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Submitted To: Alternative Energy Promotion Center (AEPC)

Khumaltar, Lalitpur

Submitted By:

Students of Pulchowk Campus

Department of Mechanical Engineering
Anmesh Gaire
Bikash Bhattarai
Rajendra Shrestha
Ram Chandra Shrestha

January 14, 2014


A transition from energy based largely on fossil fuels to a greater reliance on

renewable energy has been a central focus of many of the current discussions.
Biomass is an important provider of renewable energy currently and is anticipated
to be an essential component of any future renewable energy. The advantages of
biogas are well known, as far as they enhance diversity in energy supply markets;
secure long term sustainable energy supply markets; reduce local and global
atmospheric emissions and enhance security of supply since they do not require
Biomass produced in a sustainable way includes electricity generation and heat
production from agricultural, forest residues and solid waste. On the other hand
traditional biomass in an unsustainable way and it is used as a non-commercial
way usually with very low efficiencies in developing country like Nepal.
Biomass, the most important energy source in developing country like ours is only
sustainable under certain conditions. It is only renewable if realistically replaced.
Much biomass use is leading to deforestation both either domestic small scale or
large scale for industrial purposes. About 44,000 hectares of forest area is believed
to be deforested annually, while only about 4,000 hectares are reforested [center for
rural technology Nepal]. Moreover, biomass use for cooking in developing
countries is a major cause of serious indoor pollution, particularly to women, small
children and the elderly.
Thus, to reduce the problem of deforestation and to promote biomass as a
sustainable source of energy, we have come across with the idea of loose biomass
Carbonizer. The concept is to reduce the use of forest wood and replace them with
agricultural wastes like rice husk, pine needle, sawdust etc. However we have
given more emphasis on carbonizing rice husk. Briquettes are being produced
recently by traditional way. Briquettes produced in such manner are unable to get
proper market value and the method in also inefficient.
Carbonizer helps in converting the agricultural and forest wastes into more useful
value added sellable products. This helps in exploiting the vast biomass energy
source. Moreover, it gives livelihood and income generation opportunity in rural
areas, which contribute to overall development of rural areas.


Nepal relies heavily on Biomass fuel due to lack of development of other

alternatives and poor economic condition of the nation. Despite heavy utilization
of biomass resources, there has been lack of technical approach in the way of its
consumption. Considerable efforts are not made to implement sustainable biomass
utilization in households and industry level. Every year large amount of biomass
resources are subjected to direct combustion and dumping causing heavy energy
loss. The direct burning of biomass releases huge amount of environmental
pollutants such as CO, particulates and other harmful gases. Similarly, dumping
biomass wastes results CH4 emissions.
On the other hand, the techniques of carbonizing the biomass resources practiced
currently in many sectors are not much efficient. Controlled heating systems are
not installed yet for retaining the temperature of carbonizing furnace during
carbonization. Carbonizing furnaces used at present are of batch type. Use of
continuous systems will be far more effective to implement.
Meanwhile, Nepal is an agricultural based country having huge biomass
production annually. Observing on these resources, rice husks and pine needles are
wasted much without utilization. Around one million metric ton of rice husk is
produced yearly (The Journal of Agriculture and Environment Vol:.9, Jun.2008).
There is no such data regarding pine needles however it is believed that the yearly
production in hugely abundant. We believe that the Carbonizing machine will
eliminate these problems. Likewise, continuous carbonizing will definitely reduce
the ash content of charcoal.


The goal of the project is to design and fabricate Carbonization mechanism which
will convert rice husk into compact husk charcoal. Initially, we will fabricate
prototype mechanism to test the effectiveness of the machine. The main objectives
of the project are enlisted below:

To mechanize and optimize the Carbonization system for industrial purpose

To increase the energy content of carbonized rice husk
To use flue gas energy content for carbonization
To control the heat produced by source
To research on hydrothermal reaction occurring during carbonization.
To research on stoic-chemistry of carbonization of biomass
To do the thermal analysis of container in which carbonization is carried out


At the end, Biomass Carbonizer will be fabricated to produce charcoal in efficient

way. We believe, it will revolutionize briquette production technique in Nepal. It
will certainly replace the traditional method of briquette production which looks
quite inefficient.
Furthermore, the machine will re-circulate flue gases produced. Flue gases are at
high temperature which suggests they posses heat energy. Utilization of this energy
to warm raw material will decrease the heating time in furnace. Eventually the
machine gets more efficient and will reduce the production of flue gas.
Similarly, Biomass Carbonizer will increase the calorific value of charcoal by
controlling the heating process. Heating sensors will control the heating process
according to designed specification. In addition, the ash content of charcoal also
gets reduced.


The proposed Carbonizer will be of continuous production type. We have come

across two types of heating systems: electrical controlled heating type or biomass
combustion. Electrical controlled heating is mainly focused for the industries and
for the rural households biomass combustion would be economical.
The Carbonizer will consist of carbonization drum in which the raw materials are
fed. Blowers are used for air circulation. Motors and pulleys are used for
conveying mechanisms. In addition to this, thermocouples and thermistors are
used for heating control system.
To make the system even more efficient, we will re-circulate the flue gases when
biomass combustion is used for heating. Re circulation of gases will provide heat
to the raw materials; this will decrease the time period of operation.
This is the basic conceptual framework of the project.


The project has been divided into following five phases.

1 Phase I: Literature Survey
Thorough study of the previous experiments and researches is required
before starting any activities. So in the first phase, relevant literatures
will be collected through various sources and will be studied.

2 Phase II: Material Collection and preliminary experiments

Preliminary experiments regarding biomass will be made utilizing the
resources at the Campus premises as well as other external bodies.
Collection of all the primary equipments will be made as per the

3 Phase III: Software Knowledge

Modelling of the equipments and processes can be done by using various
softwares. Modelling and simulations of heat transfer and mechanisms
will be done in Solidworks and ANSYS.

4 Phase IV: Fabrication of model/prototype:

After the completion and approval of the design, a model Carbonizer will
be fabricated and performance testing can be carried out. The
performance testing will include the Carbonizer efficiency testing,
charcoal combustion testing, smoke emission etc.

5 Phase V: Result Analysis and Final Report preparation

This is the last phase of the project.

The whole project will be a team work and all of the team members will have
equal participation in all the activities of the project.


1 Collection of Literature
2 Study of Literature
3 Material Collection
4 Preliminary experiments
5 Design phase
6 Design analysis and simulation
7 Model/Prototype fabrication
8 Result analysis
9 Final Report preparation





Collection of Literature

Study of Literature

Material Collection

Preliminary experiments

Design phase

Design analysis and simulation

Model/Prototype fabrication

Result analysis

Final Report preparation

Start date

The major expenses of the project are on materials and fabrication. Major materials
required are:
Carbonization Drum
Heating System
Thermocouples and Thermistors
As a whole materials will cost around Rs. 60,000. And fabrication cost is
calculated to be around Rs. 50,000.
Thus, total cost for the project is Rs. 1, 10, 000 .

Huang, W.J. 2010. Effects of rice husk bio char produced under slow pyrolysis on
growth of water spinach. National Pingtung University of science and technology.
Pingtung, Taiwan.
Lin, J.M. 2005. Development of a high yield and low cycle time biomass char
production system.
Sugumaran, P. and S. Seshadri. 2009. Evaluation of selected biomass for
charcoal production. Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research. Vol. 68,
august 2009. Pp. 719-723
Orge, R.F. 2010. Design and development of the PhilRice continuous-type rice
hull carbonizer. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. University of the Philippines,
Diliman, Quezon, City
Lehmann, J., Gaunt, J., and Rondon, M. 2006. Bio-char sequestration in
terrestrial ecosystems. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change.
Antal M.J. and Gronli, M. 2003. The art, science, and technology of
charcoal production. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 42
Tsai, W.T., M.K. Lee, and Y.M. Chang. 2007. Fast pyrolysis of rice hull:
Product yields and compositions. Bioresource Technology 98: 2228.