Contents

Contents.......................................................................................................................................... 1 Preface............................................................................................................................................1 CHAPTER 1: Introduction................................................................................................................. 3 1.3 Application of GIS and Remote Sensing to Urban Center.......................................................3 1.6 The State of the Art................................................................................................................ 5 1.6.3 Techniques and Methods for Urban Studies.....................................................................5 1.9 Scope of Study....................................................................................................................... 7 1.9.1 Spatial limits....................................................................................................................7 CHAPTER 2: The Study Area............................................................................................................ 8 2.3 Regional Setting.....................................................................................................................8 2.5 Socio-Cultural Settings........................................................................................................... 9 2.5.2 Udaipur Urbanizing Region..............................................................................................9 CHAPTER 3: Urban Sprawl ............................................................................................................ 12 3.1 Introduction.......................................................................................................................... 12 3.7.7 Case Study - Densification of Urban Growth.....................................................................12 3.8 Evaluation of Master Plan.....................................................................................................13 CHAPTER 4: State of Urban Infrastructure, Amenities and Wellbeing...........................................15 4.4 Udaipur Urbanizing Region.................................................................................................. 15 4.4.2 Amenities and Wellbeing...............................................................................................15 CHAPTER 5: Alternative Land Development Plan..........................................................................19 5.1 Introduction.......................................................................................................................... 19 5.3 Land Suitability Analysis...................................................................................................... 19 Color Plates .................................................................................................................................. 23 Color Plate IV.............................................................................................................................. 23 Fig. 2.22..................................................................................................................................23 Fig. 2.23..................................................................................................................................23 Fig. 3.2....................................................................................................................................24 Fig. 3.4....................................................................................................................................24 About the Author...........................................................................................................................24 Other Books and E-Books by Examrace..........................................................................................1

Preface
This book is an attempt to investigate the pattern and magnitude of urban expansion

and development during the last few decades using GIS and Remote Sensing Techniques. It includes the analysis of the study region in terms of physiographic features and the socio-cultural settings. The study then tries to understand the process of urban sprawl in the region. In light of this, it traces the development of infrastructural facilities, availability of amenities, and the state of wellbeing in the region. After a concrete understanding of all these issues, the study attempts to evolve an alternative land development plan for the region. Study identifies the policy imperatives to improve the efficacy of the urban development process. Words alone cannot express my deep sense of gratitude to my teacher and supervisor, Dr. R, N. Vyas, Professor, Department of Geography, Mohanlal Sukhadia University, Udaipur, for his extensive guidance, constant encouragement at every step. I express my sincere thanks to Dr. Sadhna Kothari, Professor, Dept. of Geography, and all faculty members at MLSU for their constant encouragement. It is my sincere duty to express my gratitude towards Dr. Chandra Deo Ola, Department of Geography, Mohanlal Sukhadia University, Udaipur. His help was critical in the process of digitization of maps without which the work would not have taken shape. I pay my deep thanks to the office staff and all employees at MLSU, Udaipur. I am very much obliged to the RRSSC, Jodhpur for helping me avail the satellite imagery of the region. I also pay my sincere thanks to JNU library staff, teachers and excolleagues at CSRD, JNU, New Delhi to provide guidance and help throughout my research. My sincere thanks are due to the UIT, Udaipur Municipal Council, PWD, PHED, DCO staff for providing the database necessary for the Study. My thanks to Dr. Pragya Kevalramani at UIT who acquainted me with the process of the urban development activities taking place in the region. The immense inspiration, constant encouragement, and cooperation of my grandparents, father-in-law, mother-in-law, parents, my husband, brother, sister-in-law, relatives, and friends who have made it possible to accomplish this task. In carrying out this research, I have received guidance, help and encouragement from countless individuals and organizations and I would like to express my heartfelt gratitude towards them. Manishika Jain

According to 2001 census. The expansion of the city has turned many isolated settlements . Unabated continuity of urbanization process is evident from the fact that urban population is expected to grow from 2. convenient transportation. transport network and land use assemblages. Such outward growth adds to the city area at the cost of the surrounding rural land hitherto put to less intensive use. confluence of commodity flows. transportation network and social and economic institutions.1 per cent and about 60 per cent of the world's population will live in cities. bringing the villages of rural areas in the urban fold. By 2030 the world's annual urban growth rate is projected at 1. 2002). The future prospect of the city or town depends on the belt where the operational part of the process of urban development has already commenced. political and cultural activities in both developed and developing parts of the world. industries. Such development requires a conscious effort attainable through well thought policy decisions and spatial planning.8 percent in contrast to the rural growth rate of 0. out of the total population of 1. Urban spread is a process of acquisition and occupation of land for the expansion of urban activities. However. quick access to information. advanced science and technologies and high productivity levels promote regional development through economies of scale as well as through spread effect. urban-based economic activities account for more than 50 percent of GDP in all countries (United Nations. The process of urban development is thus ought to be guided and coordinated by the developmental plan of the city and its surroundings. and commercial. The acquired land is generally utilized for non-agriculture purposes mainly residential. GIS and remote sensing is used as a tool to understand the process of urbanization through a distinct set of land use as well as type of human behavior leading to phenomenal socio-economic transformation in the surrounding rural areas. The sprawl within the urban ambience has made urban sustainable development an important consideration in urban management. Urban development is conceived as a change in land use patterns. This kind of interconnected development in turn accentuates urbanization.86 billion in 2000 to 4. This phenomenal growth of urbanized regions is associated with the concentration of productive forces that make urban areas important engines for productivity and growth of the nation. This enhanced centrality is culminating into exponential concentration of population caused by ever-increasing trend of immigration of population from rural or less developed smaller urban centers.3 Application of GIS and Remote Sensing to Urban Center Urbanization has become an issue of global concern as urbanized areas are becoming focal points of economic. floriculture and other cash crops. Even today. The basic motive behind the high investment in such land acquisition activities is profit generation associated with high growth prospects.98 billion by 2030.CHAPTER 1: Introduction 1. In this process the periphery of the city had been continuously advancing. along with this change part of land is continued to be used for intensive cultivation to grow crops meant for city markets such as vegetables. This spread and propagation of urban influence is not uniform and has marked differential radial tendency measurable in terms of the demographic component.027 million about 285 million live in urban areas During last fifty years the population has multiplied by two and a half times and the area of urban centers have grown by nearly five times. Urban hubs with their dense population. industrial. The urban growth scenario in India is similar to the rest of the world.

the use . growth and economic activities. power and finance (b) social basic amenities at household level i. Urban development dynamics is a multifaceted concept which deals with (a) economic infrastructure i. post and telegraph. sectoral and infrastructural planning of urban areas. Urban (and use mechanism is an integral part of human system by virtue of its universal association with population concentration.. This swallowing growth of urban population in the coming decades presents greater challenges to assure acceptable standards of living for the ever including urban people. housing. family welfare.1. health. Hence the concept has a far reaching implication eying on the betterment of human life which is the ultimate aim of development process (Fig. 1). transport.e. The complexities of urban area development are fast increasing and call for immediate perspective planning of cities and towns. The economic infrastructure is analyzed in terms of economic development and social amenities in terms of human development.1 Schematic Representations of Urban Development Dynamics Therefore. In view of integrated spatial. welfare of deprived communities. education.with farming as their dominant economic activity into settlements absolutely engulfed by the city expansions.. Expansion of urban areas has engulfed the nearby rural settlements inculcating urbanism of its own kind in these rural vicinities.e. telecommunication. Figure 1. Hence there is an utmost need to develop an alternative plan which can look forward towards a sustainable urban management with a focus on balanced infrastructure development and hind use patterns along with equitable accessibility and minimum well-being of people. to analyze the dynamics of urban growth it is mandatory to understand the pattern of urban land use.

Geographers have severely lacked behind the economists in the study to formulate the spatial cause and concern whereby the village hinterland is being continuously occupied by the urban expansion. (2003) described the development of area-based index of locational access to community services. interpret. Several attempts have been made to investigate the issue of growth of urban areas in the light of urban sprawl and associated phenomena. A critical review of these studies pertaining to global and national scenario is an imperative to identify the problem. Ladd found a U-shaped relationship between government spending and density.6. it provides a building block for overall development through prioritization of requirements. locate. In this regard high resolution remote sensing database along with associated geoinformatic devices and techniques like image processing. 1. Sen (1974) applied the technique of factor analysis (Q-technique) to identify urban centers as growth centers in a hierarchical series. but eventually the harshness of the environment requires higher levels of government spending. GPS. Ramachandran (1974) gave the Graph Theoretic Analysis. Widen el al. Even though it may be said to be a piecemeal effort it has its own merit and has drawn the attention of the policymakers.of multisource and high resolution database along with supporting analytical techniques have become indispensable to arrive at policy prescriptions for the balanced and sustainable growth of urbanized regions. Different authors have undertaken a number of studies over time to understand the nature and process of this urban growth and development dynamics. Helen Ladd (1998) examined the relationship between government expenditures and urban growth working primarily at the metropolitan scale using statistical analysis. These studies are analyzed under different themes to critically understand the processes at the global scenario in general and in Indian context in particular. Again it’s not that the cities have suffered the lack of development efforts or management initiatives but a situation of changing parts in a persistent system.8 per cent per year.000 persons were classified on the basis of specialization applying Webb's method and by means of Spearman's rank correlation method by Kongi (1978). This enables comparison to be made across the urban neighborhoods and provide a starting point from which to identify relationship between opportunities in local . Spending declines for metropolitan areas growing at less than one per cent per year then rises at an increasing rate for metropolitan areas growing more than 3. Ladd found a U-shaped relationship between the rate of population growth and growth in government spending per capita. analyze urban scenario and to arrive at long term policy prescriptions. GIS etc.3 Techniques and Methods for Urban Studies The following studies reveal a unique kind of pattern and technique to understand the dynamics of urbanization. are the most appropriate and ideal research tools to identify. 1. The large towns of Karnataka of over 50.6 The State of the Art Sectoral planning plays an important role in urban development. This section understands the functional behavior and the linkages of the urban development and provides a method of analysis to understand and detect the functional capabilities necessary for the blooming of city area. Based on the settlement hierarchy Misra and Dubey (1996) suggested a spatial plan for location of various development functions and services in the backward district of Uttar Pradesh. delimit the scope and ascertain the objectives of the present research work. facilities and amenities. Government spending initially falls as densities increase. Fast growing counties not maintain their share of shared revenues from the state but also incur great infrastructural costs. The techniques and methods range from digital analysis to mathematical formulations giving a wide scope to this framework of analysis.

Yeh and Li (2001) used Shannon's entropy. resource inventory. The patterns of sprawl are being described using a variety of metrics and through visual interpretation techniques. This measure is based on the notion that landscape entropy or disorganization increases with sprawl. Khan et al (1998) delineated the physical parameters responsible for selection of the suitable sites for residential areas and prepared a suitability rating land quality using remote sensing and GIS. mapped. Using historical land use data. modeling and projection. the patchiness of landscapes. The inadequacies in these were to accurately pinpoint spatially where the sprawl would occur. Their study included extensive exploratory data analyzed considering the causal factors. GIS and remote sensing are land related technologies and are therefore very useful in the formulation and implementation of the land related component of the sustainable development strategy. He described the application of a programming package developed to build temporal typology in historical land use GIS database to efficiently perform the spatio-temporal queries. only the individual factors of the system are considered in the development of the logistic regression functions. . plan implementation. and analyzed using remote sensing and GIS as mentioned by Barnes et al (2001) with image processing and classification. 1996). Characterization of urbanized landscapes over time and computation of spatial indices that measure dimensions such as contagion. In the case of a combined application an efficient. The urban land uses are viewed. 2001). selection of planning options. even though more complex approach is the integration of remote sensing data processing. monitoring and feedback revealed Yeh and Xia (1996). to measure and differentiate types of sprawl. reflected the concentration of dispersion of spatial variable in a specified area. Cheng and Masser (2003) reported the spatial logistic regression technique used for analyzing the urban growth pattern and subsequently model the same for a city in China. The results of the case study have verified that interactions of factors can significantly improve the prediction of spatial dynamics of urban sprawl and can provide a means to improve cellular automata models for simulation of the dynamics of urban and other ecosystems. analysis of die existing situation.. 2001). development of planning options. GIS analyses. Logistic regression is a common method for empirically modeling and analyzing land use and land use change. The physical expressions and patterns of sprawl on landscapes can be detected. The problem of sprawl could be effectively addressed when neural network is applied to the remote sensing data especially for classification and thematic representation (Foody. database manipulation and models into a single analyses system (Michael and Gabriela. evaluation. and patch shape complexity were done statistically by 'Northeast Applications of Useable Technology In Land Use Planning for Urban Sprawl’ (Hurd et al. The different stages in the formulation and implementation of a sustainable regional development strategy can be generalized as determination of objectives. Remote sensing and GIS can be used separately or in combination for application in studies of urban sprawl. a logistic regression was applied to analytically weight the scores of the driving factors of an urban sprawl model for predicting probability maps of land use change. interrupted and fragmented instead of homogenous rural landscapes thereby increasing landscape disorganization.environment. Marceau et al (2001) addressed the issue of linking temporal and spatial information into a GIS database to investigate the land use change in urban and rural regions. In most conventional applications of logistic regression. Fang et al (2005) investigated the modeling process for simulating the spatial dynamics of urban ecosystem. fractal dimension.

With the growth and expansion of socio-economic activities. As a result the concrete studies on urbanization started far later than the global studies. 2002). Global studies on urbanization have analyzed the mechanism of growth with an integrating effect of economics. In terms of the elementary unit of study all the attribute data for areal coverage are collected and processed at the village and city ward level. Urban development in India is in itself a unique process to understand. Economic forces instigate the owner of the land for maximizing his returns from the land while social forces operate in opposite direction and put a resistance to land transformation. They evaluated the traditional unsupervised classification and proposed GIS buffering approach for mapping the suburban sprawl. urban areas started attracting migrants and consequently received thrust to expand.000. This study is an effort to bridge both the burgeoning techniques under one roof. . This has led to a detailed and concrete analysis of urban dynamics in a spatiotemporal perspective of the phenomena.75 sq. Such an integrating method lacks in Indian studies. of these terms the study pertains to Udaipur city and the adjacent sixty seven revenue villages. The neural spatial interaction models would relieve the model user of the need to specify exactly a model that includes all necessary terms to model the true spatial interaction function (Fischer. Fazal (2004) analyzed using GIS that rapid increase in population and changes in economic structure of Aligarh city has led to increased demand for land among various land use classes. To understand the expansion of the city area in an unbiased way. Another important aspect of the spatial study is its scale and the unit of study of which the area is composed off. It is also necessary to demarcate a possible limit of study of various inputs from varied sources.Epstein et al (2002) brought out the techniques for mapping suburban sprawl.1 Spatial limits A basic limit of geographical analysis is its spatial bounds. institutions and industrialization taking place at a large scale. Dominantly being a rural and agricultural country the advent of urban areas started as a boom after the country became independent. km with extension of 24°30' to 24°40' N and 73°37'30" to 73°52'30"E. Spatial database are developed and organized on a scale of 1:25.9 Scope of Study In broader perspective the scope of the present work is specified ns follows: 1. Cities as the core of research activities started developing and became a prologue to the urbanization wave taking place in the country.9. This micro level study helps to understand the functioning of urban behavior in a city with potential prospects of tourism and industrial growth as major magnetic force for the growth of the region. 1. and techniques of remote sensing and GIS. The area of study incorporates a territory of 508. They also discussed the problems associated with the classification of urban classes built-up in comparison with rural and urban centers. no water tight compartment boundary line can be imposed. The studies in Indian scenario mainly deal with the theoretical framework unlike the global studies where the focus is on digital processing and modeling techniques. mathematics. however the study in terms of predefined area helps to clearly differentiate the behavior and dynamics of urban process close to the city and far from the city.

Udaipur Urbanizing Region is an upland area of 6 10 meters above mean sea level girdled by Aravalli hills. Godwar and Marwar in the west and Merwada in the north.CHAPTER 2: The Study Area 2. The Udaipur City is an example of urban shadow. there is absence of any major city within the radius of 150 km from . As per this. which is an antithesis of urban cluster. Mahi Wagad in the south.Udaipur Urbanizing Region INDIA RAJASTHAN Rajasthan Udaipur UDAIPUR URBANIZING REGION The Study Area 73°38' 24°42' 73°40' 73°42' 73°44' 73°46' 73°48' 73°50' 73°52' 24°42' N 24°40' 24°40' 24°38' 24°38' 24°36' 24°36' 24°34' 24°34' 24°32' 24°32' 24°30' 24°30' Settlements 73°38' 73°40' 4 73°42' 0 73°44' 4 73°46' 8 Kilometers 73°48' 73°50' 73°52' Udaipur has a historical and cultural hub of Mewar region has a unique cultural position surrounded by the major historic-cultural region of the country like Malwa and Hadoti in the east. India (Fig.1 Regional Setting . Figure 2. Administratively.3 Regional Setting A region needs to be understood in the context of its geographical settings including the physico-cultural environment. it is located in the north-east part of Girwa tehsil covering about one-third area of the tehsil. before understanding the urban dynamics of the region it's worthwhile to have an in-depth knowledge of the physico-cultural settings of the study area on which the urban activities are taking place.1). in the heart of Udaipur district of Rajasthan.2. Therefore.

Dabok. The immediate area includes municipal limits and Baleecha. are discussed to provide a background of the state of cultural environs in relation to urbanization. This includes Biliyan. direction and trend of the expanding process around the municipal limits a definite area under its direct influence is demarcated for present study. analysis pertaining to municipal limits is explained briefly and that of urbanizing region which is the major theme is presented in detail. Rebariyon-ka-Gurha. Bhuwana.2 Udaipur Urbanizing Region Udaipur Urbanizing Region is used as a broad term to define the study area. Nai. Kalarwas. Bicchri. Bhainsara Khurd and Dangiyonki-Pancholi villages. work force. the social composition. Amberi. The study area has not been confined into particular limits and has been kept open in consonance with the ever expanding nature of urbanizing area. Henceforth.5. Bari. Kanpur. Eklingpura. Bhainsara Kalan. Manwa Kheda. The second zone comprises of the rural areas around SUA and is termed as Rural-Urban Fringe. Merta.the city. Oton-ka-Gurha. Okhariya. The region incorporates the Udaipur municipal limits along with the nearby sixty seven villages. Teetardi. Debari. The only limitation is dependence on the fast means of transport with increased commuting distances. Pratappura. Sakroda. Bujra. Ragunathpura. Sabalpura. In view of the problem of investigation. Gadwa. This is the maximum distance given for the purpose of study where the potentials of urban spread arc estimated in late future or a larger size settlement can result in merger of the fringe area and cause expansion of the urban area in these tracts. The physical expansion of the fringe becomes slow if the growth process is slow. Kamlod.. Tulsidasji-ki-Sarai. Bheelo-ka-Bedla. Liyonka-Gurha. SUA is defined as a built-up city and adjoining rural belt which is likely to be introduced during the next one or two decades. Naya Kheda. Thur. This is a transition zone in which the influence of the city decreases gradually with distance. literacy levels. To confer these attributes the study area is divided into two major divisions i.e.5 Socio-Cultural Settings The socio-cultural settings of the region like population composition. land use classification etc. Sethji-ka-Kundal. Matun. A separate analysis for the two is conducted in light of the differences in the rural and urban processes taking place. Dhinkli. Karget. prospects. 2. Saveena Kheda (Rural). Goverdhan Vilas (Rural). The rectangular study area is further divided into three concentric zones. Sukher. Bhala-kaGurha. Bedwas (Rural). It is demarcated around urban centers having a population of more than 50. However to understand the problems. Bedla. Gurli. the study looks forward towards an analytical framework to understand the . Dakan Kotra. Dewali (Rural) and Hawala Kalan villages. The zone has intermingling characteristics. Phanda. The innermost includes the city and immediate villages close to the city boundary termed as the Standard Urban Area. Palri. Brahmanon-ka-Gurha.000. Saveena (Rural). Jharno-ki-Sarai. This includes the villages namely. Lakhawali. Sisarma. Bhenkra and Lakarwas. Sprawl occurs because of the movement of people to these areas as they start developing their own infrastructure and services. Sapetiya. Shobhagpura. gender disparity. Dhol-ki-Pati. Because of the distant location from the major cities the avenues of urban expansion needs to be studied in light of related opportunities and constraints for development of the city and its periphery. Panwari. 2. Loyra. Chikalwas. Ladiya Khera. The third zone includes the outermost villages' around the fringe area called as Urban Outer Limits of City Expansion. Ayad (Rural). Bhoyon ki Pancholi. the Udaipur Municipal Limits and the Udaipur Urbanizing Region. Dholikhera. Bargaon. sectors of economy.

sustainable city. The only way urban ex pans ion takes place in these areas is through deforestation. The agriculture and related activities have been pushed off to the outer extremes of the study region and have registered a decline in the periphery of urban areas. the western and the southeastern belt registers a high forest area. The definition holds true for an urban center. The proportion of culturable waste land (the land which is available for cultivation but not used for cultivation for one reason or the other) is higher in the north and the north-eastern part of the study region as contrast to the south and the south. The need for sustainable urban development issues of urban development along with maintaining the concept of greener.eastern part where the land is not cultivable due to mountainous.5. 2.11: Refer Color Plate II). density. Information depicts how the municipal limits have expanded over the past years but no expansion has taken place after 1981 whereas the population pressure has drastically gone up.2. The regions of SC/ST concentration of population are the areas where higher per cent of marginal workers are found. when the expansion of the urban center is taken into consideration aforesaid forms important part of it. administrative. administrative organization. With regards to the study of Udaipur. NH-8 and 76.23: Refer Color Plate IV). population size. Urban space as a component of human settlement is affected by various factors like social composition.agricultural activities (e) at least a few urban attributes or civic amenities. adversely affecting the environment. 2. an urban space is defined as: (a) a municipal corporation or a notified town area or a cantonment board. (b) having a minimum population of 5. The figures dealing with Udaipur Urbanizing Region depict municipal limits within the framework of study in dotted red color and the water bodies of the region in blue color (Fig. The pattern reveals a higher growth rate of scheduled castes population along the major transport arteries. This embodies most of the criteria used for the purpose of single or combination namely. steep topography.urban phenomenon prevalent and how to work forward to make this development sustainable in the region. The settlements lying parallel to the Ayad River depict higher total irrigated area. and climatic conditions etc.5 Land Use Classification The land use is an important parameter to look into before moving on to the study of urban sprawl. The industrial clusters are found in the fringe area within isolated pockets. In Indian context. occupational status. 2. occupational status and urban characteristics. Western most and eastern most settlements report mainly unirrigated land area (Fig. All these reflect man's relation to the natural environment and determine the settlement patterns.000 (c) a density of 400 persons per kilometers (d) at least 75 per cent of the population engaged in the non. The land use of any area helps to demarcate the potential and constraints of the urban center. The spatio-temporal mechanism operates in the Udaipur Urbanizing Region assist to appreciate its socio-Cultural settings. relief. The conservative attitude of the people living in the old city area is one of the major reasons of higher disparity in work force despite of the higher literacy in these regions. The studies on physiography reveal that how the vacant unattended land by UIT and local authorities with difficult terrain and relief is not occupied in the process because of the higher cost of development and has shown kachi-bastis establishments. . This is clearly supported by the fact that these areas have lower literacy which hinders the employment in secondary and tertiary sectors where higher professional and technical requirements are needed. The population and related phenomena helps to determine the urban growth and related avenues of the region.

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forests control the sprawl of the city. Sprawl is a term that is often used to describe perceived inefficiencies of development. the population. which eventually lead to urbanization. 2004 and depicts the recent trend of urbanization in the region after a temporal study of Udaipur Urbanizing Region. In the present study the spatio-temporal growth of the city has been discussed with a focus on the dynamics of land use. industrial. The factors like. This dispersed development along highways. one in the direction which provides the ways for growth and leads to engulfment of the surrounding areas and the other which retards and check the expansion. The urbanization takes place either in radial direction around a well-established city or linearly along the highways. rugged topography. Urban growth is widely affected by the individual and community activities taking place over the space. It is a cumulative result of many individual decisions since it requires not only an understanding of the factors that motivate an individual landowner to convert land. the infrared band and stereoscopic visibility has been used to understand the process of urban sprawl. all known and felt by the residents of the city. slums. Population acts on land through a spectrum of activities. industrial and commercial areas resulting in traffic bottle necks. the administration. The Linear Imaging Self Scanner with improved resolution in the three visible bands.8 m high resolution.7 Case Study . viz. agricultural. An insight into the problems created by the disorganized growth of a city can be gauged from all these different variables.1 Introduction In India.. The urban process. A particular process leads to a particular pattern. the social customs. This has created a serious implication on the resource base.CHAPTER 3: Urban Sprawl 3.Densification of Urban Growth A special study of Udaipur and its surroundings is done with help of LISS-IV imagery procured by IRS-P6 with 5. unprecedented population growth coupled with unplanned developmental activities has resulted in rapid but skewed urbanization.population growth. Some of the causes of the sprawl include . transportation and administration etc. 3. The imagery has been captured on 7th June. polluted environment and many other problems. so on and so forth. water barriers such as rivers and lakes. Haphazard and unrestricted growth of city creates several problems like irregular and chaotic development of residential. its site and situation. post offices etc. LISS-IV sensor within the swath of twenty three km (three spectral channels) has been used. but also an understanding of how these factors and individual land-use decisions aggregate over space. Identification and analysis of the patterns of sprawl in advance would help in effective infrastructure planning for urban outgrowth. including disproportionate growth of urban areas and excessive leapfrog development. access to infrastructure and the development of the region.) also often encourage the regional development. The LISS-IV imagery has been taken for a specific area surrounding the city limits to reveal explicit information about . or surrounding the city and in rural countryside is often referred as sprawl. land conversion and occupational transformation. relief and drainage. economy and proximity to resources and basic amenities. Patterns of infrastructure initiatives like the construction of roads and service facilities (banks. commercial. especially in the developing countries is very complex with varied and numerous elements acting in two different directions. In turn the process itself is dependent on several factors like the history of the region.7.

10.72 percent (Table 3. This reveals how the urban area have become the center of all activity with changing land use and intensifying land pressure leading to substantial increase in urban land values. crop area has depleted by 25-37 per cent and water spread has declined the most by 55. scrub and crop land and water bodies.42 per cent was allocated for residential use. By comparing the two. forest land and more importantly the water bodies have also been encroached under the process of rapid urbanization taking place.3 per cent as public and semipublic. . The categories of classification as documented in the master plan are residential.360 acres. commercial.5 per cent as industrial. Out of the total developed area of 10. The master plan (1976-1996) was subsequently revised and new master plan till 2022 was made for a futuristic vision. 12.1 percent as public and semipublic. which is one of the primary tool where the expansion needs to be analyzed with intensification. 47.4: Land use densification: 2000 and 2004 Year 2000 Year 2004 Per Cent Change of Land Land Use (%) (%) Use Forest/ Scrub Land 44. Fig. As a result the forest and scrub land area has depleted by 14. 18.33 -14.750 acres as urbanizable. The western part of the region has shown spread in the built-up land and the low lying water bodies have been illegally occupied due to easy water availability and greater scenic view for tourism. 3.37 Barren Land 17. The land-use patterns of the city are analyzed for the time period 1971.2 per cent as governmental.06 per cent mid the barren land has intensified by 15.06 -25. Some locations have experienced a greater demand from specific land uses than other and thereby played an important role in transformation of land. 10. the intensity and densification of urban growth can be calculated. industrial. During a span of four years from 2000 to 2004 the built-up area has intensified by 45. governmental and semi-governmental. The developed area proposed for 1996 was 10. The same region has been extracted from the Landsat imagery of 2000 by overlaying and calculating the area of interest and sub-setting the image.5 percent as industrial.5 (Refer Color Plate V) depicts the built-up area covers 37.21 32. 37.51 per cent.82 per cent as commercial.the present urbanization scenario in the limited region. The region has shown a marked decline in the agricultural land. 1988 and 1997.29 -55.2 per cent as governmental.10 15.00 100. government reserved. water bodies and other open land.6 per cent under circulation. The process of this intensification has absorbed the forest.84 38. Out of the total developed area.06 Crop Land 8.22 45. Table 3. 14.5 reveals the master plan (1976-96) proposed a land use pattern for 1996 with 13.12 6. The master plan (1997) has proposed a land use pattern for 2022.41 per cent as recreational and 1.40 20. Entertainment.51 Water 7.72 Built-Up Land 22.8 Evaluation of Master Plan The land use of the city has been categorized into various parameters as per the Master Plan of Udaipur.6 per cent was allocated for residential use.51 Total 100. Table 3.43 3.22 per cent of the total area in 2004. 13.4). circulation.360 acres. five per cent as commercial and 1.8 per cent under circulation. 25.3. public and semi-public.00 Source: Analysis of satellite imagery The concentration hubs of the built-up land have widely increased along the western arteries of transport network. agricultural farms and forests.51 per cent. 3.

As a part of the urbanized area.5 per cent of the total developed area of the Udaipur.601 acres as in 1997 out of which 9.00 97. .92 61.29 26.38 280.00 2135.35 18. the total developed area forms just 43.13 11.63 565.38 240. water bodies and other open spaces is considered as the total developed area. hilly and water bodies.76 376.59 577.26 59.67 -17. another section as urbanizable area and another section as the peripheral control belt. 1988 and 1997 Per Cent Change in Area 1971-88 1988-97 1971-97 61.93 The proposed classification for the year 2022 is documented in the master plan.56 75.47 166.70 156.879 acres is developed area.65 22. The rest of the land is under barren.71 percent.26 515.84 28.00 -1. Residential colonies form around 50. The industrial and transportation constitute around 11.54 1.49 4.00 58.41 1721.52 85. The total urbanized area is 22.46 214.76 1307.82 254.83 94. This is because of the presence of dense residential agglomerations in the walled city.58 104.00 425.90 84.29 6348.5: Land use patterns: For the Area ( in Acres) Land Use Categories 1971 1988 1997 Residential 1585 2565 4988 Commercial 115 295 548 Industrial 170 910 1152 Governmental & Semi-Governmental 75 92 96 Recreational 365 302 358 Public and SemiPublic 1010 1615 1632 Transportation 540 995 1105 Reserved Government 130 800 865 AgricultureResearch and Forest 75 255 285 Water Bodies 85 135 1900 Other Open Space 150 531 9672 Total Urbanized Area 4300 8495 22601 Total Developed Area 3860 6774 9879 Source: Master Plan (1997-2022) year 1971.60 155.18 per cent respectively. agriculture research and forest. According to the master plan a specified segment of the land is classified as urbanized area.66 per cent and 11.06 8.52 435.05 11.Table 3. The total urbanized area minus the reserved government.05 45.

To study this. (2-tailed) Pearson Correlation Sig.253 1.341 .025 . On the basis of village level indicators related to the urban growth factor analysis was done to compute the composite index of the responsiveness to urban influence. private and community together to achieve mutually beneficial increase in efficiency.10: Refer Color Plate VI). have increased the responsibility of the private and community sectors.263 .070 . state is entrusting city administrations.281 . (2-tailed) Pearson Correlation Sig. brief introduction of the amenities and wellbeing is given along in subtopics which are then explained with the help of the primary data.025 . respond to economic restructuring and to develop new productive entities.15 depicts the correlation matrix.070 . encouraging new roles for the state. private and community sectors.140 . thus changing the role of the state from provider to enabler. . 4. At the same time.167 1.000 .212 . Amenities and Wellbeing 4. power to manage their own affairs. Table 4. . . Wellbeing activities are now drawn on inputs from the public.715 1. variance explained and factor loading of the related indicators.219 .341 .000 .896 .896 .13: Correlation matrix Variables Method Pearson Correlation Sig.107 . through program of administrative and fiscal decentralization. Current policy approaches.13 to 4.071 .341 . or to a facilitator of wellbeing. 4. Privatization initiatives have meant that the private sector has an increasing role in the provision of services mainly education and health.000 .CHAPTER 4: State of Urban Infrastructure.2 Amenities and Wellbeing The relation between amenities and wellbeing holds significance at the household and individual level. (2-tailed) Pearson Correlation 1.352 .4.263 . Using the composite index based on factor score sample villages was classified into four categories to summarize the surveyed information of households and individuals.219 .582 .071 . Inverse of household size ( ) Inverse of the distance to the city center ( ) Per cent workforce in manufacturing sector ( ) Per cent workforce in trade and transport sector ( ) Per cent of female literacy ( ) Table 4. Keeping these facts in view a detailed description of the infrastructure types in Udaipur and its environs are studied.000 .253 .4 Udaipur Urbanizing Region The goal of urban infrastructural development is to bring public.107 .270 . The sample surveys consisted of four hundred and one households from thirty villages covering the study area (Fig.167 . Macro-economic reforms including opening national markets to external competition and the rapid development of new telecommunication and transport technologies are demanding a new kind of management at all levels of the urban system.

Kalarwas.281 .327 1.381 5. The values depict the count and the values in parenthesis depict the per cent of the row total in the subsequent tables. Finally the data sets are arranged in four categories of mean plus minus one and two standard deviation. Dakan Kotra. Baleecha and Maton Thur.021 76.327 2. On this basis the villages are clubbed (Table 4. Bhuwana and Loyra Moder ate Chikalwas.15: Component Indicators Component Extracted 0.901 18.100 3.341 Sig.352 .16) and the following subsequent tables are generated.140 . (2-tailed) . Bujra.327 38. encourages governments and development authorities to periodically update their master plans and zoning plans and accelerates supply of serviced land in housing.763 15.484 .4.403 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis Matrix Component Factor Load 1 .715 .270 . Hawala Kalan and Liyon-ka-Gurha Very Low Dhinkli.4 Housing Development of urban housing promotes development of housing related infrastructure. Debari.235 0. Sethji-kaLow Kundal.2.16: Responsiveness to urban influence Categ ory Villages High Bargaon.673 . Titardi. . Shobhagpura.122 4.916 38.275 0. Gorela. . .00 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Kanpur. Dhol-ki-Pati and Nora Source: Computation 4. creates adequate and affordable housing stock both on rental and ownership basis.431 8.327 38. Nai. Ragunathpura. Bedla.452 0.070 .743 . Manwa Kheda.061 1. Eklingpura.635 For the given purpose the correlation amongst the five variables is calculated and then principal component analysis is applied to reduce the variable sets.619 100. . 1. Bari. Saveena Kheda.582 Pearson Correlation .259 91.774 58.070 . Nayakhera.524 . (2-tailed) . Table 4. Table 4.916 38.212 . Table 4. .Sig.000 . Sisarma. .552 0.14: Total variance explained Extraction sums of squared Initial eigen values loadings Component % of % of Total Cumulative % Total Cumulative % Variance Variance 1.989 19.061 .

8) (10.6) 22 (75.2) (17.4) 10 (28.6) 25 (71.5) (31.0) 89 15 26 130 Low (68. The kacha housing is merely 17.9) (100.0) 47 30 18 95 Very Low (49.28: Distribution of households by type of building material used House type Localities’ Responsiveness to Total Urban Influence Pucca Kacha Mixed 55 6 7 68 High (80.9) 31 (75.0) 35 (100.4) (13. This region is also devoid of the basic facilities of communication and transportation.0) Moderate Low Very Low 7 (24.29: Distribution of households by year of purchase Localities’ Responsiveness to Year of Purchase of Plot Total Urban Influence Up to 1992 After 1992 7 17 24 High (29.6) (18.0) (16. This depicts a satisfactory trend of urban amenities within the study area.0) .0) 267 65 69 401 All Localities (66. Table 4.7) (100.Plate 4.5) (20.0) (100.1) 10 (24.4) 29 (100.0) 41 (100.66 per cent pucca houses are present in the region.3) (100.28 reveals highest concentration of pucca houses is found in the localities near to the urban influence in contrast to the kacha houses which are found away from the urban influence.6) (16.5) (11.2) (100.2 per cent mostly in the remote and dispersed segments.9) (8.12: A pucca well developed housing structure at Kalarwas village Table 4. Overall around 66.0) Table 4.2) (70. This is mainly due to the fact that these are located in isolated chunks within mountainous belt.8) (100.0) 76 14 18 108 Moderate (70.

6) 76 (19.30: Distribution of households by plot area Plot Area (in square feet) Average Plot Area Less than 500 250 to 500 250 1000 to1000 2000 More tothan 2000 Total High Moderate Low Very Low All Localities 500.3) 35 (36.2 649.4) (73.8) 133 (33.8) 2 (1.3) 32 (29.All Localities Localities’ Responsiveness to Urban Influence 34 95 129 (26.7 23 (33.7) 15 (15.2 632.6) 42 (32.3) 40 (30.0) 130 (100.5) 68 (100.0) 401 (100.9 709.5) 1 (1. The higher responsive urban localities have registered decline in purchase of plots post economic reform period due to higher land prices in these areas and lesser rates of increase in price.8) 19 (17.5) 6 (1.8) 58 (14.0 691.4) 17 (15.5) 3 (2.0) 108 (100.2) 17 (25.8) 128 (31.6) (100.0) 37 (34.29).7) 23 (17. Table 4.9) 3 (4.0) 24 (35.0) .7) 11 (11.0) The post economic reform period has shown that the localities which arc away from the urban influence are likely to show higher purchase of plots due to the speculators trend of price hike in these localities.8) 34 (35. But the overall variance across the region is not significant which shows that the patterns of purchase of land has remain more or less constant despite of the fact that the locality is close to the city or away from the city center (Table 4.0) 95 (100.6) 23 (17.

social cohesion. Again the forces of investments governed by profit diminish the capacities that a city owns and can generate. The localities under high influence of urban growth have comparatively smaller plot size due to higher land prices in the region. The concept of "'Providing Urban amenities in Rural Areas" is then applied to the study region.Plate 4. 5. To the end. The region has a natural constraint being surrounded amidst Aravalli is which hinders its expansion in a planned way. challenging dehumanizing forces. alternative land development plan has been proposed which works towards devising a land suitability model for the region. Such localities have an average plot size of less than two hundred and fifty square feet in comparison to larger plot sizes of around two thousand square feet in the localities away from urban influence. firstly the SWOT analysis is carried out for the city which demarcates the potential strengths. developing creative shared vision and counter development (Tommila. alternative land development approach is suggested for the region. state of infrastructure and amenities within the study region in this chapter an attempt is made to examine feasible alternatives to develop the city in a sustainable way.13: A kacha house at Gorela village Table 4. This understanding helps to work on the weak zones and acts to the urban evaluation. Learning city plans to encourage wealth creation. opportunities and threats of the region. On the basis of all these studies. the socioeconomic settings. decision making and forecasting analysis. For this purpose a digital elevation model of the region is prepared taking into consideration the . sprawling mechanism. 2002).30 reveals average plot size in the study area is 649. CHAPTER 5: Alternative Land Development Plan 5.78 square feet. It is noteworthy to have in mind the prospective areas of growth and which can be made possible with use of this model.1 Introduction In the background of the discussed locational settings. personal growth. In background of all these. With the objective of sustained economic development alternative land plan is thought off which works towards providing a better base and direction for urban developmental activities. weaknesses. Before working into the concept of model and applying it to the study area its utmost important to look into the basic constraints and potentials of the region which will in a way govern the process of urban sprawl and development as hypothesized.3 Land Suitability Analysis After examining diverse slate of affairs in the region with respect to the understanding the strengths and weaknesses of the region it is attempted to work out how to make this city sustainable using land suitability analysis in reference to build up area. The city has moved a long way from garden city to educational city to the most recent learning city.

After creating the DEM the required sections are extracted using TNTMips software (Fig.5. To analysis the stream patterns buffer zones were created for the streams.5: Refer Color Plate VII). 5.6 above depicts that the . These themes were converted into discrete grids.6 With the help of the model the land suitability is derived which helps to analyze its pros and cons for urban expansion. This suitability has been worked out using three parameters namely.major physiographic features along with the settlement and transport network. stream buffer zones and the existing land use (Fig. To begin with the project data is loaded as theme. Creating a model in spatial analyst begins with deciding which areas are most suitable for urban development. To create a model to study the best suitable sites for urban development. slope of the region. The whole process was worked in the Spatial Analyst ArcView GIS. the factors affecting this process and the data required to measure these factors. The intermediaries were depicted in the following section.3 to 5. With the help of these discrete grids the slope analysis of the region was made. 5. Fig.2: Refer Color Plate VII). land suitability is derived. Figure 5.

built up area. Looking into the cultural factors influencing the pace and trend of urban development it is generally the larger settlements with high population show a positive correlation to the attraction forces of land suitability and urban development. along NH-S. Hawala Kalan and villages on the north-west of Fatehsagar Lake have poor land suitability prospects. slope thirty percent and stream buffer twenty percent weight inferences. Few villages namely Sisarma. The relief contributes to a major proportion in determining the suitable zones as the as the regions with a slope often percent or less show good prospects. The areas surrounding the major lake bodies upstream despite of the rugged terrain found in these areas have shown very good prospects of urban development but the bye laws determine safeguarding around 500 meters around the take bodies. Most of the areas around the city limits reveal good prospects of development. This would help enhance the tourism prospects in the region and develop greener sustainable city (Fig. Banki Reserve Forest. The land use was categorized into barren land. Dangiyon-ki-Pancholi. This needs to be taken into consideration by the help of government and local bodies so that the high hills can be developed as protected forest to enrich the scenic beauty of the region. These patches of land as traced from the model need to be developed for better urban planning (Fig. even trekking.5. 5. Kala Magra hills. Other areas depicting best suitable sites include the major transport arteries i.11: Refer Color Plate VIII).. water and forest and scrub land. Dabok. The hills with twenty per cent and more slope area have a high positive correlation with the poor land suitability zones which can be verified with the help of the Fig.10: Refer Color Plate VIII).8: (Refer Color Plate VIII). 5. The protected forest areas are mostly the areas which have been developed on high slopes. The existing network of the transport arteries is mostly along the developable land segments and show a potential of expansion towards the region of poor land suitability. Bara Magra and Panwari Reserve Forest are amongst the major areas of poor land suitability for urban development mostly due to the natural reasons influencing it. Minor patches of very poor land suitability are seen within the region. Conversely.7: Refer Color Plate VII). Such conflicts need to be worked out in lieu of built up area development in the region. The city area especially the walled city within the city limits has shown the best suitability for development. there are patches of land which are comparatively more land suitable but have no revenue village production in those areas. Kanpur. Teetardi. The alternative land development plan glances into the revenue settlements along with the major transport network of the region and the potential sectors which can be demarcated on the given basis (Fig. The results of the analysis reveal some of the interesting findings. Sajjangarh hills. But some of the segments which have high suitability and good connectivity lack a strong . The scale was predefined at one to five whereby the first shows the very good suitability and the last value derived depicts the worse suitability prospects. 5.9: Refer Color Plate VIII). The south-western and the north-eastern patches of the city limits depict a comparatively higher proportion of moderate and poor suitability.e. Biliyan and Dhol-ki-Pati (Fig. crop land.land suitability was derived using weighted overlay technique whereby land use was given fifty percent weight. south of Okharja. 5. Lakarwas. mountaineering and sports tourism. in and around Bhainsara Kalan. Neemach Mata hills. Most of the regions at the base of the hilly terrain reveal a comparatively moderate level of suitability The region with moderate land suitability lying at the base of the high hills can be developed as recreational centers. Some of the villages lying in the poor land suitable sections presently do not have strong connectivity. Bag Dhara.

green belt. commercial. few areas with slopes can provide sites for mountaineering activities. this model assists to appreciate the sections of Udaipur Urbanizing Region which really have good prospects for development in terms of the land suitability. 5.pull factor due to smaller size of settlement. The exercise is an attempt generated considering all those parameters that need to be worked in this regards. small scale and cottage industries besides the city limits. Industrial and mining sector needs to be developed in outer limits and fringe areas mainly along the transport arteries. Educational sector has shown a rapid expansion towards the eastern belt and can be developed as a continuous belt with institutions along with hostels in the region which is easily accessible on the major transport network. industrial. The major sectors taken into consideration for the purpose are agriculture. mining. This alternative is suggestive of a balanced development where green environs are maintained along with the city development. The proposed sectors of growth are thereby demarcated on the basis of the given exercise and these can be applied as the centers where the mentioned activities be developed as an approach towards alternative land development plan for a sustainable urban development (Fig. ignoring the real strengths that the region holds. The development of major residential colonies nearing the city limits provides access to basic services of livelihood. . This sectoral model is an alternative to this rising problem of sprawl which is governed by a common phenomenon. tourism and recreational. trekking and mountaineering. educational. transport network and the cultural strength of the region. This helps in maintenance of forest reserves and also the nearby areas can be developed for recreational and tourism purposes. These sections of very poor land also lie close to the industrially developed regions. residential. Therefore. the master plan has rightly delineated the future growth of the region but by and large ignoring the ground realities and the real process taking place in the region.12: Refer Color Plate VIII). The segments of very poor land suitability can be made as the waste disposal and dumping grounds as this region is most unsuitable for settlement and urban processes. It is important here to note that the present development of the region is governed by a common rule which is development along the major transport corridors with vacant and dry patches with nearly negligible net worth in contribution to urban processes besides it.

Color Plates Color Plate IV Fig. 2. 2.22 Fig.23 .

Many of the works has been published in several major national and international forums including North American Regional Science Council. people’s . 31st Annual Applied Geography Conference. Indian Geography Congress. International Conference on Social Science and Humanities. The work on analysis of Urban Sprawl and Development of Udaipur (Rajasthan. Udaipur.Fig. 3. urban development and planning. International Symposium on Automated Cartography.IBG. India in 2008. India) forms the basis of this book.2 Fig. American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. 3. Author’s areas of focus include GIS and remote sensing. Royal Geographical Society .National Association of Geographers. urban finance and infrastructure.4 About the Author Manishika Jain completed her PhD from Mohanlal Sukhadia University (MLSU). Association of American Geographers.

She represented India in a 100 member Youth Exchange Delegation to China in 2007 led by the then Minister of Youth Affairs and Sports . The author can be contacted at: manishikaj@gmail. Remote Sensing.A. She has won several national and international awards and accolades. She was among the top students in the National Eligibility Test (2005) for lectureship conducted independently by University Grants Commission and Council for Scientific and Industrial Research and was awarded the Junior Research Fellowship (JRF). 2007. She received Young Geographers Award from National Association of Geographers. Regional and World Geography to Union and State Civil Service Aspirants. Kurukshetra. Udaipur in 2005. Quantitative.A. in Geography from Centre for Study of Regional Development. from MLSU. Urban. She topped in M. Being in top twenty percent of the JRF candidates she was considered for SPM fellowship. Udaipur. India. Jawaharlal Nehru University.participation. She was short listed to represent India in the Commonwealth Youth Forum held at Kampala. Government of India awards this prestigious scholarship to the most meritorious students supporting them throughout their education starting from high school up to PhD. Clean India. The author has worked with the Planning Department. She was awarded the National Talent Search Examination Scholarship by NCERT. New Delhi and was awarded University Gold Medal for B.com .Mr. rural-urban linkages and socio-environmental issues. Author has contributed articles to magazines and journals like China Business Review. Mani Shankar Aiyer. Economic. The award is given to students from Udaipur for their significant scholastic achievements. Oregon. Geography and You. Uganda. She received Bhamashah Award by Maharana Mewar Foundation. One of the publications has also been referred in the Parliamentary Documentation. USA & has also taught Geography of Rajasthan to Final Year Graduate students at MLSU and GIS. City of Hillsboro. GIS India and many more.

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