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Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play a
significant role in the chemical reactions
that form ozone. Ozone is not emitted
directly into the atmosphere. It is formed
when emissions of nitrogen oxides and
VOCs react in the presence of sunlight.
While beneficial in the upper atmosphere,
ozone in the lower atmosphere can cause
a variety of health problems because it
damages lung tissue, reduces lung
function, and adversely sensitizes the
lungs to other irritants.
Exposure to particulate matter has been
linked with adverse health effects,
including aggravation of existing
respiratory and cardiovascular disease and
increased risk of premature death.
Adsorbable Organic Halides (AOXs) exhibit
toxicity and may bioaccumulate in fish
tissue. This may present a risk to human
health if large amounts of fish exposed to
these substances are consumed.
Chloroform is a probable human
carcinogen. Short term exposure to
chloroform can adversely affect the
central nervous system and result in
dizziness and headaches. Long term
exposure by inhalation can adversely
affect the liver and cause hepatitis and
Exposure to dioxin and furan can cause
skin disorders, cancer, and reproductive
effects. These pollutants can also affect
the immune system.
Treatment Scheme
For Air Emissions
A) Electrostatic precipitators physically
remove fine particulates.
B) Scrubbers chemically transform
gaseous sulfur dioxide, chlorine and
chlorine dioxide so that they stay in the
scrubbers chemical solution.
C) Mills route combustible gases, including
total reduced sulfur compounds, to the
chemical recovery system.
Primary Stage
Bar Screen- catches large objects.
A grit chamber allows pieces of rock and
sand which are denser than organic
materials, to settle out of the waste

stream. Removal of grit prevents damage

to machinery through abrasion or
Sedimentation simply entails the physical
settling of matter, due to its density,
buoyancy, and the force of gravity. Certain
chemicals known as coagulants and
flocculants are often used to expedite this
process by encouraging aggregation of
particles. Through sedimentation, the
larger solids are removed in order to
facilitate the efficiency of the following
procedures and also to reduce the
biological oxygen demand of the water.
Air is added to the aeration tank to create
an environment for beneficial/ helpful
microorganisms to grow and continue
treating the remaining pollutants in the
wastewater. These microorganisms
continue to consume/ treat any remaining
dissolved organic materials in the water.
Disinfection seeks to remove harmful
organics and pathogens causing cholera,
polio, typhoid, hepatitis, and a number of
other bacterial, viral, and parasitic
diseases from the water. Chlorine or
another disinfectant is used to kill harmful
bacteria from the treated wastewater.
Chlorine gas or liquid chlorine comes in
contact with the treated wastewater long
enough to reduce the number of bacteria
to a safe level.
Chlorine also has the beneficial
side effect of helping very small dissolved
solids to settle out of the wastewater.
For the Sludge
Conditioning-Lime as a conditioning agent
is only used in conjunction with iron salts
on filter press applications. It brings a
mineral nature to the sludge and
strengthens its mechanical properties
(higher specific resistance to filtration).The
dosages for lime are between 15% and
40% of the dry content.
Thickening-It is essential to use an
organic flocculants on gravity belt. The
flocculants will accelerate the drainage of
water and allow it to flow through the
sludge and the filtration belt. The
flocculated sludge flows over a filtration
belt that is conveyed at a certain speed.
The water freed by the flocculation step is
drained through the pores of the belt. This
elimination of water (the filtrate) leads to
a thickening of the sludge at the end of
the conveyer belt. Picket fences resting on

the belt are often used to enhance the

gravity drainage. Continuous pressure
cleaning of the belt is necessary to
prevent pore plugging. The filtrate is
returned to the beginning of the process
while the thickened sludge is sent to a
temporary storage tank before
Lime stabilization takes advantage of the
fact that all biological activity is effectively
terminated when the pH rises above 12.

Enough lime, about 30% of the dry solid

content, has to be added in order to
ensure that no fermentation takes place in
the long run.