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Task Analysis

"Task analysis for instructional design is a process of analyzing and articulating the kind of
learning that you expect the learners to know how to perform".I nstructional designers perform a
task analysis in order to:
determine the instructional goals and objectives;
define and describe in detail the tasks and sub-tasks that the student will perform;
specify the knowledge type (declarative, structural, and procedural knowledge) that
characterize a job or task;
select learning outcomes that are appropriate for instructional development;
prioritize and sequence tasks;
determine instructional activities and strategies that foster learning;
select appropriate media and learning environments;
construct performance assessments and evaluation

Counseling is a collaborative process that involves the development of a confidential
professional relationship that focuses on personal problems. At Downstate, it is an opportunity to
talk to a licensed clinical psychologist who is a skilled listener trained in the science of human
behavior. The objective of counseling is to help you clarify issues, gain insight into your feelings
and thoughts and deal effectively with problems. Nearly all students experience occasional
difficulties that can interfere with their success or sense of well-being.
The task of counseling is to give the client an opportunity to explore, discover and
clarify ways of giving more satisfyingly and resourcefully. (BAC 1984)
Results of counseling can include:

Insight and understanding of oneself, with greater self-awareness.

Changing of one's beliefs and mental models.
Increased acceptance and appreciation of oneself.
Increased emotional intelligence.
Increased ability to control oneself and one's urges.
Development of skills and abilities that require self-management.

Improved motivation towards actions that are good for one's self.
Understanding of others and why they act as they do.
Increased appreciation and care for others.
Improvement in relationships with others.
Changing of relationship with family, friends and others.
Making amends for past negative actions.

Manpower Planning
Manpower Planning which is also called as Human Resource Planning consists of putting right
number of people, right kind of people at the right place, right time, doing the right things for
which they are suited for the achievement of goals of the organization. Human Resource
Planning has got an important place in the arena of industrialization. Human Resource Planning
has to be a systems approach and is carried out in a set procedure. The procedure is as follows:
Analysing the current manpower inventory
Making future manpower forecasts
Developing employment programmes
Design training programmes

Case Study
A case study is an account of an activity, event or problem that contains a real or hypothetical
situation and includes the complexities you would encounter in the workplace. Case studies are
used to help you see how the complexities of real life influence decisions.
Analysing a case study requires you to practice applying your knowledge and your thinking
skills to a real situation. To learn from a case study analysis you will be "analysing, applying
knowledge, reasoning and drawing conclusions" (Kardos & Smith 1979).
According to Kardos and Smith (1979) a good case has the following features:
It is taken from real life (true identities may be concealed).
It consists of many parts and each part usually ends with problems and points for
discussion. There may not be a clear cut off point to the situation.
It includes sufficient information for the reader to treat problems and issues.
It is believable for the reader (the case contains the setting, personalities, sequence of
events, problems and conflicts)

Lesson plan

A lesson plan is a teacher's detailed description of the course of instruction for one class. A
daily lesson plan is developed by a teacher to guide class instruction. Details will vary
depending on the preference of the teacher, subject being covered, and the need and/or curiosity
of students.
An example lesson plan and lesson planning worksheet, available as pdf files, provide step-bystep guidance for lesson development. A supervisor observation worksheet allows supervisors to
give specific feedback on a written lesson plan or an observed lesson.

Career development
Career development is an organized approach used to match employee goals with the business
needs of the agency in support of workforce development initiatives. In this process:
The purpose of career development is to:

Enhance each employee's current job performance.

Enable individuals to take advantage of future job opportunities.

Fulfill agencies' goals for a dynamic and effective workforce.

Organizational Development
Organizational Development (OD) is a field of research, theory, and practice dedicated to
expanding the knowledge and effectiveness of people to accomplish more successful
organizational change and performance.
OD is a process of continuous diagnosis, action planning, implementation and evaluation, with
the goal of transferring knowledge and skills to organizations to improve their capacity for
solving problems and managing future change.

Management development
Management development is the structured process by which managers enhance their skills,
competencies and/or knowledge, via formal or informal learning methods, to the benefit of both
individual and organisational performance.

The effective management of both private and public sector organisations is widely perceived to
be of critical importance to organisational success and, more broadly, to national economic wellbeing. Some critics, moreover, argue that the UK has certain deficiencies in respect of the
qualities and skills of its management base when compared with managers at the global level.
This means that the development of managers to help sustain their performance at the highest
levels possible is a particularly crucial element of wider organisational learning strategies.
Managing involves the planning, organisation, co-ordination and implementation of strategies,
programmes, tactics and policies in respect of people, resources, information, operations and
finance. Management development interventions may therefore cover any or all of these areas,
depending on the level and nature of the management role as well as other factors such as the
stage of the individuals career.

Participatory Methods
Many people do not like going to meetings and many do not like speaking at meetings and
these people are often not included in community consultation appraisal work.
The tools of participatory appraisal make it much easier for people to take part and share their
ideas. The tools include a lot of visual methods so that being literate or knowing the jargon are
not important. The tools often use comparing (is it more or less?) rather than assessing (How
many? How much?) and this also makes it easier for people to join in and give their opinions.
Training Management
Management training includes courses and workshops that prepare managers to face the wide
array of challenges involved in supervising people and managing systems and projects. Some
companies provide their own training in the form of workshops or seminars; others send
management personnel to conferences or outside courses. Some companies contract with
professional trainers to offer weekly sessions at the workplace on various management and
supervisory topics.
Curriculum in a management training course is likely to include guidance on how to
communicate effectively and motivate employees, team building, and managing business
meetings. Other topics might include goal setting, how to handle performance reviews, or time
management. Many workshops also focus on problem solving, change management, and
collaboration, while others include delegation skills, handling complaints, or coaching and
mentoring. Additional courses address diversity, ethics, or emotional intelligence.