenan. We should not restrict the term to either category. Parsons. 52As with the book of Acts. .2.

. However.Parsons. the author is 54 in limit the to the meaningscreated able reading process. ISO. projecting their complete obedienceto God's program of apostles' of Israel's restoration. This way. we demonstrate to attempt what readers encounter as they read the concluding narrative of will Luke and begins to enter into the narrative eventsof Acts 1. the in has succeeded manipulating the reader. The unity and continuity of Luke-Acts is a common vieW.4. This is in line with how the readersof the two books would have understood the purpose of the two ascension stories from which the is integrated. 3.55 While studies continue. is from It this reading that the reader will account mainly also commission clearly notice the absenceof inside views in the commissioning account. we should lay do-Aman important assumption: the unity and continuity of the gospel of Luke and the book of Acts.5 Luke 24 and Acts 1: An Overlap of Events. the reader tends to look for help in markers which will other answering some questions resulting to some gaps in the because of the author's manipulation of the text narrative In order to clearly seethe author's manipulation of the story. In the caseof Acts 1-2. thus. In this section. specifically the muting inside the views. J.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 94 When the reader reacts to the signs which the author has placed in the text. Verheyden. The significance of inside views as textual markers through which the reader is able to produce meaning should not be discounted. 1999).p. "For one of the latest compilation of papersdealing ihith the unity of the gospel of Luke and the book of Acts. one of the ways by author which the author (through the voice of the narrator) attempts to manipulate the reader is by opting not to indicate the apostles' inside views on given matters. (Leuven: Leuven University Press.1.TheDeparture ofJesus in Luke-Acts. the argument that the gospel of Luke and the book of Acts were written by a single author is -54M. see The Unity ofLuke-Acis.2.ed. when inside views are not available.

p. Some scholarshave suggestedthat ascribing the little is but. difficult Luke it Leon has is Morris than to to see more guesswork. 1972). TheActs ofthe Apostles: A New Translation %ith Introduction and Commentary(London: Doubleday. The dedication to the samepersonnamed'nicophilus." in NovT28. ascension are narratives complete what we stories ends.1998). 1: and Acts 1:1). Gerard . All these evidencedate frorn. the notion that Acts is a continuation of the gospel of Luke is widely regarded. themsclves. no. Iraneaus. The issueof continuation is arguedfrom different perspectives. Reading Luke-Acts: Dynamics of Biblical Aarrative (Westminster. Earl." thus presentingthe 57 books but history. The Acts oftheApostles: A Socio-Rhetorical Commentary(Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. 1993). The only reason left is to take that indeed Luke was the author of the two volumes ascribedto him. 2. 24 and Acts I (Lk. "The Prefaceof Acts and the Historians. " (Lk. The preface of Acts is an indication to its readersabout a "former treatise. Fitzmyer. 58W.de Gruyter.one of its strongest evidence that shows Acts to be a continuation of the gospel is found in the ascensionstories of Lk. Witherington 111. 1996). "Prologue-Form in Ancient Historiography.Kurz. And whether this author wrote the two books together or with a considerabletime separatingthem. 57Cf. pp. the third century A.Temporini (Berlin. The function of the prefacesof the gospel and the book of Acts. J. (Cambridge: CUP. theology.ed. 73-103. "Luke's Prefacein the Context of Greek Preface-Writing. John Knox Press." in History. 2 1. The numeroussourcesinclude the Anti-Alarcionite Prologue. Lk.2. Similarities in composition. 48-74.L. p. or prior to. Witherington 111. The ascensionstory in Acts does not only begin where the ascensionstory in Luke 59 in find Both Rather. cf. '6Argumentsrange from issueslike: 1. themes. D. D.They include: 1. and Society in the Book ofActs. as out. pointed gospel have Luke the should singled out as the author when he had no apostolic pedigreeand4but church why for his writings. pp. 842-856.11. Nevertheless." in ANR IV 1. 1 (1986). 3.9. D.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 95 56 unanimously accepted. 24:44-49 H Acts 1:11). and Clement of Alexandria. 24: 1-43 H Acts 1:1-3. pp. played little significant part in the developmentof early Christianity. 1998). 49-5 1. Prophecies in Luke 24:46-49 find their fulfilment in Acts. two not as separateworks as two volumes of one continuing 2. D. pp. Alexander. most especially the 58 birth the the mission of apostlesresulting to the and growth of church. I as a reader read Acts as the continuation of the gospel of Luke. 5913y "complete" I meanthat both stories have a beginning (Jesusgathershis apostlesand gives his final instructionsj middle (Jesusascends)and end (the apostlesreturn to Jerusalem). the Muratorian Fragment. Like many others. Literature. The early church tradition which is unanimousin ascribing the gospel and the book of Acts to Luke.Tertullian.

TheActs ofthe Apostles: A SocioRhetorical Commentary(Grand Rapids: Ecrdinans. . its plot is in no way " G." From How to Write History SS.p. Sorensen. . from Lk. agreesby stating that "both the sequeland its predecessorare complete in themselvcs-thatis." SBL Seminar Papers (Chico: ScholarsPress. for the "promise of the father.. the readeris invited to locate similar settings in the opening scenesin Acts and pick up the 62 story thereon. "The Composition of Acts 3-5: Narrative Developmentand Echo Effect. 23940.. 107.Parsonsseesthis as the way by which the narrator coaxesthe reader to "re-enter the story world (now Acts). with someattention paid to the exiting procedureat the end of the narrative. Reading Luke-Acu. The commandto stay in Jerusalem Lk. The apostlesare to be Jesus' "witnesses. 24 to Acts 1. 171. book of while on a specific level. 4."The inter-textualitics ow not to suggestthat . 29."The use of repetitive patternspreservesa senseof unity of purpose and action in spite of significant developments. (from Jerusalem)to "all nations" H "end of the earth." in dependenton its antecedent. Parsonsadds." LL 24:49a H Acts 1:4b. What we have. 2. Jesusascendsto heaven. The apostlesare to be clothed fl receive "power. For example: 1. ."Beginning and Ending: The Virginians as a Sequel. 24:51 fl Acts 1:9 As the narrator of Acts repeatS61 some of the key concluding scenesof Luke 24 in Acts 1.p.. movement of story plot -a Sorensen. The overlap is done by the repetition or redundancyof scenesand phrases.. 61AsR. ."the first and secondtopics must not merely be neighbours but have common matter overlap. Withcrington seemsto have neglectedto give credit to LT. . 28)." R." ne Departure of Jesus in Luke-Acts." Lk. Lk. 5. 24:47b H Acts 1:8b. p. 24:47c //Acts 1:8b. Tannehill argues. 24:48 H Actsl: 8b. 109.. 7.quoted from Ben Witherington III." Lk. Tannehill.. Studies in the Novel 13 (198 1). 24:49b //Actsl: 4a. 3.p. Be witnessesbeginning from Jenisalem Lk. . 174.. C. 6.. Johnsonas the exact paragraphappearsin the latter's commentaryin the book of Acts (cf. on a generallevel)is a linkage of the gospel of Luke with the 63 Acts. p. 1998)..conin nting on the beginning of Acts and the ending of the gospel of Luke. Acts ofthe Apostles.. 24:49a// Acts 1:8b. 63W." 7he Departure ofJesus in Luke-Acts. 1984). 6OConu ntators have recognisedthe significance of Lucian's advice to the historian which states. the plot of Acts is so dependenton Luke that it could not be understoodby itself. wait and . pp. p." Lk. Kurz. 62M.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 96 is an overlap60 of accounts between the two.

the repetitions serveas literary notchesfirmly bridging the two books together.the deter it is "67 juxtaposition While the true that ascensionstories of pages will US. flow Luke to of what seemsto a single plot moving allows a continued That Acts is a continuation of Luke. and of and a California Press. 1978). 172. the first three versessummarisethe story to the end of LJL 24. 65L. 24? To be more specific. random in indications Acts I in Luke that Acts themselves. N. 79. 1973). 66M. becausethe ascensionstory of Acts I is in some --A-ay a "sequel" to the for is decide Lk. V. as mentioned earlier."when scenesarejoined together the illusion of movement is produced. It also 64 be from Acts.68 In fact it is the opposite. is determining Or Parsons 'one to as problem of any sequel where puts story." S. 24.Parsons. The presence of repetition and is invitation between the that two the to readerreads what stories an understand redudancy 640r as Uspenskystates. Chatmanis inclined to think that the relationship of eventsare not mere accidentsbut are tied within a Nevertheless. Uspensky. 24." Proposedby JeanPouillon. be to the relationship of events. Commentatorsare quite unanimousin the view that the book of Acts is a secondvolume to a two-volume work. -A6 The literary critic Seymour Chatman rccognisesthe reader's compulsion to connect for He in "depends to that the upon make sense.7he Departure ofJesus in Luk-e-Acts.Story and Discourse: Narrative Structure in Fiction and Film (Ithaca. the question is whether Acts I is a continuation of Lk. Wittig Los Compositional (Berkeley Angeles: trans.: Cornell University Press." He prefers to read the relationship of the two ascensionstories as a "contingency.68 In fact. Y." p. 47. University By Zavarin S. The author then goes back and opensup in more detail what was happeningin the final phaseof that story. is not the problem.p. Chatman. p. .Chatmwi adnýiits string. attitude a story states reader's order events the disposition of our minds to hook things together not every fortuitous circumstances.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 97 Thus. there are complete stories and are no of the narrator is discouraging-6v_readers from understanding that its ascension story is independent from Lk. . 62. "The Prefaceof Acts and the Historians.Alexander.A Poetics of Composition: 71e Structure ofthe Artistic Text and T)pology of Form. p. whatever seems philosophical that we -should recogniseour powerful tendencyto connectmost divergent events. 65 Rather. 67SeymourChatmangoesbeyond the concept of -continuation. the the to challenge where to pick up the story of reader ascension begin it." B.

Theological Themesand the Genre ofLuke-Acts. While he blessedthem.. -Lmatter)have assumedthe spatial settingsof Lk. apostles wait settings 6911armonising the two ascensionstoriespresentssonic problems. for the difference betweenlanguageas a system and other serniotic systemsis that linguistic expression. In Acts 1. F&cault has noted. pp. The specifics of the translation of space . the two ascensionaccounts 3. This passageindicates that from the time Jesushad ascendeduntil the apostleshave in for fulfilment "great father's Jerusalem the to the the were apostles of promise. 229-30. necessarilyMnslated into a temporal sequence. the material from which literature is made. 58. parallels out pointing settled Talbert. G.. A greater reliance on ternporal definition is inherent in natural language.. Davies..1. a verbal description of any spatial relationship (or of any reality) is . returned joy" and "continued to bless God in the temple.2. And they returned to Jerusalemwith greatjoy.For example. someproblems in the narrative also appear.generally spealdrig.1974). we (and any keen reader for th. 24:50-53 states. p. When this happens.6 Jubilance or Conflict? When the reader (consciously or unconsciously) harmonises the ending of Luke with the beginning of the book of Acts. and were continually in the temple blessing God. 7OUspensky adds. although Bethany is not mentioned.it seems. "The Prefigurementof the Ascension in theThird GospeV JTS 6 (1955).Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 98 is but one story and not two. 20 (Missoula: Scholars Press.CC C.are more between in the the two accountsthan verging into harmonisation.the likelihood for the readerto harmonise 69 is high. SUMS. and lifting up his hands he blessed them. 24 within the samespatial and temporal Acts from instructed his for 1. he parted from them..translatesspaceinto time. Literary Patterns.4. Becauseof the movement of the story from outside Jerusalemuntil the apostleshave returned to the upper room.the ascensionof Jesusand the apostles' return to Jerusalemare repeated(Acts 1:9-12).70 In Jesus to the time of other words. Lk. As M.. H." The spatial settings of these events range from Bethany (where Jesusascended)to Jerusalem(where the apostleshave returned).. Scholars. the in leaves impression Lukan the the that the ascension us with apostleswere a state story of ofjubilation when they returnedto Jerusalem. Then he (Jesus)led them (disciples) out as far as Bethany. J.

By V. A sign is a symbolof meaning.Donne.p.theydo not coincidein everydetailbecausetheyaredifferentin purpose .ChristAscended. Testament 74As Knight correctlyargues. 10. HerderandHerder. the apostles' attitude of jubilance as indicated in Lk.192. in 1:6. only after he had finishedthe Gospel.-The Ascension. K.. 24:36-53. . Benoit. andthatall we getis a reworkingandelaborationof theversionin Lk. This meansthat a readercan quite appropriatelyfind meaningsin a text .242.1973). 28.If thework is sufficientlycharacterised the possibility of the concretespatialpresentationof the content..and the work may be translatedinto suchvisualmediaaspaintingor drama.J. includingthegesturesandwords.. like Johnson. 78. 72Andbecause theauthordoesnot provideanynewmaterialin theascension narrativeof Acts. L. as for instancethroughthe commentsand of the narrator. Fitzmyer. B. the important Jesus to come with an question. A text conditionsits readersto reactin a particularway.therearises characteristics. 24.. but theyclearlyindicatea definiteandfinal partingwhichis distinctfirornResurrection. 24:50-53. in a particularliterary work are determinedby the degreeof concreteness of the spatial by spatialdefinitions. Johnson.72 As the reader is reading one ascensionstory. When they askedwhether Jesuswould apostles now restore the kingdom to Israel. Uspensky.p.TheActsofthe Apostles.. FollowingBenoit.A Poeticsof Composition:TheStructureof theArtistic Text and T)pologyof a CompositionalForm. " Jesusand the GospelI J. K.p. Our surveyof the Lukannarrativesof the Ascensionrevealsthat thereare two accountsof theoneevent. A collectionof signsyields a patternof thought. T. "As B.anyreadermay be led to readActs 1:1-11.to simplybe an"elaboratevariant"of Lk. Jesus gives them an answer which is actually short of saying "no" (1:7). (New York. FitzmyerseesActs 1:3 asoriginallyfollowingLk.p.cf P.trans. ZavarinandS. Donnearguesin his studyof thetwo ascension accounts.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 99 the promise of the father until its consummationin Jerusalem(Lk.p. B. is but one ascensionstoril what we are reading with the Acts version simply being more detailed than that of the gospel.he statesthat Luke cameuponthe preciseinformationaboutthe intervalbetweenthe resurrectionand . Wittig (BerkeleyandLosAngeles:Universityof CaliforniaPress.7heActsoftheApostles. Partof the reader'stask is to decodethe signswhich the authorhasplacedin the narrative. already risen.A Studyin theSignificanceof theAscensionofJesusChristin theNew (Exeter:Paternoster Press. a subtle but conflicting picture begins to arise73.andhe intendedActs 1:9-11 to be a slight ascension correctionof whathehadwrittenearlier.1973).1983). 24:44-53 H Acts 1:3-2:4).but the final assemblyof meaningrestswith the readerand presuppositions not the author. 24 does not seem to fit the context and mood of the story in Acts 1. The narrator does not indicate how Jesus' responsemight have affected the apostleswho were expecting the restoration of the kingdom to Israel now that Jesushas 74 And becausewe as readershave assumedthe settings of Lk. 711'rorn a traditio0erSPective. To put it more bluntly. 24 into Acts 1. For instance.

22.C. troubled (24:38)."is requiredto integratethenewelementsinto thepreviouspatterns." in JSNT49(1993).frightened (24:5).1998).76 This is in relatively strong contrast with how the narrator of Lk.D. The narrator of the gospel makes it explicitly clear that apostleswere perplexed (24:4). R.ed.1. This is also in great contrast with the characterisationof the multitude who have heard and of the seeming"commotion" in the upper room. looking sad (24: 17). . In the study conductedby Hubbard and Mullins on the commissioning accountsin Luke- which were not consciouslyplacedthereby the author. A. and most of all.p.p. 127-55.Parsons.pp."CorneliusOverandOverandOverAgain:'FunctionalRedundancy'in theActs of the Apostles.amazed. 130-36. 194. p.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 100 to think that the apostleswere still jubilant despite the failure to meet their expectationsis 75 quite problematic.1995)." (Unpublishedseminarpaperreadin theannualmeetingof the SBI. Cf. Witherup.pp.7 No Form of Protest. Repetitionreaffirmsthe link betweentheGospelandActs.accordingto Culpepper. 1--farguerat.2. C. "Soul's Conversion(Acts 9. Parsonsstates. amazed(24:22)."Variationproducesmovement. Culpepper. " The " reader. disbelieved forjoy. 174. 4. Themovementproducedin theserepetitionsis strildng. Parsons. and wondered (24:41). returned to Jerusalem with "greatjoy" (24:52). The silence on the inside views of the apostlesas a group extendsuntil 2:46. 45-66. (Sheffield:SheffieldAcademicPress. 1983).and in 2: 6-7.26) andthe Multiplicationof Narrativein Acts. M. 24 describes the inside views of the apostles in the context of Jesus' resurrection and ascension.SeealsoR. The narrator of Acts witnessed generouslydescribesthe multitude with inside views of being "bewildered.p. Bumett." in Luke'sLiteraryAchievement: CollectedEssi: Urs." Redundancy andtheImpliedReaderin Matthew-A Response to JaniceCapel AndersonandFredW. This fact is brought about by the narrator's silence on the inside views of the in apostles the ascensionstory of Acts. 75Citing Culpepper'sobservation. Luke'sGospel(London:Routledge.TheDepartureofJesusin Luke-Acts.evenmeaningswhich the author mightnot haveagreed. 76M.TheDepartureofJesusin Luke-Acts. wondered" 3. Tuckett.4.variationimpelsthereaderto leavetheGospelstoryandmoveon to the storyof thechurch. 36.especiallypp.

either by expressing inability the to fiilfil the mission.Lk." It solicits response from the commissioned party. or even in the form of a question unworthiness or addressedto the commissioner. both have failed to address the issue which we have raised above. they as of category form is be " This times to at similar to the classification of person. 5:8-10a tells of Peter falling to his knees before Jesusand admitting his sinfulness. Lk. ex=ple: of LIL 1:18 tells about Zechariah demandingproof of the angel's messageand cites a legitimate reasonas to why he could not believe the authenticity of the message. Acts 9: 13-14 shows Ananias who reasons heard Saul's heal he had his Saul's blindness because to about reluctance of what out on is do he in "saints Jerusalem". this addsmore credenceto our suggestion(a suggestionwe will fully develop later on) that the author deliberately muted the apostlesof their inside views in order to show to his readersof the full and complete obedienceof the group to the mission they were taskedto do. In a survey Hubbard did on the commissioning accounts in Luke-Acts.4 of this thesis. he reckons that protests are the least common form found in the table of commissioning 77See1. This to as ascend an expression a odd of protest watch forms in "protesf' the other commissioning accounts of Luke-Acts express more since individual how the commissioned or party either displays an action or speaksa word clearly 78 before For desistance the commissioner. 78Andeven if it is. is 8 Peter's Acts 11: told to the as refiLsal activities against doubts his 12: Peter's Acts 9 the tells of of unclean animals. out of prison vision The absenceof any form of protest from the apostles here in Acts 1-2 does not surprise Hubbard. . Under their defted its intended function "to measurethe effect upon the ProteSt77. understood commissioned a "reaction. Mullins understandsthe scenewhere the apostlesstand to heaven is little Jesus (Acts 1: 10).Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 101 Acts. whether eating about about is him the to angel who was about of escort real or not. 1:34 shows Mary asking the angel to explain how she could conceive when she is not married.

M. the case with the Eleven is different from the other examples of feelings The Eleven do their to accounts. 82In his study of the ascensionaccountin Lk. a complete silence which absenceof does not happen in any of the commissioning accounts they have enumerated. 24 and Acts 1. of part By being taught by the risen Lord.C. p. He states. praying together with one accord. what Hubbard and Mullins failed to consider (probably becauseof the limitations set by their methodology) is the complete silence or 81 "inside views" on the part of the group of apostles. At the level of the Sitz in der Kirche.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 102 79 Hubbard reflects that only thirty-two percent of the twenty-five commission accounts. missions to which they 79B. Parsons the observes.TheDeparture qfJesus in Luke-Acu. Luke intended a veiled reference to the ascensionin Luke 24:50-53 and intentionally suppressedany explicit mention of a heavenly assumption. or opinions first from bursting they their converts. Eleven. spiritually. out with any emotive expressions until see apostles 82 inside is deliberate We argued earlier that one of the The absence of views ." p. 190. and organisationally prepared to undertake the task of worldwide " have been assigned. . "Commissioning Stories in Luke-Acts.p. joyfully. who were living in the absenceof Jesus. "Commissioning Stories in Luke-Acts. Luke-Acts This he that a of protest.4cts. Parsonssees dchberate a manipulation of Luke's sourcesto influence his audience. in form becomes less. "Excluding Peter's inside views when he gave his speechon Judas' replacement(1: 15-22). to pattern their behaviour after the disciples who were obediently. from [beginning the time they the the to apostles chance react at all purposesof not giving 8) (Acts 1: daunted delay Israel's the the until the time with news about of restoration were first is (2: image 46)]. only twenty-six percent in the whole book of Acts. as we have stated earlier. To put it more precisely. Hubbard. even after the departureof Jesus. he was able to instruct his comnumity. '13M. Parsons.J. J. and continually blessing God. even register accounts considers is. 150. st. the disciples are presented in the opening scene as educationally. C. having their to the converts of complete obedienceon the project of Again. as a group get say or express not commissioning keeps have The the they the author at all until completed whole ritual process.TheDeparture ofJesus in Luke-. 195." p. italics mine. In this way. Parsons.80 However. and perfonning the delicate and crucial task of selecting Judas' replacement without incident. 190. Hubbard.

is the one in complete control of appreciated. "The Religious Leaders in Luke: A Literary-Critical Study.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 103 The muting of the apostles' inside views makes their role as leaders/brokersmore it First.whereasour focus is reading more on the apostles. that the latter trait is actually a manifestation of the former.it paves the way to the everything.. . " M.Acts 1:9-11: The Initiands Experience Complete Separation. They no longer dependon themselvesbut on God.. pp. shows that God .. " If Wnessto the Gospel. A. Second. " in JBL 10911 (1990). 18:9: "they trusted in themselves and they despised others.the one who ascends. This focus is again consistent in with another aspect the rituals of status transformation. Most studies have focused on Jesus. brokerage in that the sense that of role apostles' the apostles are recognised as the effective representativesbetween God the patron and the believers as clients. 95.77zeTheology ofActs.3 PhaseThree . 173-81. the apostlesas well are separatedfrom Jesusin the ascensionand face their ritual in confrontation their return to Jerusalem(Acts 1:12-26). Just as Jesusis separatedfrom John the Baptist (the ritual he into face his ritual confrontation againstthe devil (Lk. So far.84 Now they in turn will give God's teaching which was 85 by Jesus. is. C. brokerage.the ones who have been left behind. Clark. Those ideas have long been corrected or changed by Jesus during their status trartsformation..1. 85CEA. Two of the principal traits ascribed to the leaders in Luke are found in Lk. the to goes when wilderness elder) 4: 1-13). "The Role of the Apostles. passedon to them 3. Initiands undergoing the ritual experiencecomplete separation. 341nLuke's retelling of the story of Jesus and his disciples the conflict with the religious leaders is a recurrent motiE The author's characterisation of the various religious groups fall into many categories but almost consistent to that which is in opposition to what Jesus teaches.the ultimate patron . Their decisions and guidance depend on and representthe plan of God himself Whatever they teach is no longer basedon their preconceivedideas. p. none have attemptedto view the Ascension story of Acts 1:9-11 in the way we are it. including the plan for the restoration of Israel. Powell. Self-righteousness is the leaders' root character trait from which other characteristics are derived.

2. Wilder..1 Redundancy and Repetition in the Ascension Story of Acts 1:9-11. 311. Parsons. 1933). Unlike other ascensionaccountswhere the ascendingparty leaves for 86 the separation of the apostles from Jesus is tentative. 192. Part 1. F. Ile separationof Elijah from Elisha in 2 Kngs. eds. BZNW 21. pp. R. cf. M. Lake. TheBeginnings of Christianity.1. of 88PLTannehill.3. Seealso A. Lake. Parsons.. 23840. Eltcster. Luke. TheActs ofthe Apostles. The repetition and rcdudancyof scenesin the ascensionstory in Acts 1:9-11 attempts to highlight how the apostleshave been finally left by themselvesas they are separatedfrom Jesustheir leader. We will note that the subject in the separationsceneof Acts 1:9-11 is the apostlesTatherthan Jesus (the subject the ascensionstory of Lk. 5. 87Cf. 148-56. Cf. 61. Jacksonand K. " in CBQ 50 (1988). The Theology ofSt. Conzelmann. (Berlin: Topclmann. complete 3. "Variant Traditions of the Resurrectionin Acts. P. pp. p." NeutetamentlicheStudienfur RudotrBulhnann.4. ed. 3-4. C.TheDeparture ofJesus in Luke-Acts. 89Thatthe ascensionnarrative in LL 24 -*-asadded after the two books were divided4-cf Y. 87 24:50-53 .p.3.5 Luke 24 and Acts 1: An Overlap Events. quoted from M. "Remarquessur les textes dc Pascensiondans Luc-Actes. W.2. The good . apostles will stand as Jesus' representatives/brokersbefore God and the people of Israel until Jesus returns to his reign." JBL 62 (1943). p. (London: Macmillan & Co.g. Tannehill's study of the narrative technique of redundancyin Luke-Acts mentions one of its functions as to "combat the tendencyto forget the information to over a long narrative. We will also attempt to point out that the separationbetween the apostlesand Jesus is a temporary one."The Text of Acts 1:2 Reconsidered. 24: 50-53). 24:50-53) when Luke and 89 into Acts were accepted the canon. H."88 Other scholarsunderstand the repetitions to be an appendage(especially the version in Lk. Menoud. 1957). Phillipc Menoud assumesthat both ascensionaccounts were addedwhen the one-volumework of Luke-Acts was divided and enteredinto the canon. We know that the ascensionstory in Acts 1:9-11 is a repetition of the ascensionstory in Lk. C. "The Composition of Acts 3-5: Narrative Development and Echo Effecv pp.1. p. vol. For instance. There is also the proposal that Luke was simply g6E.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 104 In this section we want to focus on this concept of complete separation. Why is this so? Suggestionsvary. . 94.

pp. 771e Acts ofthe Apostles (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. Wilson H. 66. 'Merc is no explicit suggestionfrom Moule that indeed the author of Luke-Acts has incorporatednew traditions into Acts after the gospel has been written." in ExpT 68 (1957). p. D. Talber4 Literary Patterns.statesthat "this techniqueof repetitionis one to which Luke "9' Still he impress the to reader. p.Die Apostelgeschichte (Freiburg: Herder. Davies. 911do not fully agreewith Parsons'assessmentof Moule. Wilson. Fitzmyer. pp. 39. Moule. quoted by M. p.H.71e Acts ofthe Apostles.77zeDeparture ofJesus in Luke-Acts. 95J. Stempvoort. 60. L . 420.A. Here (Acts 1:9-11) it is already apparent that the second interpretation of the Ascension is totally different from the first.p. G. P. suggestthat the two ascensionstories were products of the author's responseto particular theological issues. G. 1618. 190. 357. Van Stempvoort.Flender. Keck and J. p. D."The Interpretion of the Ascension in Luke and Acts. Bruce. Seealso G. "The Ascension:A Critique and an Interpretation. 177. J.Hacnchen. Thesenew traditions were then 93 G. G. 268. 93S. F. G. 277-81. Haenchen.1973). "The Ascensionof Christ. We n-dghtrefer to it as the ecclesiastical and historical interpretation.F. and F." in ZNW59 (1968). L E. Cf M.p.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 105 familiar with two distinct ascension traditions and that this has been reflected in his believes C. Flender94 J. J." in M6 (1955). Parsons. 191. Schneider. Mouleý* that the author received new traditions after completing writings. 'vrhe Prefigurementof the Ascension in the Third Gospel. DavieS92.TheDeparture ofJesus in Luke-Acts. F. E. p. the doxological one. 207." in Studiesin Luke-Acts: EssaysPresentedin Honor ofPaul Schubert. The Gentiles and the Gentile Mission in Luke-Acts (Cambridge: CambridgeUniversity Press.p. C.for instance. pp. C. 91 incorporated into Acts. arguesthat the ascensionin Luke-Acts servesas 95 for history. 98C." in NIS 8 (1958). A." in BEvT41 (1966). wants something especially upon always resorts when 98 literary find the repetition as stylistic variations." Heil und Geschichtein der Thcologie des Lukas. Parsons. others 90C. 92j. Spirit the the There are also those who read the repetitions as a meansto emphasisea point or teaching. 96P. 97E. 94H. "The Ascension. his gospel. p. S. Seealso H. Fitzmyer. with the accent on the work of 96 in Church.Fitzmyer. Wilson. distinction Stempvoort distinguishes the two periods of salvation the line of the two ascensionaccountsby saying that. for example. 229-33.1990). S. 1982)." p. and . Cadbury. "Four Features Lucan of Style.

I "upper blessing Acts joy takes to the the and engages room" apostles and of in the other people the room." J. variation. C. 87-102.cf. both in is Jesus this the to the accounts. Parsons. and apostles 5.TheDeparture ofJesus in Luke-Acts. The chronological difference: Lk. 1987). 24 appearsto show Jesus' ascensionon Easter Sunday night while Acts I allows a "forty day" period. The"raisingof hande'andthe repeatedreferences to "blessing"aremissingfrom Acts. C. There is no dialogue account in Ik 24 while in Acts I is devoted to questions of the has how Jesus respondedto them. "The Implied Readerin Matthew. prayer with 4.1-1. apostles Variation "creates uncertainty and requires the implied reader to make choices. SBL Annual Meeting. 270. The more obvious variations also movement and produces 100 betweenthe two ascensionaccountsare: 1. At least in the ascensionaccountin Acts. commission. Parsons. the author clearly showsthe apostlesas the exclusive 6ý See discussion 4=awl.Jesus both last his disciples. Anderson. However. Acts (Minneapolis. "Parsons. p. 203. "99 It highlights the repetitions made. 24 directs the apostlesto the Temple in an attitude in God.71e Departure ofJesus in Lul-e-Acu. 24 has the place near "Bethany" while Acts I has the Mount of Olives. and G. cE M. Parsons. 2.the charactersare the same. my on of Acts 1:2 in Chapter Two under recipients of 2. n. 3.pp. we feel that the variation more than the repetition and by in helps Acts I the to the the separation show motif of ascension story redudancy of from Jesus. 21. The disciples' return to Jerusalem:Lk. Martyn. p. and context as suggestedby Janice Capel Anderson. (Philadelphia: Abingdon Press). 1986). 100M. pp. C. The site of the ascension:Lk. . 193-94. MN: Augsburg. I disagreewith Parsons'suggestionthat in both accountsthe disciples seemto include a larger group thanjust the apostles. 1983). scene share apostles. appearance of and Jesus' commissionto his apostlesto preachto "all nations" or " the ends of the earth.believes that repetition showsstrong links betweenthe two ascensionstories and helps to move the story plot forward. Grodel. M. 192." (Unpublished seminarpaper submitted to the Literary Aspects of the Gospels and Acts. following the models of repetition.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 106 For the purposesof this study. 25. p.C. the -rot.TheDeparture ofJesus in Luke-Acts: TheAscensionNarratives in Context (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press. p.. Links through repetition are noticed. A. eds.

p. Jesus' characterdeclines while the apostles' character rises. repetition and redudancy in Luke-Acts. Witherup finds that one of its functions is to show the decline of one and the rise of another 101 We find this in the ascension the same context as the story unfolds.1. In other words. . where Jesusis the hero in the ascensionstory. Withcrup. "Cornelius Over and Over and Over Again: 'Functional Redundancy' in the Acts of the Apostles. 24 has the cryptic note "he departedfrom them.3. McVann seesthe way to the baptism by John as a symbol of separation. D. McVann enumeratedthree types of separation: separation from people. them was washed sins. They wanted to be baptised and therefore knew what will be required of them. p. The mention of the cloud and the two messengerswho assureand comfort the apostles are missing in the Lukan version. of Jesuswas not only separatedfrom his hometown in order to be baptised but was further separatedfrom the crowd afler he was baptisedby John." while Acts I has "he ascendedinto heaven. the departurestory in Acts 1: 9-11 centreson the apostlesas the primary actors. 102M. 3. Unlike Lk." 348.McVann. " 7." in JSNT49 (1993).Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 107 6. and of time. character within Acts 1:9-11. to seek a status transformation by being 102 from Among Jesus their Nazareth. The variations in the ascensionversion in Acts focus on the character of story of the apostlesas the subject of the story rather than on Jesus. 24.2 The Separation of the Apostles from Jesus in Acts 1:9-11. Analysing the function of variation. D. 54. "Rituals of StatusTransformation in Luke-Acts. As the crowd return to their 101R. and that is. of place. Lk. In the ritual processwhich Jesuswent through. The people who were baptised separatethemselvesfrom their villages in order to go to John at the Jordan. P.

M. . 29-5 1.Acts 1:9-11 opensa new avenuein understandingthe sameascension story. Let us deal with thesethree points in detail: 103M."103 There is really no dispute to say that scholarshipseesthe ascensionaccountsin Luke 104 1: 9-11 Acts Jesus' However. scientific perspective. The drawing of the reader's attention to the apostles is partly evidenced by the assurance of Jesus'return.Jesusproceedsto the wilderness for ftuther seclusion. This concepthas three interrelatedpoints to share: 1.marking the separationof the apostlesfrom Jesus.the apostlesnow enter into the stateof being completely separatedfrom any individual -a separationof the apprentice from the leader. 3. we suggestthat as the "baptism-theophany" dramatic is Jesus from Jesus John." 348. This is seen when one considers that the narrator draws attention to the sombre stateof the apostlesrather than to Jesus' exaltation.TheDeparture ofJesus in Luke-Acts. McVann notes that Jesus' "baptism-theophany" (Lk. In the rituals of status transformation. p. Parsons. from the social50-53 24: and as the stories of exaltation. C. We know that the apostles' separationand not simply Jesus' ascensionis equally emphasisedin Acts 1:9-11. 3:22) sharply marks this second and highly dramatic separation. In the rituals of statustransformation. the the the separation of of ascension marked "theophany" equivalent .McVann. 2. 104Cf. "The reader thus recognisesthat the descent of the Spirit and the voice of God function as the moment of the investiture when Jesus' new identity is revealed. He adds. "Rituals of StatusTransformation in Luke-Acts. pp.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 108 homes and resume their old statuses.

1..Jesus. It is particularly important to note that the ascensionof Jesusis a picture of separationof the from his/her breaks is leader. to wit. to leave him to depart according to his own desire. deciding to gratify him in this also. thereupon of a signal all those in the distance to remain still. Moses and Joshuahas emphasison the separationof the two. unpolluted Lucian. report of description on the separationbetweenMoses and his common followers is found rather than Joshua: Moses the and of separation on On his advancing thence toward the place where he was destined to disappear. held back. And while he bade farewell to "50n the other hand. has "presenting All Jesus taught to that them alive and said. while by word of mouth he exhorted those nearer to him not to make his passing a tearful one by following him. the the the apostles as upon elder ritual as Not many ascension stories have the "leader-apprentice" relationship in their 105 between leader-apprentice Not the relationship even more popular separation scenes . somehave a totally different kind of separationin mind. fire had the that the part part with separatedoff. has done all what is necessaryfor the initiands. .3.taking the pure and divine him. They have been purged and cleansed of their habits and in leaders ideas become to the which the ritual elder and the society order preconceived his before himself be. Antiquities by For Josephus followers. Jesus' do his (1: 3-4). while indeed someascensionstories have separationas their central event. This from the time the their off apprentice when apprentices dependency upon the leader and begins the process of becoming a fulfilled leader himself/herself.1 The Leader-Apprentice Type of Ascension Stories. weeping with one another. Take for instancethe dialogue between Hcrinotimus and Lycinus in Lucian. kingdom forty days...Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 109 3. bade by him bathed in followed Moses. " " by "for "speaking the to them of about apostles many proofs. tears. And they. Hermotimus.2. At this stageof the ritual process. Hennotimus. lecturing Lycinus on what the conditions one finds in heaven. expects " God. 7 (Loeb ClassicalLibrary).the ritual elder.gives the story of Heracles' ascensionas an example: Think of the story of Heracles when he was burned and deified on Mount Oeta: he threw off the mortal part of him that came from his mother and flew up to heaven. In fact. the where more emotive example. other ancient Jewish from his Moses' Moses community separation place more emphasison ascensionstories on in IV. "charging them" to responsibility completes after ascension what and initiands.they his hand.

the separation between Elijah and Elisha has his VVhile between Jesus the manner of ascent the apostles. a cloud of a sudden 106 in he disappeared him descendedupon a ravine.Elisha (in 2 Kngs. 2: 9-14) and the from jubilant their in Acts 1: 9-11) (here their separation on or pleased are not apostles leaders. 'O'A "chariot of fire and horsesof fire" plus a "whirlwind" which takes up Elijah into heaven (2 Kngs.the latter (chariot and horses)may also have beerL He disappearance be Elijah the that the of and sudden may comparedwith the visible whirlwind adds by horses dust-storm The is the created and chariots. 2: 11). for J. apprentice 106Josephus Antiquities IV. if there is one obvious example similar to Acts 1:9-11 where the ascension be the than leader-apprentice type has closer typical the can separation. by the apostleswhen Jesusascendedin Lk. Gray. In 2 Kngs. Acts In this reason stated) explicitly not aspect of apprentice. suggests and that since the former was a natural phenomena." Thesetwo men (or angelicbeings)reprovedthe Elevenwho were"gazing into heaven"andassuredthemof Jesus'return(Acts 1:10-11). a separation role their is by Elisha leader The text the to takes transformation represented of place. 24:50-51. 323-36 (Loeb Classical Library). 'There are two possible explanationsconcerning the relationship of Elijah's disappearance definite horses. 2:9-14. by "two the Jesus' the to to men the apostles there return of was need give an assurance why in white robes. nothing of account Elijah-Elisha tandem. It is a separationwhich conveysthe senseof loss primarily on the part of the is loss (although the 1: 9-11.unlike similar nature.the separationin both casesis a separationwhere the leaderspass on is the It transfonnation the leadership to their of where apprentices. 2: 12)" which 108 disappcarancc. other accompanying explanation an of progess A . and separation similarities with 107 is different the of between the two ascensionstories completely reception apprentices' . In the Elijah-Elishaparallel. Elisha cried out as he saw the "chariotsof Israel and its horsemen(2 Kngs. and However.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 110 Eleazar and Joshua and was yet communing with them. joy is in be departure To leader's the of reaction their moreprecise. Elijah's bchind wcrc probably Nevertheless. "whirlwind" the the the after chariot with article and example.

34) have 9: the the transfiguration parousia cf. and reminded of may Dan. is is in the What the this phrase use of ascensionaccount peculiar restoration-109 b 171aoý)qb 6vaX119ý0F-Iq6CO'bg@v. 2: 13). readers. Acts they Jesus' are commissioned when mantle" on 3. I and II Kings: A Commentary(London: SCM Press. 14243. we are inclined to seethat the character. (1) the restoration apostles' expectation of circumstances denied in Actsl: 7. Luke.group of the apostles. Parsons. With regardto the first and secondpoints. (Lk. the of attention circumstances which all had just been how Israel's include. we havealreadydiscussedat lengththe Israel's impact Jesus' to the on question apostles' and effect of negative response probable dko. been (Lk. Mark..2. implicitly "take .. 7: 13) and employed the elements as the "apocalyptic stage-props" to complete the historification of a native myth or cult legend.2 The Focus on the Apostles. (2 Kngs. 1977). In Parsons' comparative analysis of the vocabulary of Acts 1:9-11 with the gospelsof Matthew. Rather." The apostles.1.3. For finther discussion. the languageof the ascensionespeciallywith the phrase&ý bgCovin 1:11. in his design of the ascensionstory of Jesus.TheDeparture ofJesus in Luke-Acts. 109Sce my discussion"A Delayed Eschatology" in 3.1. pp. in 1: 7-8.2.1. 2: into then the two of mantle them up pieces" and rent had fallen from him (2 Kngs. pp. (2) the enormous responsibility of witnessing placed upon the apostles (1: 8).Estrada: From Followers To Leaders ill (or hold his Elisha "took departure. . We suggestthat the ascensionaccountin Acts doesnot specifically focus on the characterof Jesus. and (3).on the other hand. J. 472-77.considering These full draws the the transpired. Elijah's cloak) clothes that of own after states which Elijah He "took that 12a). 21: 27. 1: the to than there words are said other of vocabulary 110 He arguesthat Luke. and John. Gray. distinctively Lukan. he concludesthat with the fact is little be that the 11.seefor example. "OSecTable 16 of M.

9 "a cloud took him out of their sightý' indeed focus the the the of the narrative. For example. of apostles character makes 114 E. 419. someexamplesare the ascensionof Romulus into heavenin Ovid's Metamorphoses 14:805851 and Fast 2:481-509. was taken up into heavenand sat down at the right hand of God). 3 " bg& atteststo this.)v). however. .In other words. is being (or for Jesus taken that away any character matter) ascending However. being is phrase who b Djcoij. of story ascension 113 Combined with the earlier expressionin v. behind The left Jesus. Other ascension accounts use a different kind of expression. Heb. 16: gtv obv i6ptog reads: ascension passage ainCt." Parsons' study on the vocabulary of Acts 1:11 is closed. 4: 14.the verb &v(x%(xgP6vcois not combined with the prepositional phrase #' A)gCov. 3:22. Other than these "apocalyptic stage-props. e. Epistula Apostolorum 5 1. on other apostles. Despite the phrase"he parted from them (cCjyc6valycobq 5ttanj Mc' cciyv. dcvP-Xý4011etý 'c6v oi)pav6v ical kdOtau 'hjaoý)q 9F-'Ed T6 MckficrM tic 5cktCov'uoý)OC6 (So then the Lord Jesus. TheApoc?yphon ofJames 14-16.g. the in itself to language ascent either referring simply could get away with ascension towards heaven or any notion of entering heaven without any reference to whom the 114 from. that the combination of the verb form of 6cv(xX(xgp(ivu)and the prepositional phrase dcý! bg@v is a feature worth mentioning. Acts 1: 9-11. 24: 5 1.. TheMartyrdom and Ascension ofIsaiah 11:22-33. 1 Pet. 6: 19-20. 112 Consider the ascensionlanguagein Lk.112 Estrada: From Followers To Leaders "' scene. and the ascensionof Enoch in I Enoch 39: 1-14. words. We contend. In the hellenistic literature.after he had spokento them. 9:24. Fitzmyer. Also the non-canonicalaccountsin Acta Pilati 16:6. The way the ascension instead being focuses is by is the taken of told the apostles awayfrom on who narrator story 112 by dko. 60' b 6cva. the verb still modifies the characterof Jesusrather than that of the in is lies focus Jesus This the In the than the the case not on apostles. J. Barnabas 15:9. the in 19 0 Mk. the pain in the involves language the leader) between the the the ascension and apprentice separation "'Cf. when emphasisis placed on the "pains" of separation(i. What we find in this text is that in referring to the ascension. " Ascension and Pentecostý"p. %ijgýOcl.

Are the similarities between the two accounts (Acts 1:9-11 and 2 Kngs. falls leader. 24:53). 112. 30-3 1. the apostlesare reported to have returnedto Jerusalemin an attitudeof "greatjoy" after Jesushas ascended(Lk. 1746. Johnson. M. 2:9-14) coincidental? Do we have any reason to believe that the author of Luke-Acts was influenced by the Elijah-Elisha tradition? Modem scholars believe that there was indeed a degreeof influence upon the author of Luke-Acts. g.%(xgpav6gF-vovdcn6 aoý). In fact.however. L.pp.the assurance of Jesus'return from the "two men in Jesus has departed "gazing the comes right after apostles were at the robes" and while white is 1: 1011). Brodie. that the focus of the apostles. we would like to extend the observation that.TheDeparture ofJesus in Luke-Acts. 140." in Luke-Acts: New Perspectives. L. Acts ofthe Apostles. 2:9-14. . Again. the than the on apprentice rather on ascending separation This is also one of the main differences between the ascensionstories of Lk. In Lk. B.Acts ofthe Apostles. T. 24. we refer to the example between Elijah and Elisha phrase prepositional in 2 Kngs. In the Acts version.and.pp. p. Parsons. Witherington. the same expressionis employed in the LXX: dcva. "Greco-Roman Imitation of Texts as a Partial Guide to Luke's Use of Sources. indication (Acts There that the apostleswere in a festive mood because no sky" of Jesus'exaltation. 24:5053 and Acts 1:9-11. given this striking similarity of the phraseswe have just mentioned. 115E.p.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 113 dcq bgCov.115However. T. Jesus' departure did not necessitatethe presenceof divine messengersand the messageof assuranceto the apostles. the author of Luke-Acts may have also wanted to express and extend two lessons from the separationaccount between Elijah and Elisha to the separationstory between Jesusand his lessons These two are the "pains" involved in separation.

1. The pains of separationand the focus on the apprenticeare supportedby the need to give a in leads function from divine This the two to the men of us messengers.7. pp. In fact.Y. and cases. " in Bib 67 (1986). "New TestamentCommissionForms Especially in Luke-Acts.But is the act of "gazingat the sky" a form of protest? We do (or looking first dvccviýco denotes In the the the action of place. Mullins' premise in stating that 1:11 functions as a in "gazing is He the that the at sky" stood apostles states when reassurance quite unclear.. p. suggest not to part on at all "Towards Unravelling the Rhetorical Imitation of Sourcesin Acts: 2 Kngs. in any case. Thus. ' 16 function He the of this element as. the reassurancefrom the two men in white robes functions to disposeof any remaining resistanceto the commission being givento the apostles. 609. for Mullins. be before to the the some commission reassurancemay placed commissioned Usuallythe (see 19c.3 The Function of the Assurance by the Two Men in White Robes. look to gaze. committed is the commissioner's agent." p. in Luke 5: 10b Matt. soothing assurance in 1011.Y. sees accounts.940.1. word simply not think so. commissioning to dispose of any remaining resistance. there are no emotive expressions functions We that the the therefore the assurance of apostles. Mullins. After the reassurance.the person .3. 1:9-10 is an indication of protest or resistance. 50 of this thesis. is there also no of a note apostles not one with form that the apostles exerted any of protest or resistanceto the commission clear evidence (an issuewe have also discussedin detail earlier). 117T.2. to stare). the protest has to precedethe reassurance.as protest will be absent where the reassurancecomes early. Mullins reads Acts 1:11 as a "Reassurance. to indeed the separationbetween Jesus and the is in indications joyful (as 24: 52-53). Lk. "917ourteentimes in the NT. 28: 10a.' 17 18 As we have argued earlier' . 21a). Acts 1: white robes " one of the major forms in T. Since the person to be commissionedmay become committed as the agent even before knowing what he is to be in do.. 41-67. two in Paul's letters. 116 SeeTable 1. . ten in Acts. "'See my discussionunder "No Form of Protest" in 3.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 114 3. 5 as One componentof Acts 8. 119 Mile intently.4. John 20: also.

also of assurance on context story going Luke-Acts. See M. Lk. 24: 1-9 tells us about the discovering After body Jesus to the tomb to the with spices. is the the he to of messengers same author uses that going resurrect Acts 1:11. The Departure function. 122 SeeSection 2.1. On the narrative level. Jesus' in dazzling them "two promise of apparel" appear and remind men after which the in (24: When type 7). what uncertainty. . of any resistance 121 implication of resistanceand reluctanceto the fact of separation Our suggestion" is further supportedby the similarities of the characterswho gave in 1011 here 1: Acts Jesus' to the with the characterswho return the assurance apostlesof disappearance in 24: 1 Lk. SeePlutarch's Romulus. For that the to of the ascension example." ISBE. Ascension. 1. First it intends to tell the readersthat the assurance 12OScholars suggesta theological level. Acts is the the to transpire. suggests parousia of prelude focused on the Parousiaof Jesus. 24:52-53. the the tomb to the women at also gave assurances -11 concerning dazzling in "two 1: 11 in Acts the The "two body. p. it is implied that the separation between the apostles and Jesus is tainted with an element of reluctance or dispose functions to Mullins Unlike that the reassurance was suggesting.mission. Parsons. becausean assuranceis given. also ofJesus an "'A meaning in contrastwith the way the apostlesleft the ascensionscenein jubilation as in Lk. in immediate p. two intentions are possible. However. functions to the that give an to the say assurance we commission. In other words. C. to characters assurances give almost responsibilities of apparel" in the narrative who are in a state of perplexity or uncertainty. and Parousiaare essentiallyrelated.27:7-8. of prepare women who went 4) (Lk.115 Estrada: From Followers To Leaders disposeof any resistancebut on a different level. We propose two: the narrative and social120 scientificlevels. men and men white robes" of of Jesus' to identical have 24: 4 Lk. the assuranceservesto heighten the intensity of separation between the apostlesand Jesus. More so with the story of Romulus' ascensionwhere the multitude rejoiced and learned his heaven have from Romulus to they transformed of ascent and when was good worshipped king to a benevolent god. 144..4. This is the level where the assurancefunctions as a is Acts I Holwerda Jesus.. 24: "perplexed" body the that the women were that the narrator says was missing. "Ascension. 311. This suggestionmay be acceptablethat is if one looks forward to how the has immediate 1: 9-11.

The purpose is to provide authenticationto the testimony being given. as there was the response of have had in by 24. 124 The assuranceof Jesus'return gives us a fresh insight on the significance of the apostles' role as interim leaders. The tells the Acts with the apostles as mention of "wilderness " 'Mis the wilderness motif representsnot only apostles' experience. The separationaspectin the rituals of statustransformation has clearly been experiencedby days" Jesus in "forty initiands 1: 3-11.Romulus continuesto legislate even as he rises to join the gods (Ovid's Metamophoses14:805-851. Marshall. Luke.no assuranceof the leader's return is given. Cf I H. From a social-scientific level. Lk. 885. That is why we find someof thesecharactersattempt to continue their role as leaderseven after their ascension or at the stageof their ascentto heaven. 24 was fiilfilled. In other ascensionstories. 123 The number of the messengersbeing two is. be to going Second. eschatological 3.2 Summary. from a ritual perspective. we can also argue that. the the the same apostles might women or confusion perplexity for deliberate it departure the Jesus' the the to which apostles muting of were not response Acts 2: 46. is in 1: 10Jesus' here Acts 11 two the also concerning return the assuranceof messengers " fulfilled. that is. Philo's description of Moses' ascensionshowshow Moses continuesto prophesy even as he ascendsto heaven(Life qfMoses 2: 291). out until carried author 2. . Jesuswas indeed resurrected. the assuranceof Jesus' return does not completely transfer Jesus' "mantle" to the apostles. p. Suggestedto be traditional. Ovid's Fasti 2:481-509). to turn completely rule come will a superior who and commissioned 124 Israel. In other words. temporary the until the or apostles' as of role role prophetic on Jesusreturns and resumeshis role. It also. They will serve as leaders. the other reliable. The assuranceof Jesus' return supports our thesis that the apostles' leadership is that of a mediator-broker. For example. unlike Elisha who has fully taken is interim leaders Elijah. of readers the testing and trials of those who pass. appointed in in the by leader. messengers of by the two divine messengersin Lk.through it.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 116 because is in In Acts 1: 11 the messageof assurance words. cf.

4: 1). in but their the their only are responsibility. in this section. First.the transformation of the initiands who are leaving an old statusand taking on a new one. They are under orders to return to Jerusalemand move to another in had Just Jesus the their transformation.their ritual elder. the author has been consistent in keeping the apostles from expressing any form of protest. travelledaloneinto the process of status as stage wilderness and faced the stageof his ritual confrontation (Lk. we have seen the apostles' separationin the highest order. we demonstrated what happens with the initiands during their separation from society. apostles with regard to the moulding process. the aspect of obedience by the initiands to the ritual elder is displayed by the author through the apparent non-reaction of the apostles to what is supposedlya sudden changeof plan concerning Israel's restoration. In this chapter. at the outset.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 117 involves the aspect of transformation . Thirdly. This is shownby Jesus'correctionof the apostles'view on the restorationof the kingdomto Israel (1:6-7). either to the delay. the apostlestravel back to Jerusalemby themselvesand face their own version of ritual confrontation (Acts 1:1226). Second. . aggregated Finally. changed preconceived is obedience also tested. the author legitimises the Eleven as the ones chosen by Jesus. Jesus. inside the of parousia or news any views at all until they complete the ritual and are into the society (2: 14. In fact. establishesthe reasons why the initiands the are rightful who will go through the transformation process. bids farewell to his apostles leaving them with such an important Not initiands ideas. the initiands are stripped of their preconceivedideas.47). This legitimisation is crucial as it.

. behind be the the the of most especially purpose of enumeration of names seen can in the way the narrator subtly contrasts them with the other disciple groups in the upper is in Finally. Phase one is 1:12-14 while phase two is the in features 1: 15-26. This stage of testing is what we would identify as the ritual confrontation." p. we will attempt to show that the author is indirectly appealing to the clientele of the other disciple groups in the upper room by portraying the Eleven 'Cf. And it is at this lowest level that the initiands experience their severe testing. ChapterFive of this thesis. As the apostles return to Jerusalem. This Eleven. a journey usually led by Jesuswhen he was still with them. the apostles' version of separation is not only seen in the event of Jesus' ascensionbut is accentuatedin the scenewhere the Eleven have to return to Jerusalemby themselvesin Acts 1:12f. 95. the is full liminality the the and communitas of and aggregation) expression of commissioning ' the Eleven apostles. As have (1: 13-14). In between these events (i." Secondis the communitas among the initiands.we find two phases. 2V.. TheRitual Process.p. "Liminality in the Wildemess. This is the transition stage. the apostles have not gained any leadership status until their aggregation in 2: 1-4. Despite being commissioned by Jesus in 1:7-8. the apostles experiencethe samewith Jesus(Acts 1:9-11). 4: 1-3). Tumer. This is exactly what Turner has described as the initiand's status of 2" This stage of between. may temporal setting of the "upper room. transition is found in the narrative of Acts 1:12-26. there the author's networking strategy. PLCohn. However. In this transition stage.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 118 SECOND STAGE: TRANSITION Chapter Four Just as Jesuswas separatedfrom John the Baptist. a stage where the initiands experience the lowest level in their liminal status. e. 10. his ritual elder (Lk.they enter a new stage in the rituals of status transfonnation. here " is being "betwixt and a status that "neither nor there. narrative phase election by is initiands' be First from the spatial and the seclusion society represented seen. distinctive In the three ritual process of one. we stated the room introduction of this thesis.

YheActs of the Apostles. is in Lk.1 The Ritual Elements in Acts 1: 12-14.namely (1: 14). After the final separation of the initiands from their ritual elder. 50 Olivet the the to as place of and spend night.1. therefore. after teaching in the day time. Jesus went to the during his public ministry. 19:20.we find the whole have indicated. 2:22-51). we will first deal with the before moving to the ritual process. Acts 1: 12f). Antiquities 20: 169. 4. The return of the initiands into Jerusalem commenced from the mountain called Olivet (Acts 1: 12). 4). besidesthe report of the infancy stories which finds the infant Jesusin Jerusalem(cf. in believers. Lk. L. elements ritual 4. locates Bethany 24: lodge Lk. Mt. which we will expound later. The samegoeswith the gospel of John in 11:18. we Eleven between in RST Jesus' the that the apostles of with ritual elements another parallel (cf. we main ritual setting as in is defence "court in 1: 16-20 Peter's the the that of to apostles' speech argue attempt 3 attendedby the rest of the one hundred and twenty people (cf. As for the secondphase. and of reputable as sincerity We begin with the first phase . The Jesus' in Jerusalem obedience to significant ritual elements this phase are the city of Jerusalem.1 The City of Jerusalem: The Centre of Leadership. As initands' the we will also confrontation. 1:15) who serve reputation'. mount same 5 have. Jerusalemservesas the place where both Jesusand the apostlesfind the fulfilment of their leadershiproles.Acts 1:12-14. Again. 3A phrasefrom David de Silva's YheHope of Glory. T.the election narrative in Acts 1:15-26 . P-33. .the upper room. (p. In Lk. we can see initiated in order to blot out Judas' association with them and show their innocence and incoming leaders Christian trustworthy the community.119 Estrada: From Followers To Leaders family disciples Jesus' having the them and women unanimity with apostles as . 19:29 is Olivet What be Jesus' ascensionwhich said to near . jury this ritual the the of community of as have Matthias the the apostles as a measurewhich election of confrontation. 4Thatis.this seemsto be in contrary with how Josephuslocates Olivet as nowhere near Bethany. the women disciples. sHowever. Olivet is the same setting when Jesus first entered Jerusalem 4 In Lk. Johnson. in behalf Furthermore. and Mary with Jesus' brothers. the initiands head for in directives (Acts 1: 4). 21: 37.

Chance. 7Seealso the studiesof I. finds its centre at Jerusalemand the temple. Jesus' final encounter with the whole people of Israel. is dressed luxuriously Herod's It lived the court are at rich who away example. social periphery. directions. The Temple. B. and D. The contrast not a e. which announces the coming of God's eschatological salvation.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 120 The significance of the city of Jerusalemas a ritual element. is again best explained from a social-scientific perspective. J. p. especially when he describesthe world of the villages (the periphery) and that of the rich 8 elite (the centre). L. economic. Chance their proposes: receive Luke focused the attention of the reader on the vicinities of Jerusalem and the temple in a number of places in Luke-Acts.Messiah Jesusis enthroned in the heavenly sphere. ruled by the twelve apostles. Rather. 151-179. The birth narrative." pp. Luke portrays Israel as restored at Jerusalem. by the elite. It can be describedprimarily by emphasisingthe social gap between centre and differences between These the city affect all areasof and rural villages. in The Social World of Luke-Acts. Herod Antipas.L.and The Salvation of1srael. Rohrbaugh.those destined to rule Israel in conjunction with the reign of the Messiah. is just i. . for instance."The Pre-Industrial City in Luke-Acts: Urban Social Relations. Periphery and centre are described as culturally miles apart. Oakman. and religious centre-periphery power. Rohrbaugh. E. 84. the hopý that indeed the apostles have been transformed into reliable leadersof the people can be defined in part by understanding Jerusalemas the "centre" within the "centre-periphery" discussion."The Countryside in Luke-Acts. For (7: 25).6 The significance of Jerusalem is crucial to the understanding of the social structures in Luke-Acts. interferes with Jesuswho comes from marginal 6J.Jerusalem. 8R. The centre-peripherycontrast is clearly seen in the parables and narrative of Luke. Jerusalemis the centre is It the place where its leaders exercise their rule. Near the environs of Jerusalem.7 background to a religious main theme in Luke-Acts. . 12932. 125-49. confronting them with the messageof God's eschatologicalsalvation happensat the temple." pp. a community of the eschatological Spirit. and those in the periphery of power. B. Finally. especially in relation to the leadership role into which the initiands are being transformed.. interfere in in the periphery that problems the those those centre or cross paths with when include The the picture of oppressionand the taking advantageof the problems often arise. political." pp."The Pre-Industrial City in Luke-Acts: Urban Social Relations. these two themes are totally integrated in the narrative. In particular.

170-71).g. As early as the Yd century B. The centurion representsthe outside military and administrative power.9 In reference to Moxnes' model of patron-client relations. periphery brokers. p. trans. Their disregard for the needsof the poor accentuatesthe inequality of the patron-client relations The neglect of moral considerationsin favour of popularity and money has been one of the downside marks of patronagein the Roman society. section deals with the topic of patrons.suggestingthe patron's image as defenderof the poor. Bowden. A. This is how the rich are depicted. In Luke's time. C. "Patronus. and Jerusalemas the place and ruled rulers of the passionof Jesus(pp. 16:19) and their sumptuous feasting and drinking (Lk. The readers know the rich to be evil while Lazarusis the righteous one. pp. Fabricius took the A. Wallace-Hadrill recalls how the play of . Another of this kind is the parable of the rich man and Lazarus in 16:19-31. C. he discussesthe centreissue first The three under main sections. (Oxford: ClarendonPress. picture of are rich and negative their luxurious clothes (Lk. 1998). The discussionsinclude the social and ecological tensionsbetweenthe city and country (pp. The centurion himself is a non-Jew but apparently was able to in himself the role of a patron. The threat to destroy Jesusis seenin the various accountsof 3: 19-20. A patron has been known to be torn between having many poor clients . the rich are not just an economic categorybut a name for ' 1 membersof the elite. the religious characterof Galilee (pp. 178-80).securingthe patron's financial and social welfare. 162-84. remote village. The encounter with Jesusby the centurion was establish by have friends the the town possible recommendations made of elders and who may benefactions the to the town. patronage general patronage conquered over whereby descendants. Theissenand A. 7:25. evidenceis found have This Roman the generals assumed a people.. We know that the beggar Lazarus eventually was rewarded while the rich man endedin Hades. 1970). how He the concept of patronagehelps one to understandthe argues clients. 12:19. 16:19).. (London: SCM Press. againstthe few but rich clients . Merz. social and economic tensionsbetweenthe rich and poor (pp. the patronage of Pompey was felt all over the empire as he raised three legions of clients in Picenurn. C. 79 1. a province conqueredby Claudius Marcellu in 2 10 B. social and political tensionsbetween (pp. The second section deals with a common issue in patron-client relations . "The Rich Fool" 12:16-21). how C. "They are selfish and ungenerous(e. The centurion servesas patron to the centurion's recognised 10 he being in someway a representativeof the centre to the periphery. and story of the centurion in Capernauniwho made contact with Jesusthrough the "elders of the Jews" and a group of "friends" (7: 1-10).while his son Sextusgets help in Spain and Asia from the clients of his family. Theissenand Merz attempt to explain the various sociological issuesJesushad to contendwith in the context of his environment and society.. In 83 B. 9:7-9. The Historical Jesus:A ComprehensiveGuide. 176-78). Momigliarno. 2nded. is in They the the the terms." in the oxford Classical Dictionary. 13:31-33. J.. 9A detailed discussionon the tensionsbetweenthe city and its peripheriescan be found in G. In this story. while the Claudii Marcelli undertook to superviseafter the interestsof the province of Sicily. Mogmiliano transmitted to their and extended recounts even Sainnitesas his clients. there is really no surprise at all. 10Thepicture of military officials serving as patrons over peoples of localities under their jurisdiction is common in the Roman empire. 173-76).Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 121 the periphery. 171-73). In this guide.the rich for For known Luke. poor.

4.2 The Upper Room: The Setting of the Transition Stage. Any goods that are gained in a closed system are in is It their own trust that those the persons also a sign of others. 257. B. God" (Lk. expense gained at devices and do not trust in God's care. 12 D. Fowler. play place where as people. Host. don't bother the They lots to they're or good men ask whether of clients. how in 24: 53 Lk. with leaders the 6. and one the best people follow most! Everyone last bad. p. A. good nothing. Guest. For example. "Patron-Client relations and the New Community. 7: "justify but the toll collectors of The expectedrole of religious leadershas not been met. negative the image of "limited good. It deals with the leaders of the This in belong Jerusalem the Israel the the society. If he's poor and no he's for if he's held he's treated as a solid client. 64. Acts as the is return apostles this executed Plautus' Menaechmi (571fl) portrays Menaechmus'complaint of being trapped into the patronal system What a stupid.. is depicted by Lk. 18:9). Host. and how dependablehe is. the people Israel suffer "negative patronage. Guest. Wallace-Hadrill." "Not only is there little positive contact between the have leaders but their in community own the urban centres and peripheries.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 122 More relevant to our thesis is the third section.1." p. Fowler. . On the contrary. Notice that Jesus tells the parable of the Pharisee and the Toll Collector to those "who trusted themselves" (Lk. Moxnes. trust the the categories: accepted reverse contrasts vividly 13 29).Enemy and FHend: Portraits of the Pharisees in Luke and Acts." p. Eleven instructions between Jesus' the to discrepancy and There is a slight temple to the directs to 24: 53 in 1: 13. 14 H. Such in Pharisees themselves. elite of with rich who priests people of but they have known to to also and wealth numerous resources access only not group are function as brokers to the clients' accessto the temple and the Torah. function the important.Enemy andFriend: Portraits ofthePharisees in Luke andActs. 13 D. even elites 14 leadership the is the . The of to reliable as apostles are apostles zzrv&very the leaders is their as new Jerusalem And apostles the role. leadersare to faithfully executetheir responsibilities. image to when read within an understandingof according accentuated. "Patronagein Roman Society: From Republic to Empire. rogue. wants thing that counts is the reliability of the client. Lk. This 'negative of forces joined the where precisely patrons. The status-maintenance orientation in a closed system of limited good society brands such persons as thieves. 21. irritating practice we have. B. 21. "lovers Pharisees the the author as of money" picture of is Fowler."12 Fowler arguesthat. p. the This in 16: 14. a rich rogue.

p.1. the mother of John Mark (Acts 12:12). the define the the "limbo" status of the apostles. 213. "Martyrdom of Polycarp 7: 1. for example.16 Later the gathering room) against which traditions depict this room as being in the house of Mary. who exactly are the yuvoctict.and for placesof prayer.3 The Women in the Upper Room. in 1:14.for studies. TheActs ofthe Apostles. said to be together (bgo0ugoc56v)with the Eleven? The first question will be addressedhere in the in be the ritual process the section while elements second reserved question will ritual section.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 123 bxF-pCqov" in (upper is indicated in Acts 1-2. In other words. The upper room sets the place and time where the Eleven will have to defend themselves in the court of public opinion representedby a jury brethren like 120 (Acts 1: 15-26). There are two questions we need to answer in relation to the function of the yuvatKt. just as the wilderness revealed Jesus' statuslessnessduring his stage of transition. . First. Acts 1:15 takes place in a room large enough for Peter to rise in the midst of "about 120 persons. 20:8. The upper of upper room suitably confines further the portrays seclusionof the initiands from the society.by the ordinary rule of narration. the upper room is also the place and time of purging . ." The place seems.the place where the initiands are to be tried for (as we have proposed) a moral accusationin line with their association with the betrayer Judas.? Second. to be the same place spoken of in the two preceding verses (1: 13-14) as the dwelling-place for the Twelve. room symbolically Furthermore. we find the symbolism of the upper room more important than its allegedphysical size and structure. 16j Fitzmyer. Mary and the brothers.17 Quesnell'ssuggestionis attractive." However. of somewhat 4. 9:37.He states. In the Martyrdom ofPolycarp. why are the yuvcxtict.39. the women.we fmd this type of room as being used for gatherings. We suggest that the upper room provides the perfect setting and definition of the initiands' liminality-communitas and ritual confi7ontation. 150nlyoccurs in Acts 1:13.

2'Quotedfrom C. If it were ywoukiv (i. probableto assumethattheredactionof codexD waswith theintentionof wantinghis readersto indeed had "the it known to the the that apostles' phrase mean wives" since apostles was understand Christianity Early According 27. He adds that the intention was to subliminate.TheActsofthe Apostles. to this to the point one.. community. Most of the exegeteswe have mentioned recognisethe stronger probability that cr6v yuvattiv in 1: 14. 2"Forpurelylinguisticreasons. to the p. wives.TheActsofthe Apostles. Jesus' Lk.p.thatthe authorwishesto describethe compositionof thepeoplein theupperroomas"the holy fwnily in the earliest " G.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 124 in Acts 1: 14 as the Women Disciples. Johnson. K.thentheyshouldhave beenalwaysdefmedmorecloselyastheyarefoundin Lk. might refer to the wives of the apostles is primarily supported by the reading in codex D which renders the whole phrase as cri)v yuvoctkiv 1C(A '[P-1cv6ti. Udemannbelievesthat if thephrasemeantthewomendisciples. that the the women witnesses of resurrection account of "Q. L. 19 However.Early ChristianityAccordingto the TraditionsinActs: A Commentary." TheWomenat Luke's Supper.TheActsof theApostles. the well women. The options are either the "wives of the apostles " or the "women disciples" of Jesus.n. 10:38-42.39. Lildemann. it mighthavebeen that also adds .asUdemannconcludes. Barrett. 62. .this only goeson Furthermore. 23 . 4. 22B. Uldemann. on the other hand. 113. 27. yuvatkiv ai)v yvwxtkiv Or. Udemann.1.This is so evenwithoutthe evidence from codexD. anti-feminist reading of the Western texts similar to the tradition of Acts 17-18. Furthermore.p.1 1PUVat1Ctq There is still contention as to how to understand the phrase a-bv yuvo: tkiv in 1: 14. 24:10. 23CK. 20L. icoft micvotq is regarded as an is from three perspectives. " p. in thebook after 1:14.3. eliminate. not mentioned any reference of wives narrator Acts the with which readers of can associate the yuvatKtý women about of 1: 14 is the fact in 24.WitheringtonIII. up refers of has The to the the nearest reference apostles." 24 known for "with .23:49. 19Cf. TheActsofthe Apostles. crbv rcct. G.p.p. even without the addition of Kcft TF_1CVcFtq) Etcrtv. p.becausetheyareno longermentionedelsewhere to showthat all the authorwantedwasto "checkoff' thethemeof the"womenfrom Galilee"for the sakeof completingthescene. 89. or change the roles women played in the 22 Barrett. 8:2f. 89. e. 27.Uldemann. Barrett.Early ChristianityAccordingto the Traditionsin Acts. the "women disciples" For Jesus. Johnson sees it as a "domestic explained addition and 20 touch" on the part of the editor .55.G.GerdLlidemannseesthe absence of the Greekarticlebefore y-ovocitivasindicatinga referenceto the"wives" of the disciples. T. Conzelmann simply takes it to be a failure to recognise 21 list is list Witherington believes it to be another example of the that the a of witnesses. 34. The possibility that yuxxtict.T. is "with their wives. then the reading will be "with certain women. Quesnell. argues that the natural way to read the phrase cylbv early church. Traditions In Acts. C'together with the women and children").p.This alsomeans..

23:49) were probably the samewho preparedJesusfor his burial (Lk. Newman and E. 15:40. Two instances in the gospel of Luke are said to fit the women's description.Witherington III. B. Womenin the Ministry ofJesus. 11. Lk. 23:55-56). Mt. PerhapsMary was included within the group of the women. . rCi-1. 1984).some of high position?Acts ofthe Apostles. Luke the empty tomb does not mention the names of the women who were present at Jesus' crucifixion. Despite the silence of the author there have been attempts to identify these women disciples in 1: 14. One is the "women followers" of Jesus in Lk. 2'Haenchenadds that the crlbvywattiv refers to "the well-to-do followers of Jesus. are Joanna the wife of Chuza (who happens to be Herod's steward) and Suzanna. Fitzmyer would include in this group the women who discovered 30 (Lk. Also mentioned to have followed Jesus [with the exceptional description of having "provided for them out of their means" 28 (oct. )] )V CCj).n(XpX0VCC. 29K. and in any caseLuke elsewhere. Newman and Nida seesome difficulty in translating the function of the conjunction icoft in *%L p h"e bgoO-ogcc56v a-bv Efi nPoat y-ova41vi=1 Mapidcg Tfi gil-zpl wiý 171aoý. A Translator's Handbook on. p. 30J. Acts ofthe Apostles. 120. 24: 2-9). TheBeginnings of Christianity.They suggestthat. 26B. 19:25. and Jn.3.Lake and H.25 4.Witherington III. It is difficult to define precisely the relationship betweenMary the mother of Jesus.Womenin the Ministry ofJesus. 31B. 117. 8: 1-3 is Lukan material since these women followers do not appear to have been derived from the same tradition as that in Mk.26 By description. In contrast with Mk. p. The is logical list invites his that the the to explanation of women author most readers recall in 8: 1-3. p. p.p.as in the nativity narratives.01 the to their planned out mentioned reader out names 25B. 215. find 24: 10. 113.Fitzrnyer. Ctve 5tilic6vow abccýt.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 125 Mary is certainly not a wife of any of the men in the upper room supports the suggestion that the yuvatictq refers to the women disciples of Jesus. 27:55.lets his high regard for Mary be known. and second is the "women at the cross" in Lk. 27 Her popularity may have been due to her "bio-data" and portfolio of having been delivered by Jesus from seven demons (cf.2 The Identity of the Women Disciples. Witherington 111.YheActs ofthe Apostles. 2713. J. YheActs ofthe Apostles. Nida. p.Witherington III. LIC C(BVj). Womenin the Ministry ofJesus: A Study ofJesus'Attitude to Women and TheirRoles as Reflectedin His EarthlyLifie (Cambridge: CUP. '29 The women at the cross (Lk. Cadbury. but becauseof her unique relationship to the Lord shewas given specific mention. pp.and the women spokenof though it is very unlikely that the women should be understoodas the men involved. 8:2). 23. 154. "or for in Lk. Lk. 8: 1-3. 15:41. 23: 49.p. 116-17.1. these women disciples were probably like the male followers who may have given up their home and family to follow Jesus. Mary Magadalene is one who is most likely to fit such a description.

of the achieved who werementioned lija6 before is M(xptcig Koft 'Ecig uaB gqrpl rfi yuvcxtýlv iccxl placed a-bv which %Wt. Nevertheless. divorce Mary from either the women or from Jesus' brothers. makes the second =1 would make Mary stand on her own since the conjunction would also %06t'qabco'u. or even the "other women" in 24: 10 and the acquaintances(YVOcFWt) Reumannis correct to say that Luke's failure to mention Mary in the said eventsmeanshe finds her Jesus' family) insignificant.1. herself.T6 (together with women and Mary the mother of Jesus and his brothers). y-uwxtict.the women. . In if is is than the other words.p.4 Mary and Jesus' Brothers. minuscules. Mary and Jesus' brothers should be seenas distinct from by function is before distinction the This Eleven them.their distinctionis not from eachotherbut againstthe Eleven. her associationwith the rct. D. the samegroup. Metzger. dc5exo6i.Mary in the New that the of at crucifixion even presence Testament. Jesus' If this is so.23: 55. Reumann. in 23:49. We will do our discussion on the ftmction of these characterswithin the apostles' RST in the ritual processsection. Yetý 23:49.284-85. n.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 126 4. 393.was among the women mentioned in Lk. TCGNT. a scribal other and and auVr which was omitted 33To put it moreplainly. Y. ai). This argumentis supportedby Metzgerwho proposedthat the second dc5F-. 173. Again. 33j3. There are discussionson whether the first ic(A distinguishesMary from the group 32 her family. While it is true that Mary is named after the women were mentioned. is by S Codices A. a woman iou clearer with even she ab.pp. then the representativeof of the yuvatkiv and thus. we will attempt to clearly group mentioned define the characterof Mary and Jesus' brothers here in the ritual elementssection.1. the mother of Jesus. (or J. . 4. The fact that the women and Jesus'family are especiallymentionedby the author (despitethe other 321tis speculatedthat Mary. E. B. The truth is. the two instancesof iccxtdo not distinguish her from cCt. abcou.5 Mary and Jesus' Brothers as a Single Group. while the womenand Jesus'family were clearly not of addition. etc. There is a certain degreeof literary continuity betweenthe group of women and the family of Jesus. Mary belongs to the party of Jesus' family rather than that of the women.C3.ccEq dc&-%ýCt. The exact phrase in Acts 1:14 is abv yL)vcxtk1vic(A Mccpldg rfi gllcpj Toý)JTI(yojý1cCXJ . &5F-. The samequestionswhich we have raised about the women disciples also apply to the other having as unity with the Eleven in 1:14.

127 Estrada: From Followers To Leaders in the disciple their roles present and upcoming significant underlines groups) probable events. the and of the character and Jerusalem. the spatial and upper room serves as proposed that the but the initiands from of of purging the phase the also further seclusion of society. We suggestedthat the women are most likely the women followers of Jesus as Mary We that the the that they suggested also apostles.Jude and the Relatives ofJesus (Edinburgh: T&T Clark. one should name since mention of 35 NT evidence concerning what is said about May and what is said about Jesus' brothers. "Jesus' synonymous and an alternative with the title 4. 1990). T. are wives of against the other notion family be than brothers to separate characters. of the expression utter experience where In the upper room is also the time where the initiands continue to bond together. ainou is to be viewed as a unit or is in brothers" Jesus' "Mary this context and group rather than as two separate characters. 173. Rather. We addedthat the upper room representsthe phase initiands the the statuslessness.. .p. their will executing as new apostles the of temporal only not the setting. We stated that Jerusalemsymbolically stands for the centre of power where the We before duties their be leaders constituents. 35j Reumann. p. as this section has consistently referred to. 36 family. In other words. women brothers. 34. pp.2 Summary. 5-19. the naming of Mary in this specific event does not necessarily mean that she is a character on her own. These 1: of city are transition elements ritual the stage of phase of Jesus' Mary disciples.. disciple is fully the groups who were other Their communitas seen when contrasted with family. .Mary in the New Testament. initiands undergoing the ritual process. 36For ftirther discussionon the sterotypedexpressionof Jesus'"mother and brothers." seeK Bauckharn. While it is true that first is by Luke's in is this that the name. the upper room. This takes us to an important note that needsto be reiterated. Jesus' disciples disciple These the and women groups are with them.Acts ofthe Apostles. first in the discussed have the What we significant ritual elements under this chapter are the Acts 12-14. Johnson. and there characters mentioning significance 34 in be Infancy Mary's the assessing careful narratives. Jesus' as group rather as a understood are and 34L. the phrase M(xPtdcg 'cfi gilEpt c6 lijaoý) mA cCiq 6c8F-XWt.

see study of ritual process will our chapter in function initiands' the ongoing rituals of statustransformation. portrayal of exemplary unanimity The apostlesas initiands enter the transition stagewith these ritual elements.a strategyexpressed apostlessets in between these groups the upper room. they the the next shape status elements will in how We is these the this transition stage. These into intiands have been destined The help to.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 128 We also proposedthat the presenceof thesetwo groups with the group of the Eleven his for through the the stage author's networking strategy. ritual elements .

This stage of transition has two phases. Historical methods have so far failed to submit a convincing reasonas to why the author placed 1:12-14 between the Ascension and . In this discuss how leadership in the the also will author apostles' succeeds promoting phase. and the election of excommunication of Judas' replacement(1:21-26). phase from Judas the membership of the Twelve (1: 16-20).the need to elect anotherapostlein place of Judas(1: 15-26). confrontation. 4: 1-13). This ritual confrontation is the election narrative of 1:15-26. we into by We Christian tapping the the social will argue that network community. of status behind the author's report of unanimity between the apostlesand the women disciples and Jesus' family in the upper room (1: 14) is an appeal to win support from the various disciple these of groups. we will show how the unanimity between the clienteles tb Eleven and the women disciples and Jesus' family is crucial to what is aboutAakeplace in the upper room . the second in is highlighted It by the apostles' defence of their honour. And just as Jesus' stageof transition is the time when he experienced his full state of liminality (Lk. the transition the stage. Finally. The first is the same experience found in 1:12-14. We begin this chapter with a survey on how NT scholarship presently understands the function of 1:12-14 in the narrative of Acts 1-2. This phaseshows how the apostlesas initiands go through liminality and is This also the stage when the intiands prepare themselves for the ritual communitas. (Acts 1:12-26). We designatedActs 1:12-26 as the stageof transition in our study of the apostles' rituals of statustransformation. the apostles in the setting of the upper room.1 The Ritual Process in Acts 1:12-14. This chapter is the study of the first phase in the transition stage (1: 12-14).Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 129 Chapter Five 5.

Witherington III. the the election pp. 220-31. characterises which 2B. This.212. Barrett's observations) "the vast majority of the material in 1:1-14 is mentioned in some forni in Luke 24 or earlier . 15:36-19:40. from Acts the the this structure of program.He proposed this headingwith the admissionthat the whole structure of Acts is indeed difficult to determine. . reprinted inNouvelles etudes. However. "La question du plan desActes desApostres a la lumiere d'un texte de Lucien de Samosate. Following the suggestionthat its structure can be detectedfrom the programmatic verse of 1:8. Fitzinyer does not explain what is this "important matter" first the whole chapterof Acts. K. Dupont's division has completely disregardedthe first chapterof Acts.24-36). " J.and then to the layout (p. in The Acts 1: 15-26. he decides that 1:12-14 should be part of the prologue of the whole book since (following C. Acts I is the story of how the first Christian community began."' For Ben Witherington2. We suggestedthat our investigation through the model of RST presentsa plausible solution to this exegeticalproblem. He also does not discusshow all theseeventsare related Apostles.1: 12-14 is also an episodeon its own. For Fitzinyer. 'Fitzmyer doesnot fully explain how the previous events[i.. J. p.1 The Function of 1: 12-14: A Survey. cannot avoid the earth of end overlapping of events. section narrative ofthe second with 191-120. TheActs ofthe Apostles: A Socio-Rhetorical Commentary(Grand Rapids: Eerdmans.1998). Fitzmyer picks this up and statesthat Dupont has left out "the important matter in chapter P' Yet. Dupont. is Dupont's observation as he (Dupont) attemptedto divide the account of Acts into four major sections:2: 1-8:1a. the instruction to remain in Jerusalemand wait for the promise of the father (1: 3-5). 5. pp..in the whole of Judeaand Samaria.1. Fitzrnyer mentions. Although he views the pericope as part of the wider story about the Early Christian Community (Acts 1:1-26). 119). and thus it is best to see this whole section as a first before Peter's breaking speech with some expansion. Fitzmyer.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 130 Pentecostevents. ground with new recapitulation. 8: lb-15: 35. I Fitzmyer sees 1:12-14 as a narrative on its own.. 20: 1-28:31 (cf. To however. 113.. he arguesthat 1:1214 functions "to describe the first Christian community gathered in the city where Jesus (regarded as the founder of the movement that gave rise to its gathering) had been put to death. However. Jesus'Ascension (1: 6-11)] lead to the gathering of the disciple groups in 1:12-14. NovT21 (1979). the layout of the whole book is basedon the commissionof the apostlesby the risen Christ to be witnessesof his resurrectionbeginning in Jerusalern. e.

5 In contrast. 1992). 3. Johnson sees 1:13-14 as part of the election narrative. 1996). T. P.TheActs of the Apostles. T. Witherington III. -O The rest of the chapter (1: 15-26) is the beginning of the whole "rhetoric of persuasion.. With this. 115. Johnson argues that Luke begins the election story of 1:15-26 with a list of the Eleven in 1:13 to highlight the failure and absenceof Judas." Again. . 38."A Apart from what Witherington seesas the prologue of Acts 1. Witherington suggeststhat the necessity for the author to "persuade" his "problem the that needsto be solved and overcome" and that is "the need with starts readers to fill the vacancy in the Twelve. 7 James Dunn. Johnson. L.. the second section of the first chapter (1: 15-26) is all about the election narrative literary the author's prowessin presentingthe story. Johnson. Mary the mother of Jesusand Jesus' brothers (1: 14). TheActs ofthe Apostles (Valley Forge: Pennsylvania:Trinity PressInternational. 1:12-14 is an interval in the absenceof the characters 3B. In other words. p.Dunn. TheActs of the Apostles. 105. 4B. p. integrity and symbolic numerical of that group . 7J. Johnson follows this up with the view that "the betrayal of Judas was more than simply the failure of an individual. Minnesota: The Liturgical Press.TheActs ofthe Apostles (Collegeville. T. conclusion Johnson's argument would work only if 1:13 is by itself But this is not the case. TheActs ofthe Apostles. Witherington III.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 131 in 1:lfff. Witherington insists on and break between 1:1-14 and the election story in 1:15 a clear -26.. The list is between the author'snote that the apostlesreturnedto Jerusalem sandwiched of names (1: 12) and the that they were in unanimity with the women. 6L. V.. Johnson arrives at this by completely taking 1:13 out from the pericope of 1:12-14.p. p. It splintered the 6 However.. the only action that was taken between the Ascension and For Pentecostis the replacementof Judas. 5L.

framework it 6) lays down the nevertheless eschatological eschatological fellowship Christian is is 7) the to the story church a which unfold at within whose heart are the named eleven apostles. 10C. 15. 2) it draws attention to the work of the Holy Spirit as an essential and function feature it 3) the the of the of new volume. "9 C. it is still a story in finds the gospel of Luke. especially the place of vv. characteristic underlines apostlesas witnesses. pp. TheActs ofthe Apostles. Barrett. Barrett.the replacementof Judas(1: 15-26). Barrett arguesthat this event functions as a "piece of stagesetting" in preparation for further action. Barrett agreesthat a case for 1:8 can be the claim ends others made as the ending of the section.K. 4) it points out that the church and its witnessing activity are to extend throughout the world.17. .Dunn. ought to a parallel which still be part of the Introduction and recapitulation section.p. However. 5) it emphasises that details of the future. 1994). . This also applies to 1:12-14. YheActs ofthe Apostles (Edinburgh: T&T 11C. 63. . p. He believes that the issue is where the introduction of Acts ends and where the book proper actually begins. TheActs ofthe Apostles. 17. 12-14. p. 12CK. 9J.Dunn. of For Barrett. TheActs ofthe Apostles. Jesus the and of 8 132 The function of this event in the narrative is to show that the interval between the Ascension and Pentecost was a period of waiting.K. Barrettlo is aware of the problem concerning how to understandthe structure of Acts 1. Clark. The Ascension narrative therefore.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders Spirit. K. Barrett.p. it is a "carefully 12 following aims: constructedpiece" which achievesthe 1) It refers the reader to the following volume and indicates the continuity between the two.. Contrary to what introduction (that in 1:5).6 1. Barrett takes the whole section " Introduction 1-14 1: the as and recapitulation section. 61. In other words. he furthers his point by saying that while the Ascension (1:9-11) may be the first independent narrative in the book. 8J. a "prayerful waiting. TheActs ofthe Apostles.. 59.

In particular.1-4. YheActs ofthe Apostles. this "mission" In the out the matter completely of apostles. He considers 1:1-11 as the introduction of Acts and separates1:12-26 under the title "Preparations for Pentecost.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 133 Barrett's argument is basedon the assumptionthat the election narrative of 1:15-26 is totally unrelated to 1: 1-14. However. 6 1. Tannehill. 14 information have known before. pp. after accepting commissioned Hubbard and Mullins do not reflect how 1:12-14 is significant to the event that immediately follows ." p. Mullins. 16Cf. election narrative as ground amongst considers gospel. Barrett. 10. TheNarrative Unity ofLuke-Acts. Tannehill the as chapter outlining sees and connection it from from Jesus they the the time they start executing until apostles received mission of it in Acts 2. "New TestamentCommissionForms. Even studieswhich employ Narrative Criticism do not seemto seea strong narrative first between the 1: 12-14 1: 15-26. 1. 14C. 15T.44 in the Composition ofLuke's Two-Volume Work (Roma: Editrice Pontifico Instituto Biblio. said within 16 1: 12-14 at all.the election narrative in 1:15-26. 609. Tannehill seemsto downplay the function and purpose of 1:12-14 by leaves he fact. which the readers not read or providing new The studies of Hubbard and Mullins on the role of commissioning accountsin LukeActs both see the pericope as the conclusion of the commissioning story. R. It may show that the task was carried out or it may merely show the "15 Again. not mentioning the episodeof W. 71-73.TheIntroduction to Luke-Acts: A Study ofthe Role ofLk. p. 1991).13 Since the election story does not find any parallel in the its breaking fresh Barrett the readers. K. . Mullins defines the function of the Conclusion as "to show the commissioned person's approachto the task. the studies of the person's attitude commission.Y. R. Especially in Luke-Acts. Kurz too finds 1:12-14 as odd in its location." 13Seealso FA Fearghus. p.

p. 20H. "E. other commentatorssee the upper room story as a disruption to the travel narrative of the apostles which starts from the ascension until their return to 22 the apostlesto returnto Jerusalem.S. "The Summariesin Acts. the previous event is Jesus' ascension (1: 10-11) while the succeedingevent after the election story is Peter's speech before the gatheredcrowd in Jerusalem(1: 15-22). 1:12-14 Peter Jesus' the the connects event statement story of ascension with where a summary as delivers his sermonbeforethe crowd21 However. 392-402.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 134 However.Acts ofthe Apostles. Haechen.J. Kurz. E. "The JudasTradition in Acts 1:15-26. p. p. . vol. 28:3 1. Cadbury.17 Acts 1:12-14 has also been classified as one of Luke's "summary statements.Acts ofthe Apostles. "The Summariesin Acts. p. 76. 12:24-25." p. In fact. In otherwords. p. K. Reading Luke-Acts. 19:20-2 1. he opens the discussion with the statement that 1:12-14 are simply "transition verses" and can be treated as part either of 1:1-11 or 1:15-26. CK Barrett. 392. Cadbury. eds. is (1: is logical 12-26). To dispute the characterof 1:12-14 as summary statementis futile. Jerusalem. In the case of 1:12-14. 16:5-6.as previouslyargued. Beginnings of Christianity. 13 supportsthe idea of continuity. This meansthat its descriptions are of a of the general plan of eachmajor broader characterand may suggestthe chronological developmentof eventswithin a certain division. Seealso H. F. "18 Like the rest of the summary statementsin the book of Acts'9. 21Theperiphrastic tenseof flcyctv1cccwgLvovTC. Lake. 154. (London: Macmillan and Co. 439. the not even or whole upper room story narrative still found where it is. 12f. Haenchen. 9:32. Jacksonand K. A summary statement may function as a conclusion to a previous event and connects that event to the next scene. 4.). vol. 22E. v.in v. 155.afterJesushascommanded inunediately in in 1: 15-22 difficulty Peter's is the as there no reading setting of speech 17W. Indeed. pp. 87. Wilcox. Lake and H. M.the flow of the . J. Cadbury." p. Acts ofthe Apostles." in The Beginnings of Christianity.g. J. if 1: 12-14. 19Acts6:7-8.1: 12-14 is seen to bear the 20 division book.

. second of with episode."J.. Studiesin Acts of the Apostles. The alleged disruption is deliberate and carries a specific purpose. p. but by the of means of apostlesmakesbest introduction to the calling of generalised Matthias which follows . we can seehow other methodshave attemptedto explain the function of 1:12-14 in Acts 1-2.23 Becauseof these closely linked sequences. the author. He intends to appeal for support from the clienteles of the other disciple groups 23The first collective account(Acts 1:13-14) goesvery uneasily at first from narrative to list description. What 1: 12-14 1: 9-11 to the the event of specifically of it in Jesus Peter 1: 15-22. Dibelius. From the the there. Acts 1:12-14 (or even the whole upper room event in 1:12-26) is a "halting of narrative time" issues leadership the the the of addressing moral and purpose social clouding primary with integrity of the apostles. 15. What follows is our study of 1:12-14 as the first phasein the transition hope how In to the transformation. YheActs of the Apostles. we apostles' rituals of status stage of 1:12-14. In this brief survey.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 135 following 1:10-11. then it is plausible to label 1:12-14 as a "disruption" to the flow of the narrative. 24Dunn prefers to read 1:12-14 as giving "the impressionof its character as an interval between Jesusand the Spirit -. and then finally. with the Pentecost story. If this proposal is correct. As we have proposed. fills the gaps which other methodologies have left is One is 12-14 1: to that of our main objectives show a networking strategyof unanswered. Dunn. through the model of the RST. 9.we suggestthat the author wants to convey more 24 is just 1: 12-14 the notion that than a summary statement. speech of ascension leads to the election of Matthias in 1:23-26.. M. But what look does A 12-14 thatl: shows closer not primarily connect the Ascension story purpose? is link Pentecost does 2: 1-4. The author had to place 1:12-26 in the midst of the Ascension and Pentecosteventsif the readers(andthe Christiancommunityas a whole) areto be assured that all measureshave been taken to prove that the apostles are the worthy successorsto Jesus' leadership. the show end. p..

are. Father the not received their the we stated. each other. status. we will develop our discussionon how we seethe value of communitasin the pericope of 1:12-14. a move that is unprecendented. We shall begin with an analysis of the intent behind the list of the apostles' namesin 1:13. The find the the themselvesreading the of of names readers suddenly enumeration . if be his have been by Jesus to they witnesses commissioned new status even the time Jesus the ritual elder is separated from the initiands (1:9-11) until the rite of installation symbolised by their baptism in the Spirit (Acts 2: 1-4). the narrative flow is abruptly halted by the Eleven. apostles as From (1: 7-8). After the apostles' return to Jerusalem. While all these are taking place in the upper room.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 136 in the upper room. the apostles are in a limbo of statuslessness. the initiands develop a stronger bond with bond This we called communitas. we want to emphasisethat the in have initiands They their stated.1. we will note that the apostles' the status of a and command with defence as a group in turn boosts their camaraderieas initiands. From here. The instruction of Jesusis for the apostlesto return to Jerusalemand wait for the promise of have initiands (Acts As have 1: 4). At the sametime. leader.the searchfor anotherapostleto replace Judas(1: 15-26).2 The Initiands in Transition: Acts 1: 12-14.At this samejuncture. It is a time when the initiands find themselves bonding as a group as they withstand the rigours of the ritual in confrontation this transition stage.1 The List of the Apostles' Names in 1: 13. 5. This support is crucial to what the apostlesare about to do next. as we are most vulnerable apostles as is for defence honour Their their their of apologetic and not appeal support and statusless.2. 5.1.

but the fact that there were no longer Twelve apostles. Becauseof Judas' defection this sacrednumber was disrupted. Barrett. Goulder. B. why make another list here in Acts when the author has already done this earlier in the gospel (Lk.. As needed someone and if have raised earlier. J. 4postles. 1964). E. 4ctsof the. then why was this not done at an earlier stage? Why not in the beginning of the just introduced in itself. Bolt argues." of p.. p. or after his resurrection through the control earthly ministry whether . not the identities.. On the other hand. K. 6: 14-16 or Acts 1:13) is superfluous. of course. fill they therefore to the vacancy. C. beginning in Jesus his Lk. to that the to then why name names the are now simply first place? 27 Moreover. We suggestthat the enumerationof namesprimarily intends 25Haenchcnand Barrett attempt to resolve the re-issueof namesby arguing that the list of developments the prove separate of the two books of Luke. "The Emerging Church and the Problem Authority in Acts. 3? the the author as own ritual ritual of Moreover.. The question.cf.is why? If one simply accepts the notion that the author wants to introduce the Eleven apostlesbefore the narrative further develops. This suggestionis quite vague. Haenchen. 6: 12-16)?25 It has been suggestedthat the list servesto show.p. 4postles.g.however. 1:2). 137. 28Thatis why Bolt had to make an assumptionthat it was Jesuswho ordered the replacement of Judas.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 137 identity of each apostle (Acts 1:13). why did the author neglect to come up with another replacement by down James Eleven the the to was of apostles after martyred number was again when Herod in 12: 2? 28 The enumerationof the namesin 1:13 indeed shows that the author wants to identify the apostlesfor his readers. Typeand History in 4cts (London: SPCY. that there is more than just the intent to identify who the apostlesare. that the witnesseshad to be 'chosen beforehand' by Jesus(cf 10:41) his during (as for the eleven. 153. 27Seeagain our Introduction section of this thesis. M. Haenchenstatesthat if the books apostles have appearedsimultaneously.4cts ofthe.p. Goulder claims that the repetition of the namesin Acts 1:13 is for emphasis. 87. this suggestionrelies heavily on the historical value of the number of the 26 is apostleswhich twelve. 20 26E.. However. the whole purpose of enumeratingthe names of the apostleswas we in highlight down Twelve Eleven.. We propose. Tyson.then one of the lists (either Lk.which is the very reasonwhy the election was called for.

Marshall and D. In differences. do Although 86-88." in The Beginnings of Christianity. "The Twelve and the Apostles. in lists The the the these other words. JamesNathanael. V." in the Witnessto the GospeL The Theology ofActs. Lake. there they are variations not warrant disputing the authenticity of the tradition pp. especially pp. Another telling piece of evidence is found in the list of the apostles' names itself (1: 13). (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. Cephas. H. All of these factors focus on the characterand person of Judas ratherthanon the fact thatthe numberof the apostleswasreducedto eleven.Thomas. the criteria required to be met by the candidatesfor Judas' replacement (1:21-22). names. K. 37-59. and Jude of James.1998). 300therancient texts have "Labbaeus" or "Labbaeuscalled Thaddaeus. similarities out weigh names apostolic on arc most likely authentic (an earlier editor is said to have come up with a list basedfrom a different tradition. 29Thisstudy will not go into the individual analysison the authenticity and background of each for J. In is impaired focus but the the the not on number of apostles on the person of other words. and the need to show that God makes the final choice of Judas' substitute (1:23-26). Petersen. 3: 16-19 Mt. the Mk. Andrew.Bartholomew. 10:2-4 Lk. Judas Iscariot and the fact that he is no longer part of the apostolate.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 138 to highlight. 198. For Acts Apostles. "Mission and Witness. not those who are in the group. vol. Barrett. this the see example purpose. Philip.eds. but the one who is no longer in the group. Bolt. Peter. 6: 14-16 Acts 1:13b Peter James John Andrew Philip Bartholomew Matthew Thomas James Peter Andrew James John Philip Bartholomew Thomas Matthew James Peter John James Andrew Philip Thomas Bartholomew Matthew James of Alphaeus Thaddaeus of Alphaeus Thaddaeus30 Peter Andrew James John Philip Bartholomew Matthew Thomas James of Simon Simon of Alphaeus Alphaeus the Zealot the Zealot Simon Simon Judas Judas of the lot (as for Matthias). Matthew." B. p." . This evidencebecomesmore obvious when comparedand contrastedwith the other 29 in Consider following lists: lists of names the gospel tradition. 4243. The list goes as John. of name. Simon. pp. pp. Fitzrnyer. This suggestion is by supported the succeedingconsequences:the elaboratespeechof Peter with the grotesque description of Judas' demise (1: 17-20). 213-15. I.. C.) A comprehensivediscussionon the possible sourcesand tradition of the apostolic namescan be found in K.

as the one who betrayed the Judas. Acts 1: author's reveals list just that is " It is. p. list declaring Judas the It Eleven. is Iscariot. they 13b of the 1: aware were Acts so with in list from Judas' the deletion Mark Matthew). 34. 32Detailed discussionon the role and characterof Judaswill be done in the section of Peter's 16-20. to intention. Klassen. and that is. . Nor is the author simply saying that the apostleswere betrayed Jesus. what he stands Jesus. In bottom tradition been the the come has always other words. speech. argument part of no viewed as suggesting image initial to the the the the author clear of then and attempts of see subtle can we viable. that down one who to a now been dropped has honour the had and the in tainted apostles. The Gospel tradition carries no other description of Judas but the "traitor. of turn and reputation also who 32 from list. while JudasIscariot always comeslast. of placed at 31 in for Christian tradition. "the a showing traitor that not was gone! make a strong statement. his The immediately 13b we suggest. And if the readersof Luke-Acts were aware and are able to compare the list in in the if tradition (more the in list 6: 14-16 Lk. vv. name then the author's of and gospels of is intention.139 Estrada: From Followers To Leaders the Cananaean JudasIscariot the Cananaean JudasIscariot of James of James JudasIscariot The names from the lists above are unanimous in two aspects:Peter always comes first. Judasis no longer part of the Twelve. 31Cf.W. banished the exclusive forever What we havejust arguedabove is how the list of the apostles' namesin 1:13 can be is If is longer betrayer this the the that apostolate.Judas: Betrayer offriend ofJesus. " This in last him in been has been tradition have the consistent placing reasonswhy one of may the list. The suggestionthat Peter is listed first because Judas leader be the he the how to why also explain can of apostles recogniscd as came of know has to list.

In other words. The list is found within the pericope in finding list In 1: 12-14. Our clue begins from the question.1. the the middle of two other verses compels any other words. The been by has decision identify the that to the apostlesand leave the created author's contrast . enumeration seems accomplishment another over group is the focus on the enumeratedgroup. the enumeration enumeration exclusion of readers directs the readersto focus their attention on the Eleven apostles. the focus that has been achieved through enumeration also relays the fraternal nature of the apostolate. From the rituals of status transformation perspective. again where we see exegete the model of the rituals of status transformation works best. individually naming the apostleswhile leaving the other disciple groups in their collective identities inevitably createsdistinctions and distancebetweenthe groupsmentioned in 1:1314. not only is the author able to tell his from Judas through the the apostolate. what is it about the women disciples and Jesus' family that captures the author's attention and wins them the right to be mentioned as having unanimity with the commissionedapostlesbefore the election of Matthias in 1:15-26 in Spirit Acts 2: 1-4? the the of outpouring and 5. of investigate how functions is This the to pericope as a whole.2.2 Distinction by Enumeration.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 140 has brought dishonour However. the immediate superiority of one What have been the to the of other.however. why has the author enumeratedthe namesof the apostlesand then left the other charactersin the upper room nameless? Why has the author taken time to individually identify the Eleven and then simply mention in passing the women and Jesus' family? Finally. and more intriguing. The distinctions do not necessarilysuggest. the which upon we also argued apostles earlier that the list in v. We propose that we see the concept of communitasamong the apostlesas initiands in the pericope of 1:12-14. 13 does not stand on its own. from Judas them.

ritual explicate room upper in disciple between idea Eleven the the the groups mentioned relationship other of and an 1:12-14.2 The Eleven With the Women Disciples. As we have asked earlier. we find that this networking strategy in 1:12-14 is crucial to what the in is initiands the face. confrontation. those the the who apostolate. take to to that the place about as are about event which apostles initiands' to To this the we need get proposal. a suggests initiands. the author's option to status of leave the other groups individually unnamed does not render their charactersinsignificant. while on the other. the of communitas among subtle expression While indeed the enumeration of the names of the apostles suggeststhe unique in disciple Eleven the the over other groups the upper room. The next section dealswith this issue.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 141 in identities disciple their collective projects the unique status of the group of groups other the apostles. 24: 10-11). my general assumptionsthat Luke-Acts advocatedraising the status of . it in is belong This. At first I thought it possible to make the case that the author of Luke-Acts made special in Acts 1: Eleven 14 the the to the yuv(xtx9q of with the of show reconciliation mention is based interelated disciples. We propose that the author is attempting to win the leadership disciple for these the the status. is. of other apostles' clienteles groups support of More specifically. 5. In fact. and more significantly. This thought two on points of reference:the Eleven's women recent rejection of the women's testimony about Jesus' resurrection (Lk. "what is it about these groups that they deservethe honour of being mentioned at precisely this point?" Our suggestion is simple. we find the presence of the other disciple groups mentioned in 1:12-14 more intriguing. the contrast implies exclusivity. On the one hand. camaraderieof we suggest.

(New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 188. A. Plummer. S. 1991). There were also those who promotedthe view that the 33Borrowing from S." p. Plummer who suggestedthat "the Third Gospel is in an especial sense the Gospel for women. needed with the women disciples by the Eleven since. (Atlanta." in "Women .seealso T. trans. W. Briggs. Like This": New Perspectiveson Jewish Womenin the Greco-Roman World. 188.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 142 33 Unfortunately. 13:10-17shouldbe seenas stressingthe healingof the womanon woman possessed 36 fact Sabbath healed Jesus the that the and not a woman. emphasising in Lk. 1906). Let the OppressedGo Free: Feminist Perspectiveson the New Testament." in "WomenLike This": New Perspectiveson Jewish Womenin the GrecoRoman World. 38Seefor example. 5: 17-26. A. Maloney. 351. 1991). There is really no reconciliation my assumptions crumbled. and A. p. 1995). 528. Luise Schottroff explains ftu-therthat "the disciples cannotbelieve any longer that Jesusstill is the liberator of Israel since he had died after all (see Luke 24:20-2 1). not that primarily That the author was campaigning to elevate the lowly status of women is only one of the 38 standardviews of Luke-Acts.A. B. Cambridge Greek Testamentfor Schools (Cambridge: Carr. 233. Levin. 9-10. 7:36-50 which brought strong criticism againstJesusby his host. Jesus' For Luke's story of a handicappedand exceptional concern. Mohr. CUP. 118. ed. 24:24) and hearing the testimony of two of their male colleagues(24: 13-35). Jewish Womenin Greco-RomanPalestine (Tubingen: J. (Minneapolis: FortressPress. S. . R. The GospelAccording to Luke. ed. eds. Womenin the Acts of theApostles: A Feminist Liberation Perspective. 1991). 163-66. but becausethe event itself was too incredible to believe. A. 36SDavies. 37 his feet by but because Jesus was anointed at a woman. pp. H. Womenin the Ministry ofJesus (Cambridge: CUP. F. Levin." A Critical and Exegetical Commentaryon the Gospel According to St. p.L. the story of the sinful woman in Lk. Luke. A. TheMaking ofLuke-Acts A.1-Reimer. J. Colleges. p. ed. cf. 34Ben Witherington III discussesthe conditions and weight of a woman's witness in both the legal and social contexts. Driver. in the first place. and .C. Ilan. Kidder. a Pharisee. 37S Davies. 1912). 1984). (Atlanta.35 Such an outlook also applies in many of the Lucan scenes where the encounters of Jesus with women are sometimes misconstrued as instance. Cadbury. Georgia: ScholarsPress. p. It was only after Jesusshowed himself personally that the apostlesbelieved (24:3643). there was no 34 being them women witnesses. Ferrar. Georgia: ScholarsPress. 1995). p. (Westminster: John Knox Press. Likewise. C. The rejection of the women's particular problem with testimony about Jesus' resurrection is not becausethey were women. ICC Series. "Women in the Third Gospel and the New TestamentApocrypha. women. 103." Their disbelief continued despitewitnessing an empty tomb (Lk. "Women in the Third Gospel. For further discussionon this issue. xxxv. Davies' expessionin "Women in the Third Gospel and the New TestamentApocrypha. M. shewas a sinner. trans. pp.

Politics. Cassidy Luke-Acts. NY: Orbis. They are equal in honour and grace. 29 in Theology Meal Gospel Luke's Journal Christian Ritual Luke. (cf. R. p. 3: 28)" H. ed. Cassidybelieves that Luke is Jesus. 59-79. outlook gives an Society: A Study ofLuke's Gospel (Maryknoll. V. "Women in the Gospel of Luke. (New York: ParagonHouse. 1987). Luke Theologian ofRedemptive responsibilities and I. his for is Jewish Greco-Roman "more than progressive or contemporaries author is between Constance "41 F. 13946. E.p. 10.ed. 1926). 43For example. 4. Minnesota: Liturgical Press. ed. two setsof followers: Sirnon and women (LL widow and scribes . two "releases": the bent-over woman (Lk. especially. primarily author was 40 idea favour For that the third the evangelist showed special upon women pursue .M. cf. C. " St.R. p. " Political in Q. 7:35-50 # Mk. 1978). R. two examplesof prayer: widow. Sweetland. Via. 2: (Lk. there are some modem scholars who egalitarian. 1968). 3: 1-6?). (New York: Simon and Schuster. two lists of nameddisciples: men apostles(Lk. 14:1-6 // Mk. 367. (London: SPCK. J. 2 taken: men (?) sleeping. that of the author's tendency to pair stories about women with stories about men are some of the reasonswhy others see 43 having Luke as special concern towards women. "extremely " R. The multiplication of stories about women. Parvey. "The Theology and Leadershipof Women in the New Testament. Parvey there that readsthe equality men and women. 40E. 8:9-17). 17:32-35 // Mt. pp. (New York: Harper & Row. 138. Bultmann who finds Luke as having a "sentimental feature" for women. Ruether. 5: 19-26 Mk1-12) and the penitent woman the two penitents: paralytic ministers (Lk. 20: 45-21: 4 Mk. P. 37-60. setting. p. n. 12: 37-44). 4:31-39 // Mk. 3: 12-19) and two women (Lk. J. at pp. 263-64. (Collegeville. 60. "man and woman standtogether and side by side before God. Parvey statesthat both Luke and Acts "have been compiled in a Hellenistic setting in "The 138 " in that the toward p. Phariseeand publican (Lk. History. 38-55. R. 1:21-3 1). 14:1-1l? ). p. two attitudes to worship: // (Lk.g. Richard. Likewise. pp. in believes Sweetland. Fuller R. Women in Issues Quesnell. St. 6: 12-19 fl Mk. emancipated more attitudes women and may well reflect Theology and Leadershipof Women in the New Testament" in Religion and Sexism. rev. the Discipleship of Service (1985). (Maryknoll.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 143 39 Up until today.A Study of the Proto-Luke Hypothesis (Oxford: ClarendonPress. Mary Rose D'Angelo gives a complete list of the "pairings" in LukeActs which includes: two first miracles: for possessedman and Peter's mother-in-law (Lk. 1958). New York: Orbis. 7: 1-10 (cf. "The Luke's Supper. 23-24. J. Dennis the that the an article entitled example. eds. These parallel pairs of stories of men (London: SPCK. F. Cassidy.pp. Scharper. 42C. H 8: 1-3). 1990). 1968). Via. 1983). and on which women progressive. 39Thatthe author believed that. and 41D. 13:10-17) and the dropsical rnan (Lk. Fuller. Early the the of of and R. Karris provides a fin-therlist of those who hold this view in "Women and Discipleship in Luke" in CBQ 56 (1994)." in Religion and Sexism.214. U. "Luke Christian" M. J. trans. F. TheHisto?y ofSynoptic Tradition.they are endowedwith the samegifts and have the same H. Taylor. J. "Women. E. also R. J. 2. Mt. Behind the Third Gospel. 8:5-13) is seenas a pair to the healing of the widow's son in 7: 11-17. p.." in Womenin the World's Religions: Past and Present. Flender.women grinding (Lk.1974)." in X?w Viewson Luke andActs. Gal."Luke the Christian. J. p. ed. King.. 24:404 1). E. suggesting in in instruct believers Luke-Acts the early to the as offering women of women stories 42 in church the radical revision of the roles of women.the story of the centurion's servantwho was rescuedfrom death in Lk. pp.

two groups of resurrectionwitnesses(Lk. effect a methodological both be literary the there to the subjugationand of group.vol. and the disciples act in their lives in similar fashion. O'Toole reads 445). a unit of stories with are function. H (Lk. of Elijah or Elisha. "Women in the Third Gospel. 1:23-3 1. R. 44S Davies. 20: 27). R. 4:33-39 H Mk." explains that the more "obvious motives "44 For take example. 9 (Wilmington: Glazier." Thesetechniquesmay have had some influence from Q. 188-89. instead (p. The secondkind is labelled as "architectural" pairs. The Unity ofLuke's Theology: An Analysis ofLuke-Acts. The evidenceshowsthat Luke follows Mark in the stories of the healing of both a man and a woman in Lk.the had (Lk. it is primarily an attestation of Jesus' likeness to Elijah. 15:1-7 is paired with the parable of the woman who lost ten coins in Lk. God. These. They believe and proclaim the gospel message. should from both death (Lk. D'Angelo. as "similar bind 'God's in different the to the together to told coherence of contexts manifest narrative and stories in Acts. with the centurion's servant and the widow's son precedence. Good News Studies. Luke does add to Mark a story of raising of a widow's son (7: 11-17) similar to I Kings 17:17-24. pp. rescued who were Luke's christological perspectivesis that Jesusis a prophet in the manner of one . 120. 7: 1-17). and the story of Jesus' healing of ten men with leprosy (17: 12-19). 1984). 45S Davies." cf. Thus the pericope depicting the widow of Nain cannot be adduced as evidence of the evangelist's concern for women in general or widows in particular. The pairing technique may have been from his shortý original sourceswhich do not necessarilyadvocatethe exaltation of women. p. (cf.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 144 have for being Luke's met with regard women as equal with men and women showing in his in from Stevan Davies.. D'Angelo also suggeststhat there identical is "an kinds First brief two point or similar two of paring methods. the alleged exaltation on the statusof women in Luke-Acts is primarily liberation believes He the that to of an apparent concern. this kind of pairing shows the story about the man to be traditional. "Women in the Third Gospel. 185-97. On the of paired stories other couples are used namesof thesepairings as suggestingthat "Men and women receive the samesalvific benefits. Women and men experienceand fulfil similar functions. . one about a male and one about a female.. 15:8-10 may have been doing is Luke Q. M. Jesus' introductory sermon in Nazareth is evidence for this claim. Basically. The signature"both men and women" or even the hand. 16:1-8). For example. R. while that of the woman is special to Luke. two groups of watchers:women and all his acquaintances(Lk. 45 For Davies. In to not anything new. "Women the more recent exegetes. " in JBL 109/3 (1990). 24 H Mk. The parable of the shepherdin Lk. ought evidence marginalised 23:26-32 H Mk.as D'Angelo claims. "Women in Luke-Acts: A RedactionalView. 15:21). 1-7 hundred 15: Mt. Acts 5: 38-39 2: 23." pp. " While their also exist with pairings of work' plan occurrencesare fewer and of a different nature. 13: 36. It is also worth noting that the pairing technique is not original to Luke. while others are probably from Mark. and from that sermon one might expect Jesusto raise the son of a widow as did Elijah and to heal a leper as did Elisha. Christ." pp. 18: 10-14) had ten the coins who woman sheep and a man who 14:8-10). 44146 1. work strong objections Third Gospel and the New TestamentApocrypha. O'Toole. Davies arguesthat. 15:40-41). D'Angelo explains. 23:49 H Mk.

. I see no elevation of women's status in Luke. disreputable. ." p. attempt reflect Although it is indisputable that there were women disciples in Luke and Acts.50 46SDavies. Minnesota: The Liturgical Press.46If the case is so obvious that evidence for subjugation is unnecessary. The widow who demands justice from the unjust judge eventually achieves her goal (18: 1-8). 49E. A Feminist Yheological Reconstruction Christina of origins (New York: Crossroad. "Women in the Third Gospel. No such subjugation is shown or implied with the women. and Mary the mother of Jesus act independently and with self confidence. Luke's concern for the poor neededno explicit demonstrationon their status in society. we will be disappointed. Fiorenza arguesthat while the author was well aware of the ministries in which the Luke-Acts involved (such as prophets... Fiorenza. deacons). and so forth (as some scholars do although Luke. etc. BarbaraE. a closer study reveals that they do not participate in the mission of Jesusin the same disciples do. Paul.. Anna. 48SDavies. Reid warns that. pp.1983). Josephus. 34. 185. Further objections have been raised by recent feminist scholars. -A7 experience.Womenin the Gospel ofLuke (Collegeville.1996). What we clearly see is the author's portrayal of Jesus' sympathy towards them." p. 50B. Unless one presumes the society of the time to be pathological to the extent that women were regarded as despised. Mark. . p. then Jesus' actions in regard to women are nothing 48 unusual." 186-87. missionaries.Davies argues that there should be evidence "in contemporary texts or from common human . . In Memory ofHer. "Women in the Third Gospel. beyond the pale of respectable society. Choosing the Better Part. 185. 47S Davies. pp. without needing Jesus' intervention. Elisabeth SchUssler Fiorenza observes that the multiplication of stories about women. and so forth. Davies addsthat. If we are looking to Luke's narrative to show that that the men way women and men shared equally in Jesus' mission in the first century.S. as self-reliant.. Matthew. 50. Luke depicts women. Elizabeth.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 145 liberation. do not). Reid. plus the pairing technique.E. Likewise.he did not were of women 49 in his to these narratives. "Women in the Third Gospel.make the author of Luke-Acts more transparentabout his attitude towards women. John.

" in Religion and Sexism. the statusremained of unequal terms.C. .p. "Women in the Third Gospel and the New Testament Apocrypha. J. Tuckett. which the author of Luke-Acts women play other. S. "The Theology and Leadershipof Women in the New Testament. Neusner. 5'See also C. 1988).and the SpanishMission." he suggeststhat the wider audienceof Luke were men and women who met together to listen to the reading of either Paul's letters or that of Luke. while the assemblywas composedof both women and men. "The assumptionthat women were definitely part of Luke's audienceis madeby Downing. In his work "Theophilus's First Reading of Luke-Acts. If this assumptionis correct. For Robert high in Roman the Phoebe community. in some way or the in these significant roles the community. 53 fully (and also the male readers) recognises. Evidence that certain women played significant and influential roles in the society." in TheSocial World offormative Christianity.ed. Parvey. p. plus the pairing of women stories with stories about men.was the answerto the problems the apostle is facing in his quest for a Spanish 54 Because there was no apparent Jewish population in Spain from which Paul mission. pp. Luke's Literary Achievement: Collected Essays. (Philadelphia: FortressPress. ed. simply reflects the 51 hisfemale further We to the assume attention of audience. Davies. (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press. leaders instrumental Christian to these that who were carrying out women were some of and their Christian mission.. is supported by the example we find in Rom. M." p. 52Andprobably even children as "households" had beenbaptisedtogether which meant the presenceof children. However. "Paul. Phoebe. F. woman of social status of -a Jewett arguesthat Phoebe. 92-93. we now have a disciples from base background hypothesis the are which we can our why women good figured to be one of the groups which the author wanted to project as having unanimity with the Eleven.Jewett.a deaconessof the church in Cenchreaeand a patron to Paul and his churches. 190. 140-42. 54R. and that. can engage author's attempt that the need for the multiplication of stories about women arisesbecauseof the possibility 52 Luke's that a greater proportion of audience were women. 16:1-3f These in have Paul wanted to tap the services as a may serve window understanding why passages instance. 151. 1995).Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 146 Davies rightly concludes that the whole issue on the multiplication of stories on women.

or whether. That women like Phoebegreatly helped in drawing support and influence to either the is the not at all surprising. Whelan. 16:1). and support 55R.Jewett.55 Arguing that Paul's letter to the Romans was actually intended for Ephesusand not Rome. F." p. " Amica Pauli: The Role of Phoebein the Early Church. 56C F. Whelan neverthelessagreeswith Jewett on the significance of Phoebeand her influence to Paul's missions strategy. and proselytizing activity. of . 11Arnica Pauli: The Role Church. Phoebe the pp. Phoebe. Women in the Roman society had enjoyed many priviledges and freedom which placed 57 it. 58Furtherexamplesof thesewomen patrons. missions. Latin Paul's the to of mission and speak establish could first language (apart form languages in during Spain the the variety of spoken predominant her Phoebe together that time and vast network of contacts clientele or century) used at justifies her Paul's wealth and social presupposed prominence endorsement and with "recommends" (auviarjgt) this woman patron to his churches(Rom. This sameposition is what came to be very attractive amongstthose who wanted to seek 58 backing to their own agenda. " Arnica Pauli: The Role of Phoebein the Early Church. This wealth and social in freely dispose them of a position to acquire wealth and influence has made it more probable that women like Phoebegained positions of leadership. 75.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 147 because inability his base. 57C F. " in Early 71-85. Whelan. 73. F." p. Whelan.and the SpanishMission." p. 151. and other apostles propagantic purposes of political. C. social Whether Paul expected her support and patronage for a proposed Spanish mission as Jewett proposes. her destination is Ephesus. as I have argued. "Paul.it is he his her in to that to assume expected role support of play some reasonable 56 hence integral his was an part of efforts. seeagain C. Whelan statesthat.

what is the role of Jesus' family in the transition stage of the initiands?" To answer this question.the author tells his readersthat Jesus' family were in unanimity with the Eleven in the upper room before they faced the group of one hundred and twenty brethren (Acts 1:150.3. . 60Thefirst being Lk. "As a ritual element. 61J. they are absentfrom the majority of significant events in Jesus' life and ministry. While indeed the infancy narratives present a vast infonnation about the for however Jesus' Jesus.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 148 5. Acts 1:14 is the secondand last instancewhere Jesus' family is noticed 60 And in this last . TheActs oftheApostles. One of our main reasonsis that Mary is presentedas a characterin her own right in 59j Dunn concurs. Reumann. 8: 19-21. 621 disagreewith Reumannas he seesLk. p. instance. we need to know family. Luke finds it important to name Mary and Jesus' brothers as the other group present in the upper room. 1-2 (Jesus' in Mary Infancy the . Surprisingly. mother) narratives of on set of references there are merely two referencesto Mary and Jesus' brothers in the rest of the gospel and the 62 book of Acts .Mary in the New Testament. 105. the family of Jesusalso gets to be mentioned here in Acts 1:14 59 Although .p.3 The Eleven With Mary and Jesus' Brothers.Mary in the New Testament. The study of Jesus' family in Luke-Acts can come from two sources. 16. First is an extensive 61 Lk. mother. .1 Jesus' Family in Luke-Acts. and second. So why did the author chooseto tell his readersthat the Eleven were in unanimity family before In Matthias Jesus' the takes the rituals of status election of place? with transformation perspective. we may ask. J.Reumann. Jesus' has far informed his Luke-Acts the of so about author readers what 5. 11:27-28 as anotherpassagewhich speaksof Jesus' does directly The text show not any evidence which refers to the character of Mary. Cf. they study on cannot source our of serve as an objective mother family. 171.p. Cf.

no one could have ever suspectedof their existence. there two agenda. In other words.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 149 the infancy stories. Asian Theological Seminary. 8: 19-21 and Acts 1:14. 5. "So C. 168. 1-2. The samethesishasbeenpublished and modified as an article in Phronesis. We will reserve our discussionof Acts 1:14 to the ritual processsection. 1977).Vol. therefore. pp. TheBirth of the Messiah: A and composition Commentary on the Infancy Narratives ofMatthew and Luke (Doubleday: New York. Acts of the Apostles. 1994). pp. seeK E. 3: 31-35 65 According to J. 89.Mary in the New Testament. 2.Working Power in Luke-Acts (Asia GraduateSchool of Theology.R.p. 65Astudy on the redaction of the Marcan parallel by Luke on this specific passage may be found from my Th. for example. Lk. Brown. . proclamation and Miracle. For an exhaustivediscussionon the nature of Luke's infancy narratives. I. Philippines. so that if the first two chaptershad been lost. 3:31-35. 2. K.p. Luke has . 3: 1-2 could well have been servedas the original opening of the gospel.M. but infancy because the the of uniqueness of whole narratives of Lk. 8: 19-21 is a parallel to Mk. 2538. 239-255. Mary is not presentedwith Jesus' brothers as a family unit. Both the gospelsof Mark and John open the gospel story with the eventssurrounding the baptism of Jesus. thesisA Redaction CHtical Study on the Relationship ofthe Spirit. The placing of the genealogyin the third chapter of Luke makesmore senseif that had beenbefore and the infancy narrative had beenprefixed. Barrett. . This has been so. and genre of narratives is different from the originally in Because LukeLuke-Acts64. In Reumann's words. The referenceto Jesus'baptism by John the Baptist as the beginning in Acts 1:22. of our are of only accounts rest Acts which tell about Jesus' family. especially on issuesof its incorporation history into the gospel. Reumann. his in image Jesus' Mary to altered sources order and project a positive of significantly brothers in contrast with the family's negative image in Mk. These are Lk. The primarily infancy include: for (1) the the that the gospel of Luke uniqueness of stories arguments 63 in begins infancy 3 (2) the the ch. Brown argues. 3. The solemn beginning of John's ministry in Lk. . none of the Lukan infancy narrative has had major influence on the body of the gospel. " In Mark/Matthew when the news is given to Jesus about the presence of his mother and brothers outside. he replies with a question which challenges their status as his true family: "Who are my mother and my brothers? " No such question is asked in Luke. As was true also with Matthew's gospel. Luke removes any element of hostility from the fact that the mother and brothers are outside: "They were not able to reach him on account of the crowd. not only because of the uniqueness of Mary's character. 66 63In line with this. (1996). 1-53. 4. 66j Reumann.

13:55). seeR. 200-54. For Green. Jn 7:5) until the resurrection where Jesusis before (I Cor. The Mother ofJesus in the New Testament(London: Darton. is he but based hearing doing the word of physical contends. Mt. who was known to be against the teaching of Virgin birth. 34. Tertullian (Against Marcion 4: 19) insists on the view that Jesusreally had full brothers. 67j Green. not praise reject contrast party family. On the other hand. does He to the physical or another party. 330. K. Donfried. 330. Luke the to the of women presence and mentions ministry. Mariae) suggestedthat the brothers were actually Jesus'cousins. sonsof Alphaeus by "Mary of Clopas" whom he inferred from Jn 19:25 to be the Virgin's sister.eds. 71Thebrothers of Jesusare namedJames.TheActs ofthe Apostles. McHugh. Bruce. "Kinship in the people of God is no longer in descent. 78) Ephipanus to appeared sources say g. 3:30-35. 70L.T. also J. The Gospel ofLuke.the redactionin Luke's versionindeedmakesa lesson fall kinship. 69Seealso L. they are enough to redeem not necessarily them from a negative image pictured in Mark's and Matthew's versions. 107. Brown. lesson by a make-over of the negative image of Jesus' family in Mark into a positive one in his gospel. Longman and Todd. T. Reurnann. HeIvidium deperpetua virginatate b. Although Luke teachesthis the the true may on meaning of statement. 77zeGospel ofLuke. These brothers were not known to be Jesus'disciples (cf. p. p. Johnson. p. 8: 19-21 and Acts 1:14. p.TheActs ofthe Apostles. have James 15: 7). Reumann is correct to observethe Lukan redaction as an attempt to influence a 69 family by his for in Jesus' While the perception of some. This view was later on strongly promoted by the Roman Christian. on and grounded God. Helvidius. . 34. F. said that Josephhad a former wife with whom he had sonsmaking thesetherefore Jesus' half brothers. change be image projecting a positive of the family". pp. he usesthem as a "catalysf ý67to drive home to his hearers(the disciples and the crowds) the true meaning of kinship. the author doesnot tell much about Mary and the of Either the evangelistdoesnot have any other information. Rather. 1975).Mary in the New Testament.the changesmay readers. p.Green. "Not even Jamesis presentedas Jesus'brother (12: 17. Fitzrnyer. 289-92. 6:3 (par. P. Acts ofthe Apostles. 15:13. This attitude is relatively the opposite when it comeswith the other women in Jesus' disciples Similar Mark Matthew. 21:28). In reply. J.iM Whenpitted againstMk. . Jerome(Adv. A. F. Johnson.Simon and Judasin Mk.Joses. 71 brothers Jesus. Other (e..or he opts not to say anything 72 more.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 150 Green's analysis is more subtle. for detailed discussionon the various views on Jesus'brothers. in Panarion. Luke uses Jesus' family as a unit or his in disciples. 68J. and J.pp. Other than Lk.

64.Nc)Tcy. Luke.Reumann. This also supportsthe of probability that Mary. or evcn someof the brothers. and likewise. .Massachusetts: I lendricksonPublishcM 1991). From this idea (an idea we have 73J.Malina andJ. does not presentJesus' brothers separatefrom the characterof Mary their mother.(or at least the c%idcnccin the s)moptic gospelsminus the infancy stories)hasrarely separatedMary from the brothers Jesus. 11. and the finding of the empty tomb. They claim that becauseMary was a widow. the burial. therefore. p. H. shenow probably lives on her own and. H. then it supportsour understandingthat the gospel tradition. cither husbandor son. (Peabody.. Nialina's and J. e.Alary in the New Testament.p. tradition indeed speaksof a family of Jesus. Ne)Tey's suggestionis helpful. of ed.Eitrada: From Follourrs To Leaders 151 of Jesusduring his crucifixion. Jesus' mother. Nc)Tcy.Luke doesnot mention the presenceof Mary. 73 If one is to speculateon the tradition concerningJesus' family basedon the only available information (i. an honourablehousehold. plus the single passagein Acts 1:14) certain factors stand ouL First. This family is always billed as the "mother" and the "brothers" of Jesus. Lk. 8: 19-21 and its corresponding parallels in Mark and Matthew. She becomes vulnerable but Luke changed that.in the same significant eventS. the charactcrs"mother and brothers" have not been primarily introduced as independentfrom each other.it is a tradition which rarely speaksof Mary as an individual. 173. has been understood by tradition as maintaining a stable status becauseof Jesus' brothers. 74B. Second."I lonor and Shamein Luk-e-Acts:Pivotal Valuesof the Meditenaneanworldý" in TheSocial 11b4d Luke-Acts:Alodelijor Interpretation. while being a widower. lacks the protection of a male. This is why B.the Church"74 If Malina's and Ne)-rcy'ssocial readingof Mary's statusis correct. J. according to Malina and Neyrey "defendsthe honour of Jesusby guardingthe shameof Mary and by locating her in a new family. In other words. when presentingthe said characters. Luke even takesit a step further by naming someof the women who were involvedL In contrast.

. brothers Jesus Jesus' the of as and Third. if Reumannis correct in saYingthat the reason for the Lukan redaction of Mark's and Matthew's version of Jesus' family is to project a more positive image. 78PL Dauckham. the referencesto and naming of relatives of Jesus in the Gospel traditions indicatesthat theywcre well-known figures in the early church:ý" and that the popularity of Jesus' relatives may have had real influence in the period of the developmentof Gospel traditio. rather than emphasisingthe separateidentities of Mary as Jesus' mother. 57.p.The authorunderstandsthat the picture of unanimity betweenthe Eleven 75PL Bauckham.p. .an image probably understood in terms of the family's reservationsagainst Jesus and his by (cf been MIL has 3: idea image 31-35). 56. brothers.Jude and theRelatisrs ofJesus. Ibc author picks the right place to relay such an ecouragingscene.with his family -. He states that. 77R. Gospeltradition in generalconfirms this. then tradition could have originally known the familywith a passive or negative image .N-as not entirely smooth Lukc's. -During his ministry Jesus' "75 7: 5).-nthe negativeimageof Jesus' family may be related with the way the book of Acts has sho%%n that at least one of Jesus' brothers endedup as 76 leaders.Jude and Me Relafivri qfJesus. 7t. already reiterated earlier be Jesus' brothers" in (especially 1: 14) understood as referring to a group -a can and "family group".Bauckharri. John 1.L78 From the ideaswe have presentedaboveove can now draw someprobablereasons asto why the Elevenapostlesare projectedto have unanimity uith the women disciplesand Jesus' family in the upper room. p. 56.attemptto mellow dov.Jude and the RelativesofJesus. I'lic role of Jamesin the Jerusalemcouncil in Acts 15.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 152 "Mary in the that phrase the we submit ritual elementssection). 3: 19b-2 (Mark relationship. ". . 6: 4. This supported ministry of a negative Bauckharn's study of Jesus' relatives. g. Again Bauckbamargues great church that.

Acts ofthe Apostles. Barrett. p. sbriginaUy pubhshed in 1889. the notion of unanimity betweenthosewho are gatheringtogetheris obsolete. Our argument is not hollow. E. voL 1. 23. 63. NVefind concrete e%idencein the way the author emphasisesUs sceneof unanimity betweenthe Eleven and the two disciple groupsin Acts 1:14. Commentatorsagreethat while the word bpo0upaS6v may have originally meant "%%ith one accord" or "%%ith one mindý" its presentusagein the NT is none other than the simple "together. In the RST context. The author uses the unusual word btLoOWaS6v(-%-." To them. A. In other words.80Hatch arguesthat bjioOWcc86vstartedto lose its 79E-9-C K. the meaningof bjioOupaS6vhas lost its original force and hasbecome greatlyweakenedin the NT. Ncuumn and E. Ilis vicw was originally proposedby Ed%. . I fatcI4 Essays in Biblical Greek (Amsterdanx Philo Press.79 In his book Essa)-sin Biblical Greek which investigatesthe value and use the Septuagintfor of understandingthe meaningof words and psychologicalterms in Biblical Grcck. The next sectioninvestigatesand explainsthis evidence. A 7rallator's Handbook on the Acts ofthe Apastles (na. 5.3. p. Nida.2 ' 090OWa86v in Luke-Acts. 89.: UBS.Eitrada: From Followers To Leaders 153 and the two influential disciple groupswould be very helpful for the apostleswho are about to have an audiencewith the one hundred and twenty brethren (and the wider Christian community) in the upper room (Acts 1:15-26). ith one accord" or "%vithone mind") in order to convey the idea that the apostles have the backing of these two influencial groupsas the Elevenproposeto take the unprecedentedstepof choosinganother apostleto replaceJudas. these two disciple groups serve as ritual elementswhich the initiands take with them as they arc about to go throughwhat is apparentlya difficult ritual confrontation. p. 1972). kin Hatch and has becomequite influential in Lucan studies. 1970). D.

9. 16:10. 22: 10. in Indeed. "As in Nurn. TheActsofthe. 15:2. 24:24 where fit bjioOWa86Y the context -. ornrr.p. Jer. It is interchangedwith in in 3.56. 1 Esdr. 34:15. p. 3 Mac. which the strict etymological meaning Together with the word's but the in bpoftpab6v NT. J. 86 meaning of "%&ithone accord" is clearly inappropriate for the contexts concerned. 4postles. It "83 "together. thirty-six there writings. 4: 12. 13:6. Larn.p. Hatch else the that mean nothing can occurrences concludes simple "together. . 9:32. P. KennyA StylometficStudyofthe New Testament(OxfordL ClarendonPress. It He in IXX. bgooWcx86v Rom. The employmentof blioGWaS6v in the LXX is its inconsistent.1 Sum 30:24. 3: 18. 21:26. 34:15. 18:5.j bpoOuVc&v dLRtOavE). 24:17. Exod. otpaw)io t ixt tit ofjpavoýj bpo0vga86v " (tMa=mt placetogetherunderheaven? Englishtranslationsfrom Sir LancelotCL Brenton.seeA. 31:38.5. 26: 24. e. extending this observationinto the NT raises some significant questions. TheSeptuagint%*h.") 93Suchasdpa in Gen. Num 19: 8. For Acts. 13:17. 72.6. 38:33. citn6 %6 icaTA -0 atn6 Exod. 38:33. Job 6:2. 5:50. However. and shall afflict the Hebrews. Wis. Job 2: 11 (-They madean appointmenttogetherto cometo voice of their taskmaster. '*For example. the translating word %%ith etymological varied and some cases. Dunn. in book from 6. "%%ith used three the observations: cites one accord" primary notion of to translate Hebrew words which means simply "together. occasions: are 27:21. 9:38.Essaysin Biblical Greek. I latch. and 12. 32Replaces either-or.they hem not the -). 6:2. 2:8.NunL 24:24. 64. and shall afflict Assur. Jud. Job 3: 19C*Tberethe prisonersam at casetogether.andthey shall perishtogether"(cttyuAbpokVaMv dLxOXOiw=1). 15: the of the are one. etc. )].154 Eitrada: From Followers To Leaders " is 1. 40: 13. in Dcut. 6:39. &7Dunn believesthat bpcoWaMv is typical of LA-e but fails to explain why the word umsnot usedin the gospel. 35E."85 Hatch's conclusionhas somemerit.For this discussion. One possibility is that the authordid not want to completelyalter his sourcessincehe wassimply replicatingscenesor eventsfrom Gospel traditions.22: 6. Jos. kid in 9: 2.J.GrandR2pids:zondervan. 7:29.na. 4poc7)pha:Greek YLv69n%x) and English. 4:4. e.g. 17:16. 24:4. Greek occurs contexts words or phraseswhich mean simply other " is impossible. and all his family died at the sametime" (610Sb dIKOCctbw. apart all of occun-cncesof 87 it is in invites doubts Hatch's And the evidence Acts that to obsen-ations. 10:6 "So Saul died."82 2. 16. 17:16.5:46.I Chron.g.1986).or the eventswhich take Strporzd. condolehim andcomfort him. 19:12. 5:5. andhis threesonson that day.17. some $'Includingthe non-canonical 24: 24. Job 2: 11. 26:21. not would accord" one reading as Aith ["And one shall comeforth from the handsof the Citians. Job 38:33 "And you know the changesin heaven.

2-44 ff=v tift %6cttnb. 4:5 CFVVaX"vcLt. 7:57 crVV*1lCrcXv. 5:21 crVWX(iXrja(xv-. 15:9 avyxaWt . "&Opoiýca. p. 15:6 0WxaXcC. 4:24 bpoOWcLa6v. 5. rrmiv-. most of meaning of prefixed action is executedcooperatively. ". oQ 9: 1 aWxa1EcdLpzvo. 4:31 CVVTMLVM.Estrada: From Follourrs To Leaders 155 "togcthce' or The gospelof Luke has at leasttwelve occasions'son which the %vords "-gatheredtogether" rightly translatesits correspondingGreek term. 119." In Lk. However.7-"-4 insteadof a aw-prefix verb placesemphasison the act of "CT)ingout" by the multitude ratherthanon their presenceasa group gatheredtogetherin a context-a-herethey demaiidedfor the releaseOf Barabbasover Jesus. .5: 12 bjjoGvva&y. 10:24 cvyxaUadpzvoq..6 bw*tVctS6v-.. 22:55 aUTM(hadieuov .9 auvr4wittlft.. "Acts 1:6 cvvEX06vmQ1:14bpo0upa86ir. 9tk. is before the retained and the the time. It is also this assumptionthat leadsus to believe that the authorwould not have employedthe word bgooWa86v simply for the convenience 81'rbeRSV's translationsubmitsfifteen. 13:34 t1ncrVVd.15:25 bpo0upat56y. the verb root a verb. 29BA GD. 2 1. " p.-L&OpotCco emphasiscsthe "collective" gatheringof the 89 follows). ten instancesare occupiedby the adverbbpoftgab6v while the rest are againof the ow-prefix 92 verbs.we can assumethat the author was fairly used to employing the cruv-prcftx words in contexts involving the assembling togetherof charactersin a given situation. With the exception of Lk. In the book of Acts.both LIL 6:38 and Lk. ')'Cf "I: W in BDF.TIM tT0. 16:13 auva0oý)=. b90GWa56V.(Xt. 15:6 ovvMOýa(xv-. immediately Evftica Eleven apostles(thus the number most of theseterms are from words with auv-preffixes.not by an individuaL but by groupsto which the prefix avv applies.8. -together the the with" or of carry prepositionauv. 12:12 auvrj0potcptvm. 2:46 bgo()vý=&v-.15:30 cvyayay6v'cE. 24:33 where t0poicylAvouq *uA-. 12:1 k=avmXk-ta6v-. 12:20 bP09ul. 23: 18 can be read without the word "together.2:6 avv4kr. 22:66 aVVtlXft 23:13 aVTKaXWdpEvoQ24: 15cv. 23:18. 8:4 a=6vi.=86V. 4:27 4:26 avM"aav. .3: 11 alwOmper..90 IUV-prefix words arc compound verbs which basically "91 When theseare intention "including. the useof the phraseAvtrPcL't0VU IMPIL. With this proportion (including that of the gospel).24:33 t&mClAY01r. there arc thirty-two occasionsin which the author 'wants to conveythe meaningof charactersbeing or gathering"together. 13:44 awfly (hj. 17:37 kztavmX0flaov=t." Out of thesethirty-two.

T. but emphasisesthe "locality" (hencethe use of bg&5 tni . " and generous What we have here. This the "house" they only uses author were where explains why the %OOF-'Laav. TheActs "spiritual the unity" of says p. convey meaning expressions alternative of is. the narrator describes the same multitude who believe and are converted with the phrase fiaccv W c6 ai). special attention instance: 1." Suddenly. In 2: 1. when involved. aunygtwov. therefore. 20:7 18:12 bgoOu9cc56v. Fitzmyer. For is bonding the to the or unity of group/s given verbs.they wereall in oneplace(ficr(xv'ndvueq ) In 2:6.2. that the the that to say word's etymological meaning. are distinctions in the nature of the gathering. .r6 icat in 2:44. The author simply intends to say that the people were at the sameplace together.uvfi%Oev)into Jerusalemto celebratePentecost. 28: 17 auyKc0Ltaaa0oct. the narrator tells that "when the day of Pentecosthad come. 19:29 bgo0ugcc86v. C.o cciyO). YheActs oftheApostles. having to the possible. cruv8pogý. K. After Peter gives his Pentecostspeech.19:32 a-ove%c. the author bgoO'L)g(x56v in how to to the same crowd who got converted attended referring switches the temple"day by day" and"breakingbreadin their homes. p. I think the matter is irrelevant.215. 30 25: 21: 17 avvcXO6vwv. 213. oftheApostles. TheActs oftheApostles. From a discourselevel. Cf. believers 34. Johnson.949. (c. p. fill Spirit falls fact in to "one" the the that the came place as the emphasis on people were bgoý) (occurs (2: 2b). L. commonly translated as "together.theypartookof food with glad hearts. In 2: 1. 112. 931tsignifies the group's "exemplary unity. or a "house" (crticog)as statedin v. and author understandsand applies 93 to convey the "inner unanimity" betweenthe groups who were gatheredtogether. In other bgo0i)ga86v the the over the more common auv-prefix author prefers adverb words. or 94There is a considerablediscussionon whether the referenceto the "place" meansthe same 66upperroom" (bnepCpov)in 1:14." J. Barrett..19:25 auva0poiaccq. the narrator speaksof the multitude who "came together" bgoV Ent u6 ccbr6). Chapter 2 of Acts has a series of "coming together' scenes. " It therefore.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 156 is "together. not even as a group or a community.

2: 1 and 4:26) is debated its "in Either translation." However. the author usesthe typical cruv. . Chapter 4 gives a clearerpicture of how the author again suddenly switches to the bjtoOugcc86v from have 5. Y." (2:44b) and "they sold their possessionsand distributed to the poor" (2:45). 1QS 1:1. TheActs of the Apostles. partaking of food with glad and generoushearts. p. adverb description which places attention on the act of being "gathering together" (a'uvcxXOfivcct) "This is also probably why the scribesof C3. B.p. and M have maintained bRoO-ORa86v so 1: 14. Fitzmyer." it literally suggeststhat the new believerswere stayingwith eachother or have"continued"to be in 96 the company of each other. "noise" taking the they which was place e. the author uses the phrase ficrow kift T6 ain6 iml similar to v. This explains the corresponding descriptions that "they all held things in common. while the phrase may be translated with the meaning "together. its Hebrew concerning equivalent dxy is somethingmore technical referring to the community at Qurnran (cf. he is not simply creating variety Rather. J. hearing). In the typical a series auv-prefix v.1: 15. completes the whole picture of the people's conversion who were with have and come from different places (2:7-11) but now become a united once scattered believers. he terms." or "in the community. When the author switches to bgoO-oga86vin 2:46." In 2: 44.. we of verbs. ftv simply to indicate that the multitude are assembling together to observe the (i. Again. These new believers "devoted themselvesto the apostles' teaching and fellowship.95In 2:6. precise assembly. 162.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 157 bgoO-o[ta86v instead in 1:14. Witherington. 27 1." (2:47) 2. 3:7). Acts of the Apostles. were phenomenon From the same multitude came three thousand who repented and were baptised (2:41). E.prefix word of once) awil). be to with consistent as 96Tbeconstruct kni 0 cciyw (which appearshere and in 2:47. praising God and having favour with all the people. is Their by descriptions the the of attending of unanimity climaxed community temple "day by day" and with the corresponding communal activities such as "breaking bread in their homes. 1 except for iE(ivrF-q bgoý).

elders and scribes in Jerusalem with Annas the high priest. " rulers leaders HerodandPontiusPilate.who like the rulers. hand. plus the fear of going against the people who found favour for the apostlesafter having witnessedthe healing of a forty year old man. It describesthe gathering of the rulers.were"gatheredtogether" the andwith (auvýXOilcr(xv)in the city of JerusalemagainstJesus(4:25-27). The response includes a quotation from Ps. The agenda is to interrogate Peter and John about their illegal (4: 5-32). author auv-prefix uses words or "place" the the narrator emphasises of gathering (auvýyguot) where as being shakenafter the people who were gatheredhad prayed. John and Alexander. together with the high-priestly family." The samedescription and place is depicted in 5: 12. in describing the the other when assembly. the narrator describesthe friends' responsewith the phrase "they lifted their voices together (bgoOuga56v fipav ýCOVýv) to God (4:24). 2: 1-2 where a typological connection is made between the king during David's [were "gathered time together (cruvýXOqaocv)againstthe Lordj. The people who . because the the of an event. Caiaphas. After hearing their testimony. they releasedPeter and John with a stem caution. The expressionof praise conveysnot only that it was done by a group. but adds substanceto the meaning of unanimity in response to the deliverance of Peter and John from the On leaders. It makes sense to understand the etymological meaning of bgoOugcx86vin 4:24. either a place simple religious is in handily. The two apostlesreturned to their friends and just had they what reported gone through at the hands of the top religious leaders (4:23). the people who witnessedthe healing of the lame man by Peter and John are described as having "run together" (auvýp5vxgcv) to the apostles into a place called "Solomon's portico. Such 4: 3 1. In 3: 11. activities preaching Unable to find any concrete offence.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 158 assembledin a certain locality.

UR(X56vin describing the group and their activity. house "gathered This John.uga86v." This time. the the the of group. emphasis on the unanimity of the apostleswho were gathered in Solomon's portico. a place where the apostlefound his support group praying for him. Solomon's for is distinction Nevertheless." Their unanimity is further enhancedwhen the narrator describes how the people held the apostlesin "high honour" (5: 13). his the Peter to the tells the that of narrator readers went straight escaped. the author employs bgoO-oga56vinstead of the sun-prefix word he used in 3: 11 despitehaving mentioned the samelocation. however. One may think that this is the perfect occasion 97 have by which the author might wanted to emphasise the group's unanimity. After Lord's from that the the realising of angel prison away house Mary. The author employs cruvijOpotcrgbot ic(A irpoccuX6gF-vot instead of b[toO. . It also for When Rhoda. appearance and a member story surprise of sets up her. the author places portico. door before Peter the group was still the and saw already standing she answered in (12: 13 prayer engaged -17). not even the occasion when groups are said to have gathered to pray is described by the author with bgo0. The focus falls on the place where Peter had gone to. this is not always the case. In 5: 12. Take for example 12:12 where Peter walked he had by help (12: 6-11). Finally.cCov dared not to join them. together' the and were were was place where many of mother praying.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 159 had just witnessed the signs and wonders of the apostlesare said to have gatheredtogether in "Solomon's portico. Unfortunately. The fear heard having the the to the speaks of probable of people approach after context apostles in death Ananias Sapphira 5: 1-11. the the reason clear. the of and of The function of bgo0ugoc56v also XotnCov) "who distinguishesthe apostlesasa unified groupin contrastwith "the rest" (. 97Compare 1:14.

10:2 1. where see common narrative construct. 59. which suggestseschatologicaljoy in the presence The Acts Cf. In 2:44. etc. language The "and they that same messageandwere convertedand themselvesto . Apostles. 19:5. 64. ofthe the p.47. signs and wonders. 2:41b) who received the apostle's devoted baptised day. the death of Ananias and Sapphira had caused great fear (ý6po. M. 30:7. 9:2. A Translator's Handbook on TheActs ofthe Apostles. 14. Nida. 20: 1. gtyaq) upon himself God had Spirit Peter lying Holy this the they and against sold. there were those (numbering about three thousand. prayer" in 2:42 is used by the narrator as in 1:14. them. . sees as against which It is the awe of God and his righteousnessthat has overcome those who have heard of such incident. After the multitude who were gatheredtogether listened to Peter's speech(Acts 2: 14-40). Lord. M. continuously Newman and E. co) while God. uses mean gathering ab. t7ft To 16. 39: 16.%Xciu rtpaca icoft u7jgCta) which 98 by the apostles. fiaccv ft dt he states that "all who believed were together (Icdcv.44. land Keeping the the the to themselves proceeds of of some whole church. bgo0ugoc56v in he 46 to the rejoicingý . 1: T. 990r "gladness" from the word &yccX%t6 ort. p. Johnson. with v. the narrator he fear (ý6poq) impression his to that the the as readers or awe came upon people gives immediately reports the many wonders and signs (no. we can employed: 1.prefix words or any other author of prefer will been bgo0i)g(x86v has features however. of Pss. were perfomied The narrator usestwo ways to describethe gathering of those who believed. an "The force of the imperfect tensetyiveco is such as to indicate that the apostleswere filled B. 12:5.. MaTEEý)OVEFE. Compare LXX L. the and amongst praising of generosity In Acts 5: 12. In contexts where people respondto the preachingof the word. that the and constantly with causing miracles wonders and people were awe.. 9 feasting. Lk. Come 2:43.160 Estrada: From Followers To Leaders While there is no clear pattern by which we can predict when and at what context bgoOug(x56v Luke-Acts the over the cmv .

H. ca noUct) that were done by the apostles among the people. '00Witherington views that "the signs and wonders are not done within the confmes of the house church but amongthe 'people' (Xcc6. not yet 10'Heidlanddescribesthe substanceof bpoO-ogcx56v in thesethree examplesas "stressing the inner unanimity in responseto" the teaching. 5. vol. The narrative talks of Peter by healing boldly They Jesus. The bid to stop the two apostlesin their activity was healing the The the two the of witnessed who of amongst people popularity unsuccessful. The Acts Apostles: A ofthe p.preaching. in this case. longer.24). man caught attention of activity crippled temple.4: 24 is a "unanimity in response"to something. " B. In Contexts of Praise. Just like 2:46. . converts. Heidland. John a signs also about performed were preaching who and (4: 5-11). " in TDNT. which here must surely meanthe Jewish people who are Socio-Rhetorical Commentary. Acts 4:24 is in some ways similar to the first three passages. This event is presentedby the narrator as having taken place after the scattering of those 101 from Saul's persecutionof the church (8: 1-3). This the the the the of captain priest. Witherington. The narrator describesthe friends' responsewith a "united (bgoOuIta86v) lifting of voices" in praise to God (v.accompaniedby signs and wonders. pp. 185-86.). and the Sadducees(cf 4: 1).5: 25.rtpa. the multitudes of Samaria found themselves being "with one accord (bgo0ugot56v) in responseto Philip's preaching of the word and the signs he performed. W. "bpoftgaMv. John from holding Peter the much and protagonists the crippled man prevented They were eventually releasedand the two headedback to their friends. He adds that these 100 ftoO-oga56v) in Solomon's with the apostles portico. who were on the run 2. The narrator begins by reporting the "many signs and wonders" (aijgEia xocl .Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 161 The incident is immediately followed up by the author with a summary statement (5: 12-16).it is a responseto the testimony of Peter and John. and 8:6. 224. testifying of what had just happened(4: 13-25). people were all together In Acts 8:6.

"The Letter of Aristeas. I 10-11. 1913). 1935). contain is from he it. Seealso. into from burst king tears the of everyonewho are presentmade exaltations and praises From thereon. his this very pleased with extending gratitude even to them. Meecharn.102The word bgo0uga56v in this epistle is found in line 178." in Charles. and while the fifxxv is bgo0uga56v in literal 4: 24 Ocovýv the more rendered with combination bgoO. are and envoys Alexandria and personally hand over gifts of parchments. are present envoys and all who express king shouted out "at one time with one voice (bgoOugcx56v):God save the King! " These joy.is with his companion Andreas.Lp(x56v kv M ar6gaTt 5okdcýijcp-(that together you may with one voice glorify). speakingin the first person. p. TheApocrypha and Pseudepigraphaofthe Old Testamentin English. the king has decreed to make that day a great day in their history. While the contexts are different. the intention of inviting a united declaration ofpraises to God are identical. A good example outside the NT is in the Letter of Aristeas. the and gratitude. Eleazar. vol. These valuable parchments in inscribed finally in king Jewish When Law.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 162 The rendering of bgo0ugoc86v as a "united voice" here in 4:24 finds an almost similar expression in Rom. gifl sees the couriers of the parchments. 2 (Oxford: Clarendon Press.H. p. 15:6. R. Seven times. We pick up the story from line 172 where the narrator. 25.TheLetter ofAristeas: A Linguistic Study with Special Referenceto the Greek Bible (Manchester:ManchesterUniversity Press. . The high during the their treated treatment course of with respect and receive special are couriers stay. 102 H. the the characters written and gold.togetherwith some heavy dispatched by They Eleazar to meet with the King of security. the king bows down before the couriers to joy before his Seeing the this.

good make Sendingthe Pro-Consul'sheraldto the waiting crowd. The next set of b9o0uga86v passagescome from a context opposite to the previous two classifications we havejust mentioned.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 163 3. Likewise. The narrator statesthat when this from living been heard herald. the father of the Christians. and thus. The Pro-Consul has threatenedPolycarp with death through wild beasts. However. who teachesmany neither to offer This " to multitude then askedPhilip the Asiarch to let loose the wild worship'. This time. of 18:12 and 19:29. but by angerand rage. united themselves to mount an attack against the apostle. by Finally. relate the two instances where the audience of Paul's teaching were offended. crowds of by the preachingsof Stephenand Paul. not by signs and wonders or praise. the unity of the people is instigated. In 7:57. The narrative goes on to say that in the presenceof the ProConsul. nor sacrifice beaststo devour Polycarp. the heraldbreaksthe news that Polycarp has strongly confessedbeing a Christian. Polycarp is being asked to renounce his faith while the crowd who were eager to hear of his defenceawaits outside the court. In Contexts of Anger and Rage. such an act would . Pro-Consul has Polycarp to the challenged as was up on given consumed his threats. And if Polycarp despisesthe beasts. the destroyer of our Gods. he will then have to be he fire. Striking similarities are found between the martyrdom of Stephenand that of Polycarp. heathen in Jews has "all the the of and multitude news Smyrna cried out with uncontrollable wrath and a loud shout: 'This is the teacher of Asia. 7:57 speaksof the martyrdom were enraged people by Stephen in the the united effort of people stoning the disciple to death. The use of bgoOvgcx56vin contexts of groups united by rage againsttheir opponents is also evident outside the NT. and 19:29.18: 12. The only difference between these two accountsis that in the latter Paul was able to avoid hann due to the wise counsel of the other disciples who were with him. becausethe hunting time is closed.

tCbv)and are accompany to serve as witnessesthat indeed the letter of instructions pertaining to believers' dilemma by from Apparently. the sight of imagesof men being brought into the city was a blatant attack againsttheir .the sight of throwing men to be devouredby wild beastsfor the pleasureof spectatorsis a challengeto their custorn. good 103 Other classic examplesinclude Josephus'Antiquities 15:277. However. idols. and men come choose one accord us. was were objectionable Herod noticed the Jews' anxiety and displeasureagainsthim and his trophies. blood from to the eating of strangledanimals. what was most by display in belief images the trophies the that they surrounded of weapons. to to the these very offensive were spectacle very entertaining wild to the natives of Jerusalem. These two are describedto be chosen"from among their own men" (tickekagtvoug dv5paý tk four Paul Barnabas Antioch.the Jews. The to the to was and mission of (xb. displayed for people to seeincluding other precious stonesand highlights fight included Other the to each other and men against combat of condemned men garments. In Contexts of Petitions and Appeasement. The multitude then "found it good to cry out with one mind fto0uga56v)" 164 that Polycarp should be burnt alive. "cried Jews The one out with voice vgcc56v)"that although everything else might be people. For the Jews. but found foreigners be All beasts. and sexual sacrificed The context speaksstrongly of the need for the apostlesand elders to assembleand "it in The decision believers. tolerated. were of nations which structures. every lavish in be They large the to occasionsand plain. a manner of execution which Polycarp himself has seen 103 through a vision. The author explains that on built in Jerusalem holds He Herod in honour Caesar. Herod did not succeedin his attempt to pacify the (bgo0. were made of pure gold and silver. council order appease gentile make a having (bgoOug(x86v) them to to to to send you. 4. who arrived and taught them disturbing instructions about the partaking of food immorality. and amphitheatre were reckoned great and in These All Herod trophies the theatre trophies the around won war. he thought it best not to force the trophies againstthem and therefore made reassurancesto the Jewish leaders in the hope of winning back their confidence. the teachers. theatre fifth a athletic competitions of year. there not sanctioned council. However.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders be illegal. The narrative in Acts 15 tells of the coming together of a group who neededto appeasean offended party. to the seemed states. were some genuinely came the council. 15: 22-29 speaksof the letter from the council of apostlesand elders to the gentile believers concerningthe choosing of Silas and Judas(also called Barsabbas).

On the concept(although in a negativeway) "men and women should not at all follow the samepursuits 'with one accord' (6go0uga56v) with all their might. Finally. 4:24. T. Third. Fourth. B. we note the following observations:First. This leads us to see how bpOuga86v functions in 1:14." Plato on LawsVII: 805. 34. it is ' 05 distinct to the With these show unanimity of opposing or socially also used groups. the word is exclusive in showing the unanimity of has not been applied to individuals assemblingor meeting people in groups. 12:20. OgoO-ogcx86v together. Second. Johnson.Acts 1:14. be stripped down of the lavish garmentsand weaponswhich adomed them. as we room.TheActs of the Apostles. Presumablybecausethey do not emote feelings and inner views in order to expressunanimity. 8:6 15:25. for their opponents-Acts 7:57. From our study of the use of bgo0uga56v in Acts and in some classical examples.we are confident to say that Hatch's conclusion about bgo0uga56v in the NT idea being is bears the together simple of weak. Witherington.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 165 11In other words. which 5. Its distinction lies in the specific reasonwhy the narrator calls for the unanimity of the charactersin the In have other words. TheActs ofthe Apostles. observations. 18:12. 104For the believers. 5: 12. The following employed are possible scenarios: finally Herod summonedthe leadersof the Jews into the theatreand ordered for the trophies to custorn. While it is the first instance in Acts where the word is used. the word has been 104 describe believers to but the used unanimity not only with also with their opponents. L. g. p. the apostlesand eldershad to come together for a consensusin order to solve the presentproblem with the gentile Christians.3. the agendain Acts 1:14 is not as clear as the others. it appearsto be quite distinct from the others. 2:46. 19:29. the call or reason for unanimity is often times compelling and urgent. 113.it is not used for inanimate characters. p. (Loeb . enumeratedthe various reasonswhere the author upper bpto0ugoc56v. 105E.3 O[toO'ogcx86vin Acts 1: 14.

This scenario is indeed very attractive. 1:15). to replace Judas which we expect to occur before the occurrence of bgo0ug(x56v) then. Peter gives a speech(1: 16-22 H 15:7b-11). A quotation the among from Scripture is given (1:20 H 15:16-18). most of our was expressed.rCov)and are to accompanyPaul and Barnabasto own men" (tx.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 166 First. in Antioch. TheMat?yrdom ofPolycarp 12:3. While the two storiesindeedexhibit someparallels. and whole church responseto the need of choosing and apostles. . Judascalled Barsabbasand Silas were chosen"from among their dv5pag tk oci). disciples Christians the to tackle the two the gentile problem with sending happens Judas' in before the the replacement upper room about even problem unanimity 86v it bgo0ugo: To examples state their put more precisely. also. Both mentionthe presenceof groupsor parties(1:13-14H 15:5-6). There is the "gathering together" to consider a matter (1: 14 H15:6). Because 1: (that 14 this the problem concerning the need we not participants. Classical Library). For one. %F-kocgbo-oq Antioch (15:22b). is beforehand followed demand by then to the which unanimity amongst the need reasons do find in is. expressesthe unanimity of the as with same in in Acts 15 the elders. there must be other compelling reasonswhy the author has opted to use the word. the call for unanimity in the upper room is in responseto the need to elect Judas' replacement. Peter stands brethren (1: H 15 15:7). (Loeb Classical Library). After the gathering.their differencesare also clear in such a way that the reason for the use of bgoO-oga86vin 1:14 may not necessarily be bgo0uga86v Acts 15. Both assembliesparticipate in the choosing of at least two men from amongstthem (1:23 H 15:22). Both contexts speak of Jerusalem as the place of gathering (1: 12 H 15:2b).just as the replacement disciples in Judas the the the upper room (a company of one chosen among was rest of of hundred and twenty. For example. its context exhibits striking similarities with the narrative of chapter 15. the unanimity of the heathenand the Jews in their bid for Polycarp to be immediately executed. In that of other words.

the What that. If this assumption is correct. . then we have bgo0uga56v in its proper place. i..why would even in be if to the they were not recipients of the unanimity apostles characters with group inclusion it is While the true that the of other reader eventually understands commission? 106 it does divine instructions. . and include into have Jerusalem. but also for the differences had long been the groups represented about understood which social of mending in the upper room. recipients only before had brothers Jesus Jesus' the apostles the and only enter scene after ascended. In other words. the author attempts to show that the preparation events in Acts 1 included both the replacementof Judasand the election of Matthias stones (1: 1526). The Mary direct the of mother of commission women. reader understand unanimity call narrator and Jesus' commission in 1:8 or in solving the problem about Judasin 1:15-26. others. 206. first by by by but borne Jesus' then testimony of all apostles. 106AsFitzmyer argues. bgoO-ogcc86v The last plausible option is to understand that the reason for bgo0ugoc86v's is both itself. the breaking down of social barriers betweenthe known groups of Jesus' followers. TheActs ofthe Apostles. after the for Yet the the of again."It must now spreadabroad (the news of Jesus' resurrection) through followers. of which presents also in Jesus."J. In the other the returned narrator otherwords. Fitzrnyer. e. this scenario calls unanimity participants. Jesus' not comply with the of still characters as recipients features have we mentioned earlier on the characteristic use of narrative common in Acts. lies Acts 1: 12-14 the we mean confines of within employment in to for the that the response not only applies.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 167 The other option is to understandthe commission of Jesusupon his apostlesin Acts 1:8 as the reasonfor the need to have unanimity amongstthe charactersin the upper room. . they are all to such becomeministers of the Word. and crucially. eventually which reason is legitimate fact One the the that the were apostles some questions. Jesus' 1: 8. p.

4 Summary. 4: 1-13.the author also finds the influential standingof the womendisciplesandJesus'family within the Christian key to the community's acceptanceand approval of the apostles' succession as community to Jesus'leadership. status is unclear and undefined. the call for unanimity even between different parties. 5.As we havementionedbefore.this is typical of bgoO-ogcc56v contexts.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 168 The author of Luke-Acts achievestwo significant goals in mentioning the unanimity in the of parties the upper room. This assumption. The road to completion involves experiencing that stateof liminality and communitas. Acts 1:12-14 is the first phase of the apostles' stage of transition in the rituals of status transformation. the fullness of their statusdoesnot come until they complete the ritual of status transformation. Despite being by commissioned Jesusto be his witnessesin Acts 1:7-8. 4: 1). the two disciple groups already find favour for the Eleven apostles. ritual as prepare of ritual enter phase crucial Jesus' ritual confrontation was with his encounter with the devil in Lk. First.. the apostles as initiands now have on their side Where into they to the elements confrontation. Jesuswas fullness likewise. In this phase. Second. can family disciples Jesus' the the sudden mention of groups of women as those and explain in in before Acts 1: 15-26 Matthias the the upper room and the election of present in Spirit 2. e.therefore. This in turn suggeststo the audiencethat whatever is about to take place in the upper room. The their the the enter stage with of apostles. the of chapter outpouring From the perspective of the RST.the initiands. . he is able to show that the Eleven apostlesenter the "court of reputation" (Acts 1:15-26) with the backing of two important disciple groups. i. Spirit (Lk. equipped be two of the of what could equipped confrontation with approval and recognition of ritual the most significant disciple groups (apart from the apostles)in the Christian community.

Jesus' women and The author employs the unusual word bgoO-ogcx56vwhich translatesas "with one accord. This the relations. 13). The sight of these two disciple groups having unanimity with the Eleven apostles conveys approval and social . into by has tapping the web of social networks through which the women achieved author disciples and Jesus' family may have played influential roles. the probability of the Christian community acceptingtheir leadershipstatusis no longer remote. This concept of communitasbecomesmore prominent when contrastedwith how the author has opted to simply mention the other charactersin v. We urgency or groups proposed that with social occasions the author wants to convey the unanimity of the Eleven apostleswith other disciple groups have had from the strong reservations may against which the traitor Judas group who belonged. But here in 1:14. This picture of unanimity was instrumental on the part of the author in pursuing his leadership image of the apostles. namely the family. 14 collectively rather than by their names. we know that the author could namenamesif he wanted to do sojust as he did with the women disciples of Jesusin Lk. The preparationis seenin the way the apostles are portrayed as having unanimity with the the two disciple groups. 24. for example. as an We also suggestedthat this first phase of the transition stageprovides the sceneof the initiands' preparationfor the ritual confrontation.sheis mentionednot individual but in the companyof Jesus' brothers. Yet when the apostleshad these two groups behind them. AlthoughMary is mentionedby name. The samegoeswith Jesus'family." This word is apparently used mostly in Acts and only with involving distinct differences. With the women disciples. Within the terms of patron-client the to campaign promote brokers disciple the to the apostles as ought win support of other groups.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 169 The conceptof the initiands' communitasmay be read behind the enumerationof the namesof the Eleven apostles(v. the referenceto the women did not go further other than by stating their presencein the upper room as a group.

ed. Modem social anthropologistshave classified the (characteristics be helpful in our analysis of the narrative networks which will of social characteristics interactional. brokers favours. 12-36. (Manchester. Mitchell.I C. E. Palestine Hanson in in the and and of mutuality size. 4ftican Towns. 1969). 107Anetwork is a "web of relationshipsbetweenany combination of friends. " Social from J. C. .The author hopesthat this will pave the way for other patrons/brokersand their vast nctwork'07of clientele to recogniscthe leadershipof the Eleven apostles. "The Concept Use Social Networks. Douglas. Mitchell. with numerous exchanges of gifts. Networks in and of summarised Urban Situations: 4nalysesofPersonal Relationships in Central. University of ManchesterPress. 200. p. following The discussions 1) Acts two morphological and criteria: were under of in C. pp. clients. D. acts overtime and patrons duration. Time " K.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 170 acceptance. Networks that and commitments. vary may Jesus: Social Structures and Social Conflicts.

We read this group as the representativeof the Christian community in general who were in the hear defence to the prepared room of the apostles. Recalling McVann's description." p. Contrary to the common notion that Acts 1:15-26 is about the reconstitution of the Twelve. we read Peter's speechnot as a speechper se but as an apologetic speech. We say this becauseof the following features in Acts 1:15-26: First. McVann.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 171 Chapter Six 6. In others. same The third factor is the apostles' concessionto resolve the situation. he states. flow is the the text consistent more of narrative see a when viewed as the apostles' same we defence in a "challenge-riposte" situation. and of challenge against apostles' as we leadership integrity. We Peter delivers defence to that the their show acts as apostles' and attempt spokesman will (or riposte) concerning the apostles' relationship with the "traitor" Judas. in others. This phase is the ritual confrontation. is have basis honour the the the proposed. Certain status transformation rituals require some form of mock battle or hostile confrontation as a final step in the initiand's achievementand public recognition of the new status.there is the presenceof the rest of the one hundred and twenty brethren.1 The Ritual Elements in Acts 1: 15-26. however. there is controlled and highly focused ' hostility in tension expressionof and such as occurs a challenge-ripostesituation. This relationship. In some instancesthere is real violence. Second. only playful and harmless insults. .and the 1M. This involves two important steps:the immediate excommunication of Judas from the apostolate. After the Eleven have securedthe support of the two disciple groups (the woman disciples and Jesus' family) they now enter the secondphase in the Transition stage. "Rituals of StatusTransfonnation in Luke-Acts. 340.

we will present issues in bringing intend backdrop the to this social out use conceptualmodel as a we in embedded the narrative of Acts 1:15-26. there is the apostles' move to place the responsibility upon God to make the final choice from the two candidatesfor Judas' replacement. Matthias. setting up of do not only serveasguidelinesin choosingthenew apostlebut asa crucialmoveon the part of the Eleven to assurethe community that the traumatic experiencecreatedby Judas will by fact is Eleven The happen the the the concession of even sustained again. the Joseph the and casting of characters of conducted be descriptions hundred their twenty thus will and people are secondary and one incorporated into the ritual processsection. This move not only exonerates the Eleven from their shameful association with Judas but also gives the by God. on part not that they do not choose the twelfth apostle themselvesbut by simply putting forward the final two candidates. a of concept on situation. the assurance new apostle was chosen community fears of another "Judas" within the apostolateare remote. lots. Fourthly.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 172 We in Judas' the suggestthat the criteria strict criteria choosing replacement. because divinely their the that. . The Barsabbas. The next section enumerates the ritual elements of Acts 1:15-26. by the the was and manner which replacement characters of God. Judas. This includes the for Judas Peter. In order to fully grasp the atmosphere of a confrontation in a challenge-riposte honour As brief discussion the and shame. stated.

222. From a conclusion room. until they are aggregatedand formally stand in the presenceof the multitude in 2: 14.g. When Peter stood up "among the brethren" (1: 15) and gave his first speech. Joseph Barsabbas. the apostlesare the focus of the narrative.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 173 6. We find Peter portraying the role of a spokesmanfor their As we have proposed. Donfried. TheActs of the Apostles. and Matthias) are. thus. 4Cf. ordained p.the apostles. other characters as the not 3 family. TheActs ofthe Apostles. the one hundred and twenty people serve as the body Christian hear the to the case of the apostles concerning community who are representing their defenceon the challengeagainsttheir honour and leadershipintegrity brought about by their associationwith the betrayerJudas. Dunn.commentators conclude that Peter acts as a leader2of the one hundred and twenty people who were in the fit Such does in to the the text. vol. V. 4 groUp. 2E. .p. The womendisciplesand Jesus'family serveas witnesses and support group for the defendants. See also K. Peter. "Peter. we can see how the plot which we have suggestedearlier works well.P. in behalf for and of the subject of the narrative . speaks When viewed from this perspective. not seem scenario we see upper the very time the apostles were introduced by the author in Acts 1:3. 253. p. therefore. Fitzmyer.1. It is therefore more plausible to suggestthat all the author speaksof in Acts 1-2 centreson the Eleven apostlesof Jesus. Jesus' hundred the one women. and twenty persons. The subject of the narrative is but involved (such The the other group of any people apostles. J. all but secondarycharactersor play supporting roles. 18. 3Which would probably include the women and Jesus' family in the count.1 Peter As Spokesman. The election narrative of 1:15-26 is not an exception." in ABD. J. The presenceof these two disciple groups in the "court of reputation7'helps to strengthenthe credibility of the Eleven apostlesas the lead Christian to the group community in the temporary absenceof Jesus.

casting of made ruling 8 is lot. "Joshua. 5CEIntroduction section at 1. 602. 6E.26:55-56. gNurn. 24 1. division by For land This suggested example there the of the among the tribes way. Josh 18:6. . The use of lots in judicial decisions within the OT is found in the story of Achan (Josh 7: 10-21). 1 Chr. practice was What is quite important in the Hebrew-Jewish tradition in the use of lots is its theological significance. the procedureassociated with the transfer of tribal land 6 Josh. Kitz. Lev. the decision between the two goats on the Day of Atonement. A. Yahweh legal At times. but the awarenessof divine presencein the lot is entirely confined to the rememberedancient instance. The need for a supernatural intervention on crucial decisions.5. p.1. tails you lose" story of the Midrash Rabbah. 1: 1. 9"Yahweh's right to bestow the land as a gift. 18: cf. and 18:9-10.2 Election by the Casting of Lots.6. 7"HeadsI win. Rast. Another significant ritual elementin this phaseof ritual confrontation is the use of the lot in choosing the apostle to replace Judas. Josephus'Antiquities 7:7.366-67. 26: 13. 25:8.g. the decision to cast lots to determine God's choice of the replacing apostle has two underlying intentions: (1) to allay the fears of a "Judas" comeback. human influence lots the the most welcome the any out of outcome. M. "Undivided Inheritance and Lot casting in the Book of rights. For the lot in legal decisions. 9 land God's by the recipient. p. where the technical legal questionslead to the idea of the division of Canaanby lot. to they are with metaphor of which relation.Lam. Joshua. and also the distribution of priestly tasks in the temple.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 174 6. the the context of confrontation with or with within 7 for playful purposes. reputation of The following section looks into the backgroundof the casting of lots. Baba Bathra 106b (division of land among the heirs).2. 16:8. Also. As we have initially proposed.2." in Harper's Bibile Commentary. the choosing between David and Jonathan (I Sam 14:40-42)." in JBL 119/4 (2000). and (2) to repair the damageJudashad done to the 5 by the apostolate electing a righteous and trustworthy replacement. " W.6 The casting of lots in Hebrew and Jewish religious life has also been used decisions. There may have been a that the gift and not achieved was in Greek "inheritance" the therefore. seeb.

that term either cometo of side or not person's fall by God " Thus.520-2 1. 1.34. Scholars therefore lot forth" is "the in like I QS 5: 3 9: 7 the texts that phrase comes and metaphorical suggest loAristotle. the "lot of the righteous and the lot of the wicked" (seeBarthelemy and Milik . pp.3 . 13:5. 8. . The choice of responsible officials attributed by 10 is illustration. cf I QH 3:22-23. seealso "Roman Egypt" by Frank F. Solon Also in situations of conflict. Abbott and Alan Johnson. 18:1. Thus. Discoveries in the Judean Desert. the ambition to Aristotle to a good " desire in be found Homer's the to evaderesponsibility can seize power.. and writings. 121QS 1: 9_11.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 175 linguistically related. the statementin Ps. . see YheDecalogue 4.2 (Collection in Prayers). Ath.9. "He has cast the lot for them. 4:24. 78. seealso the referencesin Plutarch cf Timoleon 31. 13:12). the text in Isa. 16:5 "The Lord is my chosenportion and holdest thou cup.25 1. The "men of Liturgical cf.VII. 1'Horner 11.16).3-4. The use of lots in relation to the divine eschatologicaldecision of God is particularly in Qumran the writings. 1. 34: 17 is important.God's lot will decidethe lot has destiny. 3:24. I Qsa1:9. DamascusDoc. On Philo's awarenessof the uncertainty of the lot. Resp.or rise from the placeof his lot" (I QS 2:23. related phrases of God's lot and the men of Belial's lot (I QS 2:2. mean from his station. cf. Municipal Administration in the RomanEmpire (Princeton." Thus. The dualistic concept in Qumran bears the language of common "two lots. it " to them the they out with shall possess portioned In the Greco-Roman world. the casting of lots was strongly associatedwith the fatalistic apprehension of the divine. my my lot . 1QM II. 4: 13). 170-79. I QS 2: 17." is significant. one finds the phrase"the lot of the sons of light" in contrast to the "lot of the sons of darkness. his hand has line. "No "the the one shall either station assigned within community.however. that the lots are God's decisions and they do not necessarilyrepresenta strongdualism. 1926). In otherwords.4 [Wemberg-Moller's translation) cf.1. 1QM 13:12. it forever. This ideaof the lot associatedwith God's decision may explain why such a concept is infrequent in the Manual of Discipline where decisions are made by the community. God's The (IQS 4: 25-26)."12 It must be stressed. Used also in great decisions or actions of God.15 1.

Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 176 13 It was the community who stated "the fixed measureof the lot shall go literal. n. 1998). 18. question was reached a majority vote the be Such actual as some reserve.Vol. than be been have today to rather oligarchical called what would closer procedure may democratic. Alexander and G.P. 14IQS 4: 18f (Wemberg-Moller's trans. literal casting Of Doc." in Discoveries in the Juddean Desert. and cf. XIX: SerekhHa-Yahad and Two Related Texts. p. 16. with viewed should a conclusion another matter. (13:3-4) the term "lot" is used to mean decision and not the is by in decision "Whether the Again Beardsleestates. especially in the Qumran community ."Qumran Cave 4. 92. "Suggested long ago by Solomon Schechter. and not forth with regard to every matter." in NovT4 (1960). The suggestion that the casting of lots. Alexander figurative and or metaphorical was recently challenged primarily Vermes. 15. Wernberg-Moller.) cf. XXVI (Oxford: ClarendonPress. widespread . 134. Vermes that Alexander From "19 of casting this Community. n. spoken connection with admission of members 15 lotS.21-22. 20AIthoughthe theological meaning of the choice of Matthias is similar to that of the lotdrawing between in Luke Jewish Qumran relations and general apocalyptic examples. p. suggest and it be lots. tradition. p. by P. 1910). possibility cannot ruled and that actual for the lots by (literal)18 divination within the purposes some that used was casting of out 20 in lots the idea.S. have lots thus.52. TheManual ofDiscipline (Leiden. these scholarsclaim be "the identified been from Qumran. 1 (Cambridge. BDB. 222.DocumentsofJewish Sectaries. the relation of the decisions of the priest and that of the 17 is community not clear. However. and at metaphor Qumran is not strongly recommendedsince the understandingof the divine purpose through the lot was 174.Beardslee. 19P. p. n. Vermes. 6: 16. 16W." The word "decision7' is literally rendered "lot" and is 14 Damascus In in the the in community."The Casting of Lots at Qumran and in the Book of Acts. 17Compare I QS 9:7 with column 5. 1957). Wemberg-Moller. "My addition. involved have in Acts 1: 23-26 Matthias actual may the appointment of 13Cf. 248. Vol. In their study of some of the scrolls found in Qumran Cave 4. S. is G." 16 For example. p. p.

Vermes. decision decision God As Beardslee "a the the community" reached which mirrors of means states.we need to know who Judas is by briefly looking into how tradition has portrayed him. In this section. . 6. XIX. and in shaping his story he objectified the mechanism of the divine choice in a literal casting of responsible officials.3.1. 222. " p. "The Casting of Lots at Qumran and in the Book of Acts. not man's. W.C. Alexander and G. " The suffix "Iscariot" is believed to be not originally attached to the name Judas. the surnamemay have been a reproachor (in Torrey's exact words) "an opprobriousappellationgiven the man becauseof his 1122 deed . in the tradition of the Gentile world.the apostles. using the metaphorical language which is evidenced from Qumran. Eleven the the we can show section. 21 fell lots how Judas the to the successor and not simply of . The Qumran example for lots. (3)the the a of of and meaning of meaning 6.1. Luke understood its theological meaning. " "one Twelve.1 The Suffix "Iscariot. especially an eschatological evidence provides by himself. with ritual process will of that indeed such a reputation has sharned. Luke's source told of the decision of the community.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 177 God's lots is it the the as understood predestinedchoice always casting of result of as may. Beardslee. three identifying " (2) be discussed: Judas (1) "Iscariot. 25 1. the the the will meaning of suffix aspects about being being " "traitor. 21p.3 Judas The question of how the reputation of Judashas affected the honour and leadershipintegrity before in be dealt However. "Qumran Cave 4. S. " HTR 36 (1943) 5 8. that this was God's choice. C. Torrey. lot in the the term that practice of and setting. "The Name 'Iscariot'. " p. Torrey there to the that at all evidence no was of related Judas was ever called with the surnameIscariot during his lifetime. 22C. C. Torrey in 1943 from Yale University first proposed that the appellation of the sumame is deed believes because that Judas.

"Judas Iscariot and Abba Saqqara. 27CELk. quoted from W. See p.g. H. Cullmann. vol. Klassen. 1091. hypocrite". Klassen. 122-24.24 In other words. J. p." in JBL 99/1 (1980). name Other suggestionsto the meaning of the surname include: (1) that Judas may have belonged to the group of the "Sicarii" which were known to be "dagger-wielding assassins" probably related to the ZealotS25 26 . and with the addition of the alef. "The Sufft Iscariot. and Judas. 26E. W. also the review of A. "Judas Iscariot. 1987). 15." in JBL 97/4 (1978) 572. 6: 15).Peter Qn.andwhat this surname really means.Barsabbas(Acts 15:22). While this issuefocuseson why Iscariotis attachedto the nameJudas. while it is true the suffix Iscariot may have been derived from the Jewish Aramaic sharai. the absenceof the explicit reasonas to why Iscariot was suffixed to Judas' does not warrant the conclusion that Iscariot is related to Judas' deeds. 1:42). Simon . 1091-92. Arbeitman. Jn. (Freiburg." in ABD.0. 3.the Zealot (Lk. "Judas Iscariot and Abba Saqqara. (2) some believe that it indicates the person's hometown. . liar. pp." 572.there is one simple suggestionthat helps the reader of the narrative. ishqarya meaning "false one.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 178 This proposal from Torrey was later disputed by A. 14:22.Ehrman. Joseph Barnabas(instituted by the apostlesin Acts 4:36). 24A. Acts 1:13. 23A. p.Ehrman. p. 6: 16." pp. Ehrman's study by Y. Boanerges (Mk. 1956). Klauck. Simon ."Judas Iscariot. Torrey has failed to consider the fact that all changesof name or the addition of nicknames in the NT are always explicitly noted 23 Ehrman cites the examples of James and John . sheqarya. 25Cf. 3: 17). TheState in the NT (New York. Erhman who argued that. the surnameIscariot distinguishes the apostle from the other characterswho bear the same 27 name. Judas Ein Junger desHen-n.

" in AITS32 (1986). To them. 14:10. Meye. there are those who finnly believe that the Twelve did really exist. trans. 10:32. 6: 13. 11:11.7 1. 36Seefor exampleW. Judas Iscariot. Bruce on His Wh Birthday. 31Lk. Gasque. W. Luke and ThePeople of God. 22-33. 1996). 30Mt.47 and Acts 6:2. 10:2.Judas: Betrayer or Friend ofJesus? (London: SCM.Jervell." scholars it distinctive term the that the primarily carries with characterand elite nature of the agree 281 Cor. R. F. seven in Matthew3o. 31 32 eight times in Luke-Acts .Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 179 6."Apostles Before and During Paul's Time. 9: 1. M.1.4: 10. p. 35H. Studies on the meaning and function of the title "the Twelve" in the NT have interested been in knowing whether it was coined by the early church or particularly 35 back Jesus himself it Those favouring the early church as the original to whether goes inclined believe title the to that there was actually no exclusive twelve are more of source followers of Jesus. tradition of having twelve tribes the nation of with the probably On the other hand. pp. 6:67. It is a term which does not simply indicate how many apostlesJesushas.17. P. 50305. trained. 22:3.12. himself has handpicked. 34j. . 8: 1. 20: 17. 6:7. Schnackenburg.20. this term is used to refer to the inner circle of Jesus' 33 It designates the special and exclusive group of twelve individuals whom Jesus disciples.5. The term "the Twelve" occurs once in Paul28 nine times in Mark29.: Paternoster:1970). and 43. pp. in. 3449. 19:28. and 47.20. 282. 26: 14. Rather. 34. travelled and lived with through out the course of his public 34 ministry. 32Jn.. 75-79. pp.3. Gasqueand R. 29Mk. . and 37 formed it Jesus his this group to serveas traineesand main proteg6s. (n. 1968). p.Maccoby. Klassen. 33W. "The Twelve and The Phylarchs. the concept of the Twelve was a development of tradition 36 in keeping OT for Israel. 75-79.70. 15:5. that was who Despite the debate on the origin of the title and concept of "the Twelve. Jesusand the Twelve (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. 9:35. 37Forinstanceis R. W. and 20:24.2 One of the Twelve. Kwiran and W.a. Martin. W. eds. Horbury. and four in John . 18:3 1. 4postolic History and the Gospel: Biblical and Historical EssaysPresentedto F..

Lk. Kirk. 4: 10. not place without the accompanying not a good study description of being "one of the Twelve. A. Jn. Towards a Synthesis. The gospels have almost always introduced Judas Iscariot with two accompanying 41 descriptions:the first is that he is oneof the Twelve. In the associated. not main group which served as to be mistaken with the other disciples or followers of Jesus." (Jam. character. therefore. 34. p.43. The fact that an apostle is is identified he Twelve. 40 It is in line with this concept of membership in the Twelve that Judas' character be identity." Cf. from is distinguish Judas Twelve" "one the other the to title the that of not used simply Judaseswho are in the apostolateor are identified to belong in the other group of followers 38CEJ. 14:10. "Apostleship Since Rengstorf. "Apostleship Since Rengstorf. 40j A. Klassen. and strongly any study other words.andthe secondis his act of betrayal. to this goup. that a member of means not only with an as named honour but and with an and elite group which commands group exclusive ordinary 39 has departed has left leadership Jesus especially most after and all responsibility authority. . Jesus' It a group which a class on own. 22:47. 6:70-71. 4'For example is the apostleJameswho is introduced as a "servant of God" yet without the title "one of the Twelve. on should is Twelve" Judas from function "the the conductedseparately of meaning and apostleship of is first in Judas Judas the at all.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 180 38 its is is followers. 41Mt. 39GottfriedSchille (as Klassenquotes)has suggestedthatýto be addressedwith the description "one of the Twelve" is a "current designationof honour" for individuals. p. Kirk. 1:1). A2 the gospels need not be described as being "one of the Twelve. 253." Judas would not have been the popular "betrayer" if he was not a member of the Twelve. the therefore. These descriptions seem to have been exclusive to Judas.Judas: Betrayer or Friend ofJesus." p. His betrayal is not independent from his title "one of the Twelve. the predicate had its origin 66notfixed in a circle of people but from the church's recognition of the earliest followers of Jesus." NTS 21 (1975).26: 14. We propose. Mk. 253. W. .27." Other apostleswho are also introduced individually in .20.

Jesus a was recognisedas Furthermore.1. This suggestion is supported by the two other occurrencesin the NT whereby an is introduced with the title "one of the Twelve" (or a member of the Twelve) apostle identifying in his instance. 22:2b. For Peter's with against of combined the passionnarrativecanbestbe appreciated whenremindedof the scenewherethe apostle " being follower. later Thomas the and of confronted was resurrection doubts by Jesus' personal appearancecomplete with the evidence of the "print of the nails" body Jesus' (Jn.3 The Traitor. 22: 54-62. we suggest that Jesus. the on side" on and 6.the chief priests and the These having destroy Jesus. 22: 1-6. Judas son of James in Lk 6: 13-16. 44Lk. of introducing Judaswith the title "one of the Twelve" combined with his act of betrayal ought to be understoodwith an element of sarcasmsuggestingthe horror of how an apostle who belonged to the inner circle of disciples could have betrayedJesus." After such an introduction the succeeding story presents how this apostle seriously doubted Jesus' from dead disabused his (20: 25). There are four referencesin Luke-Acts which deal with Judas in relation to his betrayal of Jesus: Lk. Rather. a most important example is the first and only instancewhere the apostle Thomas is introduced as a characterin the NT. 22: 1-6 opens the narrative by immediately introducing the brains behind the plot to kill Jesus. 20:24. how to carry out this plan without getting retaliations from the people is anothermatter. .Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 181 43 the sumarne Iscariot is used to serve this purpose. Lk. 45Theretaliation as implied by the phrase"for they feared the people" in Lk. But to the question of groups are portrayed as resolved scribes. denial Jesus "sin" Jesus. Thomas like Judas bears the title "one of the Twelve.45 43Cf.3. In Jn. 20: 26-3 "mark 1).21-23.47-53. and Acts 1:16-20.

in 22:3."Judas Iscariot. All theseelementsindeed lead any readerto agree that there is no better description to depict Judasother than the "traitor. 46 For example. (officers) suggestingthat temple authorities were involved in the plot to destroy Jesus(cf 22:52). p. in presented such a way that he is not to be mistaken with any other characterin the sceneas he is strongly and specifically described as. Cf. 490r as J. 481ncontrast with Mk. 50 . Marshall." inABD vol. All the elements. 50W.(3) Judasis to do this without the knowledge of the crowd. p. however. 3. p. of what is 49 be "verbal in destroy is laid Jesus to a contract" order to out: (1) Judas. addsthe fact that "Satan entered into Judas" (Lk. 46K.(2) Judasfinds the perfect opportunity to betray Jesus. one important aspect in the story which mitigates the role of Judasas traitor. 788. The author. H. the betrayer is Judas' role as betrayer is equally emphasised..9-A7This descriptionis followed up with the phrase"he went away and conferred with the chief priests and officers how they might betray him to them" (22:4)." The Gospel ofLuke. 1093. 47MYparaphrase. " NTS 17 (1970-7 1). The Gospel ofLuke. Hein. The plot to kill Jesushas been finalised and summarisedby the author in 22:6.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 182 By stating this devious plan up front and to executesuch a plot without the crowd knowing it. Luke has the phraseical aWTn7dt'. 14:10 and Mt. and have agreedto reciprocate him with money (22:5). agrees. while indeed portraying Judasas the betrayer.the supposed inside man. p. I. 22:3a) before the deal with the religious leaders was Klassen rightly observesthat "only in Luke does Satanenter contracted. Judas.Klassen. B. 26: 14. "the one no other but Iscariot. . " There is. 752. While the primary responsibility of Jesus' death may rest upon the religious leaders. that who is a memberof the Twelve. 228. "Judas Iscariot: Key to the Last-Supper Narratives?. the author portrays the religious leaders as the ones who are primarily responsible for Jesus' death.48 The story goes on to show that the religious leaderswere glad of Judas' plan of betrayal.therefore. Greenterms it as "human stratagems.

" secondis that the act of betrayal points to no other than Judas. . Maccoby. Green's is He this significant. sets Judason equal footing with the he because Temple the goes to negotiate with and officers of priests chief 51 . and third is that Judas is referred to as "one of the Twelve. ftuthermore. 22:3-6 where Judasis namedas the betrayer of Jesus.Lk. Schille has 51W."Judas Iscariot." in ABD vol. Cf. the extreme treacheryof the apostle's From the descriptions of the author on Judas and his betrayal in Lk. we find the following features: First is the consistent use of the term "betray. We are not suggestingthat Judasis not the betrayer. p. Lastly. 53j. In other words. J. Green. " The next issue we want to resolve now is how these Judasfeatureshave affected the Christian community and the readers of the narrative. 3. 1093. Yhe GospelofLuke.Klassen. 22. the addition of the descriptive phrase"the man called Judas" makes no mistake betray Jesus identify betrayer. Moreover.. Judas Iscariot. passage suggeststhat. since it suggeststhat any one of them is capableof breaking faith with Jesus. 782. to the to the with a attempt author wants as on who "kiss" does not heighten the relationship betweenthe "apostle and his leader" but primarily. 22:21-23 mentions the presenceof a traitor but doesnot identify Judasto be that person at all.. However. 52 Finally. but by his title of being "one of the Twelve" (22:47b). them. the role of betrayal is open to anyone from the Twelve. Judas the to of the scene all make which supposed was manner and his identifies by intense. reversal show Twelve. And rightly so for in the samechapter another"betrayee' comes into the before interrogation leaders by in denies Jesus Jesus' Peter times three the religious picture. 22: 54-62. Recalling what G. we believe that it is more precise to say that Judas' meeting with the religious leaders aims to by from (i. this is troubling.183 Estrada: From Followers To Leaders Although Klassen's comment that "Luke. Luke leavesthe apostlesto discussamongthemselveswho it might be. B. Jesus' the to the one of the camp enemies' camp) allegiance of e. p. The cutting off of the ear betrayal betray by Jesus. on observations the author showsno interest in naming the betrayer. 53 betrayal. H. 52-53. dramatic Here. Green. The Gospel ofLuke. the traitor. 764. 52Unlike in Lk. pp. and his identity is unknown to those at the table. the surname not author and quite Iscariot (as he did in 22:3). p. Lk 22:47-53 speaksof the drama of Jesus' arrest.

in order to fully understand how the apostles strongly defended themselves against the way Judashad tainted their reputation. Therefore. him herself to the society according to the set of values which is understoodby or projects the same society. TheHope of Glo?y: Honour Discourse and New TestamentInterpretation (Collegeville.2. ofMatthew. as much as the number of the apostleswas reducedto eleven becauseof Judas' betrayal and demise. Honour and Shamein the Gospel 5. This understandingof self-worth depends(especially in ancient societies) on the value perceived or acknowledged by the society towards that individual 56 This perception. therefore.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 184 54 honour being Twelve the prestige and suggestedabout of counted as a member of the we . want to know what designation do the Twelve now have in relation to the fact that Judas. Minnesota: Litrugical Press.1. deSilva. also depends on how the individual or group. "honour basically has to do with evaluation and social do What is he How think this people of person? evaluated. p. Neyrey. 57j H. Honour (.3. to his death? We suggestthat. Judas and his apparent membership of the apostolate poses a serious challenge to the Eleven's honour and leadership integrity.and eventually. 56D. p.2. 55TheGreek word meaning"the price and value of something. 1999). Ctýtý55) is the sense of value or self-worth understood by the person or group towards him/herself or themselves. what greatly affected the apostolateis their reputation. "one of the Twelve" led Jesusto his capture. Honour and Shame Defined. 39. A. n. . 817. 6. their honour. 2. and leadership integrity before the Christian community. is one of the primary basesin measuring the person's or 54Seeour discussionin 6. positively or perception: negatively?ý957Honour. p. In Neyrey's words. we need to orient ourselvesbriefly with the concept of honour and shamein the NT period." BAGD. . however.

J. be humiliated. and timidity. seealso Honour and Shame: The ValuesofMediterranean Society. 25-65. " Males concernthemselveswith their duty to protect their wife's.Moxnes. 1998).C. 1981).Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 185 58 the group's social standing within the society. 42. 203.. H. 22 (Washington D. Malina and J. J.Palestine in the Time ofJesus: Social Structures and Social Conflicts. The senseof being concernedwith anything that will bring ill repute to the reputation of the individual. Hellerman. 1991). Social anthropologists of the classical world look at the concept of honour in the Mediterraneanworld as a "pivotal value. TheNew TestamentWorld: Insightsfrom Cultural p. Family and Patronage: A Study ofInstitutions and Moral Valuesin a GreekMountain Community (Oxford: Oxford University Press.. (Peabody." seeB. The sexual division understandshonour primarily as a male aspect. The female aspect honour. connotation The moral division of labour. be be disgraced. J. B. J.: American Anthropologies Association. G. 1987). Honour. or family is viewed as a good quality. " It concernsprimarily with the preservation of the female senseof sexual"purity. . p. Also B. pp.Massachusetts:Hendrickson. Hansonand D. qualities patrons are supposed Shaine. a positive value for females. "For an understandingof the label "Medtiterranean. p. may be defined from two perspectives. Neyrey. 4 1. 4. H. Thus. Although studiesin the concept of honour and shamehave . on the other hand. 1965). 8-9. It is interesting to note that honour and shamealso have a male and female has It two aspects. H.be ridiculed. B. It is the quality of "sensitivity" to the opinions of the society. Honour and Shamein the GospelofMatthew (Westminster: John Knox Press. " in TheSocial World ofLuke-Acts: Modelsfor Interpretation. "Honour and Shame in Luke-Acts: Pivotal Values of the MediterraneanWorld. 217. J." p. the same no 60 have. Douglas. 61K. act ashamed. shyness. Peristiany. to lose honour. American Anthropological Association Special Publication. D. "Challenging the Authority of Jesus:Mark 11:27-33 and Mediterranean Notions of Honor and Shame. ed. "Honour and Shamein Luke-Acts: Pivotal Values of the MediterraneanWorld. pp. group. is that which defines honour and shamefrom the moral values viewpoint of the society. has Thus.-)16l shamefully. Malina." B. pp. The shameof any thesefemalesmeansthe dishonour of the male who is the leader of the household. Also J. " p.restraint. H. pp. TheEconomy ofthe Kingdom.the sexual and moral divisions of labour. H Neyrey. B. E. 58J. "Honour and Shamein Luke-Acts. Neyrey. 36-38. Malina and J. ed.discretion.8-17. J. on the other hand. ed. D. Malina and J. SeeD." D. (London: Weidenfeld & Nicholson. issue the to the as sensitivity preserve shame shame a negative while of views it has for males.: SCM Press."9 It is honour is to that see surprise associatedwith the qualities of power and wealth. 60H. Second.H. Gilmore. 1964).C. shame can also be understood as the negative correlate of honour: "That is. K. Neyrey. First. (Malina and Neyrey describes component. sister's and daughter'spurity. 4 1. Neyrey. "Honor and Shameand the Unity shame of males concept of the Mediterranean. this component under the title "Gender-BasedHonour. female honour covers issuessuch as the "female sexual exclusiveness. largely been influenced by social anthropologistslike J. especially 4nthropologY (n. Campbell. This meansthat the for is the loss of honour. it can be seen as a positive quality." in JETS 43 (2000). Gilmore. to and which their clients count on.a.

"Honour and Shamein Luke-Acts. 70-73. military duties.2 Group Honour. or regions which possess natural 62j. family is in the or endowment of someone who superior status and power. and J. 29. Ascribed honour takes place through birth. Neyrey. Hansonand D. pp. to voluntary. In fact. or even to the kingdom. a gameof social push and shove. Honour is either ascribed or achieved. is somethingthat was not laboured is for."64 This socialinteractionis known as "challenge-riposte.2. Malina." p. Patrons or groups. An important element in the concept of honour and shame which is very relevant to this thesis is that of collective or group honour.J. groups or refer villages. These social groups have two dimensions: Natural families. H. a constant social tug of war.1 How Honour is Gained. or Achieved or acquired honour is something received or earnedby the individual or is This through merits. C. or worked 62 by (such king loyal bestowed f a person of power as a or governor upon riends). or nation whole in highly a competitive market to acquire honour and be recognised. The connections. 64B. 63K.therefore. 6. It received primarily from being born into it. to or one's circle of a challenge a mutual attempt to acquire one's " honour from one's socialequal. normally attained by doing benefactions.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 186 6. from family or kinship. e.Palestine in the Time ofJesus. E. the community. honour which the individual or group receives. i." p. Douglas. group athletic excellence and other services to superior people. "any social interaction that takes place outside family friends is honour. serves a very useful puipose particularly when The senseof competition for honour is heightenedbecauseof constant challengesto the honour of a person or a group. . especiallythose who have political ambitions. 218. This method engage 63 local elections come. "Challenging the Authority of Jesus. Hellerman.2. J.

In voluntary groupings. the membershave no sacredqualities as personsbecauseof who they are in relationship to others (Idnship). in voluntary groupings public 67 is opinion sovereign." p. J. 38. Neyrey. 68Wewill expandon this aspectwhen we get to analysethe text in Acts 1. Rather the posts.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 187 65 in honour collectively and all members participate their preservation or protection. 106-08. pp. although many different people can hold them. "Early Christian Groups. pp.While the internal opinion as well as public opinion are at work in natural groupings. The loss of the group's leader is also the loss of the group's identity. A. "Honour and Shamein Luke-Acts. Thus for example. Malina and J. . is a loss of honour for the whole group. Much worse. the loss leader due betrayal by is loss its followers to the the the group's of the group's one of of 68 honourin its full extent. so to speak. "Honour and Shamein Luke-Acts.J. Voluntary groups are groups in which membershipsare not based on kinship derivations. TheFirst Urban Christians. viewed as Neyrey should be emphasisedat this point. 20-27. either from one or any of the Twelve.Essenes. and functions which are considered sacredand pure. 66CEJ. 7581. Neyrey. Italics mine. 65B. the headsof both natural and voluntary groupings set the tone and embody the honour rating of the group. Now it is these posts. " in FORUM 4 (1988). Honor and Shamein the Gospel ofMatthew. the group of apostles especially that of the Twelve. pp." pp. offices or functions in these groupings bear the qualities otherwise embodied by persons in natural groups.also "Patron and Client: The Analogy Behind Synoptic Theology. may be voluntary 66 belonging A significant observation by Malina and to this classification. H." p. Seealso W. offices. and the loss of this honour. Parties such as the Pharisees. Cf. The honour which the group acquired was at a standardJesushad received. 67B. Neyrey. 28. Chapter 7. Sadducees. As for the group in general. Malina. J. H. B. They arguethat. Malina and J. 27-29. such.the honour rating of the Twelve apostleswas set by Jesushimself. Meeks. H. and Zealots are examples of these As groups.

we identified the ritual elementsin the ritual confrontation of Acts 1:15-26. . We also briefly discussedthe concept of honour and shame.3 Summary. These include the charactersof Peter.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 188 6. Judas. This concept servesas the background to what we have proposed as the challenge-riposte situation between the Eleven apostles hundred brethren in the twenty the upper room. In this section.and the method of the casting of lots. We suggestedthat the and one and leadership issue is to the the the this of was credibility of apostles as related with challenge Judasthe "traitor" beinga memberof the Twelve.

Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 189 Chapter Seven 7. major sections. The second section is our study of the election narrative as a ritual confrontation. we are reading the election narrative of Acts 1:15-26 as the event face final is This their the the apostles confrontation. issues to the and respond review concerning the purpose of the election narrative we will from the perspective of the historical method. (2) that the election is the beginning of the ftilfilment of Jesus' promise to his disciplesin Lk. . As we have proposed. Acts 1:15-26 is the stage where the Eleven respond to the challenge which honour their and leadershipintegrity. significant historical issues need first to be is This divided into first In therefore. 22:30. This primarily entails the study of Peter's speechabout Judasand how the former leads the in intend We Judas' the to to show the assembly upper room election replacement. section.1 The Ritual Process in Acts 1: 15-26. This review will Pay particular attention to two prominent views: (1) that the election was to complete the number of the apostlesto twelve. As a whole. It is the phasewhere the initiands are tested and tried as to whether they will be able to measureup to the status they are being ordained to. addressed. we will argue that the election narrative has the features of a ritual confrontation in the perspective of the rituals of statustransfonnation. two the chapter. of whole that the speech is a defence speech and the election process is structured to resolve the damaging effect of Judas' associationwith the apostolate. In the case of the apostles. ritual ritual confrontation phase where in the transition stage. questions In order to have a better understandingof how the election narrative works best from the perspective of a ritual confrontation.

Many scholars see the presence of two independent traditions moulded together to form the present narrative! As a result. "The Choice of Matthias. Barrett. Thornton. 1962). the ability to is issues "why key " the the the to the question elections? understanding many related answer is Below the entire election account. H.. The other one is inMt. Kentucky: John Knox Press. K.190 Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 7. J. Others . Snyder (London: SCM. 289f. 178-192 3E. Steyn.26. one 2 it favour "Election Matthias "Defection Judas. The many titles which have been ascribed to Acts 1:15-26 are evidence to the contrasting emphases defined by various readers of the text. J." in Theological Studies 18 (1957)." in CBQ (1961). 41C 4A. 2E. 6Cf.g. "La destineede Judasprophetisee par David. 51-9." in JTY 46 (1945).40. pp. "Death the of as against the or even the "Enrolment of there are also those who see Peter addressing his "First SPeech"6 as the heart of the narrative. And "Choice" Matthias. This fact servesas evidencethat the Judastradition in Acts may have been traditionally separatebefore the composition or its inclusion within the Election Narrative by the author. TheActs ofthe Apostles. 596-603. D. 'Of Judas. also Max Wilcox.1 The Twelve as a Distinct Entity. p. M. Dupont. Knox. p."The Election of Matthias. S. . within a survey of the two major arguments embedded intention the and purposeof the election narrative: concerning 7. 7SeeJ. Soards. p."Peter According to the D Texts of Acts. In other words.1:17-19. K. p." in Current Issuesin New Testament Interpretation: Essaysin Honor of Otto Piper.and Concerns(Louisville. 27:3-10. 1995). "The JudasTradition in Acts 1:15-26.The Speechesin Acts: Their Content.fiapostles. Edited by William Klassen and Graydon F.2 The Purpose of the Election Narrative from a Historical Method. p.92.Septuagint Quotations in the Contextofthe Petrine and Pauline Speeches of the Acta Apostolorum (Netherlands:Pharos. 445. Crehan. The NT preservestwo accountsof Judas' fate. Cf. C." in NTS 19 (1973). Rengstorf. . 5L. "The Death of Judas(Acts 1:18). while of Matthias is 1:21-26.g. G." in JTS 25 (1923-24).2.. L. 7 The different titles which have been ascribedto the narrative of Acts 1:15-26 reveal the difficulty in finding the focus of the whole Election story.3 the title the of see as over of may 5 Judas'A . 1994). pp. Context. p. The first argumentis a view which placesits emphasison the Twelve as distinct from all the " Karl Heinrich Rengstorf popularised this idea in his 1962 article The Election of (. pp.

184. Giles. 178-192. 11K. 22:26. 193-205. 13Lk. Rengstorf argues that the "Matthias Narrative deals with a single event which seems to have no further importance for the continuity of eventsas Luke deliberately relatesthem in Acts."The Election of Matthias. For Rengstorf. "Is Luke an Exponent of 'Early Protestantism?' Church Order in the Lukan Writings (Part I).. new set of apostleswere prepared a 8K. 1959]. pp. the 13 for leadership of service. " EvQ 54 (1982). 3-20. Initially.(Part 2) EvQ 55 (1983). 1971). However. . "The Election of Matthias. Rengstorf. Haenchen. 111. cf. between Jesus' ascension and the outpouring of the Holy Spirit?" Although he admits that there is merit in intention that the original of the narrative "between the Ascension and speculating Pentecost. Haenchen." p.H. H. "Tbe Election of Matthias. the to that to means come up with apostles entirely up group. in reporting nothing but this one event. the election of Matthias. the completion of the Twelve did not point to any function of the apostles as hierarchical leadersof churches. pp.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders ff8 Matthias in Acts 1: 15 191 Rengstorf attemptsto answerthe question "What was Luke's aim ." Rengstorf is insufficient.E. by-election deathof wasmadecompleteagainthroughthe of Matthias. he found that Haenchen eventually failed to answer his own questions. H. K. Rather. to that this see assumption relies on quick was looking into the significance of the Matthias Narrative within its function in the method of book of Acts. what is indicative is that after the completion." pp.TheActs ofthe Apostles (Oxford: Basil Blackwell. Rengstorf. Kritisch-exegetischerKommentar [Gottingen. Jesus twelfth the the originally appointed apostles still choice of as third. had And before.123). This " Also.Die Apostelgeschichte(Meyer. 12 E. is his. Rengstorf."" Rengstorf. 9K. 180. p. 10Cf." p. and furthermore. 12fled. he Haenchen'slo E. therefore. the group of the Twelve. advanceshis own presuppositionsconcerning the intention of 12 the narrative. 182. having been made incomplete by the betrayal and the 9 Judas.it appearsthat "the apostolateof the Twelve in its existence independent be function to appears of the will of those who became members of the and decision is Jesus. with the theology of the author of Acts himself.

unlike Dinah . . Simconand Levi had avengedthe humiliation of their sisterDinah "who was ."The Election of Matthias.. from) the tribesandwill not receivea portion and sharewith us in the division of the land." (first in the negative sense with Dinah. 448. 191-92. and then developed Benjamin) how has been being "numbered" the with shows conceptof positively is This in how Judas Acts to same phrase strikingly used. Luke Twelve the so as to place emphasison the people.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 192 From these presuppositions. While his arguments bTt from his the several points. Wilcox's lead came from his parallel study of the Palestinian Targurnim to Gen. there is a formula present in these parallel texts." p.was "numbered"with us amongthe tribes 16 land. The Targum to Gen. Judah states commentary. Israel "continuing Jesus the the of as shows unbroken claim of on completion lets disappear " After Pentecost... How much more.Rengstorf concludes that the election narrative. Rengstorf. 44: 18 highlights Judas' 14 K. 44: 18 narrates an extended story of the Haggadah which deals with the story of Benjamin being caught with Joseph's silver cup in his sack. not numberedwith us among(lit. 15MaxWilcox. tv ýgtv." pp. placing secondary on church organisations. He recognisesthat while Judas occupied a ICoC'C7jPtO9Ij0vOý numbered) 15 it his failure his to perform this role which necessitated special role. by the his Twelve. 14 importance Spirit. 44: 18. 16 Max Wilcox. LXX. work and guidanceof the Max Wilcox finthers the idea of the completion of the Twelve. similar was referred with and 1:17.will his its for it has Egypt to the the not return sheath until slain whole population of sword sakeof Benjaminwho . 447. in division the the andwill receivea portionandsharewith us of For Wilcox. In this how. Wilcox concludesthat the similarity of the phrase in Acts 1:17 with that of both the Dinah and Benjamin accounts in the Palestinian Targurn of Gen. "The JudasTradition in Acts 1:15-26. "The JudasTradition in Acts 1:15-26." p. The mention of the phrase "for he was numbered among us. he argues. H. was replacement. Targurn Targums the that the the absent and even major such as narrative Onkelos. main contention revolves around phrase come fiv (lit.. a is in in MT.

"upon the houseof Israel. R." p. the to and urgency of replace central significance failure to carryout his office."You are those who have continued with me in my trials. the thus. the inclusion of the Samaritansand Gentiles into the fold. 1997).thereplacementof Judas.confirmingLk.is a storywhich both reaffirmsthe authority that the restorationof the twelve grantedto the apostlesin Lk. 22:30. The ThingsAccomplishedAmong Us: Prophetic Tradition in the Structural pattern ofLuke-Acts. 22:30. the rule of the new Davidic king.2 The Election Narrative As the Fulfillment of Jesus' Promise in Lk.J. as my father assignedto me. and sit on thronesjudging the twelve tribes of Israel. the return of the remnant and the gathering of the twelve tribes. The text states. Jervell. that you may eat and drink at my table in my kingdom. p. .17 7. the apostlesas of the twelve tribes of and the role of Of these events. "The JudasTradition in Acts 1:15-26.2. Acts 5: 1-11. pp. 19F-Denova. Acts 1:15-26.thus. Peter For their roles as rulers exhibiting started his role as ajudge deciding the fate of Ananias and Sapphira. 18Cf. purely or have believes the that apostles view in in displays Acts. The significant events include the restoration of the Temple. (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press. Denova arguesthat. There are those in book is Twelve Acts fulfillment the the the that the role of of of the promise of say who Jesus in Lk. Luke and ThePeople of God: A New Look At Luke-Acts (Minneapolis: Ausburgh. Luke's concept of Israel's return to sovereignty is comprised of significant eventsleading to the establishment of the eschatological kingdom. and I assign to you. Thus. 448. 22:28-30." Opinions slightly differ on whether the fulfillment of the promise in Acts is partial The "Partial fulfillmenf' eschatological. The secondargument comes from a slightly different premise.19 "Max Wilcox. the role of the apostles as judges is our interest. ' 8 "Judges" Israel. According to Jacob Jervell.70. a kingdom. instance. 75-77.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 193 his in him because Twelve." Subsequently. 22 anddemonstrates has to happenbeforethe outpouringof the Spirit in Acts 2. we find Peterliterally servingin his capacityof judge over AnaniasandSapphira(Acts 5:1-11). 1972).

of the in king. be Judas. Again the argues.the community's laying of possessionsat the apostles' feet (4:32-37) show the submission of the people to the new leaders of Israel. make would 20j B. 1988). 70. the apostleswill exercise their 21 in Israel. 21R. Also L. thereby completing the number of the twelve apostlesfor the twelve tribes of Israel. pp. events replacement a prophetic order of arrival. 319. Franklin. 22R. the fulfillment. Ezek. the outpouring of the Spirit takes place (Acts 2: 1-4). Christ the Lord. scholars promise of in Jesus Lk. T. Thus. therefore. Luke. 22: 28-30. and most especially.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 194 Likewise. the teachings (2:43). miracles (2:44). (Nashville: Abingdon Press). Lk 22: 28-30. Johnson. . An example of this view is J.g. it located. the "eschatological fulfillment" view contends that since the twelve tribes have not been restored and Jewish resistance in Acts prevents the apostles from functioning as governors of the whole Jewish people.pp.. University Press. B.Literary Function ofPossessions. The Things. rulership only the eschatological While both the "partial" and the "complete fulfillment" views contest the realization few is dispute 1: 15-26 Acts Jesus' to the the scenewhich that apostles.and the Newlge in 4cts.the Temple. Acts 1: 15-26 the promise of speaksof the replacement of effects Judas by the election of Matthias as the twelfth apostle. Chance. p. 39:25-29). The twelve the rule of conjunction apostles with messianic promise the twelve tribes of eschatologicalIsrael. According to prophetic traditions the Spirit's outpouring signals the start of Israel's restoration (e. (Macon. 97-99. they the to well as other as elements are of story. 166-67.9ý20 On the other hand. some before Spirit's Luke the this the the as reason why placed election narrative scholars see forces Denova "Hence. or at least a proleptic fulfillment. Tannehill. Denova.Jerusalem. Chance who statesthat. 8 1.p. put preciselywhere of .C. Georgia: Mercer .p. Right after the completion of the twelve. 22 little senseto place them anywhereelse.4ccomplished. "The opening chapters of Acts present.

Nelson share the same reasoning. Nelson ends up by saying that. In the unique farewell discourse in Luke 22:24-30 the Twelve are given an eschatological role as the future regents over Israel. In the question from the Twelve (Acts 1:6) the resurrection and the outpouring of the Spirit are interpreted as heralding the 23 Israel. Peter K. . The text signals Luke's conception of the apostolate. Nelson. p. This view argues that the purpose of the 23j. however. 75.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 195 The completion of the number of the twelve apostles paves the way for the fulfillment of the prophecy on the restoration of the twelve tribes. slightly differ from the premise of the completion itself purpose The first view places emphasis on the completion of the number of the Twelve.The secondview stronglybringsin the function of Lk. of p.24Likewise. In his book Luke and the People of God. Luke and ThePeople God. This is in keeping with the identity of the Twelve as being establishedby Jesus himself andalsobeingdistinct from the otherapostles. Jervell. Jervell mentions that the need to have a complete number of twelve apostleswas only for a certain duration. They. Jervell. 1996). 25p K. Acts 1:15-26 is. the induction of the twelve apostles into their rulership of the restored Israel. Leadership and Discipleship. . 22:30. discussesin detail the relationship of Lk. 222. New Testament7heology. p. "The need to describe at length the replacing of Judas(Acts 1:15-26) reveals Luke's concern to show the reconstituted circle of twelve apostlesas correspondingto the twelve tribes of Israel. 24j. 22:30 and uses the concept of the "Promise-Fulfilment" method in understanding the purpose of the election story. 22:30 with the purpose of the election in Acts.1125 The two views we surveyed agree on the purpose of the election story as the Twelve the of apostles. 76. he statesthat. therefore. The Theology oftheActs oftheApostles (Cambridge: University Press. restoration of Jervell's study picks up the idea that the election of Matthias was a direct result of Jesus' his disciples in Lk. Apart from Denova and Chance. Nelson in his Leadership and to promise Discipleship: A Study of Luke 22:24-30. Jervell and.

put Lk.82.Mt.pp. Strictly speaking. J. Luke and the People of God. 28Theconceptthat eachapostlewill rule one of the twelve tribes of Israel is also an inferral from the text. (Macon. the on supposed privileged seat of cost replace judges for "twelve to the over the serve as apostles" who were thrones" made available 26 Israel.70. the Temple. 319. 1988).Literary Function ofPossessions. (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press. C. p. 22:30. (Nashville: Abingdon Press). Tannehill. J.Jerusalem. his thrones to twelve the what we twelve of apostles context promise (Op6VCOV) 27 haveis simply the word "thrones" . pp.p. 22:30 565cim The if for disturbing been have phrase problem. Neither Matthew nor Luke directly suggeststhe reasonthe individual rulership of each it by he James Jervell that the Jacob was not replaced otherwise as rationalizes understood tribe. Johnson. there are To Israel. (Minneapolis: Ausburgh. A New Look at Luke-Acts. and vacancy 7.3 Twelve Apostles for Twelve Thrones? As indicated by our survey above. Chance. and the New Age in Acts. in that Peter has to call an election to fill in the post of the twelfth apostle to "twelve him his betrayal Judas' Jesus Judas. Christ the Lord.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 196 his fulfillment Jesus' to in Twelve the to the to promise of order see election was complete had betrayal Israel. Judas' judges being the to the tribes causeda twelve new of apostlesof in had filled by be therefore to a new apostle. Luke. Jervell. 97-99. Denova. 22:30 does not exist. andthe suggestionthat eachapostlewill get imported is idea Israel the twelve tribes throne obviously an of and rule one of to sit on a from its only extant parallel . 22:30. "twelve tribes" of the new The election in Acts as the beginning of the fulfillment of the promise in Lk. 27Seeline 2 of the parallel passageI have provided. . one a perfect scenario not would Op6vot (twelve thrones) in Lk. in Lk.28 26SeeR. T. Jesus did not 22: 30. Apparently. Also L. Georgia: Mercer University Press. 1997). judges be tribes the to the twelve to twelve to of new apostles serve as supposed in fulfillment Jesus' is in it Acts 1: 15-26 the the promise of start of seenas other words. many scholars argue that the need to complete the Twelve is to fulfil Jesus' promise to the apostles in Lk. p. The ThingsAccomplishedAmong Us: Prophetic Tradition in the Structural pattern ofLuke-Acts. 81. R. 166-67. Franklin. B. Instead. p. 19:28. 1972).

22:30 Ent lcccoýaecroe Ical Op6vu)v lcpivovTe. 212.197 Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 1 2 3 4 5 Mt. Markan Closely its from the different Lukan material. in 10: 29 follow Mk. . 19:28 Ical i)gp-tq Ent 8c68e-KaOp6voi)q icpivovceq 'cdcq86561cccýuxaq '10'1*lcypccý). the absenceof &65F-icain Lk. 22:30 is not a problem. 28 These Lk. ' Judas Israel. 19:115 H Mk. 10:1-16). available 29TbiSphrasecomesright after lcptvovEeqin Luke's version."It may be presumed. 19:28 to Lk. Mark Peter Luke the and up until question of and 18:28). and of rule. 18: 15-30. and entering God's kingdom (Mt. concerns. reasons thrones . beginning "Passion the the specifically right after the of so-called at saying of Jesus' and the disciples' celebration of the Passoverfeast (Lk. for by in is having Herod Acts 12: 2 twelve tribes thirteen to only regents avoid martyred when apostles Luke God. 10:23-31). The Lucan parallel both Matthew in is found In Lk. with similar counterpart. 19:23-30 H Mk." P. K. 19:16-22 H Mk. radically Matthew has the saying in a context beginning with the "household" instructions (Mt. 179. "So the to tribes necessity replace twelve of the Leadership and Discipleship. placeshis version " Narrative. The response of Jesus to Peter's question becomes longer in Matthew as the this appears at point. also n. 22: 1-38). Lk. See J. Mark's these Matthew's stories. Nelson. 10:17-22).however. p. reward-saying The majority of modem scholarsread Lk. the Rich Young Ruler (Mt. and to contexts Lk. Mftlca ol)xdq Cdcq 'LO'J* lcrpcxýP Transferring the idea of "twelve" thrones from Mt. on the other hand. 82. People the to p. 30Hcnce. The M8exoc Op6vcov have dropped before Luke all circumstantial and are may why reasons before "twelve" do the the quantitative word therefore not warrant vetoing reading of 30 difficulty include: (1) had Luke from in 19: 22: 30 Mt. Luke. 22:30 with the Matthean parallel in mind. (// 19: 27 Mt. 22:30 raisessome important is in Matthew from "reward" For the the saying appears which context example. that Luke's text still implies twelve thrones to match (Acts 1:12-26). Jervcll. For many of these scholars.

Yhe Gospel ofLuke. 7he GospelofLuke. Nelson. 36A.J. the who altered sources.g. (2) Luke wanted to widen the application of the 33 Peter Nelson objects to this suggestion since the idea of judging or ruling promise. But for argument's sake. 814. . p.pp. Nelson. Luke X-XXIV. I. 1419. recessions of sources. 33E. 35 to avoid repeating the same noun. Moreover.M. Cf. H. therefore. . p. p. : 1924). 34 distorted is limited "becomes when accessto thrones significantly .MA: Harvard University. E. P. One example is C. for purely just often replaces a repeatednoun with a pronoun. TheFormation of Q: Trajectories in Ancient WisdomCollections (Philadelphia: Fortress. sourcesother than The weakness of the reasonswe have just enumeratedlies in the great degree of Luke has his for It that the that was one some. 1-102. 1950). always will be. 160. barring the unlikely event of such a document being discovered. altered revealed and thus eliminated Judas from the list of Jesus' beneficiaries. seems assumption Lucan redaction of Lk. F. p. it may also have been possible that (as I. S. p. 371H. Streeter.and. Ellis. p. p. p. 22:30 has become a fact rather than a theory. TheFour Gospels(London: Macmillan & Co. Leadership and Discipleship. The Work and WordsofJesus (London: SCM Press. The GospelofLuke. Marshall concurs) that the two evangelists could have been dependent on two different different Q. . Cadbury. Fitzmyer that the author of the third gospel to throne and others assigning a had a problem of designating a throne for Judas whose plan of betrayal had just been Mftica Q32 by deleting by Jesus. 35H. Hunter.198 Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 31 believe Judas. TheStyle and Literary Method ofLuke (Cambridge. 256. must of a constantly be reminded betweenMatthewand that Q is no morethana working hypothesisto explainthe agreement Luke over a large body of Jesus' sayings. Marshall. 1920). 216. 907 "or two on more probably. there are also viable reasonsto believe that Matthew was the one who has altered his version of the saying.. K. Kloppenborg. 288. 32Very helpful in this areaof discussionis J. Barrett who has 31E. (3) Luke.216. 83ff. making the possibility 865p-iccc insertion One Matthean of strongly remote.186. p. B. Luke. H. sometimesapparently stylistic reasons. 34p K. 1973). Marshall. and (4) Luke and Matthew simply had two different 36 Q. Fitzrnyer. J.. 815. Leadership and Discipleship.

59-78. who figures prominently in this context. Lk. 28:30 and LL 22:30 is in the Appendix of this thesis. "The SayingsGospel Q and the Quest of the Historical Jesus. . 207-08. Fledderman. (Sonoma:CA: Polebridge. the the the of question of whether election of and does be best by In in 22: 30 Acts 1: 15-26. R. 41Aredaction-critical study of the saying in Mt. the the the on sits of added variant assumed throne of his glory" and then further added the word "twelve" before "thrones" in order to is idea between his Jesus The the apostles. S. But does not specify how many thrones there Luke's version. Discipleship and Family Ties in Mark and Matthew (Cambridge: CUP.p. E. pp. J. implied the inclusion of Judas. "on thronesjudging . H. 1994). Matthew. 40A. He refers three times to the twelve disciples (Mt. that Matthew added "twelve" (he refers to the disciples in his context) than that Luke ornitted it-40 Yet beyond the redactional4l issues involved between the reward-sayings of Lk. TheActs of the Apostles." since new world Man Son free in (3) "Whenever by Rev. pp. 10:1. 156. suggests an raised is %tyyF-vcoiq). 327. 22:28-30 is fulfillment Jesus' 28: 30." are. M&iccc: Matthew have Matthew Fledderman three 247. Israel and the Church in the Gospel of Afatthew (New York: Peter Lang." in HTR 89 (1996). Revelation. Barrett. Although from occasionally sources. the other words. dropped "I (na.H. identifies finds his days" Mk. Seealso S... Matthias Mt. 11:1. more omits numbers quite numbers he he from 1: 3). because Luke knew that Judas' place among the twelve was likely he (Acts is Judas' 1: 15-26). 6-7."The End of Q. he he his frequently freely. "forty the them.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 199 38 "in (1) the Matthew: He the interesting that phrase affixed scenario. . 39R.K. 38C. Menninger. Matthew. Barton. 1994). It tells us about replacement more unalterable. T. Gundry. C. Seealso J. and thus need not entail the idea of the "Twelve.D. p. Baumgarten. he (e. He adds. of parallelism also parallelism and enhance 39 betrayer. can answered only promise is indeed 1: Acts 15-26 direct Luke-Acts the that the to reader understand of author fulfillment of Lk. specifies "twelve thrones. 22:30? Our investigation has led us to believe otherwise. 10:2). Jacobson. Kloppenberg. 3: 21."Tbe Duodecimal Courts of Qumran.TheFirst Gospel: An Introduction to Q." in SBL Seminar Papers 29 (199o). 55. . But this seems unlikely. uses reasons raises why could added p. " Here Matthew is probably have is first because it Luke "twelve" It that the possible eliminated will secondary. p. cf. pp. (2) the the clause phrase appoint you ." in JBL 95 (1976). in he by Gundry Matthew the no mentions as sees new context welcomed Jacobsonstrongly supportsthis view. 394. numbers repeats on sources g adds disciples and the twelve. 1992). but not Luke. 20: 17) and once to the "twelve apostles" (Mt." This is important because "twelve thrones" may imply the notion of the "Twelve" (disciples or apostles). p. and the Sanhedrin.

in 22: 30? While Lk.g. TheActs oftheApostles. 35. 22: here 3 0 Acts 1: 17 the promise others simply refer to echoed see that the earlier use of the term in Lk. 4postles. 22:3 where Satan is said to have entered Judas who was from the "number (dcpt0gof))of the twelve. Lk. p. 22:30. Johnson. why has the author opted to say it this way?.p. J. 22:30? While Peterwas clear in stating that Judas' fate fulfillment in he book (1: Psalms 20). Apart from this.4 Is Acts 1: 15-26 the Fulfillment of Lk. only parallel ways vague Acts 1:15-26 and Lk.TheActs ofthe. Does Acts 1:17 necessarilyimply an invitation for the readersto recall the promise Commentators divided issue. 223. 22:30 is the number of the inner circle of Jesus' apostleswhich is twelve. If this is so. Why is it so indirect? Why has the author not clearly identified the election of Judas' replacement as the fulfillment of Jesus' promise in Lk. the author leaves no clue or evidence at all whatsoever for the be that the the taken as the to reading of election understand narrative should reader fulfillment of Lk. there this Jesus are on are some who of 42 indeed in is in Lk. . Fitzmyer. L. T. 22: 30 then this the or can probably one of most now promise has instance. 43E. between For the the author conveyed such a message. Scholars point to the phrase which Peter uttered in his speechwhich states"for he (Judas) was numbered among us and was allotted his sharein this ministry" in Acts 1:17 as the all important evidenceto understandActs 1:15-26 as the fulfillment of Jesus' promise in Lk.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 200 7. the the of what was prophesied of gives no was is in had fulfilment Jesus the that election any way also a what promised them of statement beforeduringtheir last supperwith him. 22:30? If Acts 1:15-26 is the story by which the author wants to tell his audiencethat Jesus' indirect is in be fulfilled. 22:30.g. 943What is widely agreedamong exegetesis the in "lots" his in 1: 26 "allotted the to the the casting of with of share phrase reference 42E.

Biblical the tradition of or sharing -of ministry" lot" from As Levites (see Num. the the there promise of at all to make sure no and wait that Judasis replacedor that their numbershouldbe twelve. 18:21-26) have been known have received their shareof ministry of service by "lot" (since Levites do not received properties of lands like the other tribes).TheActs ofthe . For sure. 33: 53). during forty-day he before Eleven his betrayed the the especially period was with who (cf 3). "by God 16: the tribes the also among (Num. In other words. other words. this is also the caseagainst the author. therefore. of share understood With 1:17. T. 22:30 is the apparent silence of Jesus about the whole "replacement of Judas" issue. 26: 55. as we have argued. we are suggesting that it is possible to see the author's being Judas "being "identified the than the concept as on of with group" rather emphasis in " In Judas the group. This is why. While Jesuswas very clear to the Eleven on his instructions for them to remain in Jerusalem father for (Acts is instruction 1: 4). Cf. to yet not question make any such an nor ascension Of course.the narrativeassures the readersthat Jesuswas aware of Judas' absence(not to mention the fact that it was Judas him). of Another significant point againstthe argumentthat Acts 1:15-26 is the fulfillment of Lk. the samelanguageis in description in Peter's Judas' the ministry. 14. Johnson.3. 1: Jesus did implications issue. L. the need to replace Judas does not necessarilyfall on simply completing the number of the apostlesbut rather because has been by from Twelve betrayal how the the as a group seriously affected one of them. The author gives us the impression that such were the "'See our discussionon the "Casting of Lots" in 6.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 201 lands distribution in knows here 1: 1744. completes the essenceof the group as the numbered inner circle of Jesus' apostlesrather than simply a characterwho completes the number of the apostles which is twelve. why has the author kept the characterof Jesussilent on this matter? Then there is the issue of the criteria that were set to choose the candidates for Judas' replacement(Acts 1:21-22).

when Matthias was elected. seeP. p. 22: 30 the to that the on now given reader understand promise reference its right track. K. In the perspective of the rituals of status transformation. the ritual is in behalf Peter's defence delivers Eleven He this the speech a of speech. Nelson. for 22: 30 to that the the the on readers reality of promise now at all its fulfillment. pp. need complete number of apostles contend other reason that the whole election narrative is best understood from a social-scientific perspective. 35.5 Peter's Speech: A Case of Diminished Responsibility. 22:30. 22:30 is pushedfurther beyond Acts 1:15-26. no in is back is for Lk. 224-32. TheActs ofthe Apostles. one who going strict criteria implication at all that thesestrict criteria are the standarddemandedfor thosewho are to judges future Israel. 30. Dunn. the the of of of narrative is has demanding Acts 1: 15-26 that the suggesting are election of a more we narrative what We than the to the the to twelve. And as we have been impressing since the beginning of this study. Especially 224-25. Leadership and Discipleship.p. Apostles. confrontation. in particular. 18. In other words. has completed the Twelve. note . the election is the had in Judas' the to take to the apostles shame which which response social measure betrayal has be leaders the to the act of created of upon apostles' reliability scandalous Christian community.45 7. of phase next It is from these observations that we are actually challenging the notion that the is 15-26 beginning fulfillment Acts 1: 22: Lk. 45Foran excellent discussionon the issueof when the apostlesfully realised the falfilment of Jesus' promise in Lk. to the twelve tribes the new of as serve Finally. place. 211. If this suggestionis correct. The narrative of Acts 1 simply flows smoothly into Acts 2. seealso J. leaving no room its be inspired in is Lk. no. then the beginning of the fulfillment of Jesus' promise in Lk. pp.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 202 is is in Yet for fill Judas' there the to no again. and thus.

p. The following important aspectsin Peter's speechsupports our suggestion. Friend 17 or ofJesus. community. 16a). let us again be reminded of the the speech put have we scenario painted earlier: suggested 1. .that Judas the "traitor" is no longer part of the group. First. Klassenhas statedthat "It is possible that the main point of thesestories for the Luke indication Matthew longer Judas Jesus the that the and was of a member of no was writers W. Klassen. until they are integrated and formally stand in the presenceof the 46Klassen's observationsfit well in the sociological scenariowhich we havejust suggestedfor Acts 1:15-26.and in order for us to in the perspective of a ritual confrontation. Peter's role in Acts 1:15-26 is a spokesman. In fact."1: (1: Judas implies 18-19).Peter is the author's mouthpiece in telling his readersof the transformation of the apostles.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 203 happened immediately has to The title that this of section suggests whatever apostles. this the extirpation and excommunication of of and evil nature Judas from the membershipof the apostles. fill in the place of 2. Second.not in behalf of the one hundrcd and twcnty pcoplc but in bchalf of (or as a membcr of) the Elcvcn apostIcs. and that Matthias is ordained by God himself to 46 Judas. especially his evil deeds. that the evil deedsof Judaswere the fulfilment of scripture ("Brethren. .should not in any way implicate the rest of the members of the apostolate. and reliable. The election of Matthias is the stepwhich the apostlesare taking in order to show the people (those in the upper room and the readersof the text) that Judas is gone and is by be broader In Acts 1: 15-26 the to someone replaced capable context. Judas: Betrayer " 1. Before we proceedto discussthe two aspectsin Peter's speech. going is part of the author'spromotionthat indeedthe apostleshavebeentransformed. "As we have also stated. That Peter speaks in behalf only of the apostles is supported by the consistent focus of the introduced Eleven fact. the scripture has to be fulfilled.47 He speaks. Judas. on apostles were very narrative the author in Acts 1:3. from by In the the time the apostles.the grotesquedescription of Judas' death depicts the .

and will 4. not originally pericope. . e. to place we are. Acts 1:12-14 and 15-26) suggeststhat 48 the assemblyof the people happenedin the samesetting.p. The author's placement of the events (i. Tatymt. If this is a correct understanding in it is the then the of events upper room. In other words.Cf. Peter's speechas a defence speechin behalf of their group is designedto argue that the responsibility on the arrest and death of Jesus falls on Judas alone and that the Eleven should not be held accountablefor what Judas had done. What the attempt of the take therefore. Johnson. ) connectsthis event to the previous events. Some commentators inclusion in "the the the that of statement company of was all about one personsý9 suggest hundred and twenty" (1: 15b) is simply a parenthetical clause. plausible to assumethat the picture of sequence of Eleven disciple in is has bearing 1: 14 between the the and other groups some on what unity in is 1: 15-26. L. T.204 Estrada: From Followers To Leaders is forced focus It 14. not apostles are of people in Jesus.TheActs ofthe Apostles. Twelve Acts 1-2 the the that of all author centres on apostles speaks of assumption 3. in Acts 2: therefore the the the a narrative. Furthermore. suggesting about have first Eleven known disciple that the the to the show secured support of other author disciples family) before Jesus' (such the their they as women and embarked on groups defencein the presenceof the largergroupof believersnumberingabout"one hundredand twenty persons" (1: 15). as unexpected "The temporal reference"in thosedays" (tv Tdtq tgtpoct. The one hundred and twenty personsin the upper room representthe body of the Christian community to whom the apostles will serve as leaders. it is an it does in Or belong Fitzmyer bluntly the statement. 5. 34. Peter not honour integrity but defends the the and of group of apostles also encouragesthe only (the Judas' to the they to take agree with action are about of of people election company in from Judas to the that traumatic order assure community such a experience replacement) happen never should again.

J. seeC. of group There is the remotest possibility that the author wanted to make a parallel picture decision the current making or approving body known as the Sanhedrin. 51C. K. persons the electionof Judas'replacement)is not only decidedby the Elevenor a smallerbandof 49Theonly time the author of Luke-Acts to use the term 6voga to mean "person. p. of a speech sociological fit is believers.no satisfactory has been hundred "one to the the given explain mention of and twenty persons" answer before Peter's speech. The Acts ofthe Apostles. "strange! that to that the conclude so strange statement may puts been "an unfortunatelapsewhich Luke omitted to remove from his work. 222. ý 5M the that smallest number which can a and Although Lake and Cadbury's conclusion had long been challenged. and Cadbury believe what that. TheActs of the Apostles. 96. p. is 120 hold 'small Sanhedrin. Lake in is found M. Part 1.51 From the larger delivery defence Peter's the to context we are suggesting. Lake and H. If. All that has been consistently posited concerning this issue is the inappropriatenessand suddeninclusion of the phrasein the text. however. some commentators still hundred "one the the possibility of equating number of and twenty people" with consider 52 1:6." For discussions on the author's employmentof the term. vol. Cadbury. Even while with this assumption of a parallel is seen by some as near absurdity.Fitzmyer. p. then what we see is the his by hundred to that the tried show readers attempt apostles were one and twenty author's Christian is Moreover. Lake and Cadbury's suggestion is correct. 1:6 enactsthat the name of officers in a community shall be a tenth of the whole.K. 521e. Yhe Acts ofthe Apostles. p. 4. How the to this so? seems scenario well. about representing what place e. . Mishnah Sanhedrin. 12. Barrett.. TheBeginnings of Christianity. the (i. . 53K. It this that that the number of multiplied remarkable that accident Sanhedr. Barrett.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 205 is have had `50 It Barrett it. 50J. "It can scarcely be an is Twelve by is 10. to take community. 96. San.

The.speaksof the 54Afin-therexplanation of the possible parallels of the number can be found in C. Bearing in mind this scenario.6) which women were the count. 16a. other words. the understood may as multiplied or each of ten members. Kentucky: John Knox Press. Judas He the to with redaction of concerning and says. of Judas.in his analysisof Peter's speech. This statementfrom Peter comes "Brethren. 1994). betrayal of Jesus ("conceming Judas who was guide to those who arrested Jesus. pp.. . of on Luke's Presentationof the Early Church.p. articulation an of a new. Barrett. discuss in Peter's speech. 4postles. Lukan Blue the this the essence of sees purpose of an (Acts 1) 120 the together the of purpose specific mention of assembled people primary be (cf. correct. the scripture had to be fulfilled .instead." in Witnessto the Gospek The Yheologyof. Context. autonomous. rather the representativecouncil of one and twenty people. but also his betrayal of Jesus. Becauseit does so. . self-governing well community might 55 included in in . 4cts of the. something "Missing is any referenceto Satan.we now 1. 2728. 56 God. 56Soards. whatever follows after it is by In death this the guideline. when death Jesus. to the relating arrest and of responsibility any Klassen has made an important observation that supports our proposal. is how "The idea B. not only of Judas' death. K.a death associatedwith his governed 131:l6b). the two to aspects come 7.PeteqthroughLuke's redaction."1: before the whole speech in Acts 1:16f.and Concerns(Louisville. 96.Blueý.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 206 54 by hundred but disciples. 480. is Judas' If to this of and consequently. This has do Luke his deeds. by was planned Such a statement also conveys the dissociation of anybody else from acting as betrayal Judas' Jesus.p. All that had happenedwas of "divine necessity. M. Such intedection. death. accessory from is dissociating from Peter the Eleven the perspective we are viewed suggesting. 4cts.5. This includes parallels from Qumran such as IQS 6:3f and IQSa 222 be 10 120 by leader for 12. San.claims that Peter associatesto scripture. one where ýThe Influence Jewish Worship 55B.1 The Deeds and Death of Judas As the Fulfillment of Scripture." Speeches in 4cts: Their Content.

They traditions.Fitzmyer. Klassen. Klassen arguesthat "the intention is to assertthe link between the 'field of blood' which everyoneknows and the tragic end of Judas. Judas. the observations: on popular similarities: with up came death.according to Luke. Luke the part of on about mentions nothing remorse records 59J. "The way that Judas died is not important. 5. 171). characterof evil act associating with mitigates in death here Acts betrayer's for Jesus' the to take arrestand all responsibility portrayed 58 1:16.1) have been Matthew under section with the tradition n. or account with 2. Josephus' 17:6. Matthew but it.5. Ephipanes Macc. heroes faith. 7. 5. 4. They are linked to concrete details of the topography of Jerusalem. The nameof the land purchasedis virtually identical in both accounts. In Matthew he death he falls his death. Herod the people group would 1. fulfilled in the through of scripture was which way In other words. 57 deeds Judas. one is to seekfor its deeperintention.60 57W Klassen. Thus. while Matthew no such indication is offered. fond bringing Both Judas the of application that an unusual are of out agree Testament quotations. Judas: Betrayer Friend pp. Acts ofthe Apostles. 220. 168-69. Their differences are: 1. description the the of recounting of ended.207 Estrada: From Followers To Leaders .5." (p. known have the to church. Antiochus Epiphanes.Judas: Betrayer offriend ofJesus. pp. in his study of the Judasdeath accounts.2 The Purpose of the Grotesque Description of Judas' Death. The death is different. 2. 60Klassen askswhat could have been the reasonwhy the early church had to record the death death accountsfor any of the other apostlesof Jesus. enemies of who were notorious characters in have belongs the to the causedserious some way or other group of people who therefore. death He tells the they of other evil examples who stories men and cites of genre (2 (Ant." Fitzmyer makes this conclusion regarding the Judas' how betrayer's life For Fitzmyer. his Jesus. Antiochus the of story the story of himself ftirther both Herod Agrippa ( Luke Luke Act 12: 23). about being near Jerusalern.5. The the Jesus there time. Both say that land was purchasedwith the money Judasreceived. author's demise falls under the "stereotypical literary form7 of folkloric elaborations utilised for 59 been Judas. Old died 3. Klassen 169). The manner of death is different. He later there Judas no other are when of follows is later in to the the the that attributed church a phenomenon practice of who such concludes how from Papias died. in Luke is indication himself 3.6. the ofJesus?. 58Klassen. of before no of purchase is known by different field location different 4. In the caseof Judas' death.. in Mt. p. Judas it by Judas' the 3 22: alone Lk. Herod Great 9: 7-12). time places of hangs field is brought dies. For . . may probably and belonging to the category of "actiological legends" that seekto explain causes. that of remarks and para handed down (see 89 7. or any of of against offences either like IV Agrippa include Herod Great. The by the as well circumstances and of people. This to the exclusive apostles. while is Satan. Matthew in Luke the to himself. He 27: 3-10. W. Both following For draw 1.comparedand contrastedActs 1:16-20 169-70.

.4cts (Atlanta. Judas Witherington G. "Extirpation and Excommunication. both in the Second Temple Judaism and the Qumran community. excommunication from 61 in is Qumran found is The examples. The details of his death in 1:18-19 However. and a unified conflated several The Judas tradition may be a piece of folklore. particularly concerning implications involved in Judas' death. Klassen's observationsare helpful to the extent of understandinghow tradition was passed down to the authors of both accounts.. W. he is in fact formally declaring Judas' extirpation from Twelve. be traditions. . Kennedy III. " In case.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 208 Folkloric elaboration. as passed stories individual into larger tales tradition. 1997). first this to reads quoting which group brief deliberative "a Peter example of as rhetoric . describes the gruesome death of Judas. In particular. Horbury. pp. 13-38. However.an act of persuasionmeant to produce a speechof in " Yhe. for the the men7 with gruesome reason association always associated is in "association" Peter In "dissociation." in VetT25. Even tradition the substance of speech purpose and is "evil deaths. the and excommunication Extirpation and excommunication of serious offenders find parallels. in this case.. 4cts 4postles. 7he Death of Hero& TheNarrative and Theological Function ofRetribution in Luke-. or persecutors of against having from in4u%as developed tradition to through they one another. 61CEW. Georgia: Scholars Press. of action ofthe p. conflation of smaller would the conflation or even the a may also development of a folkloric tradition about the death of Judas say something about the has itself? it if We believe does. extirpationandexcommunication normally a group by description how demise. his Three the the of offender elementscomprise met expressed further discussionsand examplesof Death of Tyrant Type Scenes.is the addition of gruesomedetails about the death divine is This the tradition retribution concept of with mostly associated of a person. as our effect other words. in the the the to are version also significant study of social our study. in is folkloric It that the known the tyrants the sense church. course certain .see0. significant.most especially those in Acts. Allen Jr.1 (1985). Thesefactors (we will attempt to argue) support the view that Peter's speechon Judas' death is apologetic in behalf of the Eleven apostles(including himself) as a belonged formerly (B. 115). the sameobservations.

There could possibly be a link. "Extirpation and Excommunication. with and of a member of the replaces Twelve. a position understand appeal such an replacement. and premature death were Being "cut off' from the people could take the form of connected. for some sectorsof the Second Temple Judaism. completion of number simply criteria not designed lives being to that the to make sure primarily replacing apostle up not a were Rather. for his role in the death of Jesuswas too complicated. " the the the apostlesmake on practically off' speech in important honour integrity for Judas' their the step reclaiming and appeal another We in fully is therefore. the way Qumran in particular extirpated or excommunicatedsomeone. 62W Horbury. between the way the Second Temple Judaism dealt with the defector. The "cutting off' of Judasfrom the Twelve is a significant step in rebuilding the confidence of the brethren in the leadership of the apostles. then. to that are now. twelflh is in keeping Judas honour integrity being the credible. expulsion. Judascould not live on among the disciples. 63 death.Judas: Betrayer or Ftiend ofJesus. excommunication or premature In our study. however. 63W Klassen. He removed himself from them. divinely death.and the way the early church told stories about Judas' death." pp. Thus. It is possible that the main point of these stories for the writers of Matthew and Luke was the indication that Judas no longer was a member of the Jesus community. for into in The Acts 1: the 21-22 their twelve. After Peter's Judas' death "cuts latter from "Twelve. 13-38. The rebuilding of confidence is even more strengthenedwhen the apostles.through Peter's representation. the picture of Peter "removing" Judas rather than Judas "removing himself' from the Twelve is more appropriate. . 171-72. the acts of banning. The description of Judas' description: the a a curse. the criteria are to assureand satisfy the community that whoever member.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 209 62 inflicted ban. Klassen supportsthis theory. and a death seemsto fall into this category. appeal for the replacement of Judas by an election. pp.

and his campaign in behalf of the Twelve.210 Estrada: From Followers To Leaders In some way. He alone is in for by the the the candidates choosing setting up criteria author as responsible portrayed 64 for Judas' replacement. To begin with. "Johnson adds. Judas' excommunication and submitted This may be viewed as betrayal. However. the criteria appear to be an appeal for approval from the audience. which would make Peter the nominator rather than the community. one may notice that it is still Peter who speaksin the forum. 7. Our interest liesnot on the criteria themselvesbut on why they were set up in the first place. as serving The proposed criteria (Acts 1:21-22) come crucially after the apostleshave publicly declared (1: 18-19).but also to the whole Christian community. of of suggested earlier as representing a wider group or Eleven Judas? Why the to the original apostles. because Peter speaks on behalf of the Eleven. it is an approval which the apostlesseek from between In the author in the hundred twenty the context room. body may ask. upper the one and persons from Christian is it the his the on community seeks author an approval which readers. . Within the context of the election narrative. the from Peter be the apostles with coming group of as a proposal understood criteria may their spokesperson. The to a step replace extirpation of suggestion excommunication and (whom have brethren between the the we the and group of apostles to reconciliation One believers). replace settle with need not why course. Acts to eager primacy would ecclesiastics suggested the NT texts.6 The Purpose of the Criteria on the Replacement of Judas (Acts 1:21-22). A small but fascinating variant in Codex D makes"presented" singular. The next section further explains this point. The show of sincerity does not stop at the announcement and the act of is further Judas Judas. harm Judas' to to the the not only sincerity social of apostles' resolve Suggesting the group of apostles. This would clash with the procedure find but delight later Petrine in by 6: 5-6.

7. The choiceof Judasand Silas [who alsohave T. into Matthias Twelve.p. when eventually enrolled problem have finally as a group redeemedthemselves. . Jesus 1: 7-8? commissioned were contrary to the suggested who apostles i.7 The Final Choice to Replace Judas Is Left To God. e. we believe that the election primarily addressesa moral and social problem. Paul's honour is not in at all affected by Judas' betrayal. TheActs of the Apostles. this is also why the issue is discussed by the author of Acts within the concept of the Paul's apostleship not of Twelve. reason. There was no need to redeem the honour and integrity of the apostlesas a group after Acts 1:26. and substantiated by God after Pentecost. apostles This is also why we believe that the issue of James' martyrdom in Acts 12:2 is no longer seen as creating a vacancy among the Twelve.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 211 in by Acts Again.. That is why the has in Acts implications not of any way made any about Paul being part of the author Twelve. This is the crucial feature which is missing in the council at Jerusalemmeetingin Acts 15. Moreover. the urgent need to complete the number of the eleven apostlesto twelve. the the caused. Their honour as apostles was recognised even as they have individually carried on in their ministries and mission. The discussionsall along about the Twelve in Acts 1-2 are about the sociological implications of Judas' betrayal and not the completion of their number. 37. the slowly out of honour. and integrity have beenreclaimed after the enrolment of Matthias. Johnson. This is also why the group have faded from Twelve the narrative after Acts 2:46. The election is a by in brethren the to the submitted apostles order to mitigate and appeasethe proposal had is Judas Thus. Their leadership. Another measure which the apostles take in assuring the brethren that the stigma of the Judas problem is stricken out from the reputation of the Twelve is the decision to leave the final choice of Judas' replacementto God.

is his (15: 13 f). The question has been brought about by Judas' membership of the his betrayal Jesus. RST the the the enter as stage of stage of apostles - 65In the Acts 15 meeting. This dilemmais the questiono_fthe honour of the apostlesas successors'to Jesus' leadership. an this sort in the Acts 15 meeting.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 212 lives for have Lord "men the their themselves of our sake who risked criteria passedstrict JesusChrist (15:26)"] were conductedcompletely by the apostlesand the elders themselves. the apostlesare not the only ones describedas a group who are The in Acts Ithem the choosing elders are with participating. only one asone not of persons directingthemeeting. From the the the phase of apostles' of stage confrontation ritual intiands last Aggregation. The assembly in Acts 15 does not make any reference at all to having prayed over or 65 is God before it is Spirit VvUle Holy their true the that making choice. This is final here.James. " to the as referred people . consulting in its involvement in is Acts 15: 28.8 Summary. Both (Acts I 15) views presenting meetings and addressa gatheringof pictured also "brethren. the there which choice over exercise no referenceof nominees. an agenda almost similar with actively described Moreover. In this chapter. and of apostolate We haveattemptedto showthat the apostles'defenceof their honourandleadership integrity representsthe ritual confrontation in their ritual! of status transformation. is Peter to the a pending address problem. Transition. direct Silas Judas the not choice of and mentioned stated. is practically declares God's is Again. we were able to demonstratethe plausibility of reading the election narrative in defend 15-26 from 1: Acts the themselves a story as which apostles a moral and social of dilemma. as we have discussedin the ritual elementssection.anotherleadingfigurein theleadershipof the Christiancommunity. The casting of lots. 7.

These issues need to be establishedin order to help us understandthe place of the Thus. Furthermore. election narrative of divided the presentation of this chapter into two major sections. the the that the appears. 22: 30. In this in his Jesus Israel that the they thrones apostles and serve promises new will sit on passage. 22: 30. the the the we research on election current purpose of narrative. that on completion concern apostles of and primarily is in finally blot Judas to the to replace order out agenda social and moral primary . We statedthat it was more likely that Matthew was because inserted "twelve" before "thrones" the the of the context word word the one who in We Lk. in Acts 1: 15-26 the we perspective of a ritual confrontation. saying concluded of reward-promise version where 22: 30 is closer to the original saying. with to that the the to the apostles election of views: was conducted complete number prominent twelve. We this the of absenceof made conclusion of concern primary in itself investigation Our further text the shows that the concept of the concrete evidence before in drawn have Pentecost Acts 2 twelve the to apostles event was popularly urgency by some scholars from the promise which Jesusmade to his apostlesin Lk. 22:30. before We "twelve" the twelve tribes. "thrones" the the we shows general scope of promise word imported idea be for that there the twelve the twelve thrones that should was apostles argued from the parallel saying in Mt.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 213 Our description of this phasehas necessitatedthe discussionof some vital historical issues. and that the election is the fulfilment of the promise of Jesusto his apostlesin Lk. The first section has dealt find Under two this. We found out that the idea concerning the election of a new apostle as a responseto the need to complete the number of the Eleven apostles to Twelve is not necessarily the Acts because 1: 15-26. 19:28. We pursued our argumentabout how the election narrative in Acts 1:15-26 does not itself Eleven its the to the twelve. the judges that the the stated absence of over word as in Lk.

the Eleven proposed the election of a trustworthy and reliable The the the all candidates should which proposal comes with strict criteria replacement. honour of the apostles. 22:30 and its alleged fulfillment in Acts 1:15-26. Instead. After having dealt with the important historical issuessurrounding Acts 1:15-26. we for defence Peter the the the that the acts as spokesperson of scenario plausibility showed jury brethren 120 the the the the acts as or representativeof of while rest apostles group of the Christian community. cutting and extirpation finally has heal damage Judas to (4) the to the reputation and caused and which apostles. we defence how be the the the to apostlesagainst as of show can viewed narrative proceeded in how Peter We by the Judas speaking as started author portrays proving the problem. 22:30. have prevented it nor do the apostles have any responsibility towards it. We then enumerated the evidencein Peter'sspeech(andin the rest of the narrative) from distanced how the themselves their the guilt of apostles association and shows which fulfilment include: death (1) betrayal Judas The that the the of and of was Judas. We found out that one of the doubt the the to promise-fulfilment about suggestion why we should as points major indirect is direct 15-26 30 Acts 1: between Lk. 22: the or absenceof any and relationship is in Matthias by that the the the the of election narrative author or characters claim either indeedthe fulfilment of Jesus'rewardin Lk. was no scripture. between for (5) left the in the to the to candidates vacant qualify post. (2) that the death shows the evil nature of Judas and that his actions Judas' description of grotesque declared Judas' his (3) Peter his that the through publicly alone. reasons it is fulfihnent because That that there the way anyone could of scripture.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 214 by the has the he the relationship of extent analysing apostolate caused embarassment between Lk. behalf of the Eleven apostlesand not the 120 brethren as some would claim. choice was order meet . apostles and were for ties the the group of with off any excommunication apostolate.

the degree of the Eleven's participation and accountability in Judas' betrayal of Jesus. 4: 1-12 ends up with victory his adversary. the apostles complete their version of the ritual confrontation with a over Judas to the problem .were all in defence before brethren 120 in the upper room. This expressesthe apostles' sincerity and assurancethat be is Judas' is fear God to the going replacement ordainedand of the repeatof a whoever Judas' betrayal is no longer possible. All the concernswhich were left solution hanging from the time Jesuswas arresteduntil the time he departedwere answeredduring this assemblyin the upperroom.the election of Matthias. Just as Jesus' ritual confrontation with the devil in Lk..Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 215 God through the casting of lots. the the apostles' up cleared The apostlesas initiands now complete their stageof transition. ThemattersaboutJudas'death. Whether they have been vindicated or denied of their appeal to regain their honour and leadership integrity in be follow.andmoreimportantly. the to that to seen events are remains .

We begin into the the the to understanding of shall apostles' society. The apostles"become useful for has "' they take the the them. To the the the setting of whole which of of element intention Spirit's Day Pentecost is lou%te to the the the on author's outpouring of precise. ofSymbols. finally solves the one problem which has constantly shamedthe reputation of the apostles . .is a "solutioW'to a moralproblemmorethanjust a statisticalsettlement to complete the number of the apostlesto twelve. Matthias. the to the process. The training of the initiands is over and the next stage is the confirmation and installation of their new statusand role as leadersof the Christian community.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 216 THIRD STAGE: AGGREGATION Chapter Eight The excommunication of Judas from the exclusive group. V. to as up roles society which ritual prepared again As we have previously done. By electing Matthias." p. we will first identify the ritual elements before we follows in What One Acts 2. Judas is officially stricken off from the exclusive list and his seat is filled in. pp. "Rituals of StatusTransformation in Luke-Acts. YheForrest 251-60. 341. the time when the initiands have come out from their liminal status and are incorporated into society with defined rights and obligations. aggregation with vital brief background study of Penetecost. plus the election of Matthias as his credible replacement. This stageis Aggregation. ritual are ritual elements particular move defines is Acts 2 Feast be Pentecost.therefore. 1M. Facing and solving the Judas problem is the last phase in the apostles' stage of Transition. McVann. Turner.that the "traitor" was a member of the Twelve.

trans. or 3R. the Passoverand the feast of Weeks came to be recognisedinto the Christian tradition. 23:34. seventh . 8. de Vaux. 16:9-10." on the other hand. Ancient Israek Its Life and Institutions. Lev. 15: 1. and in the calendarof Gezer. There are three great feasts observed annually in ancient Israel. out. Longman and Todd. 12:17).25. Ancient JsraeL Its Life and Institutions. Known also as the feast of Harvest (or wheat harvest.27). In Lev. 1961). especially the rituals in Num. 28: 16-25 and Ezra 45: 21-24.the feast of Weeks is the secondmost celebratedin the NT times. 16:13. may be misleading be did in involved literally "huts" feast Tks the tents. Exod. McHugh. (London: Darton.16. 2 Sam. 23.. 9:5 (and parallels) has not really found its way into being one of the celebratedChristian festivals. Ancient Exod. Exod. the and may any not way means erection of since de 16 34: Cf. 23:5-8. with the meaning"to jump over." 13. 'The namemo may be found for examplein Deut. Num. 30: 14. 23: 16)6. 7:2 and Mt.1 The Feast of Pentecost. 7"And you shall count from the morrow after the sabbath.4:4. 2From the Hebrew word nOD(e. Longman & Todd. Lev. begin to count the seven weeks from the time you first put the sickle to the standing grain. 23: 22 " IIngathering. 61twas one of the main periods in the agricultural calendarof Palestine(Gen. P. McHugh. The feast of Tabernacles. 16:1-8.. . p. and of Tabernacles (nZof Of these three.its name and how it is dated is found in Deut. pp.1. 1 Sam. 1 Kngs. Then you shall keep the feast of weeks to the Lord your God with the tribute of a freewill offering from your hand. 18:2 1. they to the morrow after the the seven weeks offering. p. 1961).although mentioned in Jn. The term "tents. You shall count seven weeks. "feast to to the and refer as of what related Israek Its Life and Institutions.from the day that you brought the ffill fifty days be. They are the pilgrimage feasts (z) feast Passover2 the the of the of which was eventually combined with Unleavened Bread (njy'n)3' of Weeks (nwnw). 495. J. J.217 Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 8. 6: 13.de Vaux. 23: 15-217 (cf. determined by days The the of counting e. 5ThePassoverbecamethe principal feast in SecondTemple Judaism. 34: 18. 23: 15.1 The Ritual Elements in Acts 2. trans. The term "tabernacles" is from the Latin tabernacula. Vaux. Next to the Passover5. It was primarily in Exod. shall wave counting sheaf of " sabbath. 484-93. sevenweeks plus conducted.g. 493. 28:26-31) we find more details of how the ritual is date feast is fifty (i.the "feast of Weeks" (nlYnlv ari) . and the story in 9: 1-14. Cf Exod. Judg. Deut. (London: Darton. 12: " left . in the to the the especially second month of year according calendars most religious observed 12. which you shall give as the Lord your God blessesyou.

281.1. when of was offered a days" count explains why the Greek-speakingJews understoodand translatedthe feast with 9 IIevqicoarý. "The Ascensionof Christ and Pentecost. 2nded. New TestamentStudies. 347-48. 1998). our aim is to understandhow the events of the Spirit's outpouring in Acts 2 into Twelve We know to the the the that the coming of the aggregation of society. For the celebrations are on same which sectarian 8Cf. Priestly tradition related to thejoined of the Passoverand Unleavened The feast later on came to be celebratedin the third month of the year. a fixed date was understood for Pentecost after the the term 10 haed it feasts bread. H. Fitzmyer." p.seeJ.the Day of Pentecost? Why. 28 1. relates Spirit is an event very much anticipated by the apostlesas Jesushimself instructed them to in for its Jerusalem fulfilment (Acts 1:8a).2 Pentecost as a Covenant Renewal? We have indicated earlier that the feast of Pentecostwas eventually fixed on the third month for Scanning the time through the as commemoration." Again. 1'For an idea on the disagreementbetweenthe Phariseesand Sadduceeson the exact date of Pentecost. Acts 2: 1-27 narrates such a and wait remain fulfilment. of all the many days in the Jewish calendar.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 218 8 day first fruits The "fifty from harvest day) the the to the the prieSt. 2: 1 and 2 Macc. "The Ascension of Christ and Pentecost. certain year of held for is date designated Pentecost. does the outpouring of the Spirit occurs on the day when a significant pilgrimage feast is being celebratedin Jerusalem? To rephraseour initial question above: "How is the Spirit's baptism of the apostles which happens on the day when the great pilgrimage feast of Pentecost is being celebratedrelat0to the aggregationof the Twelve into the society?" 8. I." in SJT30 (1977). "The Significance of Pentecost." in To Advance the Gospel. Fitzmyer. pp. how is it that such an awaited event happens to coincide with a great Jewish festival . 9The"fiftieth" day is first mentioned in Tob. p. . (Grand Rapids: Eerdrmns. Yet. Later on. 10CEJ. 12:31-32 along with the name "feast of Weeks". other evidence. Marshall.

15: 10-12 2 example. "Written approximatelybetween 150-140B. Pneumatology. from the spoil which they had brought. Its Moses Mt. 19:1 on "third month of the new feast Weeks departure is from have.1. C. J. "The Significance of Pentecostý"in SJT30 (1977). 15:10-12 They were gatheredat Jerusalemin the third month of the fifteenth year of the reign of Asa. pp. the God of their fathers. p. renewal with a which covenant of is Sinai (15: 12). 14E.1 The Book of Jubilees. seealso the bibliography of A. 1998).g. 161tis also in this text that we find the connectionbetweenthe Noahic and the Sinai covenants. of we moon7 after (Pentecost) and the renewal of the Sinai covenant being commemoratedon the same date. 13Cf. Vanderkam. Israel's J. M. pp. Dunn. p.14The most suggested follows: are as evidence pieces of 8. 27-54..Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 219 12the "gathering in Jerusalemon the third month in the fifteenth in Chr. with all their heart and with all their soul. Law teaching the the context and of eschatological the author's on The Book of Jubilees. "Traditions and Redactions in Acts 2: 1-13. "their " the of the covenant made. C.. vol. covenant an allusion either or covenant is in Asa's Jerusalem the third transpired characterised reign a pilgrimage on month of what by the offering of the first fruits of harvest and the peoples' renewal of the covenant with God. "Pentecost. Egypt. . H. seven hundred oxen and seventhousandsheep. 348. 2 (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. Marshall. Wedderbum. 1030-32.16 Verses 15-18a speak of God's promise to Noah concerning not to destroy the earth by flood: Jub. teaching theological primary received which the revelation of in future.2." in ABD. And they enteredinto a covenantto seekthe Lord." in Christ and the Spirit. highly first fruits" (15: 11) (15: 10) "offering Asa's the the characterises and of reign" year of the feast of Pentecost.is datedby Exod. Could Pentecostthen have evolved from just being the feast of harvest to a celebration of Mount Torah the at the giving of 'Sinai?13 Some scholarsthink SO. 211. They sacrificed to the Lord on that day. What the their therefore. But what is interesting in this gathering is the aspectof the renewal fathers had This God. In Noahic to the the other words. The Sinai event. the book of Jubilees is said to be the account focuses from God in Sinai.in particular. J. Evidence alluding to the feast of Pentecostas being characterisedby a renewal of covenant 15 book Jubilees in the is found of chapter 6. 6: 15-18a. vol.1." in JSNT 55 (1994). 12 2 Chr. 3.

Day Pentecost Jubilees." in Outside the Old Testament World. They shall not stray from one of all God's orders concerning their appointed times. the renewed until your until your it for themasthis mountain.309 years). and a cloud overshadowed it for six days. 2. kept it. "The B. following from the might occur) any or agony grief stray dominion of Belial. Marshall. the third month. Abraham then and sons alone would not eat it had forgotten I day Israelites (Moses') In time." pp. VanderKam." pp. IQS 1:8-2:16 instructsthe communityto conduct Pentecostas a covenantrenewal 17English translation from JamesC." (1962). 19James C. to Law-giving this the Jubilees. 1985). VanderKam. De Jonge.2. that of mountain onto went up you may so Then the Lord's glory settled on Mt. p. I. M. Sinai. 122-23. When they enter the covenant.for twenty-six jubilee-periods and five weeks of 17 (1. H. . 349 of and cf. in ASTI " I in Acts.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 220 He gave Noah and his children a sign that there would not again be a flood on the flood in that He the the covenant eternal clouds as a sign of placed a rainbow earth. as not again on earth waters would For this reason. are later on corrupted it until God had to renew it with Moses at the "mountain" (6: 18b-19): Noah andhis childrenkept it for sevenjubilee-periodsandoneweek of years(350 it death. They their times they their shall not of any one appointed nor shall retard advance not in he in his from to that commands and order not to precepts order carry out an reliable veer (that during him for fear.the priests and the levites shall bless the God of salvation and all the works of his faithfulness and all those who enter the covenant shall repeat after them: Amen. dread." We know that the mountain being referred to is Sinai as this is clearly describedin 1:1-2: In the first year of the Israelites' exodus from Egypt. 122-23.one time each year . " (So) Moses the the teach them. pp. the appears associated with of of discussedearly in the secondcentury AD by R. have is Qumran the observed which may The sectariangroups community anotherof 20 feast. "The Book of Jubilees. 81. the sixteenth I Moses: "Come Lord to the to the that mountain.1. Akiba. long destroy it be the to as the earth remains.to from in heaven festival the This the was celebrated entire covenant annually. p. n.19 8. they shall feasts. and will up me on said month. VanderKam. Qumran Noack. (Cambridge: CUP. 122-23.2 The EsseneSect in Qumran. "James C. Amen. "The Significance of Pentecost. of have I Law the tablets the two which written commandment stone of and give you Lord.. renew time of creation until Noah's day . 20EspeciallyI QSI: 13b-20.ed. it has been ordained and written on the heavenly tablets that they should celebrate the festival of weeks during this month . Marshall adds that for the author have been issue is feast That Weeks. years kept but His instructed descendants the Noah's to observe children covenant annually. Noah's His children corrupted until Abraham'stime and years) until it kept his Isaac Jacob blood. "The Book of Jubilees. "The Book of Jubilees.

"Pentecostand Jewish Tradition. Illinois: Allenson. " pp. "The Ascensionof Christ and Pentecost.a. 11QTemple 19:11-14 . Seealso Y. Milik. 282. . yet becausethe Qumransectis known to havefollowed being doneon the third month of the likelihood of this observance the Jubileescalendar22.the Feastof New Wine. Fitinyer. Cf." p.according to Turner. 23Fitzmyer discussesthe celebrationby the Qumran sect of three Pentecostalfeastswhich Evidence from Cave Temple in Qumran 11. pp. Jose ben Halafta (c. This is set by the Targums in Exod. Marshall. R. H." Scripta Hierosolymitana.. They show the requirement of the "formal coming together in the third month to cursethose who depart from the Torah. (Milrichen. the cycle. Fitzmyer.and the meal in Exod. 150 A." pp. Le Deaut." p.. Powerftom on High. 254-56. 27 for day. Calendar Reckoning of the Sect from the JudaeanDesert. "Pentecostand Jewish Tradition. "in . p. 283-84. G. aus 271H. 254-56. 1978). 24: 11 is described.. twenty-secondday. I.) which states. The third it day Conunandments Ten the the to them. Evidence from R. p. lesson feast 9926 Exod. third month. Turner adds that the recently published 4Q266 confirms this as lines 17-18.221 Estrada:From FollowersToLeaders 21 basis. 28 1. p. TheDead SeaScrolls: Qumran in Perspective (Cleveland: Collins & World. Vermes. The TempleScroll: TheHidden Law of the Dead SeaSect (1985). 19 be day. sixth month. Kommentar zum Neuen Testament II. "The Significance of Pentecost. Cf. 177-79. R. fifteenth day. 24 23 is date for feast Pentecost. 601. given month. 91-96. 211QSI:19. Also S. J. pp. "They shall act in this way year after year. Billerbeck.. (Naperville. G.the Feastof Weeks or Feastof First Fruits. the of were and was sixth month." pp. E. "The Significance of Pentecost. fifth month. pp. 349. 2nded. " The Ascension of Christ and Pentecost. third day. Martinez. undMidrasch. English translation from R. W. Strack und P. Aspectsin the Dead Sea Scrolls (1967). 24R..116-18. Marshall. A. Le Deaut.q125 8. 349. TheDead SeaScrolls Translated: The Qumran Texts in English. pp.2. Le Deaut also firids evidencefrom the . L. 177-79. Although the feast of Pentecost is not the covenant renewal on an annual specifically mentionedin this text." p. G. J. IV. Text from H. pp. (Eerdmans:Grand Rapids: 1996). " . 19: 1 as fifty days after the Passover.1. the the year . "Pentecostand Jewish Tradition. "The Ascension of Christ and Pentecost. 103.the Feast of New Oil. J. T." p. scroll most specifically complete a makes II QTemple 18:10-13 ."The Israelites immolated in it lamb Egypt fourteenth Nisan Passover the the on of and was a Thursday . 1959).the same of not remote. trans. 256-57. 282. Le Deaut. Talmon. Ten YearsofDiscovery in the WildernessofJudaea.3 Some Rabbinic Writings. " in Doctrine and Life 20 (1970). to which was the appointed read on the a sabbath Text and English translation from F. Damascus Document suggestingthat the feast of Weeks was celebratedas a feast of covenant. Watson. 3. Talmud vol. and II QTemple 21: 12-16 . "The . 25M Turner. 26Seder'01am Rabba 5. D. Yadin. 22j Fitzmyer. 1956). .

138. D. 199 1). place on feast of Weeks was no longer just a feast of harvest but also the commemoration of covenant renewals. the renewal of the Noahic covenantand the giving feast Weeks takes happens Mt. G. 28B. on which the Based on what we havejust cited. Menzies. English translation from R. third the assume are grounds. harvest 16: 11.3 That Luke Was Influenced by the Moses/Sinai Traditions. J. language p.and imagery parallels between other traditions and the Acts 2 account.. p. Fortress Close (Minneapolis: The Talmud. M. a milieu and shaped account was selected suggests traditions. he Pentecost the the read of when readers story. Power From on High. cited we only on evidence not suggestion 30 literary. Press. A Encounter Neusner. p. various the on also above. A. of ComfAre the statement a.Pesahim 68b. Turner. & T.. the on covenantmeal of of the n.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 222 is day feast Weeks) (the ). 5. the from 270 Eleazar R.p. Clark. Cf. Early Christianity According to the Traditions in Acts . composed traditions when Sinai familiar Jewish in traditions Acts 2. especially would M. . Uldemann. 28 . p. seealso R. 280. the account and with such which contacts which " been have striking. month of every year. but have the is based. Torah was given. Powerfrom Turner. Spirit the those the with are who of outpouring 29 This from God Sinai Torah Moses the the at received story when are remindedof . 190. 30Whatwe find are allusions and not strictly the literary dependenceof Luke on the said in Turner ". 8. . influenced by Moses/Sinai himself Luke-Acts the the that was Others argue author of the Thus. "It (c. n. that. Empoweredfor Witness. Deut. High. Luke's Nevertheless. The following are someof the more prominent parallel examples: 282. Sinai the Moses to Torah which to of with coincide the at of the that There to therefore.1. 42. ThePurpose ofLuke-Acts (Edinburgh: T. Powerfrom on High. Maddox. language. 1982). 280. (in the form we have it) in Pentecost had tradition. see also 29M Turner.

from Pentecost. 283.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 223 8. First are issues issues Our Sinai.iiN 8. Sinai in fire (Exod. 19: 16 Ocomd which and reads as stated "there ýcový be (or Fitzmyer "thunders")."I have spoken to you from heaven7'(tic CojýOi)paVO-3 Fitzmyer also adds that "Yahweh's descentto Mt.pp. . cfiq a%cro as were suggests sounds" as may read acUictyp.31 32 bgof) its bgo0uga86v is parallelwith Exod. of at second pertains giving concerning (London: SCMPress.3.3.1.)33. mainly 3'A variantemployedin C3. Fitzmyer. E. M.1. heard (Ocovýv bgei.for "the tonguesof fire" in Acts 2:3."The Ascensionof ChristandPentecost. Seeour discussionon bgo0vgcc86v in section5. O'Reilly.1 De Decalogo Philo's The Decalogue is a treatise which basically deals with two issues. Y. WordandSignin theActsof theApostles(Rome: pontifical Biblical Institute.andgloom. Our summaryaboveis based J.N.J.1989).4: 11-12. i)gCX. therewasonly voice(*výv).1979). of and p. 21-29. the same source in Exod. 19:8 referringto how the adverb and variant 64all(b9OO'O9(x56v)the people gatheredtogether. 2: ýcový 2: Exod.wrappedin darkness. XFkdkllCCCnp6. the ýijgd=v the the midst of you of sound of words out but sawno form. 19 and 20 . 20: 22 .3. Thenthe Lord spoketo you fire.1.2.2 Examples from PhiIo. "The Ascension Christ " 283.Dupontarguedfor theseverbalallusionsin his work "The First ChristianPentecost. 34j Fitzmyer.L.1 Exodus 19 and 20. (3) Acts 2:2 also indicates that the sound came from heaven (tic 'loý) obpavoý)). fiXEt g9yoc ("a sound of the trumPet blasted loudly"). . Torah The the to the on adultery. is in tyivov-To in Acts 2 6. cloud. And you camenearandstoodat thefoot of themountainwhile themountainburnedwith fire to theheartof heaven. 35-59. " in TheSalvationofthe Gentiles(Ramsey.pp. 41-42. 8. (1) is the striking verbal parallelism between Acts 2 and Exod. 31J.pp.1. ýicoibawce)." (2) the sound which came from heaven fiXo.3. 33Theverbalandimageryparallelsmayalsobe foundin Deut. One of the reasonswhy some scholarsconsider the possibility that the author of Luke-Acts his his Sinai have Pentecost Moses the tradition experience of and written story within may For instance. " p. 19:18) provides an Old Testamentbackground.: Paulist.1987).

1 have italicised and underlined the words and phrasesto show the apparent parallels: TheDecalogue" (v. distributed and resting on each one of them. (v.7) And they were amazedand wondered. 36) So the rapidity. of full soul of clearnessand a rational distinctness. (v. M. both Jews and proselytes. 10) Phryg'ia and Pamphyl'ia.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 224 interest lies on the first part.. 8) And how is it that we hear. "Are not all these who are speaking Galileans? (v. Pontus and Asia. 33) I should supposethat God wrought 36 holy truly this a miracle of a occasion on kind by bidding an invisible sound to be !rvellous than all Lnstruments and fitted with perfect harmonies.in the game becamearticulatK Acts 2 (v. the rush of the heaven-sentfire (v. becauseeach one heard them sp!ýýkjn in his own langua (v. 9) Par'thians and Medes and Flamites and residents of Mesopota'mia.4) And they were all filled with the Holy Spirit and began to speakin other tongues. which giving shapeand tension to the air and changing it to flamin zf ire. 1) When the day of Pentecosthad come. heaven there sounded that streamedfirom jorth to their utter amazementa voice for ezeechL. Egypt and the parts of Libya belonging to Cyrene. and visitors from Rome. (v..35) But the new miraculous voice was set in flame by kept in the power of and action God which breathedupon it and spreadit it side and made more every on abroad illuminating in its ending than in its beginning by creating in the souls of each hearing kind far of superior another all and to the hearing of ears.44-46 (Loeb Classical Library). "They are filled with new wine. we hear them telling in our own tongues the migh works of Go . 36COmpareOcvvWxTotpyfiaca wiTq t0cclbgaýov of Acts 2: 7. 3) And there appearedto them tonguesas oCfire. Turner. and so too with the rest. commit shalt not steal. Consider both the verbal and imagery parallels with the Pentecost story in Acts 2.. Thou kill.5) Now there were dwelliniz in JerusalemJews. (v.Judeaand Cappado'cia. (v. and it filled all the house where thCEwere sittin .46) Then from the midst of the-ft III.nor yet composed like living but body and soul a creature. persons . (v. saying to one another. thCywere all together in one place. devout men from eve?y nation under heaven. on .as the Spirit gave them utterance. (v. " 35Textand English translation from Philo: TheDecalogue 32-36. p. not soulless. For that is but a inactive by until aroused sense. sluggish but hearing the iMact air. 11) Cretansand Arabians. (v. each of us in his own native language? (v. of the ofthe the by God first the makes mind p2ssessed to the out meet spoken goes and advance keenest (v." (v. 44b) .2) And suddenly a sound came from heavenlike the rush ofa mighty wind.(v. 283. we may much properly ask why. sounded forth like the breath through a trumpet an articulate voice so te nearest. Thou shalt not adultery. -He _thousauds m His ten to to not as several address oracles -each but Thou to shalt not as one. when all theseman were collected in one spot . Cf. "What does this mean?" (v. 12) And all were amazedand perplexed. with words divine But for the voice. and they were bewildered. Powerfrom High. saying.. 13) But others mocking said.6) And at this sound the multitude came together.

Powerftom on High. In PseudoJonathan it states. and place of writing. 8. His like and a on and of with right and storms was .3.who would cometo the naturalconclusionthat suchmighty signsportended 37 mighty consequences.189. one cannot help but notice that Luke's Pentecost account sharesstriking similarities with the vocabulary of Philo. date. 19: 16ff show expansionsof the Sinai episodesharing familiar imagery of the Pentecostaccount in Acts 2. 37Philo:Special Laws.1. reflects what jca.. The phrase "those dwelling in extremities of the eartV (tv taXovuoCtq ' IO'U8(XJQC [tV] has (IEPOUCCXXýg ) Acts 1: 8 Tfi Rdall Kai ca.the celebration of the . 38M. The text goes. burning light hand lightnings. Despite the fact that Philo is describing a totally different event. endsof thosewho were far from the spot and dwelling well nigh at the extremitiesof the earth.uotlcoý)v. The Targums of PseudoJonathan on Exod.. In 11. The first word.Turner. Coý) Oý). gcyd%a gFydu%cov ECYTI is reminiscent of Acts 2: 11 . 11:189. CY119CM 39 0. 20:2 and Neofiti on Exod. not to mention the disparity of time.225 Estrada: From Followers To Leaders langyage familiar to the audience. as it cameforth from the mouth of the Holy One. taX(icou Judea C'Jerusalem Yag(xpct(x yý. all icccl and Icccl 38 to the end of the earth'').Trumpet feasf' is being described. p. flames fire.cd gEyakda %F-C9d'CC0v 6CIEOa'Ce. 39CEActs 2: 19. For then the sound of the trumpet pealed from heavenand reached.22.we may into terror that the the the strike even event might universeso suppose. and and cý. 284.and so distinctly were the words cleaLly and fiormed by it that thCEseemedto see rather than hear them. This strengthens in Luke their that accounts a and other earlier and contemporarywriters wrote the possibility milieu of OT tradition. may his Name be blessed. Samaria in to).2.2 De Specialibus Legibus Philo's The Special Laws extend the theophanic descriptions of the "sound" which comes from heaven and the mighty signs which come with it. Likewise the phrase ca obrco.

" vol.an interior law. Jacques the the the the episode as a platform event of outpouring of using " these Dupont's analysis of allusions expressesthis view well: 1. Dupont. language. and was engravenon the tables of the covenantthat were given by the hand of Mosheh . into forth from Holy One. 1935-52)." Likewise. (London: Socino. Empoweredfor Witness. (1984).J. received the Spirit. ed. An important parallel to the account in Acts 2:5-13 where the multitude which came together heard their own languagebeing spoken is reflected in the later era of the traditions in the Babylonian Talmud (b. that the single word went seventy every up split so languages. 40H. and imagery parallels we have just enumerated have been NT have Luke-Acts to that the a majority of scholars view author of may encouraged for Sinai Spirit.pp. and poured it out on the disciples. 189-90. Rabbi Jochanan(c. Thus the gift of the Spirit is viewed as the essence of the new covenant and the new law . 55 1. Ezek.and was made manifest unto the camp of Israel.3. Etheridge. W. by the time Luke penned Acts. blessed be He."Shabbath. A. p. 11(1938) in 7he Babylonian Talmud. Acts 2:33 is based on Ps.a. 420. 31:33. and returned.p." The literary. 36:26).1 Nouvelles " les Actes des etudes sur -11). "La nouvelle Pentecote(Ac 2.. 67: 19 with reference to Moses who at Sinai. p. The Targumsof Onkelos and Jonathan Ben Uzziel on Pentateuch (New York: KTAV Publishing House. on His left.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 226 8. 193. 41Cf. Pentecostwas regarded as a feast commemorating the giving of the law on Sinai.. written on the heart (Jer. gab. the Pentecost account contains numerous literary allusions to Sinai traditions and therefore was shapedwith this event in mind. Menzies. from the school of Rabbi Ishmael came the tradition which claims that "Just as a hammer is divided into many sparks.Freedman. 4postres .1. 88b)40. ascendedinto heavento receive the Torah in order that he might give it to humanity. English translation from R.3 The Babylonian Talmud Shabbath 88b. For example. in Acts 2:33 the psalm is applied to Jesuswho ascendedto the right hand of God. It winged its way through the air of the heavens. 2. I. D. English translation from J. Epstein. . 279) had referred to the divine word at Sinai as saying "Every single word that went forth from the Omnipotent was split up into seventy languages. cf. 1968). 3.

does not coincide with the feast of calling of all nations and Weeks as how the Qumran community celebratedthe event.A2 8. With the implications from some rabbinic writings such as R. "new Sinai" lacking For to the and substantiate argument. admits that none of the alleged allusions are however. He.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 227 Fitzmyer.Menzies arguesthat these evidence are "late and of little value for reconstructing Jewish attitudes toward the feast before the destruction of the temple. " The Ascension of Christ and Pentecost. on the other hand. In his monograph Empoweredfor Witness:YheSpirit in Luke-Ac&". filled with and emboldenedby the Spirit. for example. much stronger objection comes from Robert Menzies.Qk the newly reconstituted Twelve. . For him. Empoweredfor Witness. a. de Vaux.a. however.4 Against Pentecost as a New Sinai. Menzies respondsto the evidence above 45 inadequate instance.). as 1. originally published in 1991by the samepubhsher with the title TheDevelopment of Early Christian Pneumatology With Special Referenceto Luke-Acts. D. 190-97. 270 A. "The story in Acts contains no Sinaitic Covenant Covenant is New the Christ to to the the nor of which allusion A3 mediator.1. Ancient Israel: Its Life and Institutions. de Vaux. 44R." 42J." p.Menzies. Empoweredfor Witness:TheSpirit in Luke-Acts (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press. pp. 1994). D. 495. p. Jose ben Halafla (c. doubts the relationship of the Christian feast of Pentecost with the Sinai event. (Acts 15:7)Apnthe Feast of its Assembly for the renewal of the Sinai Covenant.150 A. recognisesthat if ever there is any validity to them is that "they OT supply an and PalestinianJewish background for the first Christian Pentecostwhen may w4k&. 283. Menzies. Eleazar (c. 43R. Fitzmyer. 45R." R. There are. strong objections raised againstviewing the Pentecoststory in Acts 2 as "new Sinai.) and that of R. Acts 2ýwhich was marked by the gift of the Spirit into by the the new Church. both of which place the giving of the law on the day of Pentecost. unambiguous.

Menzies made with any and not covenants strong evidence to connectthe feast with the Sinai covenant. 2. What Menzies doubts is how this annual feast Pentecost. Without the temple the rituals of sacrifice so central to the harvest feast could no 9-A6 longer be performed . 5. "it they to according not surprising that a parallel of this which in found is " further He these accounts. The because the that the community with of relates suggestion observation Jubilees Qumran festival Pentecost the calendar. addsthat. " Thus. while of may with the covenant find Noah (6: (15: does 1-20) Abraham 1-24). The similarities between Luke's Pentecost account and the Sinai traditions of Philo is dismissed by Menzies as simply the common acquaintancewith the language of Jewish theophany. the parallel of divine in different languages is "writers' the the word explained as simply communicating (of both the Sinai and Lukan traditions) interest in the universal significance of the events describe. 3. The evidence from IQS 1:8-2:18 showing that the Qumran community observed the renewal of the covenantannually may be true.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 228 He adds. Suggestionsthat Jub.p. As to the traditions found in the Babylonian Talmud. . "The transformation of the feast from a harvest festival to a festival impetus destruction law the the through of the was undoubtedly given commemorating temple. be the since none of scrolls explicitly supports should 4. 1:1 and 6: 19 speak of the Sinai covenant are primarily based on the perception that the giving of the Torah is related with the renewal of the Noah. is Menzies. nature the theory that Luke was influenced by these rabbinic legends can also be questioned on the grounds that it anachronistically reads Acts 2 in light of rabbinic "R. In feast Weeks be linked the other with words. Empoweredfor Witness. Menzies. 191. viewed as a covenant renewal adapted doubted it.

that the mere ýgtpav of -Týv mention cfi. Menzies than cites at as sharing a milieu rather evidencesimply but have imagery language four the nothing to do least and exampleswhich also share same 47R. 1-13." in JBL 81 (1962). 2.p. Menzies caps statingthat. or covenant renewal ceremonywere evoked into the minds of the his findings by Luke-Acts. 7iF-vvjicocrufi. support which stem Summing up his investigation of the alleged evidence in arguing for Pentecost as a new Sinai. 49Cf S.the examples from some first century sectarian circles do lead Pentecost to the conclusion not as a covenant renewal necessarily celebrate which that Judaismin generalhasviewedthe samefeastasin like manner. but also to determine the parameters of the milieu in which theseparallel are found.andthird. Menzies offers the following points: First. as such. there is no sufficient support to view that Pentecost was celebratedas a festival which commemoratesthe giving of the law at Sinai in the time of Luke's writing. source of prophetic Does Menzies have a point? Unfortunately.Menzies."Parallelomania. second. Sandmel. The Pentecost account indicates that Luke did not view the gift of the Spirit as the power of the new law of Christ. and.Menzies. A in mind nor unconsciously used material significantly influenced them. That distinctions are often more important than similarities.in Acts 2: 1 is not enough to suggestthat the images of Moses. 197. Although it is possible that these texts reflect traditions 47 lacIdng. the Spirit of Pentecostis the 48 inspiration Spirit the of mission.p. . 48R. That the similarities may reflect a sharedmilieu rather than direct literary dependence. cautions as: I. Menzies notes Sandmel's . 3. "parallelomania. According to Luke. 201. Empoweredfor Witness. Sinai. the to most of warning of primarily broad direct dependence. pp. Empoweredfor Witness.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 229 texts from a later era. from is from first the such an assumption century. We say this becausemost of Menzies' argumentrelies on the perils of parallelism. For this reasonit is imperative not only to isolate the parallels between Acts 2: 1-13 and various Sinai traditions. of readers "' Ttat 11M Luke neither shapedthe Pentecostaccount with Sinai traditions The evidence. Heeding finds Sandmel's "49 Menzies S. Warns of the anachronisticalreading of late rabbinic citations as "persuasive parallels" for the New Testamentdocuments. we are inclined to dismiss Menzies' proposal.

pp. would should anticipate great differences in detail . 2 Sam. said Luke. a response which we find more indeed is direct literary dependence by Turner Luke on the that there agrees no credible.Menzies. the Pentecostaccount strike a Jewish reader as sounding "like" Sinai.p.. Empoweredfor Witness. but another event. 50R. This issue has been taken up by Max Turner. EmpoweredAr Witness. Powerftom on High. In other words. our methodology assumesthe apostles to be the subject in the Cf. of aggregation Having said that Pentecostis not just a feast of Harvest but also a celebration of the having Sinai. despite the differences? Are there sufficient "structural. 8-15.dissimilaritiesoughtto saymorethansimilarities. 51M. rightly points out that. to the the the relation aggregation society. Torah the the that the the covenant and giving of at and said of renewal Spirit by Sinai Luke-Acts tradition the the the of as narrated author of evokes outpouring its Pentecost the to the we can whole now attempt of readers." linguistic and conceptual points of " be liable to to evoke a comparison? contact With the similar featureswe have cited between Acts 2 and the Sinai traditions. study significance upon in into in 2 Acts However. by contrast.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 230 law Sinai: 4 1 Enoch 14. . traditions. 66: Ezra 13: 1-10. . 195-96. Menzies.Turner. is not attempting to "describe" Sinai. R. of apostles narrative there is still another significant ritual element which needs to be consistently emphasised.. p. so we The real question then is. we can assume that indeed the Pentecost story ought to evoke from its readers some comparisons with the Sinai event. This assumption (which we will expand later) is important in undertanding why the happened in Pentecost the the time the of apostles celebration. 283. 193-94. This element is the characterof the apostlesas the subject/focusof the whole ritual process.. 22: Isa. 15the the of giving at with 50 16 For Menzies. including the striking parallels between the examples from Philo. he However. becausewe are reading this thesis from the perspective of the Ritual of Status Transformation.

have We this our e.2 rldvce. initially discussed Chapter Two 2. However. Empowered to Witness. the ndvrp-.1. 176. . On this word. There are at least four reasonswhy ndcvnq is commonly understoodas not only referring to 52 is it happensto be the natural reading of the term since the First Twelve that apostles. the question of who spoke in tongues and testified to the crowd in Jerusalem. PL Menzies. Luke. n. the subject of the whole narrative of Acts 2. p. becomes more seems) The difficulty comes from a single and ambiguousword. being incorporatedinto societyis weakened. the this gift would crowd of more uncharacteristic of received than twelve who had gatheredin Jerusalemclaimed that they heard their own languages 52Cf.and eventually. . If this is initiands Acts 2 Twelve that the the then suggestion as ritual stage which our presents so. 176. are completely dependent.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 231 issue in (i. Third is the "potentially universal 53 Spirit. Empoweredfor Witness. the recipients of the Spirit's baptism. one tift the phrase of repetition c6 abc6 in 1:15 and 2: 1. narrative. discussion was focused only on the introduction of the apostles by the author into the (it issue is focus in 3f Acts 1: The the that the the narrative apostles of primary narrative in difficult Acts 2. The popular view is that ndcvcp-. I.1).refers to the one hundred and twenty people mentioned in 1:15 and not just to the Twelve apostles.Thenext sectiondealswith this issue. the is introduced in Second hundred the twenty the and persons are preceding verses. in Acts 2: 1. in Acts 2: 1. 53Cf. Arguing the the that the apostles were the only ones who gift of of character be because Finally. p. I 8. F.Menzies.

is indeed 54 ambiguous. Second.232 Estrada: From Followers To Leaders being spoken. referring prayer as merely opted number of people.. is that the translation course. is. R. 55 all . A Translator's Handbook on the Acts of the Apostles. The problem. 33. D. of "all" Witherington has opted to understand the term "all" is not necessarily as rhetorical an "absolute . Luke is thinking of a Christian house holding 120 people. A. Witnessto the Gospel. CF. p.2. 11B. it is therefore implied that there were more than twelve recipients of the Spirit's gift who blurted out in tongues. "natural" there two However. 242. readings can Only work under point. 1: 24). The intention by have been dt dc=ar6XoL few to the explain the may an manuscripts phrase of addition found in However. 131.Witherington III. This is how many of the English versions have chosen to translate the word. understood rather as an mislead addition. . Royce. ý. eds. is "it unlikely since that 56 . and cf. M. those the the one apostles. however. is the some secondary manuscripts. 9 1. conditions. W. avoiding the issue of the in identify "persevering to those to ndvzc. "with " Eleven disciples. Nida. J. "Scribal Tendenciesin the Transmissionof the Text of the New Testament. C* A. p.. the of context subject of whole promise-ftilfilment reading for Jerusalem instructions Jesus' the to to The and wait of return recipients' apostles. Newman and E. That the natural reading of ncivmq should be the 120 personsreferred to in 1:15 may have a is if First. Acts ofthe Apostles. B. if there are the the said of which may explain ambiguity possible alternative reasons other no clearly "natural" than the reading. p. B. The explain.1 The Natural Reading of fIcivcp-q in 2: 1. the them the to word which only against codices of read major quick were scholars been has intention than to to then. 8. it is. 55Cf. J. together" Mary with Jesus'brothers. Green. since addition only ndvceq. B. That (1: 14. (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. other phrase word or As to the first condition. women mind. 8.p. of ambiguity bear ). the employment of the word ndwre. Ehrman and M. the second condition which makes us find the so-called natural is 1-2 Acts the The doubtful. Holmes. n. (1: 4).1995). indeed ambiguity in the word or phrase which is being questioned. ncjv. father" the the are clearly apostles "promise of The commissioning to become 54Cf." in The Text of the New Testamentin ContemporaryResearch:Essayson the Status Quaestionis.

c6? Our suggestionis that Enj E6 in "single" in "same" in O. Despite others being in the background (1: 14-15).2 The Repetition of Eni T6 Abc6. 59 57P. 'together. as he did in 1:15. 199. who are the most likely subject in 2: 1. The repetition of Lift t6 aiyu6 in 1:15 and 2: 1 is understood by some as indicative of the (specifically in 120) house from Twelve the the the the of gathering people of apart presence bd however. 238. these men have become "witnesses" (32-33). narrative indeed in Acts that.. ai). it but be can used in the senseof "at the sameplace. in We that this context. his addressprovides further confirmation. 0 O."Luke usesthe phraseepi to auto. 58Fitzmyerconcurs. gathering and place order ccj). 58 "place" "people" had the the than the of gathering rather on who gathered.57 8.' which may say no more than homou. cf.. Promising an explanation of what has gone on for "these men" (15-16).2. .. Whoever is the subject of 2: 1 receives the Spirit (2-4) and a crowd comes together (5-13). a group which has already been limited to twelve. 1:11) .the temporal and spatial setting 66andit filled all the housewhere they were sitting.and the crowd.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 233 is for (1: for 7-8). 2b . apostles. " J. When he eventually gets to this explanation. ofthe p. 15-26) It the therefore. Fitzmyer. cf. Bolt correctly observesthat. Zahn was one (if not the earliest) to suggestthat Luke actually referred to . The identity of the first group is revealed when Peter stands up with the eleven (2: 14. This sets up two groups: those receiving the Spirit who are all Galileans (2:7. If emphasis on intended just to the the emphasise gathering of people. 2:37) to address the crowd. the the this the emphasises context. 590ur earlier suggestionthat ndvTzq refers to the Twelve also solves the problem of how the 120 can fit into the crixo. Acts I focuses upon and ends with the twelve (1:26). the apostlesfit more into the description of irdwceg. the preceding The Acts Apostles. then the author bgoý) he (a basically in has "together") 2: 1? the employed word word which means why Why has he not simply used the samephrase Enj r6 cci). to the assume while other characters play alongside apostles consistent 1-2. This is confirmed by the flow of the chapter.p. context. to pave way for what is about to be emphasisedin v. which suites the adv. The Jesus the again only apostles subject of the whole election witnesses logical (1: is. can also mean the suggest." in Witnessto the Gospel. "Mission and Witness.. to and again more points only apostles.Bolt.

only the apostlesreturned to Jerusalern. or was referred From our have has Twelve been that the the subject especially as we argued consistently perspective. Seealso J.p. eds. TheHoly Places ofthe Gospels(New York: Herder and Herder. " Cf. 60C. 330-34. Fitzmyer. 62. Cooganet al. p. the the the upper room apostles elected replacement prayed and waited by (2: being baptised Spirit 14).However. 63 it. He statedthat "there is (speaking Spirit's by this the indication that phenomenon about was only outpouring) experienced no for leadership. 60 has Spirit Twelve. question one ought ask whether state the initial outpouring of the Spirit was indeed received by the alleged 120 disciples being in it first by 2: 1 the to advrF-q confined to the Twelve. " in Scripture and Other Artifacts: Essayson the Bible and Archaeology in Honor of Philip J. 296-3 10.p. TheActs of the Apostles.234 Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 8. Kopp. 132. Judas' 15-26). Menzies.. 61R Empoweredfor Witness. As we have consistently shown. it is from last beginning Acts I the two the until episode of chapter narrative of initial Twelve Spirit's to that the the the assume were possible recipients of exegetically is in disciples disprove 120 For there the to the no concrete while evidence presence of gift. (Leipzig/Erlangen: Deichert. finally. M..3 The Universal Character of the Gift of the Spirit. however. 1994). "The Cenacleand Connnunity: The Background of Acts 2:4445. D. . pp. suggestion was as the the 120 people in what was understoodto be a common small size NT house. sort of empowerment as some the Apostles: Socio-Rhetorical Commentary. 1963). is the same house when the Spirit arrived.p. their converts and witnesses 63This is why I think that Witherington's comment is less convincing. T. L 62Only the apostleswere conunissionedto be witnessesand were instructed to remain in Jerusalem(Acts 1:7-8). pp. 77. 1927). p.K. the excluded not on gift at present were 39 Spirit is is doubt 17 2: There 2: the to the that all or and gift of available not. Witherington III. patristic and medieval resolved taken dtico. there also no concrete evidence to support intended This Temple to explain the accommodationof the place of gathering. the "Temple"). J. The Acts 2. C. from the writers of p. Acts ofthe Twelve. Murphy-O'Connor. the the the the same as place where was to understand Acts oftheApostles. Cenacle. likewise. that from a status . held. Die ApostelgeschictedesLucas. Last Supper J. has argued that "the potentially universal character of the gift of the Spirit is stressedin 2: 17 and 2:39. Some have 238. B. King.2. Barrett. Fitzmyer.they were introduced individually. reference Acts Apostles. " Cf. 2 vols. (Louisville: Westminster. 112. 176. the their task the and apostles performed of were apostles first (2: had 14-47). they in (1: (1: 12-14). Barrett suggestedthat the gift of the was not narrowly confined to the Menzies. 238. as most from (a is have 7: 47 it Acts that crticog apart context clear why observed which makes commentators IF-p6v for Luke-Acts has "temple. therefore it would be strange if any of the disciples 61 from is issue in Pentecost. no whether is for believe is Spirit's We that the the to that gift all. the termc6 author of consistently used meant Zahn.

. And from what the rest of Acts 2 indirectly saysof the identity of those who were "filled by the Spirit" in the dticog (see vv. 42. 14. stspeakingin a foreign language" (e. 66Somecommentatorsseethe gift asglossolalia meaning"ecstatic utterance" (e. Lake and H. as a narrative which promotes of read can subject. if Luke regards this event as a hearing. First. the text does not specifically say that the being heard language the than twelve their same at spoken all nationalities more of crowd 65 time. and 43). 8. 109). J. When the samephenomenonis used in Acts 10:4546: 19:6. it has been deduced that more than twelve persons individually language. 64F-Menzies. 37. Thus. Cf. the narrative of Acts 1-2 which focuseson the Twelve apostlesas the leadership Twelve be the the apostles. Empoweredfor Witness. Second. C. bewildennent (2: to the crowd's crowd about what was going on . language. is ambiguous. L. it is plausible to arguethat ndcvcFqrefers to the Twelve.an explanation suffice in hearing being God's their spoken own on works amazement about mighty and perplexity. p. is no longer used. that is. 239. p. 5-11 vv. different This accounts. v. the number of speakersis irrelevant. while othersprefer to understandit asxenologia.as we have stated above. Hamack who suggestedthat the original text of the list of nations in the is only twelve.g. This allows for the possibilitythat eachor any of the Twelve apostleshavespoken 66 different languagesone after the other. 651twas originally A. Moreover. speaking a yet simultaneously were (or Twelve twelve there that not only persons apostles) who received the were therefore. the adjective trtpat. K. johnson.4 The Number of Languages Spoken. of pericope 112. TheActs of theApostles. TheActs ofthe Apostles. n. J. Cadbury. K.the transformation perspective. its of a miracle n1iracle. The author of Luke-Acts seemto have indicated this to be a miraculous gift since it was understoodby foreigners only here in Acts 2. and also to those who had mistaken them for being drunk (Acts 1:11b-13) . Fitzmyer. T. Barretý TheActs of theApostles. baptism of the and spoke This argument can be challenged. when Peter stood up to explain to the 6). 1. p. Becausethere were more than twelve different nationalities (whom at that time were on a have heard in Pentecost) Jerusalem their that to they own celebrate claiming pilgrimage languagesbeing spoken (Acts 2: 11).Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 235 rldcv. 64 in foreign Spirit tongues. 176.p. p.cF-q.2. . TheBeginnings of Christianity. 42). vol.g.

2: 15a).ýý in Acts 2: 1 as primarily how find Twelve We the this to the apostles. in this chapter.why is Peter standing only with the Eleven and 67 finished hundred discipleS? had Furthennore. reading more consistent with referring in has been Acts 1-2. apostles projected as main character of initiands framework. vol. the intention is in "What 'Ibus.236 Estrada: From Followers To Leaders (2: hundred 14f). 8. Cadbury comment"Peter standsup with the other apostlesas though " TheBeginnings of Christianity. leaders be formal Twelve God's to the the of the endorsementof symbol of apostlesas upon be find Pentecost Because to this. p. cf. Peter twenty the and after one not with have been "cut had just happened. Lake and H.. the this the asked question stage. (2: 37) and not generally to any of the other one and twenty What we havejust arguedabove is the possibility of reading-. Christian one of the most of we community.T. . we significant ritual elements behind the outpouring of the Spirit upon the apostlesin Acts 2 happening on the same day festival is being " Pentecost the of celebrated? pilgrimage when We tried to trace the history of Pentecost(or feast of Weeks). from transformation the the are and are now of status rituals viewed (here in Acts 2) in the processof being aggregatedinto the society. K. The the the subject subject. From leading the that the to the was celebrated evidence on said clues 67Tbus. iv. we have enumeratedthe ritual elements in the Aggregation stage of the Spirit for before the We to the that of outpouring we will attempt argue stated apostles. is to to to the the crowd on crowd said what explaining the heart" and directed their responsespecifically to "Peter and the rest of the apostles" 68 hundred disciples. J.3 Summary. it were on them that the Spirit had descended. hoping to find some it being intention. Eleven he the twenty the and alleged one text says stood with and not with For if Peter's speechwas necessitatedby the event (most especially to explain to those who had accusedthem of being drunk. 17.

Because we encounteredagain another hurdle in proving our theory that Acts 1-2 speaks the that the apostles.42 and 43. have concluded that the feast of Pentecostis being related and usedby the author as a backdrop to the giving of the Spirit in Acts 2. Some exegetes. We also weighed the evidence of the carnp of scholars who disagree in Penetecost Spirit's in Acts 2. the author may not have we suggestion while consideration.the characteristicsfound from the event of in Acts have Spirit 2 it the the to would surely evoked upon readers of relate with the giving Torah Moses. annual will argue celebrate have for the the the that the enumeration of names of many nations who gathered section Pentecostpilgrimage is actually the author's attempt to show the universal nature or scope leaders Christian the the the apostles as new of of community. to the of giving This thesis. their proper place "Again. . however.we have also finally resolved the issue of the narrative's focus. we showed n6vic. to suggestionsthat it came to be a commemoration of Israel's covenant renewal. We to that the perspective of the will show apostles from different transformation that the the status gathering of nations to of crowd rituals feast is in We the the ritual process not only circumstantial. And after much to the as a parallel outpouring understanding found indeed the that. and until the feast evolved to be the day to rememberGod's giving of the Torah to Moses in Mt. Sinai. intentionally relatedthe two eventstogether.therefore. The next chapter attempts to put these ritual elements in the upper room in initiands' the the ritual process of stageof aggregation. of primarily in 2: 1 can be understood as simply Twelve hundred in the to the twenty apostles and not necessarily one and people pertaining (cf Acts 1:15). acceptance and In this samechapter. further emphasison the Twelve and not on the 120 disciples is seenv.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 237 third month of the year. finds a relevant connection as to why the aggregation of the happen during from has Pentecost.

The Mosaic the tradition of the and story of that of Spirit (rii-1) upon the seventy elders share some similarities (although not exact parallels) leadership include: These Pentecost a experience. Stronstad.reminds us of the Exodus narrative (Exod. would crisis which with the apostles' the to the the transformation of elders the of seventy elders. cleansing the of meaning with "The likely Cf. on and 2 . it has the Sinai. Significance is 1. demonstrate familiar to they that God was presentand active. for instance. new status and aggregation of apostles' of study The heritage of OT language and imagery in the Pentecost story is recognisable. Whether Pentecostin Acts 2 was eventually the commemoration of the giving of the Torah discussions harvest feast. terms But what happensto be a particularly striking heritage of OT tradition with Acts 2 is distribution in Numbers Moses the 11.. is that scholars from both camps agreethat the Pentecostnarrative in is is important it fact OT And this that traditions. status appointment needed during Spirit the leadership the the the elders upon the needsof people. as a simply remained or whether at What is a fact. Marshall to that observe right and purification. our particularly reflects significant into installation the their the community. p. Pentecost fire to the concrete a new exodus. . 19:18). 21) for 13: during Israelites fire God's the the night served as guide pillar of where 1 "The Egyptian (Exod. do day however. Marshall. 354. its of most associated with power. 58. 2: appearance Pentecost. however. 14: 21). It has also been often associated is here in Acts However. The mention of fire and wind in Acts 2: 1-4. endowmentof meet 'In Sinai imagery (Exod. fire is a common element. all. 2R." p. 4. 7he Charismatic TheologyofSaint Luke (Peabody:Hendrickson.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 238 Chapter Nine 9. H. continue.1 The Ritual Process in Acts 2. 1984). attest of not. the wind against charging armies the wind as protection and in Rather.

pp. The narrative gives the account of the children of Israel complaining to Moses about their discontentwith food. the Israelites' dissatisfaction has reacheda level where it is no longer but level desire leadership is Moses' to the meat eat at a where even questioned simply 6 (11: 10-13). intention to see the experience apostles' never our with Num.1."Reciprocity and the Ethic of Acts. p. Our concernwith Num. responded providing manna on which they were to when This time." an expressionanalogousto their experience their 5 by live from Yahweh then on. 85. Davies. the eldersprophesyingafter the Spirit has restedupon them. They haveexpressed tired of eatingmanna and are cravingto eat meat by "weeping Moses demand to again. 12.and finally. 'A helpful discussionon this issuemay be read from B. " in Witnessto the Gospel. it is Pentecost Acts Again. especially is Moses.1995). It seemsthat the Israelites are 4 (I 1: 6b) (I 1: 4b). Numbers (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. E. however.3 the apostles' experience of aggregation understand 9. Capper. 11 as a parallel with the Acts 2 event. Noth. 6We also seethis discontenton Moses' leadershipby Miriam and Aaron in ch. 105. 'M.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 239 the processof their installation as leaders. we are stories with Luke-Acts better lead Num. 11:10-30 in 2.p. What follows is a comparison and contrast of the Moses tradition in Num. 4. Numbers: A Commentary(London: SCM Press. 1968). 11 begins in v. II the tradition to the author of shares with of us may which in Acts 2. W. 5 10-11.1 A Leadership Crisis. If hopeful this then that the milieu about assumption correct. 'it is arguedthat the discontentamong the people originated not with the Israelites but with the "rabble that was among them" (I 1:4a). What we want to show is that the author of Luke-Acts sharessimilar theophanicexpressions(or even traditions) with the OT. . Somescholarssuggestthat the "rabbling among them" refers to the people of various nationalities " who had accompaniedthe Israelites during the exodus.

to appointed 7T. Yahweh giving He then questions Moses' burden and disappointment is be killed by in Yahweh" "he his by the that present would rather view of statement reflected difficult situation. 10:14. We Acts 1-2 facing. The crisis necessitatedthe appointment of seventy elders. people's against reacts. presentprimarily a moral crisis. not job leader has become difficult. of elders a status leadership crisis results is in transformation Acts. has led discontentment It to the their the about actually a crisis of of people concerning leadership. Moses' himself begins to doubt his own ability to lead the people. pp. Judas' betrayal of Jesushas causedseriousmoral integrity of the apostles as leaders .God instructs Moses to appoint seventy elderswho were 8 be leaders known to of the people. in Rather. For this reason. 'See also I Sam4:3.the very apostles whom Jesus has the to problems be his witnesses. Ez.the ability of Mosesto lead the people. his fact that the a more as against ' him leadership for this task. 1. R. And Num. is the crisis a as with community leadershipcrisis in Acts is not only becauseJesushas departed. due Judas' Acts that the to we pointed out episodes one are missing leading to the election of Matthias as a replacement to Judas (Acts the events especially 1: 12-26). Our point is to emphasisethat this in for transformation the the people of Israel. Moses but God's their the complaints and rejection of provision. 22:30) Twelve to because the were serve as apostles who supposedly only death.240 Estrada: From Followers To Leaders The effect of the peoples' complaint upon Moses is seen in 11:11-15. TheBook offumbers. 11. 209-10. 8:4.1993). .nor is it the that suggested judges (cf Lk. It was not just a crisis diet. Ashley. NICOT (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. the In also response to a crisis which the apostles' status in is leadershipcrisis. As 11:14-15 indicate.

the 1OForthe discussionon the issuesof the P and J traditions being placed together. May "judges" 1: 10. pp. or probably. W. families. (cf. "relative regardedas a secondary which surely clause the 'officers' it designates the as chosen specifically men particularly unskilfullyio. Ancient Israel. Numbers. while literally . 16) may be misleading. E. pp. Indeed.14-15. 08. 107Fsee context. 220-44. If there true. gill What we have. p.p. Cf. He " Noth "heads the this confirms suggeststhat of from the very numerous That "officials" the tribal set up. term offumbers. Numbers. talking that possible one. 87.241 Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 9. This status transformation is the agenda behind the meeting in the tent and Spirit the of upon the chosenseventyelders. the the convey also role of people marching organise or those who 210. transpired the may of what people. 138. Ashley. 5:6. and Van as J.19). R.10. is leadership the the the of to of people crisis plaguing present which needed meet families" being from "heads "heads to the of the whole ordinary of is a change of status " people. Knox John I'M. the term suggeststhat the be just had leaders Thus.152f. this specific Exodus Numbers (Westminster: OfMoses: Historian Life The Yahwist in The Seters.1. 7he Book MIUDID). Yahweh's endowment 9Canmean the leadersappointed over the people by the Egyptians (Exod. more specific simply as misconstrued is leaders. The designation 'IU%09(cfv. choosing seventy elders from among the "elders of Israel" does not it is designated leaders For Israel. seventy elders were already the confirmation of an added. . T. 1994). Press.. Davies. then this than their as general responsibilities other responsibility transformation at all.'writers' gives expressionto this 'official' characterof the elders . of we are of necessarily mean is Israel" "from the the that elders of an expressionwhich meansthe choice phrase to view idea. therefore.. status significant no was really However. is a definite status transformation -a transformation It Israel.. 3: 2). pp. especially on de Vaux.2 A Status Transformation. 11: to aside. as within organisation the title was originally understood inserted is be in 16a. for (Jos. Noth.

There are other leadership themes in the Moses tradition comparable with Num. gs.giving counselto (or leaders) in help him the the choosing of able men who would Njoses concerning Israel (Exod. Yahweh's distribution Spirit the Exodus endowment and of account. 11:10-35 show Moses choosing seventy elders who would assist him in befalls him from Israel. Moses As John the taken to when was up. 18. among the in leadership. Moses to chosen assist were those who The endowmentof the Spirit by God to the seventy elders show that this story is not fully be Exod. p. of rulership leaders judges. For one. . 11: 16).. vie election 9. 18: 13-26).3 The Endowment of the Spirit in an Installation Rite. The difference that the the to crisis and people of major attending is however. 11.Moses' father-in-law. the the Twelfth apostle also the among present of candidates were chosen had to be chosenamong those who have only been with Jesus. the to those also makes over clear present and officers . . Num. Peter them.1. Following Jethro's Moses the children of advise. was made clear until of . TheBook offumbers.in Exod. Ashley. R. Yahweh that he is to chooseseventymen whom Moses know "to be the elders of the people in (Num." have in for Judas' the to to the candidates qualifications which need order seat. Just as the seventy elders leaders for Israel. the case is that of leadership successionand the '2T. difficult fewer leaving himself for to the cases who served as only yet chose himself (18:24-26). we find the story of Jethro. 2: 15) between two parties.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 242 The selection of Judas' replacementalso involved certain criteria. 18. 211.12 This doublet "Elijah-Elisha the of also cannot compared with a simply like if find the sharing of the Spirit (2 relationship similarities even we leader-apprentice" y."beginning from the baptism day he it by " (1: 22). For instance.

. I). or the meal. the the or sharing of gifts or exchange performance of compacts. Van Gennep. p. scenario comparable Despite the objections expressedby someNT scholarson the use of Mosaic traditions in the is in it difficult Pentecost Acts 2. author readers apostles were an in one place" (v. Against this backdrop. be the to event really reminded of the of not study in Moses Num.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 243 individual individual from Spirit to single and not to a group. to with v. Being is together gathered one place significant especially as the setting initiands has be the to of union emphasised. also go Installation rites for a group of initiands normally take place in one specific setting. happens be (cf II Acts 2 33). done All these to the precious possessions. This is in contrast with initiands who are being installed individually and into different however. This note may be deemed unnecessaryconsidering that the previous 12-26) had been (1: the that together already make clear apostles as a group since episodes had been Jesus' ascensionand assembledin one place becauseof Jesus' instruction to wait 13 A. 29. symbolic The symbolic union can be expressedin various ways: either through a communal blood tokens. informs "all installation the the the that together rite. the apostlesin Acts 2: 1-4 installation finally the through they rite of as complete their statustransformation. When this happens. TheRites ofPassage. 11 the and seventy of elders when one reads of the apostles' experience Pentecost experience. confinement a specific temporal and spatial or statuses in is important. Just as with the elders appointedby Moses. The only transfer of a another in Num. are of emphasise and establish sharing binding/union of the onesbeing installed.the group's identity as equals 13 is and as a single unit affirmed. in With a ranks. group. we suggestthat the opening versesof Acts 2 bear the traits of First.

from the perspectiveof a ritual. Moses received the instruction to choose seventy elders who will assist him in the 15 instructs into God Moses to take them the tent of meeting. that the together apostles are gathered with the understanding However.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 244 14 father (1: 4). these to some. tradition-historical a approachseesthe significance of this note in relation being it Spirit For 2b. symbolic union of ritually conducted of an if the initiands are not assembledtogether in one place. even when and elders still odd that (cf. mountain echo 2 10). the as or spokesman group and of whole portray which episodes . It is quite do have had Yahweh Moses Yahweh to this the since gathered. had is 12) 1: the the in necessarily place where will pour out apostles not olivet for Spirit's (1: 4). 1: Would in the this they together? need of only when are gathered what purpose stated if Twelve found in different the the be are yet within vicinity of places accomplished not this hypothetical. before they selected were statuses Second. Rather. there tonguessharedto eachapostle. In the symbolic union of the initiands. The Book to the to and not with elders ofNumbers. set of questions are or probably even purely jerusalern? j3ut it is exactly this scenariowhy our suggestionthat Acts 2: 1-4 can be viewed as having the elements be To be initiands installation the the precise. Ashley. if the main purposeof the Spirit's coming is primarily to empower the apostles(a is happening 8). individual identifying in found themselves to their with each other contrast suddenly by Moses. 15Yahwehdirected Moses to take the seventyelders to the tent in order to give his further God distributed his Spirit be (to the precise. This the what witnessed with seventy elders similarly. I 6a). 16 is be dominant to than the the others. However. R. group presented or greater within 14Understandably. (2: tongue not a single of or we resting on an therre' individual Rather. only speak intended intending Jesus had is (Mt. v. in Jerusalemfor the promise of the the initiands being together is neededif they are to establish their strong identity and union is in 11. the presenceof the Spirit in the whole houseis related over all scattered inside it. irrational Indeed. In other words. among the elders. his God Spirit. Peter 1: 15-22 2: 1442). the mountain is changedto the tent of gathering. p. to the Jerusalem wait outpouring to to travel 16Thisbecomesmore obvious when one considersthe fact that before and after Acts 2: 14 are leader (cf. The to The are show where ascended we obvious. the this with apostles. more place where instructions What used to be God's place of revelation. we as a group. After Num. to the the not sense coming Acts2: would really make portray of as preceded to if fills house" the apostleswere all widely the of a mighty "an sound wind which whole by engulfing Jerusalem. cannot ritual. Moses T.is the aspectof equality. may aspect superior or fire distribution by "tongues the the of equal of which restedon eachone of represented have is just fire individual What 3). No apostle are leader of a group. The elders leadership role. there is no be inferior between As Twelve them.

verb which In contrast with from God. a was the . understood. when the choice of the seventyelders was finally made they all gatheredin the tent standing beside Moses (11: 16). leaders the of of people other Nevertheless.. it servesas a verb where its root is actually a noun) from 17Does this meanthat the sourceof the Spirit is Moses and not God? The phrase"I will set it is I them.4 Prophecy .5y that the sourceof the Spirit originally placed upon (h) Moses is God. a slight difference between the scenariosin Acts 2: 1-4 and Num.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 245 There is. 11. rightly adds. why not and the camp (Cf. R. 26-30). e. Ashley therefore. Num. which dealswith the successionof Elijah by Elisha. This caseis only partially parallel to 2 V.2: 15. that the upon and place upon you. Cf. nnm y=7.what is interesting to point out is that the seventy elders have equal it from Moses. 20 direct Spirit being In Numbers 11. will spirit of . than the within elders. "giff' Spirit pp. 11:17 with 2 K. to the this they the get mentioned special situation place. 9.. 20Adifferent verb is usedhere in 11:25 to convey the "placing7'of the Spirit upon the elders. Ashley. This Moses he taken to the elders will partly give will which implies is Moses' that the that seventy of status equal with not significantly rendering is know leader Moses This the that the true over all stood as superior since we elders-18 Israel. rin ln5xxl) may suggestthat the Spirit is already upon Moses.. T. Other Moses. 18E. 109. 211. 680-8 1. Included in God's instructions is that the Spirit 17 (11: be from himself 1 7a). their caseis First. and second.. 'While it is true that Eldad and Meldad are said to have received the Spirit. the Spirit is not only upon the elders. e. i. Numbers. is I literally "to 17 11: tiv tn the means give" may suggeststhat where used. BDB. 2: 15 (rlýah 'eliyaU 'al-'lUd ).W. in from they the they the elders.but also upon Moses (i.p. 11. e. It seemsthat the Hithpael verb =2nn is denominative (i. We Spirit told that the taken was are when was standing with each other. Comparethe phrasing of Num. were not part of remained seventy different be is in first in It tent. The spirit here is not simply F-fiahmrteh but raah 'a§er 'al ml-geh.When the Spirit Rested Upon Them. the result of the placed upon the elders is prophecy (I How and what the elders have prophesied is contested. It could be 1. however. seventy. apart some ýY num mr. TheBook offumbers. p.1. no elder stood prominent of seventy all upon placed 19 the chosen group. Davies. In Num. it is not his).

. 19: 24. "were divine frenzy. the 23 Spirit in Acts 2: 1-4 also rested on each of the apostles. 24Thetransfer of Spirit from Moses to the seventyelders is a type of the transfer of Spirit from Jesus to the Twelve apostles. Peter's their (2: 17-36) own subsequent speech apostles the have Eleven fulfilment he the Joel the the prophesied spoke about and of prophecies of after is Joel's from God. p.The Charismatic TheologyofSaint Luke. the prophecy. 238. after 21 flung into Spirit. Although symbolised by the tongues of fire. the former suggestion(i. Numbers.. apostles 24 25 is Acts 2) Spirit in 11 that the transfer Num. The second view understands the verb to mean "proclaiming Yahweh's word" behaviour. 22T. Second. Jeremiah) is virtually equated with .R. II account.22 a madman. Moreover. . and of results an outburst of propheCy. n.." The elders then. we can see cases e. was that of amazement (2: 12). can prophesying with ecstatic which behaviour.. the reaction of the crowd who heard the "sound' which was supposaltobe coming from the dlico. the direct result of the filled by is Holy Spirit being in What both (i. YheActs ofthe Apostles. 21BDB. 680-81. 23j Fitzmyer. 10: 6. The NEB translates "fell into prophetic ecstasy. 2: Joel prophecy a message (cf.pp. e. does indication the text the that ecstatic not give any without the elders were proclaiming any messagefrom Yahweh.p. 28-32). The clear difference with the Num. 59.Stronstad. Ashley. however. Some scholarsrelate the the a state of receiving I Sam. 29: 26 "where the one who with and experience even with elders' (in prophesies this case. p. 25R. 46. .Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 246 basically first is The two suggest meanings. because However. 214. In Acts 2 there is a similar experience. First. is that the apostlesin Acts 2 prophesy uttering a clear messagecoming from God. ecstatic behaviour) is favoured. Jer. They were amazedthat they heard the mighty works of God being proclaimed by language in (2: 11).

27 from 'prophecy' 'spirit' Moses.. but it first in in direct for history here Israel the time the connection as a of prototype emerges . if helps prophesying is be "ecstatic back to the that traced to this event whole show prophecy" can of the purpose did it immediately it happened (Num."the have Spirit " As the the of endowment of upon seventy elders. I SanL 10: 10-12. difficult to elders a state of the seventy ecstasy moreover.1. 27Cf. II. '9Cf E.. envisaged with Yet again. p.. 89. .Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 247 9. is How to this of goal achieved putting supposed into is is imagine. W. asks scholars) his burden" by be "relieved (w. 28 Moses. 104. p. Moreover. figure. YheBook offumbers. "derivation the the of ecstatic of to show He adds that.. Noth. specific 29 The only plausible explanation is to understand the elders' did so no more'5)? directly feat linked In to their as appointed newly office. of the as unique. 89. we statedearlier. . 19:23f 18M. 11: 25b -"but they then cease why after event. significance there are other leadership . Spirit Noth Martin the the that character other we of episode is He in is "This Moses the states. nothing said on this subjeCt. other words. the 6eprophesying" has Spirit is the the them seventy elders prophesied when rested upon primarily reason why 26M Noth. 14-17). 26 Noth arrives at the conclusion that the purposeof the endowment of Spirit upon the elders is . p. is true that it is not said that from then on this phenomenonexistedin Israel.appointment themes in the Moses tradition but it is only in this find (like being involved. Numbers. Davies. Noth's suggestiondoes not really answer the question of how the elders in the presentcrisis which both they and Moses are facing. Numbers. why? very strange present context.5 The Significance of the Endowment of Spirit Upon the Seventy Elders. We now come to what is probably the main crux of the Moses tradition in Num.

with relationship disciples This Jesus is the to to and and miracles. Rather. 30 The apostles' baptism in the Spirit in Acts 2:4 has primarily been understoodas the for for witness. the Spirit in Acts 2: 4 (from the that the Twelve apostles are going through a status transformation) also legitimises the apostles into their new role as witnesses and reliable leaders of the Christian 31 ? it is. the bestowal of the spirit upon the elders was an entirely appropriate for bear help burden for Moses' (vv.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 248 it have been Davies legitimise they transformed to. Turner Shelton Luke-. We And do beyond t that this the that submit we overwhelming view Y. Davies. to to the the request of caring people response I If. we are not suggestingthe legitimisation of the Twelve into the office of an apostle. it appears that the narrative was intended to distinguish a particular "office. 104-05. empowerment preach perform said empowered who during Jesus' baptism during disciples' (Lk. 14f). 1991)]. to endow the recipients with the especially the role of insight and inspired speech. TheBook offumbers. -. Luke-Acts "Pneuma. it server. pp. communi in in is Spirit Luke-Acts. Viewed in ecstatic this way. in Spirit and yoly is both Spirit's his disciples Jesus the to "heal and that empowerment upon and the view support This view goes againstEduard Schweizer's suggestionthat no text in directly associatesthe " reveal. the all new status puts more precisely to by statingthat.. 3: 21-22). Kittel. 2: 4.. 6. prophetic 32 cffectivc witness and with miracle-working power. and some. 3'Again. leadership legitimisation is it their the of credibility. Is it possible that. just as in Num. therefore to view the "prophesying" of the elders in this instance as merely a visible sign of their authorisation to a position of leadership in in effect.. 32nere are at least two prominent views concerning the Lukan concept of the Spirit's First is the view that the Spirit was the one and rniracle-working proclamation power.TheRole ofthe Turner Max of (Peabody. G. we want to know if it is also possible to understandthe event as more than just the empowering of the apostles. Both 4cts Massachusetts: Hendrickson.primarily for the purpose of special producing power. 11 where the Spirit legitimises perspective the seventy elders into their leadership role. Jesus [cf. group of elders as having specific administrative functions in Israel.. It seems preferable. Some in the the this Spirit that of most significant works of area are on the of (Powerfrom on High) and JamesShelton [Mighty in Word and Deed. " .W. . empowering After what we have discussed above. in disciples in " TDNTvol. as a mark of their installation to a particular the community .. the been as well as reception accomplished have Pentecost (Acts day 2: 4). miracle-working power. 30E. the of and the miracles Spirit with . and their divine behaviour token their was a of election to fulfil this role.

that the up where E. 1:15b and 1:17. . from 1-2 Acts the transformation the to status of apostles e. "in Holy the the a role as prophet as spirit and with Spirit in " "John's Elijah. the prophecy about John's greatnessis coupled with the fact that he will be filled is In 1: 17. Fitzmyer. the Spirit is said to be a Spirit of prophecy and not primarily a Spirit of 111iracles. Viewed from this perspective. of from lek believe Picking Schweizer Menzies Witness. the the unique reception of while still womb point's of power to John'sspecialstatusandrole . Menzies statesthat "the use of nignkqgi (filled) with the anarthoususageof nvF-ibgcx example. (cf. 1: 15b.. 108. R.p. First is the persistent focus. 1935).. Thus. in Spirit the the gospel involving or sometimes.. J. and of exegetes of reluctance in is (as it is Second Spirit Acts 2: 4 Twelve the the primarily apostles. of narrative leaders). The concept of the Spirit as having an active role in affirming or legitimising in Lukan be seen other examples: can statuses is legitimises John's This Spirit The ministry.. Both 1:15 and 1:17 bear the strongest Lukan ideas which were incorporated into an existing story these were verses originally that possibility Doubleday. directly with only Spirit the 33R. 03 Eerdnians. We think that there are two reasonswhy this is so. In 1. Empoweredfor Witness. inspired speech.npoweredfor distance Spirit influenced Luke Spirit from to the the concept of strongly period's Intertestamental During this period. ornitted Nlark has been fin-ther by Robert Menzies in his book Schweizer's supported suggestion and argued Luke. For The to p.. whole outpouring of is first from the the to the reason) perspective which we are approaching related strongly followers (i. prophetic seen in Lk. not only of power witness and/or the ability to the event for but his the to the that as a means author show apostles also readers miracles.parallel passagesin the gospelsof Matthew and Rapids: Grand ed. perform legitimised by God himself his his been transformed and as appointed over have overseers people. GospelAccording Luke I-LX (New York: 319).we suggestthat it is indeed possible to understand for 2: 4 in Acts the endowment as. Luke is cautious in the way he relatesthe Spirit to miracles and choosesto associate Iniracles. Furthermore. Menzies.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 249 The idea that the Spirit's baptism of the apostlesin Acts 2:4 affirms them in their been has brokers between God Christian the not and community role as representativesor fully explored.. John's described Spirit. with miracle-working activity are altered. to the that the therefore the accept possibility subject. 1968)].

Thesis. is repeated is between 1: 15. Theology pp. p.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 250 2. p.M. H. Philippines: 1994). 108). the the on calling of john. Shelton. inadequate. the after was only comes status The Spirit affirmed Jesus' role as a prophet after Jesuswent through his own ritual of Coming from (Lk.3 1. It the to the tells the on other message of ninXTIgt focus Of in (cf.qgt in the part of the author. rRIC111giis often as exclusively ofLuke. " Faces 'Full the Studies in of Spirit. these are that know that John's prophetic ministry is one which is sanctionedby for his desire to readers the author's the spirit. likewise. Luke does meaning or concept on uniqueness suggest necessarily Spirit. latter falls "praises 4144. In 1:39-56. The 58). 4: 1-13). John is the the the understanding word. often. hand. Mary herself uttered praisesabout the role she has been blessedto carry out (Lk. nor should we seeany relation with the or unique point concerning new any riot erriphasise (N. Elizabeth" 1: in the the the of on of upon Mary. The sameGreek phrase the icotMoc. like is the Elijah. 4: 8. however. and that it is attributed to his literary style of describing the word common a considered it does follow in Spirit. 32-33). Zechariah's prophetic outburst after being filled by the Spirit. s prophetic in Luke-Acts. collation of and 6cytov (Cf. 34 baby in her "leaped. Therefore. 1: 46-56)." Unpublished Th. M. Acts 2:4. Although Luke by used Luke. School of This view is. Marshall. is viewed by Lukan (Cf. out wilderness said status 5-omx1Aq in 15 (spirit) (power) in v. On the basis of this evidencewe seehere " Lukan. scholars many in referenceto the Holy Spirit (Cf. the text statesthe then was womb with the Holy Spirit" and gave affirmation of Mary's role as the "mother of the Lord. Horton. the this a prophet. Yhe GospelofLuke. 17 indicate Spirit) (Holy the nvef)gau and v. Gospel Marshall. Estrada.67. specifically with the use of the word ninkTigt. of the author within the specific the word Luke key in For in 1: 15.). (Massachusetts: Hendrickson. Empoweredfor Witness. 41-45." After hearingthis. 13:9. association of The is John. preparing way as affirmation of will act filled Zechariah by Spirit. ed. 1:41. ffonour ofStanley . "A Redaction Critical Study Relationship Spirit. have does is to that the the some exegetes concluded usage of word not exclusive ni. (Manila. 1998). gqTp6. and Holy P. 1: 76 Jesus. John John the to a prophet. " Elizabeth "filled 1:41a). in the that the gospel of the not necessarily ninXilgt all of references inf-Illing of More bear intention the the same meaning. ofRenewal. in 1: is highlight Elizabeth. 3. to The the Spirit person and upon of come as prophet one who with of the 4144. 80-100. I. with to focus However. meaning of example. "Filled With the turn 11filling7 who uttered praises of pneumatic immediate Holy Spirit: in ' Lukan Redactional Phrases. is have Jesus the to transformation. relation or role of as role 35 for Jesus. aiycoý) filled . especially vv. Elbert.Though all of the Lukan ninx7lgt referencesmay be to the author. . John's Again. 351. Xx. 93. 34Luke's description of John. affirms John's indicates Specifically. as said serves context tic Spirif' C'in his mother's womb"). Asia Graduate Power Miracle-Working and proclamation. pp.p. 9: 17. With the two "infilling" the the ninkTigt difference passages clear. Elizabeth J. After Elizabeth received Mary's greeting (Lk.H. the Spirit legitimises the statusand role of Mary through the prophetic outburst of Elizabeth.

8. role stating that the placing of Johnson with relates 79. p. states usage of showed 37 for Isaianic is One the themes. Luke-Acts. instance." in NTS 27 (198 1). 1987). vv. The Nazarethpericope in 4: 16-30 is viewed to be one of the most crucial sections in the study of Jesus and his role in the gospel of Luke. but also what Jesusstandsfor . layout Jesus' by 18-19 the programmatic of vv. Conj7ict. only in I Kngs. See C. especially programmatic. Literary L. anointing role of the of Spirit over Jesusaffirms his statusas prophet. . " JBL 106/1 (1987). What the theology. initial chaptersof the gospelmeant to show that every act that Jesusdid in his in the the pericope by Spirit-anointed Messiah. It serves as the framework for Jesus' pericope.61: 1-2 and 58:6. "Brawley claims that placing the Nazareth event insteadof Capernaurnwhich is in Mark and be Luke Cf PBrawley. and p. 253. 36 for Luke's is important. 19:16 can one find an actual anointing with the Brawley that Spirit the the the of oil. However. it is 14).the long awaited Messiah and Prophet of God. Cf T. (Atlanta."Luke and Isaiah. however. and program of ministry. For Seccombe Luke that these reveal own passages observes of in fulfilment He Luke's Isaiah the that the eagerness of scripture. Luke-Acts the to that wanted event programmatic." Lk. NT scholars agree that this is 18-19. 4: 18-19 not only the affirming of with comes describeswhat Jesuswould literally do. the Luke's the " of of and p.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 251 in into Spirit Galilee (v.Seccombe. in is "Anoint" Isaiah in In the the of often used metaphorical sense. possessions 37D. Lk. ]E Vans. also jews: Use Elijah/Elisha Narratives Ethic in Election. as J. Shcolars Georgia: Press. and the N4atthew shows Conciliation Apology. theme the author's appreciation shows such passage Messiah. The author's quotations his interests. . Johnson. Skinner recalls. the the power of not until 4: 18-19 returned that we seethe full picture of how the Spirit is understoodby the author of Luke-Acts in relationto Jesus'role andstatus. in p. anointing fact. 4: 18-19 refers to two Isaiah passages. 7he Function of the act as was Ininistry 93. public is to note that the attemptto describeJesus'role as a prophetlike Elijah and Elisha description being "Spirit-anointed. adds appropriation of anointing of accompaniment is Jesus for done The Lord the an over appropriation the prophet.

a Jewish false prophet and magician. 7b) to hear the word of God. the association of the Spirit with the it the and message prophet who utters gives credenceor affirmation to both the prophetic (Acts 11:27-30). 6:2-3). describes Stephen as a man "full of faith and of the Holy Spirit. specifically. Verse responsible 2. " and Paul the missionary as being "filled with the Holy Spirit. This qualification leadsto the choice of Stephenin 6:56. Being by (who by Paul. 9). Paul's immediate question was disciples have been baptised by Holy Spirit. it is interesting to note how the author makes a contrastbetweenBar-Jesus. In other words. Acts 6:5. states that it is the Holy Spirit himself who has declared Barnabas and Saul to be sent for the missionary task. the magician attempted to turn away the faith (v. what we seehere are three titles being affirmed or legitimised by their attributes: the magician as being a "false prophet. " In Acts 19. The Holy Spirit is also associatedwith (or even and messenger message for) Barnabas Saul the setting apart of and as missionaries in Acts 13. being full of the Spirit affirms the status of being qualified as a deacon(cf. The these the context suggeststhat whether . " This description serves as a colourful backdrop for the story of Stephen's (cf 6: 10 and 7:55). martyrdom 6. While the proconsul is described as being intelligent. from 8). Paul is described as being full of the Holy Spirit. In Acts 6. Paul meets twelve disciples in Ephesus. The prophetic role and the impact of Agabus' messageto the church in Antioch is by the description that Spirit had foretold about the famine and affirmed authenticated that is about to come to the world. one of the major qualifications for the role of deacons is being "full of the Spirit. described being the the summoned proconsul way was as and intelligent. In the succeedingevents.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 252 5. v. The into the the scene with the strong narrator comes proconsul descriptions about Paul being "full of the Holy Spirif' before Paul rebuked the magician (v. In other words." the proconsul as being "intelligent. in particular." Read the other way around.

TIC JC**-s(who have come to Jerusalem for the pilgrimage of the feast of Pentecost . One of the most intriguing issues in the study of Acts 2 is the function of the catalogue of nations in 2:5-13. But v6benthe Twelve has finally been filled with the Spirit (an event.2 The Catalogue of Nations as Representative or the Universal Society. in Acts the deacons in 11. I lienchm ne Acts ofthe Apostles. 'Me ritual of status transformation. From these examplesalone. the aggregation process of the Twelve takes its fast by is the change of This represented step step. What we havejust demonstratedaboveis the possibility of how to understandActs 2: 1-4 as the rite of installation for the Twclve apostles.60-61"After the apostleshavebeeninstalled4a ritual conductedwit. What follows next is how the apostlesare finally acceptedand recogniscd by the society to which they have been appointed to serve. As Paul laid his handsupon them. was Primarily an internal affair. we can see how the Spirit is understoodto have an just And in in legitimising their the statusesof characters respectivenarratives. ws and brokers) their aggregation has begun. active role 6. First. have Num. the the seven and seen seventy ciders as we in the is in 2 Acts Spirit Tv6-clve related the strongly the presenceof with apostles This fulfil. not only 38 being credibleandreliable representatives betweenGod and the community. which we interpreted as the legifirnisation of their status and role as witrx-. 7he Charismanc.2: 5-13) reacting to %hat they have just heard and witnessed4signals the change of scene . 8. 168). 9.as we suggested. the mCEPLStronsud. the thesetwleve disciples spokein tonguesand prophesied.hin the walls of the (AticýK (2: 1- 4).especiallyv. been have to appointed affirmation of their new statusand role which they all but for Jesus being'Witncsses have is primarily role and status. p. showshow the Spirit has affirmed and enabledthe elders in the church in Ephesusto serveas"overseers"in the community. scene"from inside to the outside of the house" (E.28. the narrator seems to interrupt the flow of his narration by taking time to enumerate the names of countries and people which are reprcscnted-39 Second.Fitrada: From Follourrs To Leaders 253 discipleship is aff irmcd by the Spirit's baptism.77teoloV vfSaint W4 rp.hen Jesus commissioned his apostles in Acts 1:3. Acts 20:17-35. a process which started v.

Catalogue also pp.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 254 they they the are composed at and whether are named and not others. Metzger. historical perspective. Apostles. 1970). pp. observation passage.. It has been posited that the enumeration of the in in Spirit's 2: 5-13 the the the and gift effect represents universality of people and nations heaven. of order debate NT for heated from list. H. 40Cf. prirwrily .. why nations. According to the course. our aim is not to find out the function of the list of nations from the scholars . only correct to assumethat ofthe pp. is how this in Twelve 2: 5-13 to the the the of nations and people relates aggregation of enumeration 41 latter their transfonnation? the complete ritual of status successfully as apostles Our suggestion is quite simple. Weinstock was the first to suggestthat the list of nations in acts 2:9-11has striking ). Fitzmyer. a a public event. B. "The Paulus Alexandrinus B.J. Cf G. rite installation Specifically. external an from an 117. DieApostelgeschichte p. Barrett. to transition internal to affair. R. been have topics among acquired an existing are random or 40 As usual. and [A from "private C. Geographical Gospel. Weinstock. See Acts 9-1l. Apostles. we in Acts 2. Conzelmann's CE H. 'S. B.3 The Apostles Are Formally Presented to the Society.arlier. Uldemann. M. celebrate intending to suggestthe universality of the occasion. we mentioned the example from Moses."Reciprocity and the Ethic of Acts. zurri Corizelmarm. the and as witnesses and status role apostles' of scope 9. 5 10-11. What we want to know. S. " 43-46. II have to the study of the apostles' as a use attempted ]F. backdrop for Num. We would not really want to add more confusion to the theories that have been posited concerning this issue. however. see ofthe whole p. 240. TheActs of the Apostles. pp. Acts 2: 9-11. On issue. 14 1. Geography in History W. W. Gasque and 42CLB. reacting TheActs of Tilbingen: (Handbuch Neuen Testament 7. Christianity local directed (both (the dv5peý Iovwiot) is Jews to the the of world and mainly Peter's speech Acts Witherington III. " Apostolic the Astrological and and -Ancient (Exeter: 123-33. "every " From the to the the apostles' nation under perspective of gospel of Inessage the the catalogue also appropriately symbolises universal of nations aggregation. K. p. ritual 42 leaders. Early it is Acts Of 39-41. 25].p. 1963). Martin. this to the world. by (4 C. F. not foreign) and Jewish Diaspora the is that it of true were actually the ones who came to representatives While it is neverthelessplausible to understandthe enumerationof the countries as Pentecost. the to on same theApostles. Capper. eds. the astrological catalogue with sirnilarities in 2: inJRS38 (1948).

14) 2: the crowd (Acts after is Peter's Moses the the representative of elders. There is really nothing particularly special about the employment of the word 66stand"(InY"n". 71from : IY" is renderedaTýaovvxt from lavlgt by the LXX) in this context. the their seventy elders whose ritual as of new status especially. 11: 4-25) strikingly resemblesthe apostles' experiencein Acts 2: 1-4.a term common with charactersabout to make a speechsimilar to lcrTngt. would it not make more sensefor the author of Luke-Acts to have have claimed. Nurn. Pentecost. Peter is said to be "standing'-A3with the Eleven have heardthem speakGod's messagein their own languages. to take to all share with not rather. God's In words. II story which we feel worth noting in order to illustrate our point in this section. For Soards Peter's the many studies speech at note on sidelined that. from 'tcrcTigi. Peter disciples Acts 120 the not serve as representative of whole as other of the narrative If he was.pp. observes '111=Oei. This observation is fact that (as we have argued earlier) God speaksonly to Moses (11: 17a) by the supported but his messageand instructionsare for Mosesand the elders. " W. Furthermore. becomesthe representativeof the elders before God. before the people. from a ritual standpoint. Again. exegetcs . Twelve in instance. There is another frame in the Num. 381-82. responsibility are c1ders.the seventy leadership from but Moses. cf. "This is also consistentwith our argumentearlier that the apostlesare the primary subject of does 1-2. who always representativeand spokesman other them. What we are particularly interested is the way Yahweh instructed Moses to stand with the sevcnty elders in the tent of meeting as they arc to be forrnally installed as leaders. Greek orators. role as the representative of the just as 44 have We be is this to observed say against what we a commonly emphasised. Bauer. But what seemsto be interesting is that Moses had to stand with the elders instead of before has been Moses. Moses. " in A Greek-EnglishLexicon ofthe New Testament.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 255 installation leaders (cf.

being leaders instance. 17:22. ofSaint p. Unlike In the what sidelined other words. what we sets apart is Peter Eleven the that the together the scene where and stood with purpose suggesting are of defending in from false themselves the the and crowd. 32. and speakersassumesuch a position in 2: 14. finally At have Twelve this the the of appointed very shoulders only on 48 this role. the gesture of "Peter standing with the Eleven" after the multitude had just been bewildere k hat they have witnessed and heard. Indeed.p. Luke. -filled with "'This leadsus to another aspectwhich is sharedwith other newly instated Spirit-inspired We are specifically referring to the experienceof rejection as one of the initial responsesby characters. the of amazement (and defend) intended to that the apostleswere the explain accusation against malicious was speech IStronstad. some accusation of explaining by Twelve the legitimises the themselves the status of presenting as ones responsible way 47 for had just happened. how Peter stood among the brethren in the election narrative of 1:15-26.45 Soards failed to observe that this speech was given by Peter on behalf of the Twelve is has been (we believe) Eleven. 2: apostles. the the to are aggregated rejection of which people the society he had Spirit Elisha from Elijah (2 the the echoes rejection of after received Nazareth synagogue in The 4: 24-30). has been misunderstoodabout them when they spoke other Aside from the issue of who is serving as representativefor whom. 5:20. happened We find Lk. 471tshould be emphasisedthat Peter's speechwas not necessitatedprimarily by the multitudes' hearing about God's mighty works through their own native languages. explaining to the crowd portrayed simply happened? just had . Soards. assumed Peter as standing. Context. the author Eleven deliver Peter defence the together that to their and stand against what clear makes 46 in languages.either by himself or with the 120 disciples. and Concerns. resulting to the accusationthat the apostles were drunk (2: 13). This what responsibilityand accountabilityrests and accountable leaders. 11:13. The stance is that of a Greek orator. from Twelve In the the the apostles rest of other characters. crwOFA. Rather.Df what 45M L. here. 46Cf. the that after the 23-25. ' Contra The Charismatic Theology 55. p. 27:2 1. juncture. 25: 18. always apostles. by For Jesus to. 141. wine.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 256 Prior to Peter's opening addressone readsthat he "stood" (CMOF-iq)and "lifted up his voice" (tnfipF-v chv *výv (xbc6). ("standing") occurs in 17:22 and 27:2 1. .YheSpeechesin Acts: Their Content. other words. same experience with Kngs. . TheActs ofthe Apostles.B Witherington III.

the responseof the society to supposed installed leaders destined illustration The below demonstrates to the serve. promotes inadvertently drunk. He Luke-. 5-13). adds (cf. The apostlesperforin many wonders and signs (vv.and also how the crowd has respondedto them: The apostleswere filled by the Spirit and spoke in tongues(vv. have the this than there to apostles of accused more who people done for has Shifting focus from "bewildered" the the the people. Acts in apostles . breaking bread and prayerswith the apostles(vv. From the the speech what is to understand brings have the the the turnaround of same suggested above. 8). p. to by indirectly baptised Spirit. our intention for does Peter and the rest of the apostles. Peter and the apostlesdefend themselves: Three O. Rather.T. We now come to what is final be the to phase of the apostles' aggregation . 37-40). been had the the them people who marvelled at rejected God's Twelve being "filled with wine.4 The Society Recognise the Twelve. Elijah Elisha Elijah Elisha. 3a.having fellowship. are newly which how the narrative of Acts 2 has centred on Peter and the apostles. 19-20).Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 257 9. our concern in this section is not on what Peter's speechis all about. (c) the quotation from LXX Ps. the speech speech what it be that the to themselves emphasised should apostles were able exonerate the orator. The apostles stand their ground. really not and R. Peter and the apostleschallengethe crowd to repent and be baptised (vv. suggesting accepted rejectionscene prophet no that in Jesus' is This the the observe with apostles what we role as also prophet. The crowd in Jerusalemaccusethe apostlesof being drunk (vv. 1-4) 2. The crowd receive the word and are baptised. 16:8-11 (vv. 40-41). 2a. Peter delivers his speech. 1 a. 17-18)." the by simply apostles of accusing message For Brawley. quotations:49 (a) the first part of Joel 2:28-32 quotation (vv. is However. (b) the secondpart of Joel quotation (vv. speech complete we structure being drunk. 25-28f).theNazarethpericopeis committedto introducingtherole of Jesusasprophet does intend Luke 4cts Jews. 3. cited jesus his is is " What is "in Brawley that the own country. devote themselvesto the teaching of the apostles. 43-47). to present that the Brawley. is " And "being the this the them see accusation also we negative against where of accusation 2:14inadvertentlypromotestheir status. but Luke image to prove the in cases of and and the of rather.

p.25/29. leadership integrity of the apostleswhich wasseriouslydamagedby Judas' believe) the (we betrayal of Jesus. Christian Rather. 44. transformed and trained. 47. In other words. address" in Acts.but due credit should also be given to the implicit leadershipabilities which they havebeentrainedfor. closing scenealso added impresses upon the readersof Luke-Acts how the apostleshave successfully "day by day" fulfilled their role as witnesses and leaders. p. Their defence should not only be attributed to how the Spirit has endowed them with power to be witnesses.is just one of them. vv.the very role which theY have been appointed. to. "three is that the the thousand we suggest conversion of souls" a perspective.as 2: 42 states. Early Christianity According to the Traditions in Acts. but also the convincing 50 from the the This include them apostles all of animadversions against would vindication . 49Thesequotations are "each marked off by a quotation formula and a renewed form of 16/22. as Peter's sermon led to the mass conversion of the people. This kind of reading may also be applied to the people and their positive responseto Countless the apostles.34/36). Early Christianity According to the Traditions (vv. the same event should equally highlight the leadership abilities of the apostles. Uldemann. G. "day to the this v. Their ability to teach. .Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 258 from what could have been a malicious embarrassment. not only to bring out the magnitude of the event. figure intended. commentatorshave focusedon the exegetical/historicalissues the From the sermon-response sequence surround of story. 50CEG. vv. The summary statementin 2:42-47 does not only speak of how many people were by day" (cf 46) fold. Uldemann. a social-scientific which however.

Estrada: From Followers To Leaders

259

9.5 Summary.
In this chapter we have attemptedto understandthe narrative of Acts 2 as the ritual process
in final stage of the apostles' rituals of status transfortnation. Our study has led us to see
has
in
Luke-Acts
OT
the
to
the
traditions
employed
which
author
of
convey
order
some
installation
leaders
One
Christian
the
particular
of
of
community.
as
new
apostles' process
in
is
Numbers 11.
transformation
the
the
seventy
elders
status
of
tradition
The installation of the seventy elders as leaders of the people of Israel in Numbers

II sharessimilar featureswith that of the apostles'experiencein Acts 2. First, therewas a
leadership crisis which needed the help of new leaders. Second, there was a status
former
from
followers
leaders.
Third,
to
there was the endowment of the
transformation Spirit during the porcess of the installation. And fourth, the leaders prophesied when the
Spirit has come upon them.
We also tried to explain the purpose of the catalogueof nations in Acts 2:5-13. We

by
despite
function
NT
the
this
the
that
catalogue
various
suggestions
concerning
of
stated
that
through
the
transformation
only
rituals
proposed
of
status
can
we
we
scholarship,
in
its
is
This
that
the
proper
perspective.
perspective
catalogue
of
nations
this
pericope
put
how
function
(1)
leadership
the
the
as
representative
of
widely
acceptance
of
can actually
(2)
leadership
the
the
the
the
and
universal
scope
of
apostles,
responsibility
of
of
status
leaders.
installed
newly

Likewise,we demonstrated
that the author'sdepictionof

Peterstandingwith the

initiands
formal
2:
14
leaders
Acts
in
the
the
turned
leven
portrays
presentation
of
of the
F,
We
Peter
that
the
emphasised
picture
of
standing with the Eleven
community.
Christian
from
focus
that
the
the
the
time
they
and
of
narrative,
argument
subject
were
our
supports

Estrada: From Followers To Leaders

260

introduced in Acts 1:3 until they are formally presentedhere in Acts 2: 14, are the Twelve
Jesus.
of
apostles
Finally, we showed how the apostleswere redeemedof their honour and leadership
integrity by the kind of responseof the people once they have been installed as leaders. We
how
how
day
the
the
apostles
performed
miracles
and
converted
multitude
were
mentioned
by day listening to the teachingsof their new leaders.

Estrada: From Followers To Leaders

261

Thesis Conclusion

We started this thesis with two important questions: Why were the apostles portrayed to
have unanimity with the women disciples and Jesus' family in the upper room before the
before
(Acts
1:
12-14)?;
Why
the
the
conducted
a
new
apostle
was
election
of
election
day
(Acts
Spirit
Pentecost
1:
15-26)?
Our
the
the
of
on
questions are supported
of
arrival

by
fact
from
in
directive
the
that,
to
the
to
the
apart
apostles
wait
and compounded
Jerusalem for the promise of the father, Jesusleft no instructions at all to conduct a meeting
before
Judas
there
to
to
were
orders
nor
any
elect
an
apostle
replace
with other groups
'
Pentecost. From this viewpoint, we suggestedthat the author was compelled to narrate
in
12-14
1:
15-26
Acts
1:
Ascension
Pentecost
the
the
and
midst
of
and
of
these scenes
has
This
do with the apostles' change
important
for
to
reason.
reason
something
an
events
followers
being
Jesus'
becoming
leaders
from
Christian
to
the
the
of
community.
of status
The majority of studieshave not explored the said pericopes from the perspectivewe
is
One
the
the way most of these studies have come to
of
main
reasons
have proposed.
Acts I and 2. This structure is the over emphasis
the
the
of
structure
narrative
of
understand
Ascension and Pentecost resulting to a fragmented and
individual
the
stories
of
the
on
2
first
Acts.
In other words, becausemodem
the
two
chapters of
disconnected narrative of
has primarily focused on the significance on the characters of Jesus and his
scholarship
in Acts 1:9-11 and the Spirit and its arrival on the day of Pentecostin Acts 2: 1-4,
ascension
function
in
Acts
1-2
the
together
of
other
characters
with the stories they tell
and
tile role
includes
This
in
(Acts
the
the
been
the
stories
about
meeting
sidelined.
upper
room
have
(1:
have
been
Matthias
15-26)
the
of
election
which
12-14)
reduced to either simply
and
1:

'Section 1.3f
'Section 5.1 and 7.2f

Estrada: From Followers To Leaders

262

flow
to
to
the
the
of
narrative
show continuity
serving
primarily
continuity
providing
between the Ascension and Pentecostevents- or, as independentunits of traditions inserted
by the author becausehe could not find any other suitable placesto put them.
The perspectivewe have suggestedin this thesis has provided a plausible solution to
the exegetical questionswe havejust mentioned. We proposedthat, in order to understand
find
Acts
in
1:
12-14
1:
15-26
the
the midst of the
pericopes
of
why
we
and
the reasons
Ascension and Pentecost events, one needs to resolve the issue of the main focus of the
1-2.
focus,
believe,
Acts
The
be
The
the
main
apostlesare
of
we
should
apostles.
narrative
the primary characters,thus, making the other characterswithin the narrative of Acts 1-2
inevitably
include
These
Spirit,
Jesus,
the
secondary
characters
roles.
and
play secondary
individuals
in
Acts
1-2.
doing
In
Jesus'
the
mentioned
or
so,
stories
about
groups
other
day
Spirit's
Pentecostwould all be on equal level of
the
the
arrival
on
of
and
ascension
irnportance with the other events in the samenarrative. On the other hand, the characterof
be
they
to
the
would
rise
above
any
other
characters
or
events
as
are
understood
the apostles
3
is
it
is
in
first
1-2
Acts
the
structured
as
place.
why
reason

So how did we go about proving that our perspectivereally works? First, we focused on the
is
Acts
1-2
the
of
narrative
primarily about the apostles and how they became
that
idea
departure.
This
from
Jesus'
that
the
the time the apostleswere
meant
all
events
leaders after
introduced in Acts 1:2 until they perform their first ministry by themselves are part of the
the
transformation.
of
apostles'
status
process
whole
Second, we proposed that the apostles' status transformation was conducted, not
because of Jesus' departure, but because of the apostles' qualification to be
essentially
is
issue
Christian
It
this
the
community.
of qualification which necessitatedthe
leaders of

Estrada: From Followers To Leaders

263

Our
Acts
tansformation.
the
the
the
to
of
apostles'
about
process
readersof
urgency show
because
in
leadership
that
the
question
qualification was serious
apostles'
thesis suggested
betrayed
From
Jesus.
Judas
the
this
the
perspective,
apostle
who
their
with
association
of
from
is
from
historical
but
1-2
Acts
a
not
only
a
primarily
viewed,
narrative
whole
in
highly
becomes
Acts
1-2,
then,
apologetic nature.
a narrative
sociological point of view.
it shows the effort of the author in promoting the leadership integrity of the apostles of
but
has
has
his
betrayal
Jesus
Judas'
apostle,
of
marred,
not
only
reputation
as
an
Jesus.
The
the
the
reputation
of
whole
apostolate.
social embarrassment
affected
also seriously
his
has
launch
betrayal
Jesus
Luke-Acts
Judas'
the
to
massive
author
of
of
prompted
which
the
the
to
of
apostles.
name
clear
Carnpaign
What we have, therefore, is a crisis of leadership. It is a crisis which pertains to the
lead the community of Christians. It is
to
integrity
the
arc
expected
apostles
who
of
moral

immediately
before
be
to
the
the
needs
apostles
receive
which
resolved
crisis
a
also
fulfillment of the promiseof the fatherandattemptto begindoing the taskwhich Jesushas
to
them
undertake.
commissioned

is
have
just
half
is
task
the
presented
of
which
we
needed to answer the
The perspective
finding
half
The
have
the appropriatemethod and
other
concerns
enumerated.
we
questions
text.
the
to
study
model

We found that the most appropriate is the Social-scientific

Specifically, we discovered that reading the narrative of Acts 1-2 from the
approach .4
have
In
the
the
all
answers
of
questions
we
raised.
other
words,
processof
a
ritual
of
model
from
followers
leaders
be
from
to
the
status
of
can
understood
change
structure
the apostles'
day
ritual.
modem
a
of

3Section 1.2.5.1; 8.2.
"Cf Section 1.1.1 -1.1.3.

Estrada: From Followers To Leaders

264

The idea to read the apostles' status transformation from the perspective of a ritual
first
The
from
by
inspired
two
three
of
studies,
of which are
social anthropologists.
was
has
Gennep
his
book
Rites
Arnold
The
through
two
opened
who,
ofPassage-,
these
van
was
identification
into
his
insights
the
of
of the three major stages
study rituals particularly
new
it
be
individual
Whether
the
transformation.
though
or group going
status
through which an
from
death
life,
to
the
marriage rites, or any other
passage
rites,
puberty

status

identified
Gennep
the three stagesof the rite of passageas separation,
ritual,
transformation
incorporation.
transition, and
The secondis Victor Turne?. In his work YheRitual Process, Turner has expanded
Gennep's work by introducing the idea of liminality and communitas. Liminality is the idea
individual
the
they
through
the
experience
or
group
when
which
go
rite of
statuslessness
of
initiands feel strong camaraderieand bond with each other.
At
the
time,
the
same
passage.
is
Turner,
to
This, according
communitas.
The third of these studiesis most helpful in clearly defining our methodology. Mark
r,4cVann, in his application of Gennep's and Turner's work on the narrative of Lk. 3: 1-4:30,

it
is
Jesus'
John
Jordan
to
that
the
possible
understand
encounter
with
at
river,
us
showed
his baptism,his confrontationwith the devil in the wildernessas stagesof a ritual. Jesus'
becoming
from
be
from
to
the
the
private
person
prophet
of
nation
can
status
read
change of
McVann
Rituals
Status
transfonnation
this
the
a
status
of
ritual.
coined
as
of
the perspective
7

Transformation. His contributionto Gennep'sand Turner's work is his identification of
devil
Jesus'
(Lk.
4:
1-13).
He
the
encounter
as
a
ritual
confrontation
with
of
the event
Gennep
did
Turner
(a
not
which
and
point
argued

individual
that
the
xploit)
or group
t:

initiation
face
the
their
training.
through
ritual
as
of
mock
confrontations
part
and
goes
who
'Section 1.2-1.
6Section 1.2.2.

in is this time training phase of what Turner has decribed as the cleansing of A significant ideas of the initiands. Transition (which has two phases: Liminality-Communitas/Ritual Confrontation). in Acts 1-2. are ushered ritual elder seclusion and society. out preconceived need wiped purged totally in for instill his initiand the to order the ritual elder new teachings. This phase of from if is initiand is in be he is being the to the necessary successful status or she cleansing transfomied to. to of status the change apostles' of The description of the ritual stageswe used basically follows McVann's. Through RST to the the transformation able see all model of we were of status fit in first Acts together the two the the chapters of clearly showing ritual stages events of from followers leaders. We also adapted McVann's descriptions of the major initiands: in the the the ritual elder and ritual participants is the time when the initiands are taken away from any contact with Separation stage8 The initiands into by In this the the training. From these three studies. .2-3.we ventured to read the narrative of Acts 1-2 as the apostles' ritual how (RST). They are the Separation. and Aggregation.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders These confrontations are designedto prepare the initiandq4the 265 real confrontations in the future. we identified the time the apostleswere said to have been with Jesusfor Jesus leaves by he Eleven days the themselves completely forty until when ascendedas the 'Section 1. "See Chapter Two of this thesis. The initiands are completely immersed into the teaching and instructions of the ritual elder. stage. All of the previous ideas which the initiand learned are preconceived in These ideas be this to stage of separation.

for father (1: 8).the apostlesas initiands are said to have been (1: 3-11).2. role not come to effect until they are baptised in the by is 2).Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 266 9 In this stage. the teachings the of about ritual elder receiving completely with 10 It is also during this stage that the intiands are cleansed from their 3b). They are. we indicated that the Eleven apostlesreturned to jerusalern with no status at all.the women and Jesus' froni society familY.1. The (Acts the this status of apostles at particular stage unclear. as we Spirit have stated. betwixt and between. . (1: God in has been demonstrated ideas. it is at this point where we explained that there is something going on in the upper just liminality-communitas initiands. the than the expression of of apostles as room other in intent fully to the that order appreciate of the author behind the pericope of We proposed 9Section3. the the Jerusalem promise of and wait to The Transition stage is seen in Acts 1:12-26 . The full picture of the apostles' liminal status is seen in "upper " initiands The the temporal setting of room.2. The LiminalitySpirit's arrival on is in Acts is 1: 12-14 the especially seen while phase ritual confrontation phase communitas 1: 15-26.1.1. in Acts seen In the first phase (Acts 1:12-14). While it is true that they have already been commissioned does be his this Jesus to witnesses. This stage has two phases. 1: 6-7 This the clearly apostles asked when preconceived Jesus if the restoration of the kingdom to Israel is now going to take place. and are completely secluded the spatial from distinct disciple the two company of apart groups .the time between Jesus' departure and the day the of Pentecost. As we have is instead back instructions "no" to Jesus' them short of saying and go gives response stated. stage of separation kingdom for forty days. loSecfion3.

the social-scientific method should 1: 12-14. people disciple have. This suggestionis best understood from the social concept of patronageand networking. displays for it is to Spirit's Rather. We proposed that the leadership of between be broker God that the ultimate patron and the would of a serving apostles the leadership by The the the to therefore. We that the the were suggested reason why women and clisciples of is in in Eleven the the those mentioned with upper room as who unanimity were especially due to their status as representativesof a wider clientele. working the models of patronage.leven as having unanimity with these two disciple groups (1: 14) is an invitation for the has been these to the to their whose reputation groups render apostles support clients of battered by Judas' betrayal of Jesus. the the the of author one evidence6which arrival. Recalling our thesis statement. apostles' as clients. to out order campaign conduct author needed serious his betrayal Jesus. other models theoretical Status Transformation Rituals the the main as our serves model of of as vVords. From the social-scientific method. we suggested that the author is promoting the have leadership integrity his through by the a that gone apostles readers showing apostles' in blot the to The this transformation. needs promote author.Estrada:From FollowersToLeaders 267 In be from other employed. Acts 1:12-14 is not simply the story of the group of Jesus' disciples praying in one room. have We to the that the the other clients which other argued groups appealing disciples fwnily have Jesus Showing the their the and of of clients. waiting . by Judas Twelve the the and of created of shame one of members social Integral to the author's campaign of promotion is the need to appeal to the other family Jesus' Jesus. own network Women F. framework. we were able to show that contrary to the common view.networking. This perspective offers a plausible solution to the questions we have raised earlier. and the concept of honour and shameare interactively within this main theoretical fi-amework.

268 Estrada: From Followers To Leaders that the apostles has the backing and support of two of the popular disciple groups prove Twelve. the after The Ritual Confrontation happens in Acts 1:15-26 . From defends leadership the the episode where author actively apostles' another the model of RST. when the with a good understandingof the concept of in is from defending the that the the election story apostles viewed perspective are setting their honour rather than the more common suggestionof the need to replace Judasbecause the number of the apostleswere down to eleven. is a case which questions their leadership integrity in relation to the fact that it is from their group which Judasthe betrayer from. as we have proposed. one can understandwhy Peter had to give "Section 6. we statedthat the election narrative is the setting where the apostlesface their ritual confrontation. no.we have proven that it is speaks of all opinion 1 logical in delivers his behalf Peter Eleven to seethat speech of the apostles! rnore On the other hand the 120 people who were part of the assembly. 5.1 and 7. And in have its be full potential the as we suggested.1. we have demonstratedthat this is integrity.2. Their approval or disapproval thereof reflect how the 12 have would respondedto Peter and his defencespeech. In this thesis. contrary to the popular apostles in Peter behalf in that those the assembly.5. case can conceived only came 13 honour and shame. .7. 13 Sec. 6.5.we suggestedthat these people representthe Christian community and therefore serve as those who stand to hear the defence of Eleven apostles. the their are and acts as spokesman. Community The case against the Eleven. 12Sec.the narrative which NT scholarship simply understands as an election story.1. In other words. The whole setting may be seen as a picture of a trial where the defendants Peter Thus.

Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 269 did Judas description death.1f. rnultitude Spirit and their formal presentationin 1:14.%! the apostles' relationship with the traitor. Acts 2:46-47 tells especially of how those who 14Cf. Judas' a that was what cmphasising grotesque of a such fulfilment (1: 15-20). apostles' endorsement " is invites OT Acts to traditions. miracles after who witnessed preaching. leadership the sincerity apostles' and readers of 14 is We statedthat we clearly see this stage in Acts Aggregation. have predicted and prevented of scripture which nobody could From the method and model with which we have read the election narrative. We indicated that the Spirit's baptism of the Twelve expressesGod's approval and We leadership the that the the argued setting of also of status. It is a move which hopes to satisfy the integrity. It is a move which finally e. Because of the parallels which Acts 2 shareswith Numbers 11. the of reflect on a setting which readers aggregation In in in OT Numbers 11 the the the aggregation status we cited where account particular. For instance is the distribution and endowment of the Spirit among the new leaders of Israel. .1. the readers are aided to 16 by God. there the stageof 2. 15Seeour brief background study on the traditions surrounding Pentecostin 8. understand the apostles' aggregationas ordained The ultimate evidence which the author of Luke-Acts uses to prove to his readers is have in been the positive responseof the the their new status that apostles recognised in being baptised the their teaching.Chapter Eight. And then there is the outburst of prophecy after the Spirit has rested upon the elders." Judas' replacement s is actually a statementof excommunication and extirpation. transformation of seventy elders of Israel strike parallel scenarioswith apostlesin Acts 2: 14. we the be 1: 15-26 Acts to the that as primarily understood ought pericope of suggested "replacement of Judas" and not necessarilythe "election of Matthias. Finally. and.

is able to provide an alternative way to understandthe narrative of Acts 1-2.3f. We demonstratedthat the story of the first two chapters of Acts is the story of the apostles' status transfonnation.the Ascension and Pentecost. and continued to grow in believed 17 number. we believe.1. showed 16 Seesection9. We showed specifically how the pericopes of 1:12-14 and 1:15-26 work within the two important events . we how the changeof statushas taken place.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 270 had gathered together. shared their possessions.If 17 Section9. specifically the Rituals of Status Transformation. This thesis. . and that through the Social-Scientific method.

In the assumption the Lk. pp. "The Priority Mark Luke. 22:30 is based on the idea that the author of the gospel of Luke originally had the word Mfticoc before the word "thrones. 4ccording to Mark: Markan Redaction in Current Debate (JSNTSS27. This meansthat. N. 131-70. 1970). 3This study takes on the assumptionthat there was indeed literary dependencebetween Matthew. (Pittsburgh. In other words. Nat is " Redaction Criticism? (Philadelphia: FortressPress. Specifically. we arguedthat Acts 1:15-26 is not necessarilythe fulfillment of Lk. 1968). al. 2See my survey of scholarsin 7-3. Mark and Luke. 19: 28. 22:30. " D. 1989). TheDisciples.This also meant the freedom of Matthew in altering the Marcan in his he to theological to the order agenda specific community material present own was source in further in For J. 19:28. The common view that Acts 1:15-26 is the fulfillment of Lk. . this section will it is in is Luke that to that the possible saying understand closer to the original form of argue the saying. ' 7 in chapter of this thesis. G.271 Estrada: From Followers To Leaders Appendix Twelve Apostles for Twelve Thrones?: A Study on the Redaction of the Saying in Mt. C. 22:28-30. 1:2 1f.)" in ZNTW 61 (1970). We statedthat oneof the importantreasonsis the silenceof the text of Acts. pp. Perrin. R.3 7. pp. Stein. The suggestion that 8C65P-KCC was omitted by Luke is understoodonly when comparedwith Matthew's Mftica has the the saying which word version of 3 before "thrones" in Mt. Black. 181-198.4. Miller et to. Rediscovering the Teaching ofthe Evangelists (London: SCM Press. Pickwick: Rohde.. 22:30 is indeed a parallel to Mt. H. that Matthew had the gospel of Mark as one of his major literary sourcesin shapinghis gospel. see ministering Hope. Matthew was the one who may 'See 7. Fitzrnyer. the author gives no indication at all in the election narrative of Acts 1:15-26 that the choice of Matthias is an answerto the problem of the missing twelfth apostle which is alleged to be in line with Jesus' promise in Lk. Also J."The RedaktionsgeschichtlichInvestigation of a Marcan Seam(Mc." That the authoralteredhis sourcesanddroppedW&ica becausehe did not want 2 betrayer is Judas to show that the rewarded with eschatologicalrulership. Jesus andMan's vol. C. 19:28. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press. of reading. "What is Redaktionsgeschicte? in )VovT 13 (197 1). I. 70-94. contrary to the common view. 1969).

"household The first and second pericopes speak of what Stephen Barton would call ethiCS. 16-22. "The Rich Young Man in Matthew. vv. 19:13-14 H Mk. 10:23-31 H Lk. iii (Edinburgh: T&T Clark. in for insertion theme the one a strong a cluster strengthening of which and important look for What how does But themes? redactions.23-26. those the to of who on 18: 24-30). e. 199-208.." in ICC vol.i. Literary Oiticism and the Gospels.the story of the "Rich Young Man" in Mt. when the Son of man shall sit on his glorious throne." in Van Segbroeck 2. a"particular re-framing of tradition. 19:3-12 // Mk.. C. pp. 19 can be subdivided into at least five pericopes. .38. in other terms. 1997). seethree divisions in vv. p. are the obvious one particularly other of lead by being delivered The the to can which author? answersare a reader an emphasis see signposts found in the processof isolating "unique theological perspective" which entails the method of -. 183.However. independent from different latter Very These the two two as each other. 19:23-31 can 4Our goal is to find out if Matthew was consistentlypursuing a specific agendaor developing &65elccc 19: 28 is just in Mt. Peter and his query fate have decided follow 23-31 H Jesus (Mt. W. 10:2- 12). 19:16-22 and Peter's question to Jesus in Mt. 19: Mk. The Saying in AIL 19:28. pp. judging the twelve tribes of Israel. 10:1). the teaching on marriage and divorce (Mt. 18:18-23). finally. Mt. Jesus said to them. the introductory statements (Mt. "Truly. Cf.selection. 19: 1-2 // Mk. attitudes toward children (Mt. " S. in the new world. Harrington.p.204. 384-85.Estrada: From Followers To Leaders have altered his sourcesby adding the word Wei= 272 before the word "thrones" in order to 4 his follows The is the study of this argument conducted own agenda. section which pursue from the redaction-critical perspective. 10:13-16 H Lk. you who have followed me will also sit on twelve thrones. the story of the young man (Mt. 18:15-17). 6Following the lead of D. and E. Moore. p. 10:17-22 // Lk. 19:16-22 // Mk. Schweizer. 5 They constituteJesus'teachingon ethical valueswhere eachcan be 6. Davies and D. D. Discipleship and Family Ties in Mark and Matthew. and 27-30) instead of our proposal of only two. J. 16-31 (i. modification. Allison Jr. and expansion" of sourcematerials. 5StephenBarton. The Good NewsAccording to Matthew. I say to you. e.unlike the teachingon "householdethics". are pericopes seen detached from former do the two they are quite since not primarily promote pericopes family relationshipissues. "A Critical and Exegetical Commentaryon the Gospel According to Saint Matthew.

16-31 Mk. 10: 19: two words and while only Scventy-nine (270). man young Nestle-Aland's 27th edition of Novum Testamentum Graece counts two hundred and (279) for has hundred 17-31 Mt. 33b (Dallas: Word Books. not a questionof show how many words Matthew had dropped or omitted. d dcyccOovin 19:16.saying in Mt. . and more importantly. "Good What What Good Thing Must I Must I Do? " Do?" "Teacher. D. "Matthew 14-38. p. just that than take than the counting of words to of would more shorter Matthew (or in is for had Luke It this what us even matter) mind. what words or phrases has N4atthew changed or replaced. Luke's the a verse which on only a version. 10910. We find Mark's attributive Mdcrica%c dcycc0p-(Mk. The ThemeofRecompensein Matthew's Gospel (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press. Matthew's version. why did he? The principal Matthean Mark of are: rnodifications Teacher.vol. The plots in had just 16-22 19: based on what transpired betweenJesusand the young man immediate latter flow two the these to that establish pericopes any attempt smoothly of context of the reward ." IVBC. 8For Furtherdiscussionson the structural relationships of the said pericopes seeB. 7Cf. 19:28 should start reading from the story of the rich in 19: 16-228. 7. A. Matthew's includes in 19: 28 (a the total of thirty-three count even saying seventy hand. Thus. instead of the vocative "good " has Matthew the simple address "teacher" and places the adjective "good" to teacher.therefore.Estrada:From FollowersToLeaders actually 273 be seen as one since they are what we might call "didactically dependent" from is 23-31 Mt.is nine words it Mark9. 1992). hundred two of total and two words (202). 1995). From to 1. has Mark does have. Hagner. 19: In in Peter's Jesus to the of other words. Charette. p. Rather. other not words). 560. However. 10:17) repositioned by Iviatthew to MdaicccXc. pericope question each other.

Barton. in.4. Hagner believes that Matthew. 555. avoids the conclusion that Jesus is not to be 'good'. Discipleship. 5t5daicake. pp. p. "Matthew 14-38 " p. "Stages in Christology in the Synoptic Gospels. 11G. but concerning the conditions of obtaining eternal life. suggests on other the notion that Jesus is "good" or any claim to his divine nature because it is avoiding " fact is Jesus indeed divine. other words.with intention. Styler. 39. some ernphasize have deliberately dya0o. does not by any means exclude the 13 by deed least performance another of at one good 9A Matthean tendencyto abbreviate? 10S. 205. . that the statement that God only is good. Hagner.4ccording to Saint Matthew. They have observedthat. before notýcyco? Davies and Allison seem to agree. 12D. and. 13W. from Matthew that may of omission concluding the describing less Jesus " "good. Would it not be possible to say that Matthew..M. attention to the associationof given as and as a result.yoc0ogwith notýaco. Styler.Estrada:From FollowersToLeaders not*rco qualify 274 which asks "what good thing must I do?" There are several suggestions as due been it have Matthew have done to the author's Barton this. an attempt to be consistent with the "household ethical" teachings in "obvious considered christological On the contrary. that may may to why says 6r-ethicizing" the previous 10 be to Matthew hand. Matthew's version impression thrust that the the was good adjective gives us . a. that a already . 404-06." inNTSIO(1963-64).. p.A. in order to make occasion for the answer about goodness. which is quite appropriate when used to exclude application of the title good to any other. C. Davies and D. 12vj It is easy to fall short of giving emphasison what Matthew may have wanted to focused have he did In than on rather exegetes on what not. that seems the pericopes. interests. n. Allisoý The Gospel. is focused dyccOog before brings the the attribute more word which rninimize in attaining what he wanted to achieve by placing dya0o. That the answer is by no means relevant. D.voided 6C. though not wanting to 5t5dCricake. seeing that the question asked was not concerning goodness in abstract.

The replacements. also a slightly of gives commandments. et grl 6. defraud"). Although beware the cannot we of over one must commandments)? but ask why the change from knowing to keeping if not for the senseofphysical doing over knowing. the passive The redaction also makes the Matthean insertion of k9yet ccbu. Ultimately he refusesto be perfect. etc. dLyaGov (Why do you call me good?. dcyoft. (xuE6v which works well with what Jesus will be it in do 19. p.ou d). kyanýcrEt. This addition creates a decisive in done the the act maybe with element of empathy and not simply which context dry to the command. Delta Psi. which.275 Estrada: From Followers To Leaders The moving of dycx0o.. Wcokcii. observe. who is good possibly intimates that the young man is one who thinks of goodnessas resident in deeds. this to alter the reasonwhy mi. c6 dcycL06(Why do you ask me about b dcycLOo. 7joicc. minimise the Marcan focus on Jesus(hencethe responseof Jesusob5cl..).. The apparentcontrast in 19:16 and 17 betweenthe 6. W. "This was also ornitted in codices B. ] xccoXcýt. 16 love he And then. which young physical dti8a. obedience of act an 14Consequentlyin 19:17. . who seeksto do good and the eti. 19: 18. according to 5:48 makesone like God. The ThemeofRecompense. b Oeo. man sell what asking (biEwle mAilcy6v cyou cdcbxckpXovTa iml 56.. Mark's had be Could Matthew )914 life. . adds the commandment. [ccýt. Charette ). o in 19: 18 appropriate. cyF. Mk. He deletes in is then the substantive also simple good? qeo/j putting place what believes that. or fulfill" cýpecb the he list different First. (know the commandments. ncpý. 10:18) with TI pz tp=4. c6v n%jjcrjov c. from MdmcaXe to notýaco focuses attention on the have do "in in to doing. 10:19) with -cýpjaov rdq tv-ToXdq (keep the help interpreting text. "no one is good but God alone") favouring Matthew's emphasison the doing over personalities. the among .. Matthew had to replace Mark's interrogative"n ge Xtyct. due ("do the to non-existence phrasegil probably not omits 15 Ten Commandments. 16Cf Lev. the to the to young you possess and give pooe.I think. 111. eternal this the order the things can man case.21b: "Go. Matthew commandments. its dcnocyEP-pho-n. After stating to the young man that he should "keep.

question combination of the phrase man" with lack? " or "in what respect am I still inferior?"'S prompts the utterance of the conditional by Jesus Jesus 11 The invitation the "if be to young prove of you would perfect. CtXEE10. It Latin Gospel Hebrews Origen's to the on speaks of a commentary with him This Jesus the man went man same question.. 387.. a change is description have"). (19: young man went away sorrowful. 191. From "What You Have" to "What You Possess. up The reason for this "sorrowful" is his disinclination his to the to poor.276 Estrada: From Followers To Leaders In 19:20. p. Gundry. rich who approached and asked second 17Cf.iijaoi). 15: 14.. Such emphasis on selling possessionsand loving the poor is consistent the in Mt. - 17 el-V(Xt. in contrast with Mark's tic vF-6vjro. What we find in these therefore. Matthew describesthe man who queries Jesusas a vecxvicwo. atnCo fiy6mlau abcov (Mk. The reasonfor the changeshould be understoodwith Matthew's et bcrTFpCo Jesus' d Eu of and conditional statement additions of Otxet. 19:21a).Mt. . do "what "young the the else III other words. is the emphasis on the young man's "deficiency in surpassing 9 "' righteousness. p. 6act tXctq from ("what Mark's Matthew's bicdcpXov=( "possessions"). additions. 'SBAGD. challenge nian's Mark's having is finther Matthew law the omits observed claim of enhancedas ft 6 Jesus's the towards the young man with phrase of sympathetic attitude portrayal tgpUWcc.. and not necessarily and give possessions sell response 5cf)po docoko-bOEt ("and instruction in 19: 21c Jesus [tot the ical come accompanying of on follow me"). 848. . 5: 48. told to give things the the the makes young man vivid of material you The 21a). " 2. L H. Matthew.

Estrada:From FollowersToLeaders 277 do. C'how hard it is [for] thosewho have much") with nko.22 There is a great deal of confusion about the point of this story. the assumptionthat the young man was "materially" rich has commonly been 21Coupled with 19:24. and your house is full of many 20 things. Beare. 5iD M? for is into Stephen draws Kingdo This Barton the entrance where also prerequisite . " And becausethis saying immediately follows the story of the young man (19: 16- 22). . many of your brothers. then remarks saying. 2'Matthew replaced Mark's rendering of IIC5qSwOXco. Jesus indicates that it is "hard for a rich man to enter the kingdom of around). The saying in 19:23 is solely pictures directed to the disciples as Matthew omits the Marcan phraseof nepipkeycigevo. to them? good none of which goesout 3. from hastily discipleship "detachment the the that conclusion possessions"and means c)vcr 200ted from A.W. 23F. sons of Abraham. L Epstein (London: The Socirno Press." After Matthew has indicated that the young man had sorrowfully left the scene. Crich man. the is for "it that a camel to go through the analogy easier accepted. Suaic6W. edited by SederZeraim and translatedby Rabbi Dr. The Netherlands: E. p. " than the to a needle compounds of of a rich enter man eye difficulty for a wealthy man to gain entry into the kingdom of God. heaven. are clothed in filth. Jesus him instructed his head" "scratching displeased from to Jesus and what away. 1992). From the "Young Man's SorrowfulExif'to the "Difficult Entry to God's Kingdom. 56.he Jesus responding with two traditional sayings. dying of hunger.ma.=a EXovw. 22Thecommon proverbial saying has the "elephant" insteadof the kamhlon. 397. p. J.when it is written in the law: You shall love your neighbour as yourself. Klijn. Jewish-Christian Gospel Tradition (Leiden. I have fulfilled the law and the prophets. "Berakoth. F. I ]3rill.6crto." translated by Maurice Simon in TheBabylonian Talmud. For instance. and lo.). How can you say. dt = Xpýp. he is Jesus disciples] "Has [the think that to them wealth a ever said anything make asks. with difficulty"). Francis Beare questions the "astonishment" (Ekenkýaawro #65pa) of the disciples in 19:25. (looking In it. for degree God's kingdom. The GospelAccording to Matthew.

into fact kingdoM. France. B. T. edited and series. 287. 26Daviessurprisingly readsmore into the text as he agreeswith Cassian'sstatementthat -Actually what they left was. the disciples' "astonishment" was a suitable response since if the rich be man cannot saved. . C. p. Rather.27 the material of ernploys One should bear in mind that Matthew's employment of the Q saying in 19:28 is in is Peter's in 27. 25 28: 1-14)2 then. is the the sacrificing sharing purpose of whole plot and possessions.R. E. clearly nothing than cheapand torn nets.Matthew (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans.. 27Or probably.278 Estrada:FromFollowersToLeaders a "condition is that wealth is the hindrance to enter God's kingdom. G. rnakes followed is have What " Peter's then? and question not redundant. Peter wants to know what they get in return for having decided to leave 26 had from follow Matthew Jesus. Peter's 27 Peter query we very appropriate. Vol J. and response having for decision disciples' "reward" Peter their to the given up of and corresponding 24SBarton. .1985). The the -24 the not story the plot of of entry It is rather the inability to from it in response to God's command which prevents an individual approval.206. nian does not primarily stressthe "how to enter God's kingdom!' but also on the fact of a " corresponding reward " for those who are willing to give up their wealth. shall we everything I-le is not asking for any assuranceof whether they as disciples are qualified to enter God's kingdom. It they this that therefore query and is everything Q 19: 28. And this is what have left in 19: declares. from gaining Thus. if one is to equate that "a man of wealth is blessed by God" (Deut. Matthew in the ICC by 3. "Behold. Emerton. the sayings in 19:23 in 25-26 19: disciples Jesus 24 to together the the attempt explain with and responses of and has but how kingdom is God's based how willing a a man much not on wealth entering that in his Moreover.54. Discipleship and Family Ties in Mark and Matthew." W. Davies.who then? young With reference to the story of the rich young man in 19:16-22. Cranfield T&T 1997). p. suggests part God's does is. A. that Matthew constructsthe query as a link to the Q material. P. 25Cf. Stanton (Edinburgh: Clark. the to the that response of such question content v. you.

The the tone the to the saying reward eschatological of the concretenessof determined by Matthew's use of the phrase tv cfi noc?. 19:28 servesto link the rest of the reward sayingsin 19:29 and 30. the focal lessondoesnot show or give any hint at any voluntary surrenderof is fame. lead to show that the issue is not only on the for in but "reA-ards" to give up earthly possessionsgiven wealth.Verse28 not only satisfiesthe query of Peterin 19: 27 but is also faithful to the context of the whole narrative section of 19:16-27. interpreters the from the and the properly understanding meaning of some is helpful: just in had 19: 28b. "enter heaven" in kingdom in 19: God" 19: 24. receive Third. to title. tyycvF-cAqc (lit. From "One Throne" to "Twelve Thrones. Furthermore. return also on preparedness idea kingdom. "treasures in heaven" in 19:21. "enter the of of shows that the the is be in is in but to the that given clearly eschatological. The prevented to this since crucial and point need stress Weicoc Op6vou. "in the . Thus." With the interpretative boundaries of 19:16-27 properly set. and second. original is disciples. kingdom 23. we can then seetwo significantfeatures is Matthew. is One to the the strong eschatological content of saying. ICPivOvTFq preceded of a summaryof what scope First. supposed social status. the redactions displayedby Matthew. reward of entering up is remuneration material not necessarilysidelined. If the Lucansaying(22:30) is closerto Q. God's for God's While issue includes the the the sake.Estrada:From FollowersToLeaders everything 279 it has is followed Jesus. which political or any rulership position either in its return eschatological equivalent. starting from the story of the young man (19: 16-22) until the question of Peter (19:27). the reason as to why N4atthewimports Q materialis apparent. c)f Second. the referenceto "eternal life" in 19:16. not a setting presentage reward 4.

31 is b by "Son the to the title the exile enhanced of man7" '0ý0. in Israel kingdom.2. is Jesus This the the of rulership of with eschatological share sharing disciples because loyalty him. reward Burnett concludes that. but it is enhancedboth by the Matthean Jesus' conditional responseto the 28Alsoused in different conceptssuch as "reincarnation" (Nemesius. will c)nly Modem has tendedto seethe meaning of xpivovie. p. 114). Corp.3. Burnett.. For the to Fred their to are receive of example. W. part of NUtthew's purpose in utilizing this Q material together with his critical redactions. "of Christian rebirth" (Tit. 'Coý) reference after (5cvopc6no-O).280 Estrada: From Followers To Leaders regeneration"). is for The the of not simply of strong parallelism. The Matthean emphasis in this section is upon eternal life as the reward for discipleship. "of the flood" (Philo. . the after world new Herm. 11.De nat. express each of and only not as collectively. 18:18). 29B.IjccXtyyevF-c. reflective 30 Jewish Stoic of the concept. This temporal dative phrase is familiar with the Stoics in Greco-Roman 28 However.9 life Israel's the to their exile points rebirth after example. The 32 &68cica before Op6votr. hom. The second of the two significant features of this saying is most important.57. WBC (Dallas. The theme of eternal life also is traditional (cf. Matthew. The only other NT occurrenceis in Titus 3:5. p. "of the afterlife" (Philo.Ant. Davies. of ia in Matt. of commentary 32Contra Davies. 2). 19:28: A Window on the Matthean Community?" JSNT 17 (1983) 60-72. 11. Texas: Word. sake addition phrase M&ica Op6vou. 606. 55. 4GD. is not "rulership" but be to that them. Mos. Hagner in his Matthew 14-28. 9. 3:5. 30Agood discussionon the function Hakiyyevecia can be found in F. to the of equal appropriation ernphasising In other words. I Clem.66). 3'A comprehensivetreatment the of phraseis effectively dealt by D. . p.65. specifies 29 in This translation is more the time of the reign of the Messiah a world . W. 1995). Lk. p. . the be translated "in the renewing of the world" which phrase can period .4). 13). A. Mark 10:27. implies the concreteness and assurance of the reward by idea the Twelve. Vit.565. For understandingof the word than of the previous life Josephus in The Ant. as primarily the scholarship rewarded. "of Israel's re-establishmentafter the exile" (Josephus. Cher.

Td. by 17) the that will young man and all who general statement 33 life. In Dan. In addition. In Obad. nor is it in Bumett's 19: 16-22. Possession of the kingdoms is shared with the "people of the saints" of the Most High (Dan.61. Davies. Jesus. The claim that it was Luke who deleted &68excc before Op6vour." The senseof "individual rulershipandownership" is by Matthew's insertion equal appropriation and strongly conveyed of the word expresses 565emx before the phrase Op6vou. "strangers" took the wealth of God's people. got ("those who have followed me") 19:28 with Peter's earlier statement of fiico). Bumett. M8F-icccOAd. 7: 27). 33F. deserves Messiah's Peter the an equivalent asks what will rulership seat rightly be the corresponding reward for those who have given up their possessionsand followed Jesus.an item 35 its in Lucan having In parallel.. p. but individual "each "rule to that them thrones" rule with of will sit on and get individually the twelve tribesof Israel.281 Estrada: From Followers To Leaders inherit follow Jesus (v. 35As I have argued earlier in the thesis introduction it is Luke who has probably remained faithful to Q. W. The allusions of Matthew to Daniel 7 is evidenced by the following aspects. W. This concept of retribution is also reflected in Obadiah. 7: 9. 54. oiftGagF-v c7ot CWe have followed you") in 19:27. the the the ruler with context of story of young rich consistent is The Jesus" "following the emphasis on only considers required. part where conclusion the willingness to give up wealth or possessionshas been discarded.%. " p.therefore. "Ilaktyyeveoia. the first is for for implication God "thrones" the the the throne and other plural which solicits of one reference Son of Man. answersthem with a direct replY34that the disciples will not only Israel him. such a view does not directly answer Peter's question in 19:27. Wisdom cf. Mauhew. . simply because Luke be Judas Jesus's is the traitor to the reward of allow of of rulership unsubstantial. 'roý) 'Icrpcch. given up their possessions. the "house of Jacob" is empowered by the Lord to "possess their own possessions" (I 7f). However. 3: 7-8. 11. The text of Daniel goes on fin-ther to stress that the . eternal However.Most High" take "possession" of kingdoms forever. lcpivovTP-. when the "day of the Lord" arrives. we have issue is that the previously also not the surrender of any rulership position which stated in kingdom. other words. Again. one recipients cannot 36It seems likely that the idea of rulership with possession is strongly influenced by Daniel 7. the absent for be the of rulership apostles could understood as both a material compensation 36 remunerationandan authoritativeposition. 34Notice the corresponding response of Jesus di dncokoikýaccvTt.

and a Land" to "a Hundredfold of Houses. . the point being that the latter 37 beyond incurred in first losses the place. Families and Lands. Hagner. This fortunes have denied intends fate for themselves the to those the who show prosperous verse EaXwrot EaXawt for Jesus. 22:30? 37D. 6art. Twelve we are emphasising apostles the eschatological arnongst the Matthew's by Twelve to the the the the element of assuranceand reward concretenessof MSeiccc before Op6vou. typical poetic language that employs hyperbole in the description of the bounteousnessof eschatologicalblessing. we have actually . "Matthew 14-28.A. From "a House." p. both of which are material possessions.." The emphasison the assuranceand concretenessof the reward is enhancedin 19:29. who also followed him. Hagner sees this as.. After addressing Peter's question. cov. Matthew ends the narrative scenewith 19:30. Well.ccCnXaoiova Xýgyvcat). the the new world reversal of also not only So what have we accomplished so far? What is the significance of studying the saying of Mt. calculation the will exceed Everything that has been sacrificed for Jesus' sake will be bountifully compensated (bca. the of addition :5.566. 19:28 in relation to the reward-promise of Lk. and ends with dypo-b. The iml 7rp6icot shows the 7rp(Zcot world phrase present of justice has dramatic fortune but the to offer..282 Estrada:From FollowersToLeaders What we are suggestingis not necessarilythe literal distribution of the twelve tribes is What in kingdom. The reward in 19:29 is not only of a relational content but also of material extent. The saying begins with dtKioc. probably an independentsaying. a Family.. Jesusnow turns to the ica.

to are strong two show able we were significant accomplished Op6vou. the elimination of the argumentthat Matthew has the more primitive rendering issue. that First. leaves "twelve Q to the thrones" regards us no other probable reason why with of Luke cannot be more primitive than Matthew..Estrada: From Followers To Leaders 283 there issues. the identification of reasonsfor the Matthean alterations narrows all other faithful has Luke to to the that cannot accept possibility remained as why one arguments The truth is. . W5FKa The before inserted had believe Matthew the to that word reasons desires that those is first the to that the the message convey author of gospel primary reason for Jesus' "earthly to sake are assuredof an material possessions" willing give up who are eschatological reward. Second.

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