This document contains a basic approach to CDMA (Code Division Multiflexing Access) which is used in 3G techniques. Enjoy it!

© All Rights Reserved

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This document contains a basic approach to CDMA (Code Division Multiflexing Access) which is used in 3G techniques. Enjoy it!

© All Rights Reserved

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ACCESS (CDMA)

Multiple Access

point of view ?

optimal from the overall resource utilization point of

view (unused time slots or frequency bands).

Orthogonal signaling, however, is also possible by

signals that overlap both in time and frequency.

(CDMA)

as different users are assigned different PN

sequence (code)

channel

interference.

CDMA main application is wireless

communication.

Multiple Access (DS-CDMA)

DS-CDMA Example

Transmitter for User 1

m1(t)

m1(t)c1(t)

Wireless

Channel

m1(t)+

m2(t)c1(t)c2(t)

m1(t)+e1(t)

TSymbol

m1(t)

m1(t)c1(t)+

m2(t)c2(t)

c1(t)

m2(t)

m2(t)c2(t)

c1(t)

m2(t)+

m1(t)c1(t)c2(t)

m2(t)+e2(t)

TSymbol

m2(t)

c2(t)

Important Note:

The value of ei(t) depends on the cross

correlation properties between c1 & c2

ei(t)=0 if c1 & c2 are orthogonal

c2(t)

mi(t):

ci(t):

ei(t):

mi(t):

Spreading code of user i

Interference sensed at receiver of user I

5

Message detected at receiver

DS-CDMA Example

Receiver signal can be written as

Assume that the receiver is interested in

decoding user 1

interference to s1(t)

The signal s1(t) can be decoded with little or no

degration

6

channel->>

polar sig.->

detecting A ... ->

DS-CDMA Example

User A: code

User B: code

The received pattern can be written as

and

The bit of user A is decoded correctly

DS-CDMA Multiuser

Interference

factor GP might not be sufficient, but more advanced MUI

mitigation/cancellation is usually needed.

characterized by relatively low cross-correlation

properties to minimize multiple access

interference (MAI).

Good CDMA spreading codes should be

characterized by low autocorrelation properties

to minimize inter-symbol interference due to

multi-path channels

Ideally it is desirable to have both correlation

functions to approach zero

10

10

Orthogonal Codes

Orthogonal codes

Fixed- and variable-length codes used in CDMA systems

For CDMA application, each mobile user uses one

sequence in the set as a spreading code

Types

Walsh codes

Variable-Length Orthogonal codes

11

Walsh-Hadamard Codes

Walsh matrices constructed recursively as follows:

H

H2n n

Hn

Hn

where H1 1

Hn

c1

1 1

H2

1 1

c1

c2

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

H4

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

c2

c3

c4

12

(OVSF) using Walsh Codes

c11

c21

SF = 1

SF = 2

c22

SF = 4

c42

c41

c43

c44

SF = 8

SF = 16

OVSF TREE

TSymbol=SF x Tchip Bit rate is inversely proportional to SF

13

(OVSF) using Walsh Codes

c11

c21

SF = 1

SF = 2

c22

SF = 4

c41

c42

c43

c44

SF = 8

SF = 16

OVSF TREE

If a user is allocated a certain code, then all codes that branch from such

code cannot be allocated to any other user

c21 is NOT orthogonal to c41, c42

14

Characteristics of Walsh

Codes

synchronization

Walsh codes suffer from poor auto-correlation

properties for time offsets that is greater than

zero

Walsh codes suffer from poor cross-correlation

properties when codes are not perfectly

synchronized (i.e., for time offsets greater than

zero)

15

generated by different input sequences can be

quite high

Easy to guess connection setup in 2m samples

so not too secure

In practice, Gold codes or Kasami sequences

which combine the output of m-sequences are

used.

16

Gold Sequences

Gold sequences constructed by the XOR of two msequences with the same clocking

Codes have well-defined cross correlation properties

Only simple circuitry needed to generate large

number of unique codes

In following example, two shift registers generate the

two m-sequences and these are then bitwise XORed

17

but using different generators

Sequence 1 Generator: x7+x3+1

Sequence 2 Generator: x7+x5+x4+x3+x2+x+1

R0

R1

R2

R3

R4

R5

R6

R0

R1

R2

R3

R4

R5

R6

Gold

Sequence

18

there are 2m-1 potential starting states of the

second generator

Gold was able to show that for particular

choices of generator polynomials, Gold

sequences could have good cross-correlation

properties

The auto-correlation of Gold codes is

proportional to 2/sqrt(2m-1)

19

Systems

spreading

Channelization codes (orthogonal codes)

correlation)

Reduces interference from other cells

20

10

Interested in user 1, other users interfere

4

6

5

1

2

21

Signal Model

from other K-1 users:

xk t 2 mk t t k ck t t k cos c t t k k

2 mk t t k ck t t k cos ct k

k k ct k

At receiver,

K

x t x1 t

xk t

k 2

22

11

Interfering Signal

t1=0)

zk t 2 mk t t k ck t t k c1 t cos ct k cos ct 1

After LPF

wk t mk t t k ck t t k c1 t cos k 1

T

cos k 1 b mk t t k ck t t k c1 t dt

0

Ik

23

At Receiver

Interfering signal may change amplitude at tk

t

T

I k cos k 1 b1 k ck t t k c1 t dt b0 b ck t t k c1 t dt

0

tk

Tb

m t c1 t c1 t dt

0 1

At User 1: I1

Tb

c t c1 t dt A

0 1

Tb

c t t k c1 t dt 0

0 k

24

12

(MAI)

interferers, can be analyzed using the central

limit theorem (sum of IID RVs)

1

Pb Q

K 1 N0

3N

2 Eb

25

Near/Far Problem

assumption that all users have same power level

Reverse link (mobile to base) makes this

unrealistic since mobiles are moving

Adjust power levels constantly to keep equal

1

26

13

Near/Far Problem

Pe Q

1

3N

1

Eb( k )

N

0(1)

(1)

2 Eb

k 2 Eb

K

dominates performance

Can result in capacity losses of 10-30%

27

14

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