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Acme International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research

Volume II, Issue IV


April 2014

Available at http://www.aijmr.net
ISSN : 2320 236X
Quality Impact Factor : 5.573

ORIGINAL PAPER

A STUDY ON EMPLOYEES PERCEPTION ABOUT THE


DISCIPLINARY PROCEEDINGS IN THE MANUFACTURING
INDUSTRIES AT SIPCOT, CUDDALORE.
C Santhanamani
Part Time Ph. D. Scholar
Karpagam University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu
General Manager Human Resources
Tanfac Industries Limited, Cuddalore, Tamil Nadu (India)
Dr. N. Panchanatham
Chairman & Head
Department of Business Administration
Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu (India)
ABSTRACT
A disciplinary action is instituted to employees who failed to meet the rules, meriting the imposition of a
penalty. The disciplinary guideline values the use of a progressive and positive discipline, which aims to
correct the behaviour of its employees. However, the method in which the manager executes the disciplinary
action may produce various opinions from the employees. Thus the aim of the present study is to determine
the perceptions of the employees towards the disciplinary proceedings. The present study concludes that the
overall perception of the employees towards the disciplinary proceedings was found to be neutral. The study
also concludes that demographic variables namely age, income, experience, membership in union,
participation in negotiation and enquiry had a significant influence on the perception of the employees on
the disciplinary proceedings.
KEYWORDS: Disciplinary proceedings, employee perception, manufacturing industries,
Discipline
INTRODUCTION
Managing a group of people in a workplace is a complex task. Organizational leaders are
familiar with the complexities that are innate in handling an organization. Ensuring a sound
relationship between the management and employees depends upon how it is regulated by the
manager. Discipline is the major factor to be considered in every human being and in every
aspect of life, and hence disciplinary proceedings are regarded as a critical tool for management
to maintain discipline in the work place. Many people associate disciplinary procedures with
negative feedback. If implemented properly, these procedures will have positive impact on the
relationship between a manager and their employees. Employees embrace accountability and it
actually improves employee job satisfaction.
Copyright 2014. C Santhanamani & Dr. N. Panchanatham. This work is distributed under the
Creative Common Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution and
1
reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Acme International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research

ISSN : 2320 236X

Disciplinary action is usually initiated by management in response to unsatisfactory work


performance or unacceptable behaviour on the part of the workers. However, a proper
procedure must be followed when exercising discipline. A disciplinary procedure aims to
promote fairness and procedural justice in dealing with employee discipline. The advantages for
organisations of a consistent disciplinary procedure are threefold: first, it contributes to the
stability of the workforce; second, labour turnover is minimised; and third, it promotes
productivity (Werner, 2007).
A disciplinary action is instituted to employees who failed to meet the rules, meriting the
imposition of a penalty. The disciplinary guideline values the use of a progressive and positive
discipline, which aims to correct the behaviour of its employees. However, the method in which
the manager executes the disciplinary action may produce various opinions from the employees.
It can go with or contradict with the managers perception. These opinions should not be taken
for granted for it may result to future problems in the organizational relationship from the
industrial relations perspective. The credibility of the disciplinary process should be maintained
in order to preserve the strong rapport between the manager and the employees. In order to
verify the credibility of the process, it is necessary to identify the perspective of the employees
about the disciplinary process. Thus the aim of the present study is to determine the perceptions
of the employees towards the disciplinary proceedings.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
In Mary A. Owele et al., (2007), the study findings have revealed that employees regard
proper motivation as playing a very important role in promoting good performance and
attainment of employee discipline in the Kenya civil service since employees would be
encouraged to feel recognized as part of the system. This would also discourage indifference,
laxity and even corruption. Another major recommendation was that the human resource
management units should be strengthened with adequate and skilled personnel of high integrity,
and they should be well facilitated with stationery and equipment.
Gomez-Mejia, Balkin and Cardy (1995) describe positive discipline, where counselling
sessions between the employee and supervisor replace punishment actions. Counselling skills
would, however, be required for the successful implementation of this option.
Cropanzano et al., (2007) have stated that procedurally fair treatment could result in
positive organisational outcomes, such as organisational commitment, interpersonal trust, job
satisfaction, organisational citizenship behaviour and job performance
Van der Bank , Engelbrecht & Strmpher in their study stated that employees experience
the disciplinary procedure of the organisation as traumatic and emotionally exhausting. It can
also be concluded that employees experience the disciplinary procedure as unfair. It is the
manner in which discipline is applied and the different role players that are involved in the
disciplinary procedure, in particular, that make it a lengthy and time-consuming process. The
disciplinary procedure causes unnecessary strain and pressure on employees, mostly due to delays
in finalising cases. Employees also indicated that personal problems lead to misconduct or
inappropriate behaviour
OBJECTIVES
1. To study the demographic profile of the employees.
2. To determine the perception of the employees towards the disciplinary proceedings.
3. To determine the perception of the employees on various elements of disciplinary
proceedings.
4. To study the relationship between demographic variables and perception towards disciplinary
proceedings.
Volume - II, Issue - IV April - 2014

Acme International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research

ISSN : 2320 236X

METHODOLOGY
Descriptive design was adopted for the study. The universe of the study was the
workmen of the manufacturing industries in SIPCOT, Cuddalore. Stratified random sampling
was used to select the sample. The sample size was 80 respondents. A self prepared
questionnaire was used for collecting data from the respondents. The data was analysed using the
statistical tools namely mean, standard deviation, percentage analysis, chi-square, ANOVA and
correlation.
ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
Table 1: Demographic Variables
Variables
Age

Marital status
No. of family
members
No. of earning
members
Annual income (Rs.)

Place of living
Educational
qualification

Years of experience

Particulars
Below 30
31- 35
36 - 40
41 - 45
46 - 50
51 and above
Married
Unmarried
4 and below
5-6
7 and above
1
2
Below 100000
100001 - 200000
200001 - 300000
300001 and above
Village
Town
9th std and below
10th std passed
12th std passed
ITI passed
Diploma passed
5 and below
6 - 10
11 - 15
16 - 20
21 and above

Volume - II, Issue - IV April - 2014

Frequency
13
14
16
8
15
14
77
3
58
18
4
79
1
14
31
18
17
65
15
9
24
24
18
5
8
11
12
13
36

Percentage
16.2
17.5
20.0
10.0
18.8
17.5
96.2
3.8
72.5
22.5
5.0
98.8
1.2
17.5
38.8
22.5
21.2
81.2
18.8
11.2
30.0
30.0
22.5
6.2
10.0
13.8
15.0
16.2
45.0

Acme International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research

Variables
Designation

No. of employees

No. of trade union


Member of union
Position in union

Particulars
Operator
Fitter
Boiler operator
E.t.p operator
Electrical operator
Helper
Foreman
Turner
Others (Store, Lab chemist,
Receptionist)
62
120
160
300
315
No trade union
2
3
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No

ISSN : 2320 236X

Frequency
38
5
3
3
6
3
6
8
8
14
1
15
1
49
15
15
50
61
19
18
62
20
60
21
59
51
29

Percentage
47.5
6.2
3.8
3.8
7.5
3.8
7.5
10.0
10.0
17.5
1.2
18.8
1.2
61.2
18.8
18.8
62.5
76.2
23.8
22.5
77.5
25.0
75.0
26.2
73.8
63.8
36.2

Participated in
negotiations
Attended domestic
enquiry
Assisted delinquent
employee in the
domestic enquiry
The table 1 shows that 20 percent of the respondents belong to the age group between
36-40 years, 18.8 percent of them were between 46-50 years and 17.7 were above 51 years. More
are less, an equal percentage was found among the age distribution of the respondents. Majority
of the respondents was married and majority of the respondents family had below 4 members
and majority of their family had one earning member. The table also shows that 38.8 percent of
the respondents were earning an annual income between Rs.100001-200000, 22.5 percent were
earning between Rs.200001 -300000, 21.2 percent were earning above Rs.300000 and 17.5
percent were earning below Rs.100000. majority of the respondents were living in village. It
shows that 30 percent of them have completed their 10th STD, 30 percent of them have
completed their 12th STD, 22.5 percent of them have passed their ITI and 6.2 percent have
completed their diploma.
The study shows that 45 percent of the respondents had an experience above 21 years.
The study also shows that 61.2 percent of the respondents have stated that 315 employees were
working in their industry, 18.8 percent stated that 160 employees were working, 17.5 percent of
them stated that 62 employees were working in their industry.
The table shows that 62,5 percent of the respondents have stated that their industry had
3 trade unions, 18.8 percent of them stated that their industry had 2 trade unions and 18.8
percent stated that they do not have any trade unions in their industry. From the table it is clear
that 76.2 percent of them were members in trade unions and 22.5 percent of them were holding
Volume - II, Issue - IV April - 2014

Acme International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research

ISSN : 2320 236X

positions in trade unions and 6.3 percent of them were holding a position as joint secretary. The
findings shows that 25 percent of the respondents have participated in the negotiations regarding
bonus, wage, etc and 26.2 percent of them have faced disciplinary problems and attended
disciplinary enquiry and 63.8 percent of them have helped their colleague in disciplinary enquiry.
Table 2: Perception on Elements of Disciplinary Proceedings
Elements
Particulars
Frequency
Percentage
Standing order
Strongly Agree
23
28.8
Agree
10
12.5
Neutral
22
27.5
Disagree
10
12.5
Strongly Disagree
15
18.8
Complaint
Strongly Agree
16
20.0
Agree
11
13.8
Neutral
23
28.8
Disagree
24
30.0
Strongly Disagree
6
7.5
Preliminary enquiry
Strongly Agree
17
21.2
Agree
18
22.5
Neutral
18
22.5
Disagree
16
20.0
Strongly Disagree
11
13.8
Charge sheet
Strongly Agree
15
18.8
Agree
23
28.8
Neutral
14
17.5
Disagree
25
31.2
Strongly Disagree
3
3.8
Elements
Particulars
Frequency
Percentage
Suspension pending
Strongly Agree
20
25.0
enquiry
Agree
16
20.0
Neutral
19
23.8
Disagree
16
20.0
Strongly Disagree
9
11.2
Appointment of
Strongly Agree
10
12.5
enquiry officer
Agree
24
30.0
Neutral
25
31.2
Disagree
19
23.8
Strongly Disagree
2
2.5
Representation of
Strongly Agree
26
32.5
parties
Agree
19
23.8
Neutral
15
18.8
Disagree
12
15.0
Strongly Disagree
8
10.0
Notice of enquiry
Strongly Agree
17
21.2
Agree
20
25.0
Neutral
14
17.5
Disagree
22
27.5
Strongly Disagree
7
8.8
Volume - II, Issue - IV April - 2014

Acme International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research

Adjournment

Domestic enquiry
procedure

Second show cause


notice

General

Strongly Agree
Agree
Neutral
Disagree
Strongly Disagree
Strongly Agree
Agree
Neutral
Disagree
Strongly Disagree
Strongly Agree
Agree
Neutral
Disagree
Strongly Disagree
Strongly Agree
Agree
Neutral
Disagree
Strongly Disagree

ISSN : 2320 236X

18
19
23
9
11
16
16
25
8
15
16
20
16
13
15
16
19
13
17
15

22.5
23.8
28.8
11.2
13.8
20.0
20.0
31.2
10.0
18.8
20.0
25.0
20.0
16.2
18.8
20.0
23.8
16.2
21.2
18.8

The table 2 depicts that 28.8 percent of the respondents strongly agree to the statements
towards the standing order and 27.5 percent of the respondents perception was neutral. The
finding shows that 30 percent of the respondents disagree to the statements towards complaint
and 28.8 percent of the respondents perception was neutral. The table shows that 22.5 percent
of the respondents agree to the statements towards preliminary enquiry and 22.5 percent of the
respondents perception was neutral. The table shows that 31.2 percent of the respondents
disagree to the statements towards charge sheet and 28.8 percent of the respondents agree
towards the same.
The table shows that 25 percent of the respondents agree to the statements towards
suspension pending enquiry and 23.8 percent of the respondents perception was neutral. The
table shows that 30 percent of the respondents agree to the statements towards appointment of
enquiry officer and 31.2 percent of the respondents perception was neutral. The finding shows
that 32.5 percent of the respondents strongly agree to the statements towards representation of
parties and 23.8 percent of the respondents agree towards the same.
The finding shows that 27.5 percent of the respondents disagree to the statements
towards notice of enquiry and 25 percent of the respondents agree towards the same. The
finding shows that 28.8 percent of the respondents perception towards adjournment was found
to be neutral and 23.8 percent of the respondents agree towards the same. The finding shows
that 31.2 percent of the respondents perception towards domestic enquiry was found to be
neutral and 20 percent of the respondents strongly agree towards the same. The findings depicts
that 25 percent of the respondents agree to the statements towards second show cause notice
and 20 percent of the respondents perception was neutral. The finding shows that 23.8 percent
of the respondents agree to the statements towards general proceedings and 21.2 percent of the
respondents disagree towards the same.

Volume - II, Issue - IV April - 2014

Acme International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research

ISSN : 2320 236X

Table 3: Overall Perception on Disciplinary Proceedings


S.no
1
2
3
4
5

Particulars
Strongly Agree
Agree
Neutral
Disagree
Strongly Disagree
Total
Mean =160.82

Frequency
17
17
16
16
14
80

Percentage
21.2
21.2
20.0
20.0
17.5
100.0
SD=26.06

The table 3 depicts that 21.2 percent of the respondents strongly agree, 21.2 percent of
the respondents agree, 20 percent of the respondents perception was neutral, 20 percent of the
respondents disagree and 17.5 percent of the respondents strongly disagree towards the
disciplinary proceedings
Table 4: Relationship between demographic variables and perception on Disciplinary
Proceedings
Variables
Age and opinion on Disciplinary
enquiry
Income and opinion on
Disciplinary enquiry
Education and opinion on
Disciplinary enquiry
Experience and opinion on
Disciplinary enquiry
Company and opinion on
Disciplinary enquiry
Business and opinion on
Disciplinary enquiry
Membership in union and
opinion on Disciplinary enquiry
Participation in negotiation and
opinion on Disciplinary enquiry
Attended enquiry and opinion
on Disciplinary enquiry
Helped in enquiry and opinion
on Disciplinary enquiry

Statistical tool
Correlation
Correlation
ANOVA
Correlation
ANOVA
Chi-square
ANOVA
ANOVA
ANOVA
ANOVA

Values
r = - 0.498
P<0.05
r = - 0.535
P<0.05
F = 1.587
P<0.05
r = -0.663
P<0.01
F = 183.061
P<0.01
2 = 83.690
P<0.01
F = 84.744
P<0.01
F = 4.407
P<0.05
F = 11.380
P<0.01
F = 65.527
P<0.01

Result
Significant
Significant
Not-Significant
Significant
Significant
Significant
Significant
Significant
Significant
Significant

The table 4 depicts that, there was a negative significant relationship between age of the
employees and opinion on the disciplinary proceedings at 0.05 level. It is inferred that higher the
age the opinion towards disciplinary proceedings was found to be poor and vice versa. There was
a negative significant relationship between income of the employee and opinion on the
disciplinary proceedings at 0.05 level. It is inferred that higher the income, the opinion towards
disciplinary proceedings was found to be poor and vice versa. There was no significant
difference in the employee perception on the disciplinary proceedings with respect to educational
qualification of the employee at 0.05 level. There was a negative significant relationship between
experience of the employees and opinion on the disciplinary proceedings at 0.05 level. It is
Volume - II, Issue - IV April - 2014

Acme International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research

ISSN : 2320 236X

inferred that higher the years of experience, the opinion towards disciplinary proceedings was
found to be poor and vice versa.
There was a significant difference in employee perception on the disciplinary proceedings
among those who are a member in union and those who are not a member in union at 0.05 level.
The mean value shows that the employees who are not member in union had better positive
perception. There was a significant difference in the employee perception on the disciplinary
proceedings among the employees who have participated in negotiation and who had not
participated in negotiation at 0.05 level. The mean value shows that the employees who had not
participated in negotiations had better positive perception.
There was a significant difference in the employee perception on the disciplinary
proceedings among the employees who had attended enquires and who had not attended
enquires at 0.05 level. The mean value shows that the employees who had not attended enquiry
had better positive perception. There was a significant difference in the employee perception on
the disciplinary proceedings among the employees who had helped their colleagues in enquiry
and who had not helped at 0.05 level. The mean value shows that the employees who had not
helped their colleagues by participating in the enquiry had better positive perception.
CONCLUSION
The present study concludes that the overall perception of the employees towards the
disciplinary proceedings was found to be neutral. Although the overall perception was found to
be neutral, the demographic variables namely age, income, experience, membership in union,
participation in negotiation and enquiry had a significant influence on the perception of the
employees about the disciplinary proceedings that too in particular, the detailed analysis revealed
that the respondents who are in the higher age, income, service in the industry, the respondents
who are the office bearer of the union and participated in the negotiation pertaining to increase
in wages, bonus and other service conditions, the respondents who were delinquent employee in
the domestic enquiry and who were assisting the delinquent employee in the capacity of coemployee in the domestic enquiry had poor perception about the disciplinary proceedings being
practiced in the respective manufacturing industries.

REFERENCES
1. Cropanzano, R., Bowen, D.E. & Gilliland, S.W. (2007). The Management of
Organisational Justice. Academy of Management Perspectives. November, 34-48.
2. Gmez-Mejia, L.R., Balkin, D.B. & Cardy, R.L. (1995). Managing Human Resources.
Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice Hall.
3. Mary A. Owele (2007). Employees Perception of Disciplinary Procedures in the Kenya
Civil Service: A Case Study of Selected Ministries. Master of arts dissertation.
http://archive.uonbi.ac.ke/PHPExcel/EditAbstracts/Projects_List.php?s_STUDENT_
NAMES=mary+a.+owele
4. Van der Bank , Engelbrecht & Strmpher. Perceived Fairness of Disciplinary Procedures
in the Public Service Sector: An Exploratory Study. SA Journal of Human Resource
Management, Vol. 6 No. 2 pp. 1 8.
5. Werner, A. (2007). Organisational behaviour: a contemporary South African perspective.
Pretoria: Van Schaik Publishers.
Volume - II, Issue - IV April - 2014