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# ALEXANDRIA UNIVERSITY,

FACULATY OF ENGINEERING,
MECHANICAL DEPARTMENT.

## Lift & Drag

Applications in the Olympic Games

* Contents:-

*Introduction
*Applications of lift and drag in Olympic
games:1- swimming.
2-Javelin throw.
3-Cycling.

* References

Introduction:-

## many racing sports and all those which

use projectiles.
*Sport is a science.

1-Swimming:-

## *Skin friction: which is analogous to the "stickiness" of the

swimmer for moving through the water;

## *Eddy resistance (Form drag): the amount of water that is

sucked along behind a swimmer as forward progression is
achieved and is proportional to the cross-sectional area
that is pushed against the water.

## *Wave-making resistance: which is caused by swimmers'

movements that move large amounts of water (e.g.,
excessive diving of the shoulders and body at the butterfly
entry).

*Propulsion:-

## The hand follows a curvilinear path to

continuously find still water to push against and thus gain
more resistance than it would by pushing against water

*Lift

## is important for propulsion:- For an optimal

propulsive force, the orientation of the hand must be
constantly fitted to ever changing directions of hand
movement during the pull. In order to select the angle
of attack which gives the optimal combination of drag
and lift forces at every moment of a pull.

## 1-3-Ways to decrease resistance on body:-

2- Javelin throw:-

## * Which countries are distinguished in this game ?

Javelin
throw

Drag and
lift forces

The attack
angle

Javelin
types

2-1- Drag and lift forces :The two important points in a javelin are the center of
gravity, where the mass acts and the center of pressure
where the less tangible aerodynamic forces of drag and lift
act.

2-2- The angle of attack:*The angle of attack represents the difference between the
path of the javelin and the path of the throwing hand.

## *Some of the best throwers in the world would throw the

javelin with as little as 30 degree angle.

## *The most common method is releasing the javelin at about

a 40 degree angle, causing more lift and flight to the
javelin.

2-3- The headwinds and tailwinds javelins:Dick Held simply said to use the Tailwind javelin for
tailwinds. In truth, he knew that the Tailwind javelin out
performed the Headwind javelin in effectively all winds.

3-Cycling:-

games:-

Thank you