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Analysis of Impedance Source Inverter for

Wind Energy Conversion Systems


R.Bharanikumar, R.Senthilkumar and A.Nirmalkumar

Abstract-- This paper presents a Z-source inverter for Wind


Energy Conversion System. The main thrust in Wind Energy
Conversion System (WECS) is to maintain a constant voltage at
the output in spite of variation in wind velocity. The Z-source
inverter has been identified to exhibit in steady-state, both
voltage buck-and boost-capabilities. It employs a unique
impedance network included between the dc power source and
converter circuit. The power conversion efficiency of Z-source
inverter is appreciably improved because of the traditional threestage conversion system, consist of rectifier, boost chopper and
inverter, replaced by a two stage conversion systems comprising
of rectifier and Z-source inverter. All the traditional pulse widthmodulation (PWM) schemes can be used to control the Z-source
inverter. When the dc voltage is high enough to generate the
desired ac output voltage, normal PWM is used. While the dc
voltage is not enough to directly generate a desired output
voltage, a modified PWM with shoot-through zero states is
employed to boost the voltage. The proposed Z-source inverter
with PMG and wind turbine is modeled and simulated using
MATLAB/SIMULINK.
Index TermsWind Turbine, PMG, WECS, current source
inverter, voltage source inverter, ZSI.

I. NOMENCLATURE
- air density
A - area swept by the blades
Iq,Id q - axis, d -axis current, respectively
Xq,Xd Reactance of q -axis , d - axis, respectively
Power Angle
p Differential Operator (d/dt)
V- Velocity of the Wind
- Tip Speed Ratio
t Turbine Speed
Tg Generator Torque
Vabc Phase Voltages
KS Shaft-Compliance Coefficient
Cp- Power Coefficient

II. INTRODUCTION

HE capital cost of small wind turbine driven


electrical power generation system (of rating less then
15kW) is very competitive compared to that of other
known non-polluting and renewable energy sources. This
paper addresses the issues related to the implementation of
permanent magnet generators for the stages of power
conversion of wind energy.
Permanent magnet generators are preferred over induction
generators, in view of this improved efficiency and non
drawal reactive excitation current [1]. The permanent magnet
does away with the excitation winding for the synchronous
machine and offers benefits of price reduction and improved
magnetic material characteristics [5]. Variable speed power
generation schemes enable operation of the turbine at the
maximum power co-efficient point over a wide range of wind
speeds, enabling a larger percentage of the energy capture
from the wind [5]. To facilitate variable speed operation the
Wind Energy System requires variety of power electronics
converters. In the existing schemes, the power converters have
a rectifier followed by a Boost chopper and three phase sixstep inverter see in Fig.1. This three stage conversion results
in poor efficiency for the overall systems In this paper the
main focus is on replacing the boost chopper and the inverter
by a Z- Source Inverter(ZSI) as shown in Fig.2. The diode
rectifier produces 1.35 times the ac voltage from the
permanent magnet generator. The low voltage is conditioned
by means of ZSI.
WIND

PMG
DIODE
RECTIFIER

BOOST
CHOPPER

PWM
INVERTER

GEAR BOX

WIND TURBINE

CONTROLLER

Fig.1 Basic Component of Wind Electric System


R. Bharanikumar is with the Department of Electrical Engineering,
Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, Sathyamangalam, India. (e-mail:
bharani_rbk@rediffmail.com).
R.Senthilkumar is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Bannari
Amman Institute of Technology, Sathyamangalam, India.
A.Nirmal Kumar is with the Department of Electrical Engineering,
Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, Sathyamangalam, India.

LOAD

WIND

PMG

Diode
Rectifier

Z-SOURCE
INVERTER

B. Permanent Magnet Generator Model

LOAD

Permanent Magnet Generator provides an optimal solution


for varying-speed wind turbines, of gearless or single-stage
gear configuration [6]. This eliminates the need for separate
base frames, gearboxes, couplings, shaft lines, and preassembly of the nacelle. The output of the generator can be fed
to the power grid directly. A high level of overall efficiency
can be achieved, while keeping the mechanical structure of the
turbine simple [6].

GEAR BOX

CONTROLLER

WIND TURBINE

Fig.2 Wind energy conversion system with Z-source inverter

III. THEORETICAL ANALYSIS


A. Wind Turbine Model
There are two types of wind turbines namely vertical axis
and horizontal axis types. Horizontal axis wind turbines are
preferred due to the advantages of ease in design and lesser
cost particularly for higher power ratings [6].
The power captured by the wind turbine is obtained as

1
P = R 3V 2 C p
2

Fig 3. Per phase equivalent circuit of PMG

(1)

where the power coefficient Cp is a nonlinear function of wind


velocity and blade pitch angle and is highly dependent on the
constructive features and characteristics of the turbine. It is
represented as a function of the tip speed ratio given by [6]

Rt
V

where Ct () is the torque co-efficient of the turbine, given by

C p ( )

(4)

The power co-efficient Cp is given by


16.5

116

Cp() = (0.4*) 50.5e 1


1

(5)

where

1 =

1
0.035

3
( + 0.089 ) +1

(6)

E= Vt+ Ia (Ra+jXs) = Vt+IaZs


Zs= Ra 2 + Xs 2

Vq = RS + Lq p Iq r Ld Id + rm

(8)

Vd = (RS +Ld p)Id +r Lq Iq

(9)

The expression for the electromagnetic (EM) torque in the


rotor is given by

[(

3 P
Te = n Ld Lq I q I d mIq
2 2

(10)

The relationship between the angular frequency of the


stator voltage (r) and the mechanical angular velocity of the
rotor (m) is obtained as follows:

Pn
mG
2

(11)

P
pr = n (Tm Te)
2Jg

(12)

p = r

(13)

r =

Torque developed by the turbine Tt released to the input to


the generator Tm is expressed as
T
(14)
Tm = t
G

IV. Z-SOURCE INVERTER

Generated emf / phase ,

where

(2)

It is important to note that the aerodynamic efficiency is


maximum at the optimum tip speed ratio. The torque value
obtained by dividing the turbine power by turbine speed,[6] is
formed obtained as follows:
1
(3)
Tt (V ,t ) = R2Ct ( )V 3

C t ( ) =

The rotor reference frames of the voltages are obtained


as The rotor reference frames of the voltages are

(7)

To overcome the problems of the traditional V-source and


I-source converters, this paper presents an impedance-source
(or impedance-fed) power converter (abbreviated as Z-source
converter) and its control method for implementing dc-to-ac,
ac-to-dc, ac-to-ac, and dc-to-dc power conversion. Fig.4
shows the general Z-source converter structure proposed. It

employs a unique impedance network (or circuit) to couple the


converter main circuit to the power source, load, or another
converter, for providing unique features that cannot be
observed in the traditional V and I-source converters where a
capacitor and inductor are used respectively. The Z-source
converter overcomes the above-mentioned conceptual and
theoretical barriers and limitations of the traditional V-source
converter and I-source converter and provides a novel power
conversion concept[2] In Fig.4, a two-port network that
consists of a split inductor L1 and L2 and capacitors C1 and C2
connected in X shape is employed to provide an impedance
source (Z-source) coupling the converter (or inverter) to the dc
source, load, or another converter. The dc source or load can
be either a voltage or a current source or load. Therefore, the
dc source can be a battery, diode rectifier, thyristor converter,
fuel cell, an inductor, a capacitor, or a combination of those.
Switches used in the converter can be a combination of
switching devices and diodes such as the anti-parallel
combination as shown in Fig. 4. The inductance L1 and L2 can
be provided through a split inductor or two separate
inductors.[3]

zero state possible. This shoot-through zero state provides the


unique buck-boost feature to the inverter.[2]

Fig.5 Z-source inverter

B. Equivalent Circuit
Fig.6 shows the equivalent circuit of the Z-source inverter
shown in Fig. 5 when viewed from the dc link. When viewed
from the Z-source network, the inverter bridge is equivalent to
a short circuit when the inverter bridge is in the shoot-through
zero state, as shown in Fig. 7, whereas the inverter bridge
becomes an equivalent current source as shown in Fig. 8 when
in one of the six active states. Note that the inverter bridge can
be also represented by a current source with zero value (i.e.,
an open circuit) when it is in one of the two traditional zero
states. Therefore, Fig. 8 shows the equivalent circuit of the Zsource inverter viewed from the dc link when the inverter
bridge is in one of the eight non shoot-through switching
states.[2],[3]

Fig.4 General Structure of the Z-source inverter

A. Operating Principle of ZSI


To describe the operating principle and control of the Zsource inverter in Fig. 5, let us briefly examine the Z-source
inverter structure. In Fig. 5, the 3-phase Z-source inverter
bridge has nine permissible switching states (vectors) unlike
the traditional three-phase V-source inverter that has eight.
The traditional three-phase V-source inverter has six active
vectors when the dc voltage is impressed across the load and
two zero vectors when the load terminals are shorted through
either the lower or upper three devices, respectively.[2]
However, the 3-phase Z-source inverter bridge has one extra
zero state (or vector) when the load terminals are shorted
through both the upper and lower devices of any one phase leg
(i.e., both devices are gated on), any two phase legs, or all
three phase legs. This shoot-through zero state (or vector) is
forbidden in the traditional V-source inverter, because it
would cause a shoot-through. We call this third zero state
(vector) the shoot-through zero state (or vector), which can be
generated by seven different ways: shoot-through via any one
phase leg,[3] combinations of any two phase legs, and all three
phase legs. The Z-source network makes the shoot-through

Fig.6 Equivalent circuit of the Z-source inverter viewed from the dc link

In [2],[3] the peak dc-link voltage across the inverter bridge is


expressed in equation (1) that is
vi =

T
Vs
T1 T0

where
T0 is the shoot through time period in secs
T1 is the non shoot thro time period or Active state
T is the Total time period in secs
Vs is the input source voltage

(15)

v ac = M.
TABLE I
COMPARISON OF ZSI WITH TRADITIONAL INVERTERS

Current Source
Inverter(CSI)

Voltage Source
Inverter (VSI)

1. As inductor is
used in the d.c
link, the source
Impedance
is
high, a constant
current source is
realized.[2]

As capacitor is
used in the d.c link,
it acts as a low
impedance voltage
source.

2. A current
source inverter
is capable of
withstanding
short
circuit
across any two
of its output
terminals hence
momentary
short circuit on
load and misfiring
of
switches
are
acceptable.

Impedance
Source Inverter
(ZSI)
As capacitor and
inductor are used
in the d.c link, it
acts as a constant
high impedance
voltage source.

A VSI leads to
more
dangerous
situation as the
parallel
Capacitor
could
feed more power in
to the fault.[2]

In ZSI mis-firing
of the switches
may
be
acceptable.

3.Used in boost
operation of the
inverter.[3]

Used in a buck
mode of operation
of the inverter.

Used in both
buck and boost
operating modes
of the Inverter.

4. Affected by
the EMI noise.

Affected by the
EMI noise[2]

Less affected by
the EMI noise.
Impedance
Source act as a
filter

5.Considerable
amount
of
harmonic
distortion

Considerable
Amount
harmonic
Distortion[2]

of

vi
2

where M is the Modulation Index.

(17)

vac is the output line

voltage of ZSI. Using equations (15) , (16) can be further


expressed as
v
(18)
v ac = M.B. o
2
From equation (15). the output of ZSI mainly depends on the
shoot thro zero states of gating pulses as shown in Fig 3.[2]

Fig.7 Equivalent circuit of the Z-source inverter viewed from the dc link when
the inverter bridge is in the shoot-through zero state.

Harmonics
distortion is low

v i = BV0
(16)
where B is the Boost factor resulting from the shoot through
zero state. The dc link voltage v i is the equivalent dc link
voltage of the inverter. On the other side the output peak phase
voltage from the inverter can be expressed in (3)

Fig.8 Equivalent circuit of the Z-source inverter viewed from the dc link when
the inverter bridge is in one of the eight non-shoot-through switching states.

The Fig.9 shows the simple boost control scheme for ZSI.
The output voltage of ZSI mainly depends on the shoot
through time T0 (dashed region). During active state time
T1 the capacitor in the Z-source provides stiff voltage to the
inverter.

Voltage (v)

The gating pulses to the ZSI are generated by using three


phase sine wave and triangular wave and the six separate
pulses are generated along with shoot through zero states and
active states as shown in Fig.11

Fig .9. Boost control waveform for ZSI

V. RESULTS
Time (Secs)
Fig. 11. Gating pulses to ZSI switches

Voltage (v)

The proposed wind energy conversion system with ZSI is


modeled in MATLAB/SIMULINK as shown in Fig.10. The
value of inductor and capacitor in the Z-source network is
160H and 1000F respectively. The RC filter is used to
suppress the harmonics in the output side of ZSI.

Time (Secs)
Fig.12. PMG output voltages for various values of wind velocity

Fig.10. Simulation model of wind energy conversion system with ZSI

The PMG generated voltage varies with wind velocity as


shown Fig.12. The generated voltage and frequency varies
with wind velocity. For getting desired voltage and frequency
the PMG generated voltage is given to power converters. The
diode rectifier is used here to rectify the generated voltage as
shown in Fig.13.

Fig.16. Output voltage from ZSI experimental setup

Fig.13.Rectified voltages

The rectified voltage is given to ZSI for getting the desired


voltage. From equation(18) the output voltage of ZSI mainly
depends on the Boost Factor B. During shoot thro zero states
of the gating pulse, the two inductors induce high voltages
which appear across the two capacitors. During active state ,
the capacitors provides the stiff voltage across the inverter
circuit. For the particular value of the boost factor(1.26) the
ZSI output voltage is 415v as shown in Fig14.

VI. APPENDIX

A. Specifications
PMG - 0.75kW, 380v, 1000rpm, 6poles
ZSI - 10A, 800v, L1 =L2 =160H C1 =C2 = 1000F

VII. CONCLUSION
A Z-source inverter for wind energy conversion system
has been proposed and corresponding simulated waveforms
are verified. The Z- source inverter is specially suited for
above applications. With unique features like single stage
power conversion and improved reliability, the Z-source
technology can be applied to the entire spectrum of power
conversion. The output voltage of the ZSI entirely depends on
the shoot thro states. If we increase the shoot thro time
period we can get any desired voltage. The shoot thro time is
varied according to wind velocity.
VIII

Fig.14. ZSI output Voltage of magnitude 415v.

The Fig 15.and Fig.16. shows the laboratory experiment set


up results. The pulses in the Fig.15. is used to turn on the
switches T1 and T4 of the ZSI.

Fig. 15. Pulse pattern from experimental setup for switches T1 and T4

REFERENCES

[1] Monica Chinchilla, Santiago Arnaltes,Juan Carlos Burgos, Control of


Permanent-Magnet Generators Applied to Variable-Speed Wind-Energy
Systems connected to the Grid, IEEE Transactions on Energy
Conversion, vol 21, no 1, March 2006, pp.130-135
[2] F. Z. Peng, Z-Source inverter, IEEE Trans. Ind Applicat.,vol. 39,
pp.504510, Mar./Apr. 2003.
[3] F. Z. Peng, M. Shen, and Z. Qian, Maximum boost control of the zsource inverter, IEEE Transaction on Power Electronics. vol.20,
no.4, pp833-838 July2005.
[4] ShigeoMorimoto,Hideaki Nakayama, Masayuki Sanada, Yoji Takeda:
Sensorless Output Maximization Control for Variable-Speed Wind
Generation System using IPMSG, IEEE Transactions on Industrial
Applications 2003,pp.1464-1471
[5] Tomonobu Senjyu, Sathoshi Tamaki, Naomitusu Urasaki, Katsumi
Uezato Toshihisa Funabashi, Hideki Fujita Wind Velocity and
PositionSensorless Operation for PMSG Wing Generator, Proceedings
of IEEE Power Electronics Conference. pp787-791,2006
[6] A.B. Raju, K.Chatterjee and B.G. Fernandes, A Simple Power Point
Tracker for Grid connected Variable Speed Wind Energy Conversion
System with reduced Switch Count Power Converters,
IEEE
conference on Power Electronic specillists,2003. pp 456-462.

IX BIOGRAPHIES

Bharanikumar.R was born in Tamilnadu, India,


on May 30, 1977. He received the B.E degree in
Electrical and Electronics Engineering from
Bharathiar University, in 1998. He received his
M.E Power Electronics and Drives from College
of Engineering Guindy Anna University in 2002.
He has 9 yrs of teaching experience. Currently he
is working as Asst. Professor in EEE department,
Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, Sathyamangalam, Tamil
Nadu, India Currently he is doing research in the field of power
converter for special machines; vector controlled based synchronous
machine drives, converters for wind energy conversion systems.
Senthil Kumar.R was born in
Tamilnadu,
India, on November 2, 1966. He received the B.E
degree in Electrical and Electronics Engineering
from Madurai Kamaraj University, in 1989. He
received his M.E (Power systems) from
Annamalai University, in 1991. He has 15 yrs of
teaching experience. Currently he is working as
Asst. Professor in EEE department, Bannari
Amman Institute of Technology, Sathyamanglam, Tamil Nadu, India
Currently he is doing research in the field of power converters for UPS
Applications.
A.Nirmal Kumar was born in the year 1951. He
completed his PG and UG in Electrical
Engineering from Kerala and Calicut university
respectively. He completed PhD in Power
Electronics in the year 1992 from P.S.G. College
of Technology, Coimbatore under Bharathiar
university. He was with N.S.S. College of
Engineering for nearly 28 years in various posts before joining Bannari
amman Institute of Technology, Sathyamangalam, Tamil Nadu, India in
the year 2004. He is a recipient of Institution of Engineers Gold Medal
in the year 1989. His current research areas include Power converters for
Wind Energy Conversion System and Controller for Induction motor
drives.