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Injected Harmonics

Meisam Sadeghi*, Ebrahim Babaei **, Mehrdad Rabetian* and Habiballah Nahalparvari*

*Tabriz Power Electrical Distribution Company, Hakim Nezami St. Valiasr, Tabriz, Iran.

Maisam_Sadeghi@ieee.org, Rabetian.m@gmail.com

**Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tabriz, 29Bahman Boulevard, Tabriz, Iran.

e-babaei@tabrizu.ac.ir

provide well known benefits, including reactive power

compensation, voltage support and power factor correction.

However, the capacitor banks modify the harmonic voltages

and currents in the network and give rise to current and voltage

transients. These transients, reach in harmonics, may be

harmful for the capacitor and become an increasing concern for

both electric utilities and customers since its switching usually

occurs quite frequently. In this paper, firstly, transients caused

by capacitor bank switching for a specific part of Uraemia

(IRAN) Power Network which has recently been installed in

132kV level, especially from the view point of harmonic

spectrum and THD (Total Harmonic Distortion) are analyzed

and contemplated. After that, the role and effect of some

common methods in harmonic spectrum and THD mitigation

are contemplated and compared.

Keywords: Capacitor

harmonics, THD.

1.

bank

switching,

devices, which may be stressed beyond the specified

ratings in American National Standards Institute

(ANSI)/IEEE standards [4].

Observations show that if voltage magnification

happens in the network, the over voltage can increase

even to 2pu-4pu to the various range of low voltage

capacitor banks.

As mentioned above, not only switching of capacitor

banks effects on over voltages and inrush currents are to

be considered, but also injected switching harmonics

especially in the case of series resonance of capacitor

banks must be paid attention to.

transients,

Introduction

voltages. They are used throughout the system and are

applied in a wide range of sizes. The main advantages of

shunt capacitors are their low cost and their flexibility of

installation and operation [1, 2].

Shunt capacitors are used extensively in distribution

systems for power-factor correction and feeder voltage

control [1]. Shunt capacitors are also used to compensate

the inductive losses in transmission systems and to ensure

satisfactory voltage levels during heavy loading

conditions.

The application of shunt capacitors can lead to the

effects like: Bring about severe harmonic distortion and

resonance with load-generated harmonics [3]; Increase

the transient inrush current of power transformers in the

system [1], create over voltages, and prolong its decay

rate ; put stress on capacitor themselves due to switching

transients [1]; Discharge into an external fault, and

produce damaging over voltages across currenttransformer (CT) secondary terminals; and Impact

sensitive loads, i.e., drive systems, and bring about a

shutdown [2].

tuned to a specific harmonic. This is known as parallel

resonance between the capacitors and the source

inductance (including the transformer). A parallel

resonance presents high impedance to injected harmonics

near the resonance frequency.

The resonance frequency of a capacitor can be

estimated by [5-7]:

f r = f system

short

circuit

(1)

rated

S short circut = 3V LL I sc

Where:

fr:

fsystem:

(2)

where the capacitor is to be connected.

Qrated:

VLL :

I sc :

The methods used for decreasing the effects of

capacitor banks switching can be classified into two main

groups. The first group includes methods that are used to

mitigate the effects of capacitor banks switching, and the

second group includes methods that are used to prevent

parameters that intensify and worsen these effects. Some

of the common methods can be summarized as follows

[3, 5, 6, and 8]:

1. Inductances or resistances in series with power

breakers,

2. Pre-insertion resistances,

3. Pre-insertion inductances,

4. Applying synchronous switching control in order

to prevent transients,

5. Applying MOVS (metal oxide varistors),

6. Using power switches like SF6 breakers.

In [9] a new and cost-effective method using

sequential switching scheme for mitigating the transient

over-voltages occurring due to capacitor switching is

presented.

The method utilizes neutral grounding

impedance connected at the neutral point of the switched

capacitor bank together with sequential pole switching.

In [1] a resistance is used to decrease the harmonics at the

cost of loss, also this method cant decrease the initial

voltage peak suitably. In [5], the reasons of generation

and increase of capacitor banks switching transients are

carefully analyzed through mathematic equations and the

results of applying series resistance and inductor have

been presented, but voltage peak and amplitude analysis

is only included. In [10] the principle of controlled

switching for three-phase shunt capacitor banks with

ungrounded neutral and using Vacuum Circuit Breaker is

introduced.

The methods presented in these papers that are mainly

discussing about reduction of capacitor bank switching

transients are just focusing on transient voltage peaks and

its reduction. They dont take injected harmonics and

THD into consideration and if they include any harmonic

analysis, the methods that are suitable for transient

voltage peak reduction are used for harmonic and THD

mitigation so the necessity of an economical method that

can deal properly both with transient over voltages and

injected harmonics, is undeniable.

The role and importance of transient analysis and

especially harmonics and distortions on voltage and

current waveforms generated by capacitor bank switching

which can effect the power quality particularly on

distribution section, (that is full of sensitive electrical

appliances which are being increasingly used in power

networks) reveals the necessity of analyzing these

switching transients which wildly occur in power

systems.

analyzed in a sample system and some methods for

switching transients mitigation with their advantages and

disadvantages especially on harmonic and THD

reduction, will be presented.

2.

Transients in a Sample System

that has recently been equipped with capacitor banks in

132kV voltage level will be contemplated for its

switching transient. The single line diagram of this

network is given in Fig. 1.

Bus 42

(20 kV )

Bus 72

(132 kV )

Load Bus

(20 kV )

12 MVAr

30 MW

0.5MW

Line 15.3km

38.8MVA

/Y

20 / 132 kV

30 MVA

0.196 0.02154 H

BRK 1

Main CB

18MVAr

4 F

Y /Y

132 / 20 kV

BRK 2

PF CB

0.5MVAr

been installed, is 15.3km and the generator works at

maximum power of 38.8MVA at bus bar 42 which is 20

kV and is connected to bus bar 72 through a 20/132kV,

30MVA transformer. In bus bar 72, two 18MVAr

capacitor banks are installed at the beginning of the three

phase-one circuit 132kV transmission line. The line is

15.3km long.

As it is seen in Fig. 1, transmission lines, capacitor

banks and other components are replaced with equivalent

RLC circuits and the line parameters have been

calculated per km as follows:

R = 0 .132 ,

L = 14.08 104 H , and C = 8.118 109 F . The load of line

for 20kV voltage level is 30MW and 12MVAr on average

according to network load reports. A 0.5MVAr capacitor

bank on 20kV voltage level is also assumed to be used

for power factor correction.

In order to simulate the effects of capacitor banks

switching on voltage and current of network using EMTP

PSCAD4.2.1 software, the low voltage capacitor bank

has been energized at 30ms and the high voltage

18MVAr capacitor bank is switched at 70ms.

As it is seen in Fig. 2, when the high voltage capacitor

is switched at 70ms while the low voltage capacitor bank

is in the circuit, a distortion takes place in voltage and

current waveforms which lasts for about 4 cycles. This

distortion generates a transient over voltage with the peak

amplitude of 30.096kV which is equal to 1.88pu in load

bus voltage and consequently results in an inrush current

with the peak amplitude of 0.3kA which is equal to

2.18pu in load bus current.

30

20

10

0

-10

-20

-30

harmonics which will have maximum amplitude at

switching moment is near the forth harmonic.

Injected harmonics in first cycle after switching and

THD are given in Fig. 3.

V load bus[kV]

14.0

0.000

0.025

0.050

0.075

0.100

0.125

0.150

a)

0.40

0.30

0.20

0.10

0.00

-0.10

-0.20

-0.30

-0.40

I load bus[kA]

-0.0

[4] 8.70911

a)

100

0.000

0.050

0.100

0.150

0.20

b)

and inrush currents, the harmonics that are injected to the

network caused by capacitor bank switching can

generally excess IEEE 519-1992 AND ENRE 184/00

standards for THD and harmonics. Thus harmonic

analysis of the capacitor bank switching will be taken

into consideration. Therefore, equivalent harmonics of

resonance frequencies are calculated as follows:

Resonance frequencies are calculated from equations

(1) and (2) in this way as follows:

So the resonance frequency of 18MVAr capacitor

bank is:

3 132 10 3 1 . 5 10 3

= 218 . 24 Hz

18 10 6

harmonic to the transmission line, the resonance

frequency should be divided to main system frequency as

shown in (3) [10]:

H =

fr

fs

80

60

40

bank is switching

f r = 50

(3)

this way:

218 . 24

H =

= 4 .3 4

50

20

0

0.060 0.080 0.100 0.120 0.140 0.160 0.180 0.200

b)

Fig 3: a) Harmonics and b) THD of load bus voltage when 18MVAr

capacitor bank is switching

bank, the main generated harmonics are the 3rd, 4th and 5th

ones. These generated harmonics are dependent on the

maximum power that each line can transmit and also the

capacity of the banks [4]. The generated THD also

increased after switching by 78% and fades after 130ms

(about 5 cycles).

As the use of electrical appliances and loads which are

sensitive to distortions caused by harmonics, is

increasing, analysis of these distortions and ways of their

prevention becomes more important. Paying attention to

the popularity of capacitor banks in whether distribution

or transmission lines. It can be said that the switching of

these banks can play a very important role in harmonic

and distortion occurrence.

3.

Capacitor Bank Switching Effects on Harmonic

Distortion and Generated THD

series inductance and resistance, pre-insertion impedance

and also synchronous switching control in harmonics and

THD mitigation are contemplated.

It is notable that permanent series impedance increases

losses, while applying pre-insertion method can minimize

losses. Synchronous switching needs an accurate control

circuit to be designed in order to recognize the

R optimum

1

2

(4)

LS

C

inductance, pre-insertion R&L and synchronous

switching control are compared from the view point of

their effectiveness on reduction of 3 main generated

harmonics (3rd, 4th and 5th) when capacitor bank is

switched.

a)s eries R , b)s eries L, c )pre-ins ertion R & L, d)s y nc horonous s w ithc ing

generated harm onic s in firs t c y c le after s witc hing

14

b c

a)

b)

c)

d)

12

Voltage [kV]

10

s e rie s R

s e rie s L

pre -in s e rtion R & L

s yn ch oron ou s s with cin g

4

H arm onic s

switching and equipped with (from left to right): a) series R b)

series L c) pre-insertion R&L d) synchronous switching

( 10 ) decrease the amplitude of the harmonics (3rd, 4th

and 5th) by 18%. The resistance must be less than 15 in

order to keep losses in an acceptable range. Applying a

series inductor decreases the amplitude of the harmonics

by 50%, but it is necessary to mention that applying this

element shifts the generated harmonics toward first

harmonic which results in a bigger filter size. Applying

pre-insertion method with 80 resistance according to

equation (4), causes the same problem, but mitigates the

amplitude of the harmonics by 80%. Synchronous

switching decreases the amplitude of harmonics by 75%

and also doesnt have the problem of generated

harmonics movement toward fundamental harmonic.

In Fig. 5 the effect of the above-mentioned methods on

THD is given while the capacitor bank is switched on the

system.

Fig 5 shows that series resistant have the least effect

on THD peak mitigation. Using series inductor mitigates

THD peak by 40% but it damps less slowly. Applying

both pre-insertion R&L and synchronous switching

appropriate as well.

THD (%)

expenditure consequently.

The appropriate values of R and L can be calculated

practically. The optimum amount of resistance for preinsertion impedances can also be deriven from this

equation [5, 6]:

switched and equipped with: a) series R, b) series L, c) pre-insertion

R&L, d) synchronous switching

4. Conclusions

In this paper, capacitor bank switching transients,

especially when voltage magnification occurs, were

analyzed. The results show that generated harmonics and

THD can have adverse effects on network and loads,

unless switching transients are anticipated and controlled.

Applying common switching transients mitigation

methods such as series resistor, series inductor, preinsertion R&L and synchronous switching reveals that

simultaneous use of series resistor and inductor in the

form of pre-insertion with proper values is an effective

and economical approach.

And in the case of choosing each method these

statements can be taken into consideration:

As the amount of resistance increases, THD and

amplitude of generated harmonics mitigate but

losses increase.

As inductance increases, the amplitude of

generated harmonics decreases even more, but the

harmonics come nearer to the fundamental

harmonic and also THD damps more slowly and

remains more in the system.

References

[1] T. Hensley, M. Singh, M. Samotyj, M. McGranghjan, and R.

Zavadil, Impact of utility switched capacitors on customer

systems Magnification at low voltage capacitors, IEEE Trans.

Power App. vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 862868, Apr. (1992).

[2] H. M. Pflanz and G. N. Lester, Control of over voltages on

energizing capacitor banks, IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., vol. 1

PAS-92, no. 3, pp. 907915, May/Jun. (1973).

[3] R. A. Adams and S. W. Middlekauff, Solving customer power

quality problems due to voltage magnification, IEEE Trans.

Power DEL., vol. 13, pp.1515-1520, Oct. (1998).

[4] A. Kalyuzhny, S. Zissu, D. Shein, Analytical study of voltage

magnification transients due to capacitor switching, IEEE Trans.

Power DEL., vol. 24,no 2, pp 797-805, Apr. (2009).

[5] J. C. Das, Analysis and Control of Large-Shunt-Capacitor-Bank

Switching Transients, IEEE Trans. Industry App., vol. 41 no. 6,

pp. 1444-1451, Nov./Dec. (2005).

[6] M. Sadeghi, E.Babaei, Proposing a dc Inductor Based Topology

to Control Capacitor Banks Switching Transient, 24 International

Power System conference, Iran, PSC 2009.

[7] P. E. Issouribehere, F. Issouribehere, G. A. Barberaand D. Gmez

Measurements and Studies of Harmonics and Switching

Transients in Large HV Shunt Capacitor Banks, power

engineering society general meeting, 2007, pp.1-8.

IEEE Trans. on Industry App., vol. 44, no. 4, July/Aug. (2008).

[9] S.G. Abdulsalam and W. Xu, Sequential phase energization

technique for capacitor switching transient reduction, IET Trans.

on Transmission and distribution, vol. 1, pp. 596 602, July

(2007).

[10] F. H. Ding, X. Y. Duan, J. Y. Zou and M. F. Liao, Controlled

Switching of Shunt Capacitor Banks with Vacuum Circuit

in vacuum, 2006, vol. 2, pp 447-450.

[11] L. Cipcigan, M. Chindris, J. Rull, A. Rusu, A. Sumper, R.

Ramirez, and R. Alves , Mitigation of capacitor bank energization

harmonic transients, IEEE Transmission and distribution

conference, Latin America, Aug. 2006, pp 1-5, 15-18.

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