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MP4005

NANYANG TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY


SEMESTER 2 EXAMINATION 2013-2014
MP4005 FLUID DYNAMICS

April/May 2014

Time Allowed: 2 hours

INSTRUCTIONS
1.

This paper contains FOUR (4) questions and comprises FIVE (5) pages.

2.

Answer ALL FOUR questions.

3.

All questions carry equal marks.

4.

This is a CLOSED-BOOK examination.

5.

The Compressible Gas Tables comprising of ELEVEN (11) pages are enclosed.

1(a)

A convergent-divergent nozzle has a throat area of 0.02 m2 and an exit area of 0.05
m2. As the back pressure is reduced progressively from the atmospheric value, air
starts to flow from the atmosphere into the nozzle. The pressure and temperature of
air in the atmosphere are 101 kPa and 300 K respectively.
For air, =1.4=
and R 287 J/kg K .
(i)

When the back pressure is 99 kPa, the flow is not choked and is fully subsonic
and isentropic. Determine the Mach number at the exit, the Mach number at the
throat and the mass flow rate of air.

(ii)

When the back pressure is 85 kPa, determine whether the flow is choked and the
Mach number at the throat of the nozzle. Calculate the mass flow rate of air.
(17 marks)

(b)

Consider the Fanno line flow through a circular duct of constant diameter. The flow at
the duct inlet is subsonic. For a certain duct length, the flow at the duct outlet is sonic.
What would happen to the flow if the duct length is made longer? Give physical
reasons to justify your answer.
If the duct diameter is 0.06 m, the duct length is 2.93 m, the duct friction factor is
0.013 and the Mach number at the duct inlet is 0.37, determine the Mach number at
the duct outlet. What would be the duct length if the Mach number at the outlet is 1
while the Mach number at the inlet remains at 0.37?
(8 marks)

MP4005

2 (a)

The velocity profile in a turbulent boundary layer with zero pressure gradient may be
1/9

u y
where u is the boundary layer velocity, U is the free-stream
=
U
velocity, y is the normal distance from the surface and is the boundary layer

expressed as

1/4

U
where is
thickness. The wall shear stress w is given by=
w 0.0233U


the fluid density and is the kinematic viscosity. Determine an expression for the
local skin friction coefficient in terms of the Reynolds number using the momentum
integral equation. State any assumptions made.
(11 marks)
2

(b)

For flow over a flat plate aligned with the stream-wise direction, use the momentum
equation to show that the skin friction per unit width of the plate, D f , is given by the
expression D f =
U 2 L where is the fluid density, U is the free-stream velocity and

L is the momentum thickness at the trailing edge of the plate. Does this expression
apply to both laminar and turbulent boundary layers?
(6 marks)
(c)

The anemometer as shown in Figure 1 (top view) consists of two identical


hemispherical cups connected by a bar. The anemometer is hinged at the midpoint of
the bar. The radius of the cups is 0.1 m and the length of the bar is 0.4 m. The
anemometer is placed in the wind blowing at a velocity of 15 m/s. The total drag
coefficients, CD , of the convex surface and concave surface of the cups are 0.34 and
1.33 respectively. Determine the turning moment of the anemometer. Take air
density to be 1.2 kg/m3. State any necessary assumptions.
(8 marks)
concave,
radius = 0.1 m
0.2 m
U = 15 m/s
0.2 m
convex,
radius = 0.1 m
Figure 1

MP4005
3 (a)

A velocity field is V = A( x 4 6 x 2 y 2 + y 4 )i + B( x3 y xy 3 ) j where A = 2m 3s 1 , B is a


constant and the coordinates are measured in metres, such that the velocity is in m/s.

(i)

Find B for this flow field to be an incompressible flow field.

(ii)

Obtain the stream functiony ( x, y ) of this flow field.

(iii) Find . Is this an irrotational flow field?

(iv) If the answer to part 3(a)(iii) is yes, determine the potential function ( x, y ) , if
the answer is no, explain why.
(v)

For this flow field, determine the flow rate between the two streamlines passing
through the points C (1,1) and D(2, 2) . What is the direction of the flow?

Note:=
, and v =
0.5 V , u =
x
y
(13 marks)

(b)

Oil of density and dynamic viscosity , drains steadily down the side of a vertical
plate, as shown in Figure 2. After a development region near the top of the plate, the
oil film becomes independent of z and has a constant thickness . Assume that
w = w( x) only and that the atmosphere offers no shear resistance to the surface of the
w u
film, i.e., xz=
+ = 0 at x = .
x z
g 2
(i) Solve the Navier-Stokes equation and show that=
w( x)
( x 2 x ) .
2
d

(ii)

Find the flow rate per unit width, q = wdx.


0

Figure 2
2w 2w 2w
w
w
w
w
p
Note:
+u
+v
+w
=

+
+
g

2 + 2 + 2
z

x
y
z
z
y
z
t
x

(6 marks)
Note: Question 3 continues on page 4.

MP4005

(c)

Air flowing past a wall encounters a step of height h = 10 mm and the leading edge of
the wall is profiled to avoid sharp changes in flow direction as shown in Figure 3.
The flow may be represented by the upper half-plane of a uniform flow of velocity U
parallel to the axis and a source of strength m, i.e., a half-body. If the velocity of the
airstream is 40 m/s, determine
(i)

the distance b that the source is located behind the leading edge of the step,

(ii)

the strength of the source, and

(iii) the horizontal and vertical velocity components (i.e. u and v) at a point
A(0,5 mm) on the step.

Figure 3
Note: For a half body,

Ur cos +
=

m
ln r
2

1/2
m
or =
ln ( x 2 + y 2 ) ,
Ux +
2

b( )
m
a source, Vr =
. For =
and V 0, where m > 0 for source, and
sin
2 r
d
1
( ln x ) = .
dx
x

r=

(6 marks)

MP4005

4 (a)

A vertical axis tank is conical in shape whereby the diameter increases uniformly
from 1.5 m at the base to 3.5 m at a height of 5 m. The water in the tank can be
reduced by means of a 100 mm diameter pipe of length 5 m and friction factor 0.008,
with the height of the pipe 4 m below the base of the tank. Assume the effect of the
orifice to pipe connection can be represented by a separation loss with a k value of 2.
Determine the time required to reduce the water in the tank by 3 m if the tank is full
initially.
z

Note that

2
p1 V12
p
V2
L V2
V2
As
and t =
+
+ z1 = 2 + 2 + z2 + f
+k
dz
D 2g
2g
g 2g
g 2g
Qi Qo
z1

(13 marks)
(b)

A centrifugal pump is designed to deliver water at 30 l/s and the inlet velocity has no
tangential component. The pump has the following dimensions:
Parameter

Inlet

Outlet

75

150

Blade width, b (mm)

7.5

6.25

Blade angle, (deg)

25

40

Radius, r (mm)

(i)

Draw the inlet and outlet velocity diagrams.

(ii)

Determine the rotating speed of the pump.

(iii)

Determine the outlet absolute flow angle measured relative to the normal
direction.

(iv)

Evaluate the theoretical head developed by the pump.


(12 marks)

End of Paper