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SYSTEM SPECIFICATION / DETAILS OF SPV POWER PLANT

KAVARATTI
a)

LOAD

To cater to the local load

b)

LOCATION

Kavaratti island, Lakshadweep

c)

PV ARRAY

100 KWp

PV MODULE:
Type
Peak Power Rating
Short Circuit Current
Open Circuit Voltage
Dimensions
Weight

:
:
:
:
:
:

L1270
70 Wp
4.6A
21.OV
1208 x 528 x 38 mm
8.0 Kg (Typ)

PV ARRAY CAPACITY:
Total No. of PV modules
Peak Power Rating
No. of modules in series/string
No. of parallel string
d)

1440
100
20
72

Nos.
KWp
Nos.
Nos.

MODULE MOUNTING STRUCTURE:


Type
Overall dimensions
No. of structures
No. of PV modules/structure

e)

:
:
:
:

: Made out of GI pipes & hot dip Galvanized members &


Stainless Steel hardwares (SS-304)
: 5400 x 2400 mm
: 72 Nos.
: 20

PANEL JUNCTION BOXES:


Type
Overall dimensions
Protection
No. of Panel junction box
No. of Parallel strings/box

:
:
:
:
:

Made out of polycarbonate Material


400 x 300 mm
IP55
12 Nos.
6 Nos.

f)

ARRAY JUNCTION BOX


Type
Overall dimensions
No. of Array junction box
No. of parallel strings/box

g)

Made out of polycarbonate material


400 x 300 mm
4 Nos.
3 Nos.

SERIES JUNCTION BOX : 74 Nos. with blocking diode & made out of polycarbonate
material.
Dimension (in mm)

h)

:
:
:
:

139 x 119

POWER CONDITIONING UNIT


Dimensions (in mm)
Enclosure protection

:
:

1200 L x 800 B x 1600 H


IP20

ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS:
Rating
Input voltage

:
:

50 KVA
212.3V to 440 V DC(300 V Operating)

Output voltage

Nominally 230 V AC, 50 Hz, grid


Tracking

Output voltage regulation

From 0 to full load 1.0% at any Power


factor from minimum to maximum DC
voltage 1.0%

Peak output current

: Up to 150% of nominal power for 10


seconds.

Output wave shape

Sine wave, less than 5% total


harmonic distortion from 0% to 100%
load, 0.8 pf leading or lagging, with
less than 3% in any one harmonic.

Efficiency at 30o C ambient

92% at 50% of rated output reducing


down to 91% at 100% rated output.

Isolation to ground from


Output

: Exceeds 1 kV with protection MOVs


and HF bypass removed.

Isolation between input


and Output

: Exceeds 1 kV

ENVIRONMENTAL SPECIFICATION:
Ambient temperature range
Ambient humidity range

: 0-50o Celcius
: 80% within temperature range

PROTECTION SPECIFICATION:
Overload conditions

Control System Automatic Shutdown/


Reset for overload exceeding 1.5
times nominal maximum current per
phase during 10 seconds.

Short circuit protection

: Circuit breaker and electronic protection


is used, over temperature protection is
used.

Low/High voltage output


Protection

: Automatic/ reset shutdown when 10%


nominal voltage exceeded.

Power electronic
components protection

: Protection by electronic means,


protected against emission of radio
Frequency noise.

METERING SPECIFICATIONS:
Liquid Crystal Display

: 1. Instantaneous inverter/ system kW,


Voltage, pf, frequency.
2. Grid on line status
3. Solar current
4. Inverter kWh summation
5. Grid kWh summation
6. System fault status
7. Optional system logging

MECHANICAL SPECIFICATION:
Cooling

: Temperature controlled, fan forced


Cooling.
Enclosure construction
: Powder coated metal construction
Mounting requirements
: Floor mounting
All circuit board are protected against humidity, fungus and dust.

SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
The following are the major components of the PV system for 100 KWp grid
connected power plant:
1.1
1.2

Photovoltatic array
AC distribution box - 1 No.

1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6

DC distribution box - 1 No.


50 KVA Power conditioning unit 2 Nos.
Power transformer
Data logger

PV ARRAY
The PV array comprises PV modules, mounting structures, junction boxes and cabling.
PV MODULES
100 kWp PV array consists of 1440 Nos. of PV modules, would generate 100 kWp DC
power for about 5 hours of peak sunshine periods each day. Each PV module is
rated for 70 watt peak.
The 100 kWp PV arrany consists of 20 Modules in series and there are 72 series strings
connected in parallel and connected to a power conditioning unit.
The PV modules convert the sunlight falling on them into corresponding DC electrical
power output. The PV module frame is made out of anodized aluminum. Each PV
module consists of 36 Nos. of silicon solar cells connected in series with redundant
interconnects. The solar cells are sandwiched between two layers of Ethyl Vinyl Acetate
(EVA) sheets and laminated between high transmittivity soda lime toughened glass
superstrate and Tedlar rear cover.
The electrical output terminals from the series connected cells are brought out to PVC
module terminal box where they are soldered to the termination strips on the back side of
the PV module.
The PV modules have been designed for operation in harsh marine environments. These
modules designed to withstand high humidity, salt water, ultra violet radiation, hail and
extreme temperature changes. They have very low maintenance requirements. These
modules have a useful life span of 20 years approximately.
MOUNTING STRUCTURE
The PV modules are mounted on the mounting structure. Each structure is capable of
supporting 20 Nos. of PV modules. The mounting structure design is made so that the
frame on which PV modules are mounted, can be kept inclined at 15 degrees to the
horizontal. The structures are designed to withstand wind speeds upto 100 km/hr. These
structures are made up of GI pipes & aluminium painted to withstand the corrosive
marine atmosphere. Each structure has the provision for mounting one number of
terminal box.

JUNCTION BOXES

A) TERMINAL BOX :

Terminal box is a part of a PV module, from which output is taken. Each PV module
is provided with one bypass diode in the terminal box.

B) SERIES JUNCTION BOX:

One series junction box is provided for each mounting structure for taking out final
output. A blocking diode connected in series with 20 modules in this box.
BLOCKING DIODES:

These diodes are connected in series with string of PV modules and its functions are
as follows:

a) Prevent circulating current between PV module strings.


b) Prevent reverse flow of current from battery through PV array during night and/ or
periods of low insolation.
BYPASS DIODES:
These diodes are connected in reverse direction (anode to negative of PV module and
cathode to positive of PV module) across each PV module of the string. They have the
same current rating as that of blocking diodes and their operation is as follows:
a) Under normal operating conditions, the bypass diodes are reverse biased and play no
part.
b) When any module in a series string is shadowed, the current through the module is
reduced. Under these circumstances, the PV module gets reverse biased leading to
power dissipation across the module and reduction in output power of which is
undesirable. Presence of bypass diode provides an alternate path to flow of current
in the string (as the diode becomes forward biased when PV module gets reverse
biased) and also limits dissipation by limiting the voltage across PV module to
typically 0.7V.
C) PANEL JUNCTION BOX
This is for paralleling various series junction box (SJB) outputs. Terminal blocks are
provided in the panel junction box for paralleling +ve & -ve electrical output from six
different series junction boxes. Single compression cable glands of polycarbonate
material are used for all inlet outlet to ensure IP class 55 assembly.

ARRAY JUNCTION BOX


This is for paralleling ve outputs from the individual panel junction boxes. A bus
bar is provided with suitable studs and lugs for paralleling ve electrical out puts from
panel Junction boxes
CABLES & LUGS

The cables used for various connections are as below


PV module to terminal box for

- 1 x 2.5 sq.mm PVC insulated, sheathed, series


connection of PV modules unarmoured,
copper.

Terminal box to panel junction box

- 1 x 4 sq. mm PVC insulated, sheathed,


unarmoured copper cable, red for +ve Black
for ve.

Panel junction box to Array


Junction box

1x 25 sq. mm PVC insulated, sheathed,


unarmoured, copper, black cable.

Panel junction box to PCU +ve


Terminals.

1 x 25 sq. mm PVC insulated, sheathed,


Unarmoured, copper, red cable.

Array junction box to PCU


+ve terminals.

- 1 x 70 sq. mm PVC insulated sheathed,


unarmoured, copper, black cable.

Suitable lungs for the above cables are provided.

AC DISTRIBUTION BOARD (ACDB)


AC distribution board is a cubicle serving as a grid connection point. The grid supply
& PCU output is terminated on to a common bus bar through necessary switch fuse
units (SFUs). A 3 phase energy meter indicates no. of units exported to the grid.
Voltmeter & Ammeter have been provided in the ACDB with Selector switch to
indicate line to line voltages and current during export of power to grid.
DC DISTRIBUTION BOARD:
This is for integrating the outputs of 12 Sub-arrays and giving a consolidated output.
Each sub-array consists of 6 strings. All the array +ve are connected by the MCB, this
enables to switch ON/OFF the particular Sub-array. The ve coming from the AJBs
also connected together to form a common single ve. A DC voltmeter and an

ammeter are provided to indicate the voltage and current generated by the PV array.
The output of Sub array no. 1 to 6 are fed to the PCU1 and thus the out put of a 50
kWp array reaches the PCU. Similarly the sub array no. 7 to 12 are connected to the
PCU2. The MCCB functions as the PV array isolator for the consolidated output of
each 6 Sub-array. The same arrangement is also made for Sub-array no.7 to 12 which
goes to PCU2. Earthing of DCDB is done to ensure the safety of personnel.

50 KVA GRID INTERACTIVE POWER CONDITIONING UNIT (2 nos.):


The Power conditioner employs digital PLL technique for synchronization. PWM
technique is employed for inversion. IGBT devices are used for this purpose so that
switching losses are minimum and hence higher conversion efficiency can be
achieved.
MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking) control enables the PV modules/ array to
operate in the maximum power point and hence the output obtained from the array is
maximum. This is software based and is placed at the front end of the controller.
The IGBT devices-based PWM drive inverter has all protections such as overtemperature and short circuit etc. The efficiency of the inverter is typically 90%,
between half to full load resistive ambient and 89% for smaller loads. Harmonic
distortion is less than 4%. The inverter employs auto-synchronizer so that changeover
from grid to PV or vice versa is never felt by the user and there is no interruption of
load.
PCU has a self-diagnostic feature which puts the inverter into sleep mode, dormant
mode and invoke mode through the front panel. All faults indicated visually/ aurally
and the system is protected against fault.
Inverter Grid synchronization is achieved by continuously monitoring the grid
voltage and frequency. These two parameters are taken in the control feedback and
compared with standard 3 phase wave form generated in the micro-controller. The
net difference, in conjunction with the digital phased locked loop (essentially a phase
comparator), controls the pulse-width fed to the IGBT and hence the conduction
period. This ensures the grid power to be in synchronization with the generated power
from the solar PV modules.

POWER TRANSFORMER:
A dedicated 100 KVA 11 KV 415 V Power transfer is installed very close to the
control room where PCU is located. Due to huge voltage drop in the cable a separate
HV cable is laid from the power house (normally located 4-5 km away from site) to
the transformers HV side. This ensures stable voltage on the LV side of the

transformer. This grid voltage is fed to the PCU. The power generated from the PCU
is exported on the LT side of the transformer.
This is 3-phase transformer working on the nominal 50 hz frequency. The class of
insulation is B class and insulation level is as per IS: 2026 . The type of core is
CRGO. This is an indoor-dry type transformer with natural air cooling. The tapping
of HV side is 5% and tapping on LV side are +5%, -10%, -15%, -20% for better
matching. The transformer is designed for harsh marine environment. Rating and
diagram plates are provided on the name plate fixed on the transformer. The LV cable
box is provided with 200 A, C & G make switch fuse unit for isolation. Danger plates
are provided to caution the personnel working in vicinity. Earthing bolts have been
provided for earth connection.
DATA-LOGGER:
The data logger takes care of data monitoring and regular data logging of the SPV
system. The data logger also allows user to perform monitoring and logging of
multiple connected PCUs. The system application AES-Commslink loaded in the PC
and connected to the system via multidrop RS485 connection.
Once the system is configured real time data can be obtained and displayed. Following
data from the system are logged and displayed.
-

Solar radiation
Ambient temperature
Module temperature
DC voltage
DC current
DC power
Grid voltage, frequency, current
Inverter voltage, frequency, current
Line pf, line KW, Total KW
Energy exported

The logger will store the above data on to the load side regularly where this data can
be printed and used for scrutiny of system performance and evaluation.
Data logger consists following items.
PC ENCLOSURE : PC enclosure is a cubicle consist of Personal Computer, UPS and
printer. The top portion is for keeping monitor, a glass windows is provided for easy
viewing of monitor, middle rack is for keyboard which is extendable for using the
keyboard. Lowest part houses the machine and UPS. This cubicle is made up of GI of
16 SWG. Power coating in ivory shade is done to protect from harsh marine
environment. The degree of ingress protection is IP:30 as per the IS:2149. All the
cable entries are from rear side.

PC : The personal computer is Intel Petium P 4 processor of 1 Ghz speed. The


motherboard is Intel 845 chipset and RAM is 128 MB. The hard disc capacity is 20
GB, CD drive is of speed 52X. The monitor is 15 Colour and all other necessary
peripherals are provided. The Desk Jet printer is of HP make and model no. is 840C.
UPS : One UPS is provided for PC and its peripheral for smooth operation during
power failure. The capacity of UPS is 500 VA. This employs a sealed maintenance
free lead acid battery which is user replaceable and printer back up power in case of
mains failure.

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