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Ductile Iron

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**A fatigue failure occurs in a metal component by the initiation and propagation of a crack under cyclic loading
**

conditions. Fatigue failures play a significant role in machine design and materials selection for the following

reasons.

Fatigue is probably the primary cause of 80% of the service failures occurring in machines.

Fatigue failures can occur at stress amplitudes considerably below the yield strength.

Stress concentrations such as material flaws or abrupt changes in component cross-section are much

**more harmful to material performance under fatigue conditions than under monotonic tensile loading.
**

Fatigue cracks can grow slowly and without an easily detectable change in component dimension or

**performance. Upon reaching a critical size, catastrophic failure occurs.
**

Design stresses based on fatigue criteria will be lower than those determined using monotonic tensile

**design values and will be reduced further by stress concentrations caused by material flaws or
**

component design.

The fatigue behaviour of a material is defined by its Fatigue Life - the number of stress or strain cycles at which

failure occurs. The fatigue data for a material are normally plotted on a semi-logarithmic graph of stress

amplitude versus the log of the number of cycles to failure. The resultant S-N curve defines the relationship

between the stress amplitude (S) and the number of cycles to failure (N) when the mean stress is zero. Fatigue

data are also plotted on Goodman Diagrams to define fatigue behaviour for non-zero mean stresses.

Fatigue Limit

The fatigue strength of a material is normally defined by quoting its fatigue limit, also called the endurance limit.

The fatigue limit is the magnitude of the cyclic stress at which the fatigue life exceeds a specified number of

cycles, usually 106 or 107. The fatigue strength of a material is related to its tensile strength by the endurance

ratio - the ratio of fatigue limit to tensile strength. The effect of stress-raisers on the fatigue limit is defined by the

notch sensitivity ratio, also known as the fatigue strength reduction factor. The notch sensitivity ratio is the ratio

of unnotched fatigue limit to notched fatigue limit. The fatigue limit of a Ductile Iron component is influenced by

the following factors: tensile strength, the size, shape and distribution of graphite nodules, the volume fractions

of inclusions, carbides and dross, the quantity and location of porosity, the presence of stress-raisers, and the

condition of the component surface.

Figure 3.25 illustrates S-N curves for notched and unnotched annealed ferritic Ductile Iron with a tensile

strength of 65.8 ksi (454 MPa). With notched and unnotched fatigue limits of 17 ksi (117 MPa) and 28 ksi (193

MPa) respectively, this material has notch sensitivity factor of 1.65 and an endurance ratio of .43. The

endurance ratio of Ductile Iron depends upon the tensile strength and matrix. Figure 3.26 shows that the

endurance ratios of ferritic and pearlitic grades are similar, decreasing from 0. 5 to 0. 4 with increasing strength

within each grade. For tempered martensite matrices, the endurance ratio decreases from 0. 5 at a tensile

strength of 60 ksi (415 MPa) to 0.3 at a UTS of 150 ksi (1035 MPa).

Fig 3.25 Fig 3.26 .

Fig 3. the crack initiates prematurely in the notch. These results indicate that non-spherical graphite initiates fatigue failure in unnotched Ductile Iron. The notched fatigue limit varies very little over a wide range of nodularity. The net result of the different effects of modularity on notched and unnotched specimens is the variation of fatigue strength reduction factor (notch sensitivity ratio) with nodularity shown in Figure 3. while in v-notched specimens. especially at very high nodularities. Figure 3. while the unnotched fatigue limit increases rapidly with nodularity.27 .28. over-riding any effect of nodularity. but the effect of nodule size is most pronounced as hardness increases. in which notch sensitivity increases with increasing nodularity. At all levels of hardness.29 illustrates the effect of nodule size on the fatigue limits of Ductile Irons with different matrix hardness. fatigue strength increases as nodule size decreases.27 shows the influence of nodularity on the notched and unnotched fatigue limits of pearlitic Ductile Iron.Effect of Nodule Shape and Size Figure 3.

29 .28 Fig 3.Fig 3.

30 shows that increasing the volume fraction of non-metallic inclusions significantly decreases fatigue strength. . fatigue strength is reduced by the presence of inclusions.Effect of Metal Cleanliness Under bending and torsional fatigue conditions in which the cyclic stresses reach a maximum at the component surface. careful deslagging of ladles.31. The influence of non-metallic inclusions on fatigue strength increases as matrix hardness increases. The increasing use of Ductile Iron components with as-cast surfaces places an increased importance on the elimination of surface defects for applications requiring optimum fatigue strength. including minimizing residual Mg content. the use of filters in the gating system and the reduction of the effects of flake-forming elements in both the metal and molding materials. The use of good foundry practices. good gating and pouring practices. can result in fatigue strengths for ascast surfaces that are within 5 per cent of those obtained on components with machined surfaces. and other surface defects which act as crack initiation sites. Figure 3. as shown in Figure 3. dross. The reduction of dross-related surface defects through the use of filters in the mold filling system can result in a 25 per cent increase in fatigue life.

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