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Homework 4 Solution

1. Consider the open-loop transfer function

G(s) =

K(s + 1)

.

(s 1)(s2 + 8s + 32)

(1)

(a) Use the Routh array to determine the range of values of K for which the closed-loop

system with negative unity feedback is stable.

Solution The denominator of the closed-loop transfer function is the numerator of

1 + G(s), which numerator is

(2)

s3

s2

s1

s0

where

=

:

:

:

: (K

1

(24 + K)

7

(K 32)

0

32)

1

1

(K 32 7(24 + K)) = (6K + 200)

7

7

(3)

(4)

and the first element in the s0 row can be computed easily by observing that

1

(0 (K 32)) = K 32.

(5)

Applying the Routh-Hurwitz criterion, the closed loop system is stable if K > 32

(from the s0 row) and K > 200/6 (from the s1 row), so we need K > 32.

(b) Now select a value of K that produces the least overshoot and plot the step response

of the closed-loop system. Be sure to use a time range that shows the important

aspects of the behavior.

Solution:

Using the Matlab script below, we find that the value of seems to

decrease with increasing K, which would indicate that to decrease the overshoot we

should pick a small K. Of course, we have to figure out what value of small is

appropriate. In the matlab script, I tested the value K = 1, and since that yields no

overshoot, we cant do better than that, so K = 1 will do. The plots are shown in

Figures 1 and 2. Heres the script.

%%%

%%% Homework 4, Problem 1 Solution

%%%

sk 10/29/08

rs(index,:) = roots([1 7 (24 + 32+index) index]);

Homework 4 Solution

z(index) = -real(rs(index,1))/abs(rs(index,1));

end;

figure(1)

plot(z);

title(HW4 P1: Damping Coefficient \zeta vs. Gain K)

xlabel(Gain K)

ylabel(Damping Coefficient \zeta)

grid

print -depsc HW4_p1_fig1

[y,t] = step(tf([1 1],[1 7 25 1]));

figure(2)

plot(t,y);

title(HW4 P1: Step Response for K=1)

xlabel(Time t)

ylabel(Output y(t))

grid

print -depsc HW4_p1_fig2

HW4 P1: Damping Coefficient vs. Gain K

0.5

0.45

0.4

Damping Coefficient

0.35

0.3

0.25

0.2

0.15

0.1

0.05

100

200

300

400

500

Gain K

600

700

800

900

1000

Homework 4 Solution

1

0.9

0.8

0.7

Output y(t)

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

50

100

Time t

150

Homework 4 Solution

2. Consider a unity negative feedback system with forward path (open loop) transfer function

G(s) =

K

.

s((s + 3 + K/3)(s + p) + (K/3))

(6)

(a) Draw a block diagram, in which each block contains a transfer function having at

most one pole and at most one zero that would implement this closed-loop system.

(There is more than one way to do this. Any correct answer will do.)

(b) Assume that the value p may take any value in the set {1, 2, 3}. Find the range of

values for the gain K that result in a stable closed-loop system regardless of which

of the three values p takes.

Solution: A little tedious algebra yields the Routh array:

s3 :

s2 :

s1 :

s0 :

9+3p+K

3

9+3p2K

9+3p+K

3+

K

3

p+

K

3

K

0

(7)

which gives us three constraints on the value of K for the system to be stable, namely

9 + 3p + K > 0

(8)

9 + 3p 2K > 0

(9)

K > 0.

(10)

The first condition simplifies to K > 9 3p. For the three given values of p, the

maximum of the right hand side occurs when p = 1, yielding K > 12. The second

condition simplifies to K < (9 + 3p)/2. The minimum of the right hand side occurs

when p = 1, yielding the constraint K < 6. Thus, the acceptable range of values for

the gain K is 0 < K < 6.

3. Consider the Single-Input Single-Output (SISO) system with state space representation

x(t)

=

y(t) =

and input u(t) = Kx(t) + r(t).

"

h

0

2

1 3

1 0

x(t) +

"

0

1

u(t)

(11)

x(t)

(12)

Solution: First, we substitute for u in the state equation to obtain

x(t)

(13)

= (A BK)x(t) + Br(t)

"

=

=

"

0

1

0

2

1 k1 3 k2

0

2

1 3

"

(14)

k1 k2

x(t) +

"

!

i

0

1

x(t) +

r(t)

"

0

1

r(t)

(15)

(16)

(17)

Homework 4 Solution

g(s) =

y(s)

r(s)

= C (sI Acl )1 B + D

=

=

1 0

"

(18)

s

2

1 + k1 s + 3 + k2

#1 "

0

1

+0

(19)

2

2

= 2

. (20)

s(s + 3 + k2 ) (2(1 k1 ))

s + (3 + k2 )s + 2(k1 1)

(b) Determine the range of values k1 and k2 for the closed-loop transfer function to be

stable.

Solution: Using the Routh Array or any other valid method we find that we need

both 3 + k2 and 2(k1 1) positive, or k2 > 3 and k1 > 1.

(c) Select values of k1 and k2 such that the settling time of the unit step response is 1

second.

Solution:

The problem should have specified which settling time was required,

but we know that if this is not specified, the 2%-settling time is usually a reasonable

choice. Then we want 1 = Ts = 4n , so we need n = 4 and the ki must satisfy

3 + k2 = 2n = 8

2(k1 1) =

n2 .

(21)

(22)

value for k1 . It might appear that we could choose any n whatsoever, but for a step

response we would generally want to use a around 0.707. To get a quick order of

magnitude estimate, I observe that for = 1 wed need k1 = 9.

Decreasing would

increase n and thus the required

value for k1 . Since 0.707 = 1/ 2, decreasing to

To be precise, for = 1/ 2 we need k1 = 17.

(d) For your matrix K, calculate the step response of the state space system. (That

means you need to determine both x(t) and y(t)).

Solution:

Having been given no initial condition we assume x(0) = 0. We note

that the output is just y = x2 so if we determine the step response of the states we

will also have the step response of the output. I used the Matlab script below to

obtain the step response that follows.

%%%

%%% Homework 4, Problem 3 Solution

%%%

k1 = (4/0.707)^2/2+1

k2 = 5;

A = [0 2;1-k1 -3-k2];

B = [0;1];

C = eye(2);

D = 0*B;

sk 11/15/08

Homework 4 Solution

[y,t] = step(ss(A,B,C,D));

figure(2)

plot(t,y);

title(HW4 P3: Step Response for K=1)

xlabel(Time t)

ylabel(States)

legend(x_1,x_2)

grid

print -depsc HW4_p3_fig1

HW4 P3: Step Response for K=1

0.09

x

x

0.08

1

2

0.07

0.06

States

0.05

0.04

0.03

0.02

0.01

0.01

0.5

1

Time t

1.5

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