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# ME 443/643

Design Techniques in
Mechanical Engineering
Lecture 5:
Altair: Material Model & Units
Instructor:

## ME 443/643: Material Models

JT

Material Types
All the finite element (FE) materials can be broadly
classified into the following types:
Isotropic
The characteristics of the material remain same along any axis
or plane
Example: All metals and alloys

Orthotropic
This material has mechanical properties that are different along
three mutually perpendicular directions
Example: Any composite material (fiber-glass, kevlar-epoxy,
etc), wood (assumed), etc.

Anisotropic
The material properties are different along any axis or plane
Example: Concrete, sand, wood, foam, composite materials, etc
ME 443/643: Material Models

JT

Radioss is the processor or solver available in
HyperWorks software
Can process linear (bulk format) and non-linear
material models (block format)
We will for now limit our study to linear analysis
Radioss (bulk format) has a total of 7 material
models:

## Isotropic: MAT1 & MAT4

Orthotropic: MAT5 & MAT8 (2D elements only)
Anisotropic: MAT2 (2D only) & MAT9 (3D elements only)
Fluid: MAT10

## ME 443/643: Material Models

JT

MAT1
Defines the material properties for linear, temperature-independent,
isotropic materials

JT

## For a simple linear structural

non-temperature analysis only
E, NU & RHO need to be
defined
For thermal stresses A and
TREF are defined

## When conducting vibrational analysis, there

might be a need to define GE
GE = 2*(critical damping coefficient)
This material model can be used to define a
composite material by assuming the properties
of the material are predominant in only one
direction.
In such a case, the stress limits ST, SC & SS
need to be defined for failure analysis

MAT4
This material card is needed for heat transfer problems like
conduction and convection

JT

## This card can be used in

combination with either MAT1,
MAT2, MAT8 or MAT9 card for
conducting a combined
structural-heat transfer problem

MAT5
Defines the thermal material properties for orthotropic (and also can
be used for anisotropic) materials

## ME 443/643: Material Models

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MAT8
Defines the material properties for linear temperature-independent
orthotropic material for two-dimensional elements

## ME 443/643: Material Models

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MAT2
Defines the material properties for linear, temperature-independent,
anisotropic materials for two-dimensional elements

## ME 443/643: Material Models

JT

MAT9
Defines the material properties for linear, temperature-independent,
anisotropic materials for solid elements

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in HyperMesh

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## ME 443/643: Material Models

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Geometry Creation
Create a square of 2 units length

## ME 443/643: Material Models

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Meshing
Mesh the square geometry with 2D elements
We will go in detail regarding meshing in the next class

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Meshing

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Meshing

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Meshing

## ME 443/643: Material Models

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Meshing
When your FE model is ready to be solved, all the lines, nodes, surfaces (and any
unwanted components) created for meshing need to be deleted
Do not delete the nodes formed when the mesh was created
Hence, to make our life easy, we tell HyperMesh to delete the surface automatically
when it has created the mesh

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Meshing

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Meshing

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## Deleting the Geometry

When deleting the geometry objects like lines and nodes, it is a good practice to hide
the elements so that you do not delete the element nodes by mistake.

## Click on this icon to

hide/show the elements
of the auto1 component

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## ME 443/643: Material Models

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Material Collector

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Create MAT1

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Create MAT1

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Creating MAT1

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## Assigning MAT Collector to Component

The created material collector needs to be assigned to the intended component (auto1)

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## ME 443/643: Material Models

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Units
Like most of the FE software, there is no option to choose a
particular unit system in HyperMesh
It is left to the user to maintain consistency in the units
Length, mass and time are the basic units
Based on these the units of other quantities should be maintained
consistent

## Example: A FE model created with the following basic units

Length = mm, Mass = kg, Time = s
The derived quantities should be having units as shown below to
maintain consistency

## Force = mass x acceleration = kg x mm/s2 = N/1000 = mN

Pressure/Stress = Force/Area = N/mm2 = 1x106 Pa = MPa

## ME 443/643: Material Models

JT

Consistent Units
Mass
kg

Length
m

Time
s

Force
N

Stress
Pa

Energy
J

kg
kg

mm
mm

s
ms

mN
kN

MPa
GPa

mJ
kN-mm

Slug
lbf-s2/in
ton

ft
in
mm

s
s
s

lbf
lbf
N

psf
psi
MPa

lbf-ft
Ibf-in
N-mm

1 slug = 32.18 kg
1 kg/m3 = 0.9112 slug/ft3
1 N = 0.2248 lbf
1 ft = 0.3048 m

## ME 443/643: Material Models

JT

Ending Remarks
Practice creating components and assigning
material models to them
In a FE model make sure the units are
consistent
Inconsistency in the units is the number one reason
for new FEA users to get incorrect results

Next Class
Look at common types of elements
Create 1D, 2D and 3D elements using HyperMesh
HW 1 is due

JT