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FACULTY : CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

DEPARTMENT : GEOTECHNICAL &


TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING
LABORATORY : ENGINEERING GEOLOGY &
GEOPHYSIC LABORATORY
TOPIC : IDENTIFICATION OF MINERALS (LAB 1a)

NO. OF PAGES:
EDITION:
NO. OF CHECKING:

1/11
LAB 1a

EFECTIVE DATE :
AMENDMENT DATE:

1.0 OBJECTIVE
To familiar with the physical properties of minerals in laboratory by hand.

2.0 LEARNING OUTCOMES


a)
b)

Students should able to identify various specimens of mineral by physical testing.


Students should able to identify minerals content in rock formation.

3.0 THEORY
Most minerals can be easily identified by using the properties discussed in this chapter. In this lab, we will use what
we have learned about mineral properties to identify some common rock-forming minerals.
Later, we will learn about we can use simple tests and tools to identify common minerals.

4.0 EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS


a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

Minerals from Reference Set


Hardness Pens Set
Information & Hints
Eye dropper bottle with dilute Sulphuric Acid (appx. 10% solution)
Mineral Identification Chart

5.0 PROCEDURE
Students should learn to familiarize and observe the samples according by doing few physical tests and tabulate
the results from the observation in the Table 1.1 attached for:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

Name of mineral
Color
Luster
Hardness
Reaction with acid

Date : 19 March 2015

FACULTY : CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING


DEPARTMENT : GEOTECHNICAL &
TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING
LABORATORY : ENGINEERING GEOLOGY &
GEOPHYSIC LABORATORY
TOPIC : IDENTIFICATION OF MINERALS (LAB 1a)

NO. OF PAGES:
EDITION:
NO. OF CHECKING:

2/11
LAB 1a

EFECTIVE DATE :
AMENDMENT DATE:

5.0 PROCEDURE
Part A: Color
1. The name of minerals are identified.
2. Each color of minerals are examinated by using the references color of mineral in the mineral book.
3. The color of them are recorded in table.
Part B: Streak
1. To determine the streak of a mineral, it is gently dragged across the streak plate and the color of the
powdered mineral is observed.If a mineral is harder than the streak plate, it will not produce a
streak.
2. The color of the powder is refered in the mineral book.
3. The color of them are recorded in table.
.
Part C: Luster
1. To determine the luster of a mineral, took the mineral and torched it by using the flash light to identify
whether it is metalic, submetalic, dull or viterous.
2. The result is recorded.
Part D: Hardness
1. Hardness pen set is used to determine the hardness od the minerals. It is scratched with the lowest to the
biggest size of pen gently till scratch has shown on the minerals surface.
2. Wrote the number of pen once scratch has shown in table.
Part E: Reaction with acid
1. Carefully dropped one or two drops of sulphuric acid on each mineral,
2. The result is recorded.

Date : 19 March 2015

TABLE 1.1.1

IDENTIFICATION OF MINERALS

ROCK NAME

COLOR

STREAK

LUSTER

HARDNE
SS

Quartz
crystal

Vary light
gray

Medium
gray

Dull

Garnet

Light
Brownish
gray

Moderate
Orange
pink

Metallic

No reaction

Pyrite

Yellowish
gray

Black

Metallic

No reaction

Lead ore

Grayish
black

Dark
greenish
gray

Metallic

No reaction

Light brown

White

Sub
metallic

No reaction

Dark grey

Dark grey

Metallic

No reaction

Microcline

Plagioclase

REACTION
WITH ACID
No reaction

SKETCH

TABLE 1.1.2

IDENTIFICATION OF MINERAL

ROCK NAME

COLOR

STREAK

LUSTER

HARDNE
SS

REACTION
WITH ACID

Muscovite
mica

Pale
greenish
yellow

Colorless

Vitreous

No reaction

Talc

Brownish
white

White

Sub
metallic

No reaction

Beryl

Moderate
brown

Colorless

Sub
metallic

No reaction

Pyrite

Yellowish
gray

Black

Metallic

No reaction

Light brown

White

Sub
metallic

No reaction

Pale green

Bluish white

Dull

No reaction

Microcline

Quartz
(jade)

SKETCH

TABLE 1.2.3 IDENTIFICATION OF MINERALS


HARDNE
SS

REACTION
WITH ACID

Sub
metallic

No reaction

White

Dull

No reaction

Moderate
orange pink

White

Sub
metallic

No reaction

Hematite

Grayish
brown

Moderate
brown

Metallic

Pyrolusite

Bluish gray

White

Sub
metallic

Dull

ROCK NAME

COLOR

STREAK

LUSTER

Augite

Dark gray

Light gray

Bauxite

Yellowish
gray

Gypsum

No reaction

Dolomite

Pinkish Gray

White

No reaction

No reaction

SKETCH

TABLE 1.2.4 IDENTIFICATION OF MINERALS


ROCK NAME

COLOR

STREAK

LUSTER

HARDNE
SS

REACTION
WITH ACID

Pyrite

Yellowish
gray

Black

Metallic

No reaction

Quartz
crystal

Vary light
gray

Medium
gray

Dull

Talc

Brownish
white

White

Sub
metallic

No reaction

Quartz
(jade)

Pale green

Bluish white

Dull

No reaction

Gypsum

Moderate
orange pink

White

Sub
metallic

No reaction

Bauxite

Yellowish
gray

White

Dull

No reaction

No reaction

SKETCH

TABLE 1.2.5

IDENTIFICATION OF MINERALS

ROCK NAME

COLOR

STREAK

LUSTER

HARDNE
SS

REACTION
WITH ACID

Plagioclase

Dark grey

Dark grey

Metallic

No reaction

Light brown

White

Sub
metallic

No reaction

Muscovite
mica

Pale
greenish
yellow

Colorless

Vitreous

No reaction

Augite

Dark gray

Light gray

Sub
metallic

No reaction

Hematite

Grayish
brown

Moderate
brown

Metallic

Dolomite

Pinkish Gray

White

Dull

Microcline

No reaction

No reaction

SKETCH

TABLE 1.2.6

IDENTIFICATION OF MINERALS

ROCK NAME

COLOR

STREAK

LUSTER

HARDNE
SS

REACTION
WITH ACID

Lead ore

Grayish
black

Dark
greenish
gray

Metallic

No reaction

Garnet

Light
Brownish
gray

Moderate
Orange
pink

Metallic

No reaction

Dolomite

Pinkish Gray

White

Dull

No reaction

Pyrolusite

Bluish gray

White

Sub
metallic

No reaction

Talc

Brownish
white

White

Sub
metallic

No reaction

Bauxite

Yellowish
gray

White

Dull

No reaction

SKETCH

FACULTY : CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING


DEPARTMENT : GEOTECHNICAL &
TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING
LABORATORY : ENGINEERING GEOLOGY &
GEOPHYSIC LABORATORY
TOPIC : IDENTIFICATION OF MINERALS (LAB 1a)

NO. OF PAGES:
EDITION:
NO. OF CHECKING:

9/11
LAB 1a

EFECTIVE DATE :
AMENDMENT DATE:

6.0 ANALYSIS
(a) MINERALS NAMES
Refer to the samples prepared (Mineral from reference set).
(b) COLOUR
The color of the mineral is that seen by eye. Color may be influenced by impurities in the sample, the light in the room or
strong reflective surfaces. Therefore, color is a general rather than specific indicator.
(c) STREAK
Streak is the colour of a mineral in its powdered form. We can observe streak when we scraped a mineral along a
roughened surface such as unglazed pottery (porcelain slab streak plate), that mark left behind can be a characteristic
feature of the mineral. The streak is not necessarily the same as the color of the mineral.
(d) LUSTRE
Luster is reflected from the surface of a mineral, the amount of light is a function of the state of the surface. Luster is
described in terms of the degree of brightness.
Metallic
Submetallic
Dull
Viterous

Like polished metal


Less brilliant
e.g. chalk
Like broken glass

(e) HARDNESS
The resistance of a mineral to abrasion (scratching) is termed hardness. This property is determined by rubbing the
mineral to be identified against another mineral of known hardness. One will stretch the other (unless they have the same
hardness). Geologists used a standard hardness scale, called the Mohs scale developed by German Mineralogist Friedrich
Mohs (1773 1839) which assigns relative hardnesses to several common and a few rare and precious minerals as given
below.
Relative hardness
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

Minerals
Diamond
Corundum
Topaz
Quartz
Feldspar
Apatite
Fluorite
Calcite
Gypsum
Talc

Mineralogy
Carbon
Alumina
Aluminium silicate
Silica
Alkali silica
Calcium phosphate
Calcium fluoride
Calcium carbonate
Hydrated calcium sulphate
Hydrated magnesium silicate

(f) REACTION WITH ACID


When dilute sulphuric acid (typically 10%) is capped on to some minerals a reaction takes place.
Date : 19 March 2015

FACULTY : CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING


DEPARTMENT : GEOTECHNICAL &
TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING
LABORATORY : ENGINEERING GEOLOGY &
GEOPHYSIC LABORATORY
TOPIC : IDENTIFICATION OF MINERALS (LAB 1a)

NO. OF PAGES:
EDITION:
NO. OF CHECKING:

10/11
LAB 1a

EFECTIVE DATE :
AMENDMENT DATE:

7.0 QUESTION AND DISCUSSION


A mineral is naturally occurring and it is a solid. The mineral has a fixed chemical formula and an orderly
crystalline structure. The mineral successfully has be classified based on their chemical composition.

Silicates are the most widespread of the minerals. They are made up of oxygen and silicon the number one and
number two most abundant elements in the earth's crust. They are in the form of a tetrahedron. In these silicates, the
silicon atoms are in fourfold coordination with oxygen. This arrangement appears to be universal in these compound
and the bonds between silicon and oxygen are so strong. Thus, the existence of a silicon tetrahedron will make a
mineral as a silicate mineral and its absence will make it as a non silicate mineral.

Non-silicate minerals are minerals dont contain silica tetrahedron. They are generally can be classified as
Oxides and hydroxides, carbonates and sulfates and halides.

Rock forming minerals are made up most of the common rocks of the earths crust and mantle. Only a few are
abundant in the most common rock forming minerals. They are classified based on chemical composition and
structure.

Quartz

These minerals are found in nearly every geologically environment and at least component of almost every rock
type. They are crystallization from the magma took place below 867c and stable practically over the whole
range of geological conditions. Quartz minerals are stable in both physically and chemically, hence difficult
mineral to alter. Common color of quartz are commonly followed by colorless/white, purple, pink, gray or brown
to black. The luster is glassy to vitreous as crystals. Cleavage is very weak, fracture is conchoidal, hardness is 7
and streak is white.

Mica

Micas are a group of monoclinic minerals and are characterized by perfect cleavage. Typically paper thin, shiny,
elastic cleavage plates. Only two common occurring mica known as biotite (dark to black), usually less
commercial value and muscovite (colorless or slightly tinted). Abundant in granite and in many metamorphic
rocks and is also a significant component of many sandstones.

Date: 19 March 2015

FACULTY : CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING


DEPARTMENT : GEOTECHNICAL &
TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING
LABORATORY : ENGINEERING GEOLOGY &
GEOPHYSIC LABORATORY
TOPIC : IDENTIFICATION OF MINERALS (LAB 1a)

NO. OF PAGES:
EDITION:
NO. OF CHECKING:

11/11
LAB 1a

EFECTIVE DATE :
AMENDMENT DATE:

8.0 CONCLUSION
As the conclusion, we have indentified there are few of minerals that have their significance in construction
industry. Plus, minerals are nonrenewable natural resources that are vital for the construction. The aim of
sustainable mineral development is to ensure mineral use is kept to a minimum amount without having a
negative impact on economic growth.
We indentified that gypsum is one of the mineral used wallboard and plaster product. Moreover, some
gypsum are used in Portland cement and used in making of glass. Next, feldspar are used for making the tiles
for bathroom and building. For garnet, it is used in water filtration, electronic components, ceramics, glass,
jewelry, and abrasives used in wood furniture and transport manufacturing. Last but not least, we also
indentified that dolomite are used in road construction and traditional building construction (especially in
cement).

Date: 19 March 2015