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ANNALS OF MATHEMATICS
Vol. 42, No. 2, April, 1941
OF NUMBERS IN A
BY KURT MAHLER
1 _ ID
I ? n!.
(3) The numbersa(k) depend only on F(X) and not on the special choice of the
latticepointsX(k), and theysatisfytheinequalities
< __ or(2)
<
<
...
...
T(h)T(nh+)
488
< (n!)2
(h=
1, 2,...
ANALOGUE
S GEOMETRY
TO MINKOWSKI
OF NUMBERS
489
> 0 if X # 0,
af2Zf2
..
(1) <
'T(2) <
.<
(n)
(1)
(2) .
(n)
1A
490
KURT MAHLER
SPACES
9?
an arbitrary field,
lnonArchimedean
valuationof theelementsx of Ts,'
Qt theperfectextensionof R withrespectto thisvaluation,
Pn thendimensionalspace of all pointsor vectors
Ix Ia
X =
(X1i
*..*
Xn)y
max
{X]
.n Ixn)
and
Y =(y,
**,yn),
X +T Y = (Xi + Yl **
aX
XY
IX
(2)
aXI = IaIIX
(3)
(4)
IXFYI
(ax,,
n
E
h1
Xn+T Yn),
,
aXn)
XhYh
Iifaisanyelementof
, 0) = 0;
9;
wmax(I XlIY);
iXY I ?IXI
Y.
If Z is any subring of R, and X"), ... , Xtr) are vectors in Pn , then these
are called TZdependent,or Zindepcndent, according as there exist, or do not
exist elements al , '
")
*** +
arX(r) =
0.
oI = 0, but I x
I xy
X T Y !I
Ix
> 0 for x $ 0,
11y 1,
rMax(I X 1, YI)
ANALOGUE
S GEOMETRY
TO MINKOWSKI
OF
NUMBERS
491
sion m, if there are an, but not m + 1, Zindependent elements in it. The dimensionof a Trmodulis at most n, while that of any other class of moduli need
not be finite.
2. The distance functionF(X). A functionF(X) of the variable point X
in P. is called a generaldistance function,if it has the properties:
F(X) _ 0;
(A):
(B):
(C):
(A'):
If
(1, O 1..
I]
0),
(O)i..1
E(2
...
0))
En)=(.O*,1
X = xiE(l) +
i.e. F(X) ?
+ xnE(n),
max
h1,2, **,n
(IxhiF(E(h))),
and therefore
(5)
max (F(E
h1,2.
^))).
,* n
<.
We prove now that for special distancefunctionsthereis a second positiveconstantay,such thatfor all points in Pn
F(X)
(6)
yI X
1.
We consider only convex sets and bodies as defined; they are obviously symmetrical
with respect to the origin.
2
492
KURT MAHLER
PROOF:
We assume that (6) is not true and show that this leads to a contradiction.
By hypothesis,there is an infinitesequence S of points
X(h)
(Xh)
(h
#0
,X(h))
..
1, 2, 3,
*..),
such that
Fj
F(Xh)
Since
F(X)
IX I
F(aX)
I aX I
lim F(X(h)) = 0
h%o
1,
, X
,(i)
X
,X(2)
(k = 1, 2, *.. ,n)
are bounded.
Hence we can replace S by an infinitesubsequence which we again call S:
, sueb that the n real limits
X(1),
X(2),
X(3),
(7)
ak =
lim
(k =1,
I Xk h
h0X
2, ..*,
n)
k 1,2,.* * , n
ak=1.
and
(h) =
(h'
(1,h)
*,h)
U.,
Ekl)+ X*(h)
say, where
lim
X*(h)
0.
h0X
Hence by (5)
F(E(1)) = F
(_X*()
_<max
( (h))
II
F(X*(h))
_ ma
=<max(F(x(h)), r
X*(h)j)
and thereforefor h *
493
OF NUMBERS
GEOMETRY
! 0, i.e. F(E())
0 < F(E(')
which is not true.
Hence the rank m
'S
TO MINKOWSKI
ANALOGUE
=0,
Put
2.
xi(gh)
X(g)
X(h)
Xm
Xm
< max
F (X
F (X
<
and therefore
limF(X(Q'))
0.
h0X
g4m0
lim IX(g.)
limmax (I x(gA) ,
g4
D#00
hx?)
l)
hoo
hXo
(8)
(k=
lrn
hco
Xmn
1,2, ***, n)
lim 1 = 1,
so that
if*
(X1,*
Xn
i4
0.
\ 1h)
~~X~~h)
limF(X(h))0
) am
\Xm
amnh*o
g4m0
hoo
F(Y)
I < e for X
i < 5,
KURT MAHLER
494
(k
I=
l X(g'h)
g900
= m, m + 1***,n),
hoo
0;
kx(Qh)
_
Xmh
Xi
Xm(g
(i xk
ikmax m
am
i,
j)
Xk
(k = m + 1,
,n).
Hence the index IA of this nonexistinglimit (8) is < m  1. For this index,
lim x,,X
gXoo
hoo
either does not exist or exists and is differentfrom zero. Hence there is an
infiniteonedimensionalsubsequence
(i = 1, 2, 3, *.)
X(h)
(9)
of the double sequence X(
h),
I X(g"hi
h)
O0
i00
limi x (2$hi)I = 0
(k =m, m + 1,
,n),
i00
X(g,,hi)
are bounded fori m*.
Let i,, foreveryi, be the coordinate
(k
X(gihi)
of maximumvalue Jx(2;ih;)
1, 2,
**
,m  1)
J;hence
 it  >C,
I I
since
i.
(j
1, 2, 3,
..
Xoi
aii
(xj
Xn
(j= 1, 2, 3, ... ),
TO
ANALOGUE
495
OF NUMBERS
S GEOMETRY
MINKOWSKI'
(k = 1, 2, ...,
=a
n)
+
am= a =+l
an)=1,
=an=O.
and
0 ? lim F(X'(j))
<
i*oo
lim F(X(Q
,hii))
0,
i.e.
lim F(X'(j))
0
j400,
0,
X/(2))XIW3
has the same propertiesas S, but is of lower rank. Hence by induction with
respect to the rank, a contradictionfollowsalso in this case.By the inequality (6), all points of the convex body C(r) lie in the finitecube
lX
with
,xn)
x=
Xh1= O
Xh# O
of elements. By (6),
of C(r) is not empty and contains an infinity,
 Xh <
*=
(x (h)
th
in this set,
(h),
for which
F(Xt
) <
7r
Xhle =0
?_
1+
<
496
KURT MAHLER
**=Xh=O,
X=*
Xh
>
x,,2)
x,(n)
+ UneX ')
k
Uhe
k1
(h =
ahke Xk
1, 2, *,n)
with a matrix
(ahke)
h o1 92, *,n
multipla of the unit vector (1). Suppose that the statementhas already been proved for
all spaces of n  1 dimensions,but that it is not true in Pn . There is thereforean infinite
sequence 2 of points
X(k) =
(X(k),
(k = 1,2,3,*
X(*))
..
F(X(2)),
F(X(3)),
= X
k_o
Write
X(k)
Xjk) E()
X(k)*
(k =
1, 2, 3,
1, 2, 3,
*..)
where
X()*=
(0,
X(k),
kao
(k
x(k))
By (6),
x(k) I is bounded in
ANALOGUE
TO MINKOWSKI'S
GEOMETRY
OF
497
NUMBERS
(h = 1,2 ... * n)
forall sufficiently
small e. We assume that e is sufficiently
small and omit the
index e. Put
4P(X)
(Ilu 1,*
r max
I, ua
1) = r
max
h1,2, * *,n
(E
k1
ahkXk)
Theii obviously
F(X) ? X,
if
+,(X) <
T.
I X1I  41
and therefore
lul
lxii?(1) 1.
=

sufficientlylarge k
F(X(k))
X(1)*, X(2)*,
Xjk+1)
X(3)*,
4~k)
q(k),
F(X(k*))
...
lim I q(k) 1
then
1,
1.
Obviously
X*(k)
lies in P,j1,
q(k)X(k) =X(k+l)*
X(k+)
q(k)X(k)*
F(q(k)X(k))
$ F(X(k+l)).
Hence
F(X*(k))
F(X*(2)), F(X*(2)),
contains an infinityof differentelements and has the limit X, so that again a contradiction
is obtained.
498
KURT
MAHLER
Hence, if
,
U1X
(O,
En),
then
F(X')
I ul F(X('"))
<
T.
so that
1u2!
___
1.
?2l
Ix2)
1,*,unI<1,
t,
4)T(X) ?
if
F(X)
< r.
1~~~~~~~~
 mT(X)
=
CEhkXk
h1,2,  , n
jke
?1
F(X) < r
and
dT (X)
<
b(X)
for all X, and the function47(X) depends on r. Suppose, however, that the
set of values of F(X) is the same as that of the values of I x 1,and that r is also
an element of this set.6 Then
bT(X) = 4(X)
becomes independentof r, and forall X in Pnidentically
F(X) =
(10)
(X))
as followseasily fromthe property(B) of the distance functions.E.g., if 91= R is the padic field(p > 3), n = 2, and
F(X)
6
It sufficesto assume that F(X) does not assume every positive value, and that the
equation F(X) = T has no solution.
ANALOGUE
TO M.INKOWSKI
S GEOMETRY
OF
499
NUMBERS
Next assume that thevaluation j x I is not discrete,so that its values lie everywheredense on thepositivereal axis. Now the n vectors
x
X (2)
(1)
(n)
max
(I Uh, I)
h1,2,,n
max
(
\
h1,2,,n
k1
ahkeXk
Evidently
F (X)
r.
(11)
if
bTf(X)
Then
xI <?
and therefore
I Ulfl
(l) I < 1+
Ui I
Hence, if
X,
UlfXI)
xi
(0,
then
F(X')
< (1 + ()r.
(1 + O)r, i.e.
?;
Ijr
F(a1 X') _
T
Hence
4
?
2,
jalX2j
?
(1 +
E)02,
and therefore
UeI
< (1+
jUE
I2
so that, if
Xe
'U2eXf
(u u2eXel)
X? +
(0, 0, X
***
4)
then
E)T
I <
(1
(h =
E)
hence
(12)
bT((X)
<
(1 +
E)
if F(X)
<
1, 2,
n),
500
KURT
MAHLER
If thevaluationi x I is everywhere
dense on thepositiveaxis, thentheconvex
bodyC(r) can be approximatedarbitrarily
near bothfromtheinside and outside
bymeansofparallelepipeds.
Take now, say r = 1 and put
'ib (X)
(Di(X)
max
h=1,2,***,n
(
ahkaXkcx)
k=1
F(X) < 
and
< (1 + e)F(X).
Hence from(11)
F
(a)1
.(,,)
F (X) _ 1a _ ( + e) 4,(X),
and from(12)
F (X)<_ 1,
(e
(1 +
E)n,
be,(X)
(1
E)I
n<
(1
.) n+1 'F(X)
and thereforeuniformlyin X
(1 +
(13)
F(X) ? (1 + e)16(X).
?(X)
E)(n+l).
be n
p(m+2)
p(n)
mgindependentelementsof M,
p(l)
p(m)
p(2)I...
p(n)
p(2))..
.*,
v1P(
) +
v. of f, viz.
Vh =
* +
n
Z fhkXk
k=1
VnP(n)
ANALOGUE
OF NUMBERS
GEOMETRY
TO MINKOWSKIS
501
wherethe constantmatrixin ?
(flhk)h,k=1,2,...,n
h=m+l
=0 O
VkP)
we have
F(X)
= F(
vP(h)
=*(V)
where
n
n
*(Vt)
Vm) =
@*
(VI,
fkl
kXA;
#nkXk)
space Pmof
is now obviouslya special distance functionin the mdimensional
all points V = (vI, **, vm). Every convex set with m > 0 can therefore
be consideredas a cylinder,the basis of whichis a convexbody of m < n dimensions.
5. The polar body of C(X). Let F(X) be the generaldistancefunctionof ?4,
Y an arbitraryvectorin P,. Then we definea functionG(Y) by
(14) G(O) = 0; G(Y) = lim sup (I XY j) forall X withF(X)
1, if Y F 0.
Q(l)
Q(n)
Q(W)
{1 forh =
forh
k,
,
ky
and write
Y = w1Q() +?
WnQ
then
n
WA =
(h
hkYk
Be
k=1
V1W1 +
Vn~n
1, 2, *.*.* n),
502
KURT
MAHLER
Hence obviously
G(Y) = x,
unless
= Wn = 0.
wm+1=
Suppose thereforethat
(15)
W+l
Wm+2 
Wn
and put
G(Y) X=(W)
where W
(16)
(wi,
X(0) = 0;
0,
so that the relation of X(W) to 4(V) is the same as that of G(Y) to 17(X).
By ?4, I(V) is a special distance function,and so is X(W), as follows easily
from(16) and the properties(A'), (B), and (C) of [(V).
We call G(Y) the polar functionto F(X); for ?n < n it is not itselfa distance
function,but becomes one in the mdimensionalspace (15), where it coincides
with X(W). The set C'(1/r): G(Y) < 1/r, is furthercalled the polar set to
C(r); it lies entirely in (15) and here is identical with the convex body
X(W) = I/r.
Suppose now that rn = n, i.e. both F(X) and G(Y) are special distance functions; then the polar set C'(1 1) becomes a convex body. We shall prove that
in this case therelationbetweenF(X) and G(Y) is reciprocal,i.e. F(X) is the polar
functionto G(Y) and C(r) the polar body to C'(1/r).
This assertion is evident, if F(X) = X 1,for then obviously G(Y) = IYI.
Further let
=
(ahk)h,k1,2,...,n;
(ahk)hk1,2...,n
be an arbitrarymatrix in Pt with nonvanishingdeterminant,and its complementarymatrix,so that forall X and Y the scalar product7
UX4qKY
XY.
= G(O KY)
= IiM
sup (I X.
F (X) S1
YI)
uiMsup (IOX.KYI)
F (fX)?1
= limsup (IXYI).
F ' (X)?1
Further,if F1(X) and F2(X) are two distance functionssuch that for all X
F1(X) <. 12 (X),
= (x,
7The vectorX'
, x )=QXis
definedbyx,
aEd
X for
1,2,*
h=
, n.
ANALOGUE
'S
MINKOWSKI
TO
OF NUMBERS
GEOMETRY
503
then the polar distance functions G1(Y) and G2(Y) satisfy the inverted inequality
If the valuation I x I is
(ahk)hL,k=1,2,...,,
F(X) = D(X) = I AX I
The polar functionto F(X) is therefore
G(Y) = IAKYI,
and since (AK)K = A, the statementfollowsat once.In this case, the definition
of G(Y) can obviously be replaced by the simpler one:
(17)
x&o F(X)
( )
(17)
Secondly, let I x I be everywheredense on the positive real axis. Then to
every 5 > 0, thereare two matrices
A1=
and
(c))h,A=1,2,...,n
A2 = (ahk )h,k1,2,...,n
 A1X I,
F2(X)
 A2X
then forall X
F1(X) < F(X) ? F2(X)
as follows easily from (13). Hence if
G1(Y) =
AKYI,
(1 + 5)F1(X),
G2(Y)
A YI
=I
(1 + 26)G1(Y)
TlieIi by hypothesis
6 ?
polar
IFIA)
<
1 +
26.
(1 + 6)1F2(X) _ F22(aX)
Hence
1+26
ys tlle polar
since
fulletioll
to P'.(a.X)
Y) <
is G,.a
G2
(Y),
504
KURT MAHLER
(17')
By the proved reciprocityof F(X) and G(Y), the formulae(17) and (17') remain trueif G(Y) is replacedby F(X) and vice versa.
II.
"GEOMETRY
OF NUMBERS"
if x =0,
1ef, if x $ O is oforderf,9
t theperfect
extensionof 9Twithrespectto thisvaluation,i.e. thefieldof
Laurent
series
all formal
X =
afZf + afiZf'
afr22Z
...
withhighest
in f; if af is thenonvanishing
coefficient
withcoefficients
index 0, thenIx = e
An thesetofall "latticepoints"in Pn, i.e. thatofall pointswithcoordinates
in Z.
The valuation I x I is by definitiona powerof e withintegralexponent. We
assumethe same forall distancefunctionswhichwe considerfromnow onwards,
and we shall consideronlyconvexsets or bodies C(r), wherer is an exact power
ofe, say r = e.
7. The volume V of a convex body C(1). Let F(X) be a special distance
function,C(et) the convexbody F(X) < et,wheret is an arbitraryinteger. It is
obvious that the set m(t) of all lattice pointsin C(e') formsa fmodul. In the
special case F(X) = X 1,this set has exactly
Mo](t)= n(t + 1)
elements. Hence, by theinequalities(5) and (6), m(t)has always
Cindependent
a finitedimensionAM(t),and thisdimensionis certainlypositiveforlarge t.
9 The order of a rational function is the degree of its numerator minus the degree of its
denominator.
ANALOGUE
TO MINKOWSKI
'S
GEOMETRY
OF
NUMBERS
505
Obviously
Mo(t + 1) = Mo(t) + n.
(18)
et
F(Xo) ? r ? et+'.
Hence
F(Xi) ? et,
et'+
(19)
The two equations (18) and (19) show that for large t, the functionM(t)
Mo(t) of t is independent of t. Hence the limit
V
(20)
lim eM(t)Ho(t)
t00
Let
(ahk)h,k=1,2,...,
and Q' =
(ahkJhk==1,2...,n
Y = OX or X = Q
= F(X) =F(QY);
<
et,
V' = ID IV.
10Thisdefinition
is analogousto thatofthevolumeofa bodybymeansoflatticepointB
in an ordinary
reaispace.
506
KURT MAHLER
a1Xl
+ *
+ arX( )
withcoefficients
in f into the identical relationin the Y's, and vice versa; therefore findependentelements of m(t) or m'(t) are transformedinto findependent members of the other modul. Hence both moduls have the same
dimension:M(t) = M'(t), q.e.d.
2: Q is a trianglematrix
all
0
a2l a22
an2
an,
...
ann
an
D = alla22...
0.
a11x1,
Y2
a21X1
Yn =
an1X1 +
a2X2,
an2X2 +
annuX;
Therefore
I all
I y*
2 I<
I a22
,
(yr, *
..
** Y*l2o
<
y) satisfiesthe
jann Ia
IaiiI1a221 ...
Iann
IDI.
11We use the trivial lemma: "To a and b = 0 in Z thereis a q and an r in X, such that
a = bq + r and I r i < i b 1.
ANALOGUE
TO MINKOWSKI
S GEOMETRY
OF
507
NUMBERS
= F(Q'Y)
< e',
et,
et.
I ahk l_ 1
(h,
k = 1, 2, ... , n).
Then the same inequalities hold for the inverse matrix Q?, so that for every
point X
IQXI _ AXIS
I XI =i2IQQX
_
I
QX
and therefore
X=
I.
IQXI = IQ
Now to every lattice point X thereis a second lattice point Y such that with
a suitable point Y*
QX= Y+
Y*
IY*
<
1;
then conversely
Q?Y = X + X*,
X*I < 1
and
X* = QIY*
QX*
Y*.
The relation between X and Y is thereforea (1, 1)correspondencewhich obviously leaves invariant the propertyof findependence. Suppose that
e' > r.
12 This can be proved, e.g.
by a method analogous to Minkowki's "adaptation"
tice; Geometrie der Zahlen ?46.
of a lat
508
MAHLER
KURT
= F(i'Y)
< et,
Q = Q4 + Q*
whereU24is of the class 4, while the elements of Q* lie in 9 and have so small
values that
is of the class 5. Then the resultfollowsat once, since Q = Q4Q5
Two conclusions are immediate from (21). The convex body C(et), i.e.
F(z'X') ? 1, is obtained fromC(1) by the transformationX' = ztX; hence
it has the volume V(e') = entV. Secondly, let G(Y) be thepolar distancefunctionto F(X), and V' thevolumeof theconvexbodyC'(1), i.e. G(Y) ? 1. Then V
and V' are relatedby theequation
VV'=
(22)
1.
F(X) =
and
AX
G(Y)
AKY 1,
hence
V=
and
QAI)
V'a=
(IAkIj)
IA
Xik
(Xk)
x(k)
(k = 1, 2, *
, n),
such that
o(2)
F(X(n))= (n)
egn
~
Ihk==1,2,..n
By
ANALOGUE
TO
'S
MINKOWSKI
GEOMETRY
OF NUMBERS
509
<
<
(n)
...?<.
and
<1<2<*..gn
(24)
(25)
a()
(n) =
(2)
* ** +
wherethe y's are elementsof R. Then the coordinatesXhof X are linear functions with determinantD of the coordinates Yh of Y = (y1, * , yn). We
definea new distance functionI1(X) by
I1(X) = I Y
By (21), the convex body 11(X) < 1 has the volume I D 1; we determineit in
the followingway:
If X is a lattice point, their Y also has its coordinates yhin Z. For since
with Y also X is obviously a lattice point, we mayassume without loss of
generalitythat
(26)
IY < 1,
II(X) =
jE
h1
XhX,
X(l
e.
X(m1)
('
ne
(t)
_ 1
t00
q.e.d.
YJZgX~l)
ZtnX(n7
510
KURT
MAHLER
jYj.
Since
(h = 1, 2, ** , n),
F(zg?^X(^) = 1
obviously
F(X) < 1, if 2:(X) _ 1.
But the converseis also true:If
F(X) ? 1, then 2(X) ? 1,
and therefore
evidently
IY I,
F(X) = 2(X) =
identically
in X.
For supposethaton the contrary
fora certainpointX in Pn
F(X) ? 1, but 2(X) > 1.
Thenlet m with1 < m ? n be thegreatestindexforwhichI YmI > 1; hence
if m < n
Ym+l1
@*XYn _1
Write
Yh =
zyh +
(h = 1, 2, ..
Yh
n),
Ym+l
Yn = ?0,
Yn S
,*
and put
Y = (y1,
yn)
= (Y1
Yn*)
so that
Y = zY* + Y**.
Obviously,Y* is a latticepoint,Y** a pointsuch that Y** < 1. Alsowrite
n
m
n
X*
h1
Z yghX
zgOAX(h)
h1
so that
X = zX* + X**.
Then fromZ:(X**) =
Y**
1,
F(X**) ? 1.
X** =
h1
h
(h)
ANAIDOGUE
'B GEOMETRY
TO MINKOWSKI
OF
NUMBERS
511
Hence
F(zX*) < max (F(X), F(X**)) < 1,
F(X*) < 1,
and
F(X0) <
whereX0 = z"X*.
points
(i)
sincethe m lattice
is impossible,
This inequality,however,
XO=
m
E
h1
X)X
yAmghX(h)
X()
...
(1) a(2)
=(~)a2
(n)
.1
~)
Dz(g1+g2+
proved.
The equation(25) is therefore
Fromthisequationand from(23) in particular
(1)
<
F (X) <
V1
(1)
(2)
*.
(n)
a,
y(2)
(27)
since I D
numbers
(28)
y(n)
satisfying
X(h) y(nk+l)
=1
for h = k
t0 for h sPk;
= 1, thesepointsare latticepoints. XWe
definen positive
further
~(nh+l)
(h
= 1 2 ...
n),
512
MAHLER
KURT
so that
?
(29)
<
(1) <
r(2) <
n)
<
and
j1
< j2
< * ..<
Jn
F(X) =
(31)
G(Y) =
max
(a(h)
 Xy(nh+l)
I)
max
(r(h)
i YX(nh+l)
I)
h1,2, ** n
h=1,2, * *,n
Z yhz
X =
(32)
X(h)
h=1
then
F(X) = Y,
Y=
Yh =
* yn)
(Y1,Y2X
*Y
(h =
1, 2, *
, n)
(h) = ejh.
G(y(h))
(2)
Z(n)
G(Z(2))
<
G (Z(n)),
..<
X =
E3(XY(nh+l))X(h),
h1
= max (I XY l) = max(
where the maximum extends over all points X of C(1), i.e. for which
XY(nhil)
'
1_
= 7(nh+l)
(h = 1, 2, .,
n).
By choosing X such that there is equality in one of these conditions, but that all other
vanish, the assertionfollowsafterreplacing h by n  h + 1.
scalar productsXY(nh+1)
ANALOGUE
TO MINKOWSKI'
5 GEOMETRY
513
OF NUMBERS
14
then
G(Zh
h)
(yh)
Considerthe n + 1 vectors
(1)
X(2)Y.
.I
(nh+l)
z(h)
Z(1)IZ(2)
XWiZ(j)
11
2) ..
n h + 1)
I _ F(X)G(Y),
Therefore
as was to be proved.
From (28) and (29) in particular
(34)
(1)\~
/n1v1n1~
(1 <
...
(8)
Xh+
rh
(h
= 1, 2,
n),
14
<
(h = 1, 2, ... ,n).
514
KURT
MAHLER
,
*,n)
satisfiesthe inequality
*.
F(P + X) =F(ZrhXc))
(n)
<
or by (28)
F(P + X)
(35)
F(1 ~~X(n)
+ X)>eTl
(36)
(36)F
of the
forall lattice pointsX, as followsimmediatelyfromthe Seindependence
n vectors
XM I X(2
* n**,
n
X)
ZX.
max (l axn
xi 1, **
t IX
*   + anlyn1
+ Yn 5$
I,an are
0.
)*
0)C
I alXn
X1 + pi I < e,   * ,I anlXnXn
+ Pn1
, pn)
thereis a
<E
(ahk)hk=1,2, .*,n
be a matrixin S withdeterminant
1; thenthereis a matrix
UT =
S GEOMETRY
TO MINKOWSKI'
ANALOGUE
OF NUMBERS51
1, such thattheproductmatrix
in Z and determinant
withelements
Qi* =(a~h)h,k=1,2,
U=
..
satisfiestheequation
max (a~I)=1
h=1 k=1,2, ,
PROOF
:15
max2.,n
XI)
Z:ahk
,X~n
...
F(X (h))
=
Xk
of determinant D
(h
(h)
=1,
such that
=1,
2, ..
n)
satisfy
Let~XX=(xk,
n.
(h)~~,,,
X = yiX('1+..
i.e., Xh
YnXn
thenF(X) changesinto
F(X)
F'(Y)
max
(h =1,2,.n)
x X~k
aikk)
where
=a
The n points X
=X(h)
oix.
kh~==,
into Y
are transformed
FP(E (h))
E
E(h) (h
(h)
,n);
hence
1, 2, .
n,
1, 2, ...
(h
that is
(37)
ahkI
max~~~~~~(
()(k
=1, 2, ...
,n).
15Ananalogous
in the real fieldwas provedsome timeago by C. L. Siegel in
theorem
a letterto L. J. Mordell. The presentproofand theorem,thoughnot stated in Siegel's
paper,are obtainedfromit withonlyslightchangesby makinguse of the resultsin ?9.
516
KURT MAHLER
(38)
(2) ...
a(i)
n
=
xahth,
h=1
where the ah are the elementsof its last column,and the ah their cofactors;
therefore
max
({6h)
h1,2t* * ,n
Al
>
max
h=1,2, * n
(iah DV}
An
(n)
(2)
o' **.o'
1oof ?2'and use (37) and (38); thenit followsthat thereexists
an (n  1)th orderminorAn, ofAnformedfromthen  1 firstcolumnsof R'
and satisfying
(n1)
fromthen
an (n  2)th orderminorAn2ofAn1formed
and satisfying
(2)
I A~...2j~(1)
2 firstcolumnsofU'
(n2);
(1)
(2)
I A1I =
LT1.
Without loss of generality,we may assume that the determinantsso constructedare exactlythe principledeterminants
Iahk Ihk=1,2,..
Ar =
(r = 1, 2,
*.
..*~
Um
g(f)
o2
.
n',i
0
1
O ...0 .
?
...
*
m rows
?
1)
inm
1
1
t~~~~~i
rows
(m
*
1) 22
n).
ANALOGUE TO MINKOWSKI'S
517
GEOMETRY OF NUMBERS
Qm = Q'U1U2 *
and forh, k=
then Qi=',
ahk
ah%
(a(k
1, 2,
)hk1,2
...
n),
1, 2, *,n
if k # m, and
qfma
...
t +
g(m2a)aa.
The n principaldeterminantsof Om
ahk
Ar=
(r =
hki,2,...,r
1, 2,
n)
. .,
(h, k  1, 2, ...*
<
n),
1, 2,
*..,n).
II1 2,
*.**,n)
1< a k)
Ia(m')
(3)
(h
a ()
a(')
(h, k
<(
for h = 1, 2,
, n; k
*.
1, 2,
, m 1.
Then Ur, as we shall prove now, can be constructed such that Qr satisfies the
stronger inequalities
(40)
(
)
(hk
(k)
?ahk

cr
<
foi h
., n; k=
12,
1,2,
**,
1, 2, *,r.
1y
...
+ ajm)
+ a rm1n
th(y1,
...
7m)
th
tl =
t2 =
**
tm1 =
AmiYr =
I)th
row
Hence
Ami
Am,r
q(m)
If
(r
+:mlr
On solving,
=
whereeAm,r,is the (m 
IYr!r
...n)
0.
1,2,
and
(h
fi'om
of Urn, now
be
1),
(r)
the
I ain)
(37),
(mi)
O'(1)
<
 ,.m
1, 2,
number
Yrl
<I 1
>
in Z
satisfying
(r
1.2
the
*..
inequality
1m
),
518
KURT MAHLER
so that
(?n)
(i)
/ (m)
_?max
th(9()
=t
g(m)
(qf9f
* *
* v(1)
,
*..
\
(mi)
(m)
(mi)
9 (M
y1)aM
(gqMZ 
ymDahm1i"
<
Since the remaininginequalities (40) are contained in (39), the matrix Um has
the required property. Hence if
U1 = XUI U2 * *
variables. Let 52 =
(ahk)hk1,2,.. ,n
be again a matrixwithelementsin ? of
ce
wherefi, f2
F(X If)
max
h91,2,. .n
I ahlX1
(efh
ah2x2
ahnXn
I),
, fn
are n integerssuch that fi + * + fn= 0. By the theoremoflast paragraph,thereis a matrix U withelementsin Z and determinant1,
such that the product matrix
=
1U = (ahk)
.
satisfiesthe equation
n
IImax
h1 k1,2,
,n
(I ah*k)=1
eh=
max
k1,2,**,n
(IahkZ)
and put
ahk = zh ahk
Then by the transformationX = U Y, F(X)
function
(h,k = 2,*,
2.(hk1,
If0)changes into a
max (IaZ*y*+ *
h1,2, * *,n
(h =1, 2, .. ,n)
n).
new distance
+ aZ,"yn1),
TO
ANALOGUE
519
GEOMNIETRY OF NUMBERS
'S
MINKOWSKI
FP(Yr(h)) <
(h = 1, 2,
n).
Ff()r(l))
F'(Y''9)
F'(Y")
1,
and so all minima of F(X If0), where the fO's are given by (41), have the same
value 1, and in particular, the firstminimumof F(X f0)has the exact value
1
where V = 1 is the volume of F(X f0) ? 1.
As an application, let a1, a2, ... , an be any n elements of f, and q1l
tn
7 n elementsoff satisfyingthe equations
'12 X **
ah~l0 +
If y1, Y2,
*X+
ahn
7h
ah
(h
=1, 2, ...
n).
IYh
(h
1) 2,@n),
then obviously
ahlyl
ahlxl
(Xl
ahnyn +
X n) =
X,X2
ahnXn
ah
ah
(h
=1, 2, ...,
n).
U IY satisfies theinequalities
I
(h =
1,
2, ... , n),
TI
h=1
Iahlxl
On
ahn Xn +
ah I?<
ah,
lz.
14. Distance functionsin Mp. The field 9 of all rational functions with
coefficientsin f has valuations differentfrom the "infinite" valuation I x
.
whichexpressesthe behavior of x at the point z =
Let r be any elementof f, and p the "finite" point z = t. Then we definea
valuation I x Ioby puttingforx $ 0
x I
=e
520
KURT
MAHLER
af(Z
CXf+1(Z 
;)f +
t)f+1
Caf+2(2 _
t)f+2
with coefficients
in r,and if af # 0, then I x = ef.
Let now F(X) be any special distance functionof 9; we use it as the measure
for the size of X. Further let F(X I p) be a general distance functionof Rf.
Since
F((z
)f
efF(X
this distance functionmay assume arbitrarilysmall values, ifX lies in the modul
Anof all lattice points. By (5), there is a constant rp > 0 such that
) < rFIx
F(X
here forX = (xi,@
, x)
XIX
max (I xi
x,,
Hence
F(X
and C(et
<
_ et.
Then the set m( t  ,) of all lattice points ill C(et  ) contains with X and Y
also aX + bY, when a and b lie in Z; it is thereforean 5Emodul. By the
general theoryof polynomial ideals,'6 this modul has a basis of n lattice points
p
(k  1, 2, *
(p(k)
, n),
such that everypointX in Anbelongsto m( t I p), ifand onlyit can be writtenas
X = YiP(1) +
+ ynP(n) with y, *
,yn in H.
The determinant
D(t) =
(k)
h,k=1,2,.,n
0,
I D(t)
is positive.
16 Compare the basis theoremin ?80 of van der Waerden's "Moderne Algebra", Vol. II,
1st ed.
521
= F(X)
= F(QY),
52 = (p (k)
by the transformation(42).
V' =
A\(t)1Vj
where V denotes the volume of F(X) < 1. By the results in ?9, there are n
, y(n) with determinant1, such that
lattice points y(l)
...
F(Y())
F(Y(n))
..,
Q y(k)
X(k) =
_(Vt).
V.
X'n) given by
(k = 1, 2, ... , n)
X(k)
(X(k)
IXh
h,k=1,2,...n
*..
F(X(n)) =
t)
(
(k = 1, 2, *.,n).
_ e'
F(X?k)
IP= O(et).
I D(t)
A( t) = O(ent),
max
h=1,2,*
(I
ahlxl
ahnmXn
Xnm+h
Ip),
I ahk
lP <?1
(k
n)
1 2
akAhk
Hence, if Y1, *
(42)
l < et
Xnm+h =
(Z 
Yi, .*
b)tYnm+h
Xnm =

(k
Xn
1, 2,
..
In)
are defined by
Ynm;
(Ahlyl +
AhnmYnm),
(h = I1,2, .. * *,m),
then F(X Ip) < e'. Let F'(Y) = F(X) be the special distance functionin 9
< 1 has the
derived from F(X) by the transformation(42). Then F'(Y)
522
KURT
y()
MAHLER
IV
F'Y))
mt
= V
The n lattice points X(1,*..., Xn) derived fromthese by (42) have the determinant (z )mt
and satisfythe conditions
mt
ENGLAND.
(k = 1, 2, * *
n).