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UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA

FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN KIMIA


ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY LABORATORY
(CHE485)
NAME
STUDENT NO
GROUP
EXPERIMENT

:
:
:
: 1 DETERMINATION OF THE CONCENTRATION OF
ACETIC ACID IN VINEGAR
DATE PERFORMED :
SEMESTER
:1
PROGRAMME / CODE :
SUBMIT TO
:

NO
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
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12
13

Title
Abstract/Summary
Introduction
Aims
Theory
Apparatus
Methodology/Procedure
Results
Calculations
Discussion
Conclusion
Recommendations
Reference
Appendix
TOTAL MARKS

Remarks :
Checked by :
-----------------------------Date :

Allocated Marks (%)


5
5
5
5
5
10
10
10
20
10
5
5
5
100

Marks

1.1 SUMMARY
The main point of this experiment is to determine the concentration of acetic acid in
vinegar. By performing titration process the concentration of acetic acid in vinegar can be
determined by calculating both molarity and percent by mass of acetic acid in vinegar itself.
There are two parts in this experiment, which are standardization of sodium hydroxide
solution and determining the molarity of acetic acid and mass percent in vinegar. In the first
part which is the standardization of sodium hydroxide solution, NaOH as the titrant is added
carefully into the KHP solution and the pH is recorded with 1 ml additions of NaOH. The
graph of pH versus NaOH is plotted and from the equivalent point, the molarity of acetic acid
is calculated. These steps were repeated twice. In part two, which is determination of the
molarity of acetid acid and mass percent in vinegar, acetic acid is titrated with NaOH solution
and pH is recorded with 1 ml additions of NaOH. From the equivalent point, the volume of
NaOH that required to neutralize the vinegar in each titration is determined. Hence, by
undergoes a few steps of calculation, the percent by mass of acetic acid is calculated.

1.2 INTRODUCTION
Vinegar is a dilute solution of acetic acid. Its molecular formula is CH3COOH. The
molarity and percent by mass of acetic acid in vinegar, can be determined by performing
titration process which the data is represented via graph of titration curve. Titration process is
a volumetric technique where a solution of known concentration is added to the second
reactant of unkown concentration until the equivalent point is reached. The equivalence point
is the point when the titrant has been added in exactly the right quantity to react
stoichiometrically with the another reactant. Equivalent point occurs when the moles of acid
in the solution equals the moles of base added in the titration. Once the equivalent point is
reached, the volume of based that is required to completely neutralize the the acid can be
determined from the graph at the equivalent point. Hence molarity and percent by mass of
acetic acid in the vinegar solution can be calculated.
Concentration of solution is the amount of solute in a given amount of solvent. While
dilute solutions contain small amount of solute in a given amount of solvent. The molarity and
percent by mass of acetic acid in vinegar can be determined through titration process.There
are two formulas to express the concentration :
Molarity is the number of moles of solute per liter of solution;
Molarity(M) =

moles of solute
liter of solution

Percent by mass is the mass in grams of solute per 100 grams of solution ;
Percent solute =

grams of solute
grams of solution

x 100%

1.3 AIMS
The aim of the experiment is to determine the concentration of acetic acid in vinegar by
calculating both molarity and percent by mass of acetic acid by performing titration process.

1.4 THEORY
Titration is a volumetric analysis, which adding a measured amount of known
concentration into another solution of unknown concentration from a graduated vessel called
burette and the substance to be determined is said to be titrated. The process must proceed
stoichiometrically. The type of chemical reaction occurring between the two solutions is
called a neutralization reaction, which the titrant is a base and the titrated solution is an acid.
Equivalent point is a stage which shows the completion of reaction between both
known and unknown concentration of the solution when the amount of added reagent is
exactly and stoichiometrically equivalent to the solution in the titrated solution. Once the
reaction has reached equivalent point, there is a sudden change in pH. pH in an aqueous
solution is related to its hydrogen concentration. In hydrogen ion concentration, pH is defined
as negative logarithm.
pH= -log[H3O+]
pH is the method of expressing the acidity or basicity if a solution. Solutions with pH<7 are
acidic, pH=7 are neutral and pH>7 are basic. As sodium hydroxide is added to the acid
solution, some of the hydrogen ions will be neutralized. As the hydrogen ion concentration
decreases, the pH of the solution will gradually increases. When sufficient NaOH is added to
completely neutralize the acid, the next drop of NaOH added will cause a sudden sharp
increase in pH. In this experiment, potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP) is titrated with
NaOH solution. The reaction equation for this is :
KHC8H4O4(aq) + NaOH(aq)

KNaC8H4O4(aq) + H2O (l)

Once the sodium hydroxide has been stanbdardized it then titrated with 10.00ml of
vinegar. The reaction equation for vinegar with NaOH is :
CH3COOH(aq) + NaOH(aq)

NaCH3COO(aq) + H20(l)

In second part of this experiment, titration of a vinegar sample with a standardized


sodium hydroxide solution is performed. A primary standard acid solution is initially prepared
to standardize the sodium hydroxide solution. By dissolving a weighed quantity of pure acid
or base in a known volume of solution. Primary standard acid or bases have several common
characteristics :

They must be available in at least 99.9 purity


They must have a high molar mass to minimize error in weighing
They must be stable upon heating
They must be soluble in the solvent of interest

Potassium hydrogen phthalate, KHC8H4O4, and oxalic acid, (COOH)2, are common primary
standard acids. Sodium carbonate, Na2CO3, is the most commonly used base. Most acids and
bases are mostly available in primary standard form. Titration of the solution with a primary
standard should be performed to standardize one of these acidic or basic solutions.

1.5 APPARATUS

Weighing balance
250 ml beaker
Glass rod
pH meter
burette
retort stand with clamp
10mL volumetric pipette
Erlenmeyer flask
filter funnel
magnetic stirrer

MATERIALS
Distilled water
3.04g of KHP solid
6.00g of NaOH solid
10.00ml of acetic acid

1.6 PROCEDURE
PART A : Standardization of sodium hydroxide solution
1. 250 mL of 0.6M sodium hydroxide solution is prepared in a beaker from NaOH solid.
The amount of NaOH solid required is calculated.

2. A beaker is placed on the balance and is tared. 1.5 grams of KHP is added to the
beaker and the reading is only recorded approximately to the nearest 0.0015g. KHP
solution is prepared with 30mL of distilled water in a beaker.
3. Next, KHP solution is titrated with NaOH solution using a graduated vessel, burette
and the pH is recorded for every additions of 1mL NaOH solution.
4. The steps are repeated twice. Another solution for NaOH standardization is prepared.
5. The graph of pH versus NaOH is plotted and the equivalence point is determined. The
volume of NaOH required to neutralize the KHP solution in each titration is
calculated.
6. The molarity of sodium hydroxide for both titration is calculated.
7. Finally, the average molarity of the sodium hydroxide solution is also calculated.

PART B : Molarity of acetic acid and mass percent in vinegar


1. 10.00 mL of acetic acid is measured in the 10mL volumetric acid and is transferred to
250ml beaker. 85ml of distilled water is added to the beaker containing 10.00ml of
acetic acid to cover the pH electrode tip during the titration.
2. 1 ml of NaOH is added to the vinegar solution and the pH is recorded with 1 ml
additions of NaOH solution.
3. Next, the graph of pH versus NaOH volume added is plotted. From the plots, the
equivalence point is determined and the volume of NaOH solution required to
4.
5.
6.
7.

neutralize the vinegar in each titration is calculated and recorded in the table.
The steps are repeated twice.
The molarity of acetic acid in vinegar is calculated for both titrations.
The average molarity of acetic acid for each titration is also calculated.
Then, the percent by mass of acetic acid in vinegar solution for titrations 1 and 2 is

calculated.
8. Finally, the percent by mass of acetic acid in vinegar is calculated and recorded in the
table provided.
1.7 RESULTS & CALCULATION
PART A : Standardization of sodium hydroxide solution.

Mass of KHP (g)


Volume of NaOH solution to
neutralize the KHP solution (mL)

Titration 1
1.504

Titration 2
1.500

12.400

12.800

PART A
KHC8H4O4 (aq) + NaOH (aq)

KNaC8H4O4 (aq) + H2O (l)

Titration 1
1) Moles of KHP used in the titration1 ;
mass
1.504 g
=
molar mass
204.2 = 0.007365 mol
2) Moles of NaOH required to neutralizing the moles of KHP ;
0.007365 mol KHP = 0.007365 mol NaOH
3) Molarity of the of NaOH solution ;
1L
12.40 ml NaOH x 1000 ml = 0.0124 L
Molarity =

mol
volume

0.007365mol
0.0124 L

= 0.5939 M NaOH

Titration 2
4) Moles of KHP used in the titration 2 :
mass
1.500 g
=
molar mass
204.2 = 0.007346 mol
5) Moles of NaOH required to neutralizing the moles of KHP ;
0.007346 mol KHP = 0.007346 mol NaOH
6) 12.80 ml NaOH x
Molarity =

1L
1000 ml

mol
volume

= 0.0128 L

0.007346 mol
0.0128 L

= 0.5739 M NaOH

7) Average molarity of NaOH solution :


M 1+ M 2
2

0.5939+ 0.5739
2

= 0.5839 M of NaOH

PART B
Titration 1

Titration 2

19.20

18.90

Volume of NaOH to
neutralize the vinegar
solution (ml)
Titration 1
1) Moles of NaOH that reacted ;
1L
19.20 ml NaOH x 1000 ml
0.01920L NaOH x

= 0.01920 L NaOH

0.600 mol NaOH


IL NaOH solution

= 0.01920 mol

2) Moles of acetic acid neutralized by the moles of NaOH ;


1 mol CH 3 COOH
0.01920 mol NaOH x
= 0.01920 mol
1 mol NaOH
3) The molarity of the CH3COOH solution ;
1L
10ml CH3COOH x 1000 ml = 0.010 L CH3COOH solution
M=

mol CH 3 COOH
L of solution

0.01920mol CH 3 COOH
0.01 L solution

= 1.152M CH3COOH

4) Mass of acetic acid in the solution ;


1L
10ml CH3COOH x 1000 ml = 0.010l CH3COOH solution

1.1 L CH3C00H x

1.152 mol CH 3 COOH


1 L solution

60.06 g CH 3 COOH
1 mol CH 3 COOH

0.6919g
5) Mass of the acetic acid solution ;
1 g CH 3 COOH solution
10 ml CH3COOH x 1 ml CH 3COOH solution

= 10.00g CH3COOH solution

6) Percent by mass of acetic acid in the solution


0.6919 g CH 3 COOH
percent mass CH3COOH = 10.00 g CH 3 COOH

x 100% = 6.919 %

CH3COOH
Titration 2
1) Moles of NaOH that reacted ;
1L
18.90 ml NaOH x 1000 ml = 0.01890 L NaOH
0.01840L NaOH x

0.600 mol NaOH


IL NaOH solution

= 0.01134 mol

2) Moles of acetic acid neutralized by the moles of NaOH ;


1 mol CH 3 COOH
0.01134 mol NaOH x
= 0.01134mol
1 mol NaOH
3) The molarity of the CH3COOH solution ;
1L
10ml CH3COOH x 1000 ml = 0.010 L CH3COOH solution
M=

mol CH 3 COOH
L of solution

0.01134 mol CH 3COOH


0.01 L solution

= 1.134 M CH3COOH

4) Mass of acetic acid in the solution ;


1L
10ml CH3COOH x 1000 ml = 0.010l CH3COOH solution
0.10 L CH3C00H x

1.134 mol CH 3 COOH


1 L solution

60.06 g CH 3 COOH
1 mol CH 3 COOH

0.6800g
5) Mass of the acetic acid solution ;
1 g CH 3 COOH solution
10 ml CH3COOH x 1 ml CH 3COOH solution

= 10.00g CH3COOH solution

6) Percent by mass of acetic acid in the solution


0.6800 g CH 3 COOH
percent mass CH3COOH = 10.00 g CH 3 COOH

x 100% = 6.800 %

CH3COOH
7) Average percent by mass of acetic acid in the solution
T 1+ T 2
6.919+ 6.800
=
= 6.86%
2
2

1.8 DISCUSSION
In this experiment, titration is the measurement of the amount of a solution of known
concentration that required to react completely with a measured amount of a solution of
unknown concentration. Equivalent point is the point where a stoichiometrically equivalent
amount of base has been added to the acid.
When a stoichiometrically equivalent amount of base is added to a solution of acid,
which in this experiment the sample is NaOH and KHP solution, all the

KHP react with an equivalent amount of OH

+
H ions present in

ions from NaOH. The higher the mass of

acid prepared, the higher the volume of base added to neutralize. The reaction of

OH

+
H and

ions produces this equation :


+
H (aq) +

OH (aq)

H2O (l)

Standardize means to determine a precise and accurate concentration, and the burette
is used to make accurate volume concentration of our NaOH solution. During the titration, we
added 1 ml of NaOH solution, drop by drop. Each drop, the ph reading is recorded and the
adding of 1ml of NaOH is continuosly till there is a sharp increase of ph reading. Then, we
continue by adding 0.5ml of NaOH, each drop till the ph reading is constant. The data is

expressed in the graph of titration curve. Besides, we have immersed the ph electrode during
the titration to cover the liquid junction during all measurement.
However, there is still have a few limitations in this kind of experiment. First, when
we weighing the powder of KHP, there were some fluctuations with the mass of the powder
which could not be prevented as there were many factors that could have affected it. Besides,
it was found that when pouring the diluted alkali solution, NaOH into the volumetric flask,
some residue of NaOH was left. This was washed with distilled water into flask but as soon as
the flask reached the meniscus line, no more could have been poured in, thus leaving some
residue in the beaker. Besides, when filling the burette with NaOH solution, we have made
certain that all air bubbles have been flushed from the tip before taking the initial volume
reading, check for the bubbles and full tip. This would have had an effect on the accuracy,
validity, and reliability of the results.

1.9 CONCLUSION
The molarity and percent by mass of acetic acid in vinegar can be determined by performing
titration process with a standardized sodium hydroxide solution. The molarity of acetic acid
and percent by mass of acetic acid in vinegar are 0.5839M and 6.86%.

2.0 RECOMMENDATIONS
First and foremost, I suggest we should wear approved safety goggles while working
in the lab. These safety goggles can protect our eyes from any hazardous materials or
anything. Besides, contact lens also should not be worn because during the experiment lab,
various fumes may accumulate under the lens and cause serious injuries or might be
blindness. Beside that, lab coat with the long hand is should be the most compulsory and we
should wear gloves when using any hazardous or toxic agent.

2.1 REFERENCES
1) Anne. (n.d.). Neutralising A Base With An Acid. Retrieved from
http://www.chemistryabout.com
2) Farlex. (n.d.). The Free Dictionary. Retrieved from
http://www.thefreedictionary.com/titration
3) Ucdavis. (n.d.).Titration. Retrieved from http://www.chemwiki.ucdavis.edu.
4) W.H.Freeman.(1995).Quantitative Analysis. Retrieved from http://www.ion.chem.usu.edu.
5) Brian.(2000).Titration. Retrieved from http://www.files.chem.vt.edu