You are on page 1of 20

Structure and Allusion in Horace's Book of "Epodes"

Author(s): R. O. A. M. Lyne
Source: The Journal of Roman Studies, Vol. 95 (2005), pp. 1-19
Published by: Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20066814 .
Accessed: 17/02/2015 21:57
Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at .
http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp

.
JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of
content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms
of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org.

Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend
access to The Journal of Roman Studies.

http://www.jstor.org

This content downloaded from 179.210.154.158 on Tue, 17 Feb 2015 21:57:13 PM


All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

in Horace's

and Allusion

Structure

Book of Epodes
R.

I THE

O.

A.

SPECIAL

M.

LYNEf

PLACE

OF EPODE

13

in two places from the Oxford Classical


First, a text.1 The one I print differs significantly
Text of Wickham
and Garrod
(1985). I adopt
Bailey's Teubner
(1901) and Shackleton
iv. In 1. 13 the
reserve
Section
in
for
for
amici
1.
discussion
of
this
amice
but
3,
Bentley's
describe

manuscripts

Homer's

'great',

'fair-flowing'

'deep-eddying',

Scamander,2

which

can
battle in Iliad 21, as 'small', parui, and nothing
such a tremendous
gives Achilles
is
of
small
For Heinsius'
Tiberim
Odes
this corruption.3
defend
1.2.13 flauum
flaui,
other designation Xav0oc, which
the crucial point is that it caiques Scamander's
moment;
is fond of bilingual plays,4 a shrouded
is in fact the one most used in Iliad 21. Horace
suits

allusion
suits

the

example
the more
sound of
Horace's

the

rhetoric

prophet
the
of

a reference

Chiron,

and

passage.

Chiron's

to

this

more
is to

here

purpose

overtly
allude

twin-name5

divine
to

an

outstanding

as I shall amplify below; so the more his foe is built up,


invincibility,
ismade. Bentley in his edition of 1711 proposed proni, objecting to the
suits
fr?gida flaui ('scabre & dure exibit'), but the alliterative pattern frflf...fl
to this figure, an addiction which this very poem evidences.
virtual addiction

of Achilles'
that point

h?rrida
niuesque
Threicio

tempestas
deducunt

Aquilone
occasionem
de

die,

caelum
Iouem;
sonant,

et

contraxit
nunc

imbres
nunc

mare,

rapiamus,
uirent
dumque

siluae

amice,
genua

1
to Archilochus
I (znd edn, 1989);
follow M. L. West,
Iambi et Eleg? Graeci Volumen
and Hipponax
References
is preserved
in the Loeb of D. E. Gerber,
West's
numeration
Greek
Iambic Poetry
(T) to
(1999); testimonia
are in Gerber.
I refer to the accessible
For Alcaeus'
Loeb of D. A. Campbell,
Greek Lyric,
Archilochus
fragments,
to Vol. II (1988); Campbell's
numeration
Vol. I (198z), and for Anacreon
for the most part follows E. Lobel and
D. L. Page, Poetarum
Graeci
Lesbiorum
(1955) and D. L. Page, Poetae Melici
(196z), and (for Alcaeus)
Fragmenta
on the
commentaries
it virtually overlaps with the edition of E.-M. Voigt, Sappho et Alcaeus
(1971). The following
on Horace's
A Commentary
Horace
(Z003), D. Mankin,
Epodes have proved most useful: L. C. Watson,
Epodes
// libro degli Epodi
(1995), and A. Cavarzere,
(199z). Watson's
immensely
scholarly work was still in proof
Epodes
sent me a preview of his notes on Epodes
I did most of my work on this article, and he generously
when
13 and 14.
I owe great thanks to Professor
who
G. O. Hutchinson,
read a draft of my article and offered his usual acute
He will observe and I hope forgive that I have resisted some of his scepticism.
criticisms
and suggestions.
2
in the passage of Bacchylides
Iliad zo.73, zl.i,
cited below.
15, 603, and other similar passages. Cf. [?iv?]vxa
*
is a balanced
obelized
discussion
of the
parui is printed by Wickham-Garrod,
by Shackleton
Bailey. There
inMankin,
textual problem
op. cit. (n. 1), ad loc, but his text too prints parui. parui is also defended
by e.g.
at Lucan 9.974L,
C. Giarratano,
Placeo.
Il libro degli Epodi
'inscius in sicco
(1930), 93. The context
Q. Orazio
erat' needs to be noted: Caesar
is visiting
the miserable
serpentem puluere riuum / transierat, qui Xanthus
present
stream that he crosses
was.
I argue against
is what great Xanthus
day remnants of great Troy, and the unnoticed
one of the main
a predictable
'defences' of parui in n. 45 below. G. Davis provides
late twentieth-century
argument
?
The Rhetoric
from genre in Polyhymnia.
Discourse
of Homer
the
15: a 'contradiction
(1991),
of Horatian
to
nonsense
in
inversion of scale from "great"
"small"'. Why
deliberate
should Horace
do this and make
dramatic
terms of Chiron's
variant praui is printed and defended
op. cit. (n. 1) and
by Cavarzere,
speech? A scholiast's
Watson,
op. cit. (n. 1), ad loc.
4
... Licymniae
exilis Plutonia
I cantus ([y]>i?K-, ?juvoc) at 2.12.13E
1.4.17, dulces
(with
(tt^oCxo?) at Odes
on Horace:
R. G. M. Nisbet
A Commentary
and M. Hubbard,
Odes Book U (1978), ad loc), z.16.17
(Nisbet and
Cf. Lucretius'
belli fulmen at 3.1034, picked up by Vergil at Aen. 6.84Z-3
Hubbard).
Scipiades,
own Ceraunia
telo at Georg.
Ennius?). Cf. too Vergil's
1.33z, and so on.
(icepauv?c)
5
At Iliad zo.74 we near ?f tne river 'whom the gods call Xanthos,
but men call Scamander',
that he is known when we learn that 'Zeus bore him' (14.434, zi.z).

JRS 95 (2005), pp. 1-19. ? World Copyright Reserved.


Exclusive Licence to Publish: The Society for the Promotion

of Roman

Studies zoos

This content downloaded from 179.210.154.158 on Tue, 17 Feb 2015 21:57:13 PM


All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

(owed ultimately
and

it is as Xanthus

to

R.

et decet,
tu uina
cetera

O.

A.

M..

LYNE

senectus.

obducta

soluatur

Torquato
mitte
loqui:

moue
deus

haec

meo.
pressa
fortasse
benigna

in sedem

uice.

nunc

et Achaemenio

reducet

nardo

perfundi

fronte

consule

iuuat et fide Cyllenaea

10
diris pectora
sollicitudinibus,
ut grandi
cecinit
Centaurus
alumno:
'inuicte
dea nate
mortalis
puer Thetide,
te manet
Assaraci
flaui
tellus,
quam
frigida
leuare

nobilis

findunt Scamandri
unde

nec mater

rupere,
illic omne

Parcae

subtemine

domum
uino

malum

deformis

lubricus et Simois,

flumina

certo

reditum

tibi

leuato,

cantuque
dulcibus

aegrimoniae

15
te reuehet.

caerula

alloquiis.'

on this atypical epode.6 My discussion


is already much bibliography
will be
to
and
thrust
will
be
show
the poem is not only special, but special in such
its
that
selective,
a way as to merit an important structural position
in the book. More exactly, if it had been
a closing poem, it would have performed
that role admirably.
There

I shall

talk

of

to do

and Symposium

Genre

as

'Horace'
so.

invitation

I gather

the

speaker
comments

my

in the

since

setting,

sympotic

under

is a very

there

clear

headings.

In the Epodes book as a


The poem is a striking example of generic 'crossing', Kreuzung.
whole, Horace makes his official literary descent clear. He writes in the genre of iambi, and
iambi is indeed the title he gave to his collection
and Hipponax;
his models are Archilochus
I shall use it).7 Alignment
it is conventional
is
since
talk,
grammarians'
though
('Epodes'
is
in Epode 6.13-14, while Archilochus
is advertised
with both Archilochus
and Hipponax
does indeed seem to
focused upon in Epist. 1.19.23-5. Of available models, Archilochus
have

that

been

the most

is more

Archilochus

important.

frequently
that

has

not

If we

echoed
been

consider

text,

than Hipponax's;

spotted.8

Hipponax

so

it is Archilochus',

Epode
is, however,

2 perhaps
recognized

as we

far

owes
as

can

a debt
the

author

tell,

to
of

and Cavarzere,
A good place to start is with Watson,
op.
op. cit. (n. 1), zi4ff.,
op. cit. (n. i), 417-37, Mankin,
as regards the point of the
in interpretation
between Mankin
and the author, especially
(n. 1), i99ff. Differences
to some detailed
I shall point
will be manifest.
points where we differ, but some only. On many
exemplum,
text is very open. The commentary
our differences may co-exist: a Horatian
of O. Tescari, Quinto Orazio
occasions
N. Rudd,
'Patterns in Horatian
I Carmi e gli Epodi
Flacco,
lyric', AJP 81 (i960),
(1936) is still worth
consulting.
to say on our poem. See too
to Epode
13 of course, but is a classic article with much
373-9Z is not solely devoted
cit.

but highly
The Odes of Horace
(196z), 173 is brief in his comments,
op. cit. (n. 3), 89ff. S. Commager,
'An interpretation
of Horace,
has
Cf. too R. S. Kilpatrick,
13', CQ zo (1970), 135-41; Kilpatrick
Epodes
but other interesting
of the poem
idea about the occasion
(see below),
things to say; C. Babcock,
'Epodes
on language and meaning',
in Wege der Worte:
Fleischhauer
13. Some comments
(1978),
Festschrift
f?r Wolfgang
e saggi filologici
del carpe diem\
Note
227?51;
(1986), 'Sem?ntica
107-18; A. Tra?na, Poeti latini (e neolatini).

Giarratano,
suggestive.
a curious

Horace
'A sympotic Achilles,
Lowrie,
13', AJP
Epode
Horace
and the Rhetoric
(1998), 96 offers brief
of Authority
7
See below and n. 77 for the title iambi. The genre of iambi
M. L. West,
Studies in Greek Elegy and Iambus (1974), 22ff.,
of uxfi?oi, not vice versa'. Our first occurrence
characteristic
M.

a very helpful piece; E. Oliensis,


113 (1992), 413-33,
I say.
from anything
comment,
entirely different
from metrical
is of course to be distinguished
iambics:
e.g. 'Iambic metre got its name from being particularly

fr. 215 Kai


of the word l'af-i?oc itself is in Archilochus
is meant: West
than metre
(p. 25) thinks that
\i out'
certainly more
la^i?cov oiks
xepTTC???cov \i?Xei, where
Imight have said, with conscious
and perhaps
Archilochus'
i'a^i?oi, coupled with TSp7icoA,ai, points to an occasion;
to a genre.
anachronism,
suggestive
8
to Horace;
see G. O. Hutchinson
use of Archilochus
in the forthcoming
On Horace's
Cambridge
Companion
in fr. 19 makes
As for Epode 2, when Archilochus
Mankin's
and Watson's,
opp. cit. (n. 1), indexes s.v. 'Archilochus'.
to the wealth
of Gyges etc., it seems to me likely that he
'Charon the carpenter'
express in direct speech indifference
sets up Alfius
in Epode
of hypocrisy
is setting him up for an ironic revelation
2; but it must be
just as Horace
nor Plutarch, Moralia
Rhetoric
admitted
that neither Aristotle,
470D-C point to any such denouement
1418b.23-31
in their references

to the piece.

This content downloaded from 179.210.154.158 on Tue, 17 Feb 2015 21:57:13 PM


All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

AND

STRUCTURE

the 'First Strasbourg


10.

Epode
eschews

As

Epode'

for

metre,

choliambics,

situate

instructions

BOOK

are

seems to be behind

and this poem

(fr. 115) and others,


Horace's

all

EPODES

OF

and

Archilochean,9

demonstrably

he

blazon.10

metrical

iambist he may be, but Epode 13 is clearly sympotic in its setting, the
nor Hipponax,
so far as we can tell,
to be so, and neither Archilochus

in this way.11

poems

known

by West
nearly

Hipponax's

An Archilochean
first and only epode

IN HORACE'S

ALLUSION

13 is not only
from
stimulus

Epode

pattern.
sympotic
Taking
in the first person,

and

these

instructions

but

situated,

sympotically
an external

the

event,

then

merge

with

a well

follows
issues

poet

convivial
we

Here

moralizing.

are on familiar but uniambic ground. Indeed, apart from its epodic Archilochean
metre,
lyric.12 It anticipates Ode 1.9
Epode 13 most resembles a sympotic type from monostrophic
in particular, and shows affinities to the Alcaean
sympotic poem behind that ode (fr. 338),
and to other Alcaean
sympotic poems besides: cf. frs 38A, 346, 347(a),13 352, 367.H
instructions,
The

Issuing

ODjLiTiOG?apxo?.15

Horace
sense

is modelling
intrusion

of

since the use of the symposiarch


sympotic

and

poems,

since

his

voice
on

material

on

voice

is, as we

generic

is not appreciated
the

role

of

the

that

shall

see,

in Epode
symposiarch

of

the

thereby

symposiarch,
reinforced.

1316 and in other


as

is not

easy

to

But

lyric,
come

by as one might have thought, the point is worth elaborating.


are Plutarch, Moralia
The fullest texts on the role of the symposiarch
620A-622B
and another fascinating
and Plato, Laws 639 d-641,
Conuiuales)
(Quaestiones
snippet
occurs

in Plato's

Symposium.

The

first

two

are,

of

course,

tendentious,

In Plutarch it is an
but we can identify important emphases.
the symposiarch
(aipe?o~9ai, 620B): the location and its owner
the purposes of his discussion on the symposiarch's
function,
(620A); he appears to
accepts pressure and 'chooses himself
role clearly does not automatically
go with the territory. True
is,

according

to

Plutarch,

to

7ipOGT(XTT?iv,620B); but he must

take

know

authority

and

and understand

give

especially

Plato's,

that one chooses


assumption
do not dictate who it is. For
itself convivially
set, Plutarch
be at his own house, but the
to the title, the symposiarch

orders,

prescribe

his aujmroTai

(ks?,sU81V,

so that he can, for

9
See Mankin,
op. cit. (n. i), 14-22.
10
see Hipponax
and choliambics:
T8, T12, T13, and the fragments
themselves; Theocritus'
19
Hipponax
Epigram
Gow = AP 13.3 on Hipponax
to Horace,
in choliambics.
written
In contrast
Callimachus
is, significantly,
parades
in his Iambi. While
choliambics
Callimachus
himself as a genially
reborn Hipponax
presents
(Iambus I), Horace
cf. A. Kerkhecker,
Callimachus'
Book of Iambi (1999),
gives more the impression of a relatively genial Archilochus:
275-6, but note too Hutchinson,
op. cit (n. 8).
"
likewise Cavarzere,
Mankin,
op. cit. (n. 1), 8 and 214 is misleading,
op. cit. (n. 1), 33. In the elegiac fr. 4.6-9
on board ship is envisaged,
as in Epode 9 (R. G. M. Nisbet
in T. Woodman
and D. West,
drinking
Poetry and
in the Age of Augustus
note 62 is useful for Archilochus
Politics
fr. 60
(1984), 10-18, esp. 17; Nisbet's
4). Hipponax
seems to refer to a sympotic occasion,
but in the past tense. For a reconstruction
of the occasion when archaic iambi
were delivered
see M. L. West, Greek Elegy and Iambus (1974), z3^
(nothing to do with symposium),
12
A. Pardini, RFIC 119 (1991), 271L argues plausibly
term for a 'sympotic' poem
that there was no Greek
in the
and talks of the
way that that term is used now, i.e. to describe a poem that brings to the fore its sympotic occasion
?
an event, enjoying
etc. When Aristotle
the wine, celebrating
the moment,
typical concerns of symposia
pouring
talks of Alcaeus'
to all Alcaeus'
he is referring
'drinking songs' (o~K??ua ju?^r)) at Pol. 1285.3.38,
(says Pardini)
on the assumption
to be uttered at symposia.
that all were destined
But the absence of a limiting and
poems,
technical term for a type of poem does not mean that that type of poem did not exist. Labelling
lags behind creation.
D. L. Page, Sappho and Alcaeus
a separate modern
(1955), 299L argues against employing
label, but usefully groups
at 299-310.
and comments
upon sympotic
fragments,
u
This is closely based on Hesiod,
allows us to conjecture
how Alcaeus'
Op. 58zff., which
fragment continued.
14
With
this fr., cf. Horace,
Ode 4.12.
15
For other titles of the symposiarch
see Pellizer
of the symposium),
in O. Murray,
(apxcov, ?amXeuc
Sympotica
to their culture,
the Romans
the symposium
the Latin terms reflected the Greek:
(1990), 178 n. 7. When
adapted
Varro in Book 20 of his Res Humanae
(Nonius Marcellus
p. 142 M, 206 L), 'in conuiuiis
qui sunt instituti potandi
'arbiter bibendi'; Odes
modimperatores
magistri'; Hor., Odes 2.7.25,
1.4.18, 'rex (regnum) uini'.
16
and repeated by Mankin,
op. cit. (n. 6), 136, citing little evidence,
Kilpatrick,
op. cit. (n. 1), ad loc, explains
Horace's
instructions
in Epode
the wine
for a guest to specify the
13 thus: it seems 'proper etiquette
regarding
to his host'. Watson,
that Horace's
addressee
op. cit. (n. 1) on Epode
vintage
13.6 assumes
(tu) is 'the host or
and quotes the same remark of Kilpatrick's.
symposiarch'

This content downloaded from 179.210.154.158 on Tue, 17 Feb 2015 21:57:13 PM


All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

R.

O.

A.

M.

LYNE

need for
example, get the right strength of wine for each drinker.17 In Plato, a symposium's
a ruler is (no surprise) very emphatically
stressed: o?ko?v
Tipcoxov ji?v Kai xouxoi?
?e? (640C). For Plato too the identity of the symposiarch
does not go with the
apxovxo?
in his words,
location:
he must be 'provided',
(sKTCopi?saGai, KaGiaxavai,
'appointed'
the company:
Kai jnf|v 7iepi y s
640C and D). We hear again the need to understand
vivid then is Plato,
auvouaia?,
ob? ?oiKSV a?xov (j)p?vijLiov e?vai 8e? (640C). Particularly
Symp. 213e: here the tipsy, late arrival, Alcibiades,
perceives an excess of sobriety in the
assembled
himself
company,
ap%cov xf|? Ttoaeco?, and, in Agathon's
house, gives
appoints
an order for drink to be produced,
and generally takes over. Alcibiades'
self-appointment
as symposiarch
is funnily narrated, but the comparative material
from Plato and especially
Plutarch shows that it is not essentially
this
transgressive. And once we have appreciated
we
can
that
the
conventional
order
drink
of
Alcibiades'
for
point,
appreciate
punctuation
in Plato is importantly wrong.18 In sum, Plato, Laws, Plutarch, and indeed by implication
is neither
Plato, Symp. all suggest that an authoritative
symposiarch,
holding sway, who
the

nor

host

The

on

home

symposiarch's
advice

issuing

and

orders

be

may

turf,

voice

quite

normal

practice.

is part of lyric sympotic


for

present

or

imminent

poetry.

In several odes we find Horace

sympotic

not

occasions,

at

necessarily

his own domicile,


and to his social superiors as well as equals and inferiors: 1.4 (the consul
2.14 (Postumus,19 and the implied sympotic setting
Sestius); 1.9, 11, 36, 2.3 (Q. Dellius);
there

is

'Telephus';

Postumus'
clearly
a party
for the

own
'augur

note

gardens:
Murena');

'barum

3.28.

The

quas
situations

colis
vary

arborum');
are more
and

3.19
or

(to
less

is the one to which


blurred, but the role of the elected and authoritative
symposiarchus
So too in Epode 13. A forerunner of this symposiarch
voice
Horace most approximates.
see most obviously
frs 338, 346, 347, 352,
may be sensed in many fragments of Alcaeus:
is often beyond certainty)
also (though the context
38A, 335, 362, 367, etc. In some of
Horace's

odes,

and

some

of Alcaeus',

we

may

get

the

impression

of

a party

for

two,

as we

?
how consonant with reality, we cannot tell.
do in Epode 13 (Odes 1.9, 11, for example)
The poem also employs a mythical
sympotic lyric.
exemplum. Again this is like Alcaeus'
In the sympotic 38A Alcaeus uses a mythical
paraenesis
(Sisyphus), and he features myth
than myth; about Hipponax
elsewhere.20 Fable, a?vo?, ismuch more typical of Archilochus

17 sxi

v ?|a7tsip(D? ?xsiv
x v oDjiTiox
xo (?d?taxa
xiva >ax|i?avsi
xo?vuv aux?
?s? 7tpoae?vai
jisv SKaaxou
Kai Ttpo? x? 7ta0o? <XKpoa(J>a^fi? ?axi Kai tnb? (f)?pei x?v ??Kpaxov..
?v o?v
.?vOpamoi) ?? Ttpo? o?vov
jiexa?o^fjv
... etc. (620E).
o?k sax' i?ia Kp?ai?,
<j)0?uxxxsiv
tjv xcp auu^oai?pXG)
yiyv?cncsiv
7tpoaf|Kei Kai yiyvcbcncovxi
18
?XXa <{)epsxco,
order for drink is conventionally
The text of Alcibiades'
punctuation,
printed with the following
But this is
is 'Agathon,
let <some
slave> bring...'.
and the sense abstracted
e? xi saxiv SK7ico^ia li?ya...,
AyaGcov,
in view of the 'abnormal'
of tic to indicate a slave; and, enlightened
(Dover, ad loc.) omission
very forced, especially
as subject
we can correct it. Editors punctuate
on the symposiarch,
material
thus, avoiding Xya9(?V
by comparative
'even when drunk Alcibiades
would not give orders to his host as if to a slave' (Dover). But there
of (|)8p?xco, because
to indicate Alcibiades'
does
must be some transgressive
behaviour
tipsiness; his taking over the role of symposiarch
in his issuing of orders to Agathon
that the amusing
as we have seen, sufficiently
constitute
it; and it is precisely
about: ?XXa (|)spsxco
show him ordering Agathon
of the drunk is revealed. The text should precisely
as a whole
this order with one to a slave, and the sentence
then supplants
is, or should be,
AyaGc?v_He
e? xi ?axiv SKTc jaa ju?ya. lu?Mov ?s od??v ?s? ?XXa <|)sps, rca?, <|>?vai, x?v
?XXh (|)8p8xc? ?yaBcov
unambiguous:
.. (213E).
\|/DKxf|pa sks?vov.
19
with
the
identification
the plausible
of this Postumus
and Hubbard,
Nisbet
op. cit. (n. 4), 223 document
identified behind Prop. 3.12.
successful magistrate
(Postumus)
(ILS 914) Propertius
20
and Troy on the one hand and Peleus and Thetis on the other: our fr.
the stories of Helen
In fr. 42 he contrasts
?
a fine piece ?
and her disastrous
tells the story of Helen
starts 'as the story goes', cb? ?,oyo?. Fr. 283
elopement
in a
is told, as, it seems, an exemplum
to Troy.
In fr. 298 the story of Locrian Ajax's
impious rape of Cassandra
as 'the principal
of a
and discussion
fr. 44 are given commentary
examples
poem. These
together with
political
themes to Lesbian
of Homeric
the adaptation
in the remains of Sappho and Alcaeus,
seldom observable
practice
these poems
'Seldom' perhaps
and metre'
dialect
gives the wrong
emphasis:
by Page, op. cit. (n. 12), 275-85.
to the other Ajax and to Achilles.
leave a lasting impression. At 387, too, there is a reference
certainly
not,

presumption

This content downloaded from 179.210.154.158 on Tue, 17 Feb 2015 21:57:13 PM


All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

STRUCTURE

in this

be

ALLUSION

said.21

Horace

IN HORACE'S

not

does

BOOK

use mythical

OF

EPODES

4.11

in Odes

paraenesis

1.7 (Teucer) and Odes

related Odes

in the generically

in Odes

1.9,

but

cf. too Itys

(Phaethon);

4.12.

Horace
us

can

little

respect

he does

AND

the

brings

lyric

into

symposium

iambi,

an

innovation,

arresting

to make

enough

pause.

2 The Special Nature

of the Symposium

set inmotion
is very much out of the ordinary. The wine (13.6) is a vintage
The symposium
from the year of Horace's
birth, a fact that we will note again below. For now we may
make two inferences. A vintage circa thirty years old must be a very good vintage, implying
grand status in the amicus:12 it is one that in Odes 3.21 will be deemed worthy of the great
Corvinus
M. Valerius Messalla
(3.21.6: 'moueri digna bono die'). The choice by Horace of
a vintage precisely from the year of his birth also implies a special relationship
between
him and the friend: itmust have a sentimental value which would not be shared with just
luxu
any (grand) person. Then too the balsam deemed proper in 1. 8f. is ostentatiously
is
denotes
rious.23 The verb moue
also
The
(13.6)
imperative ultimately
important.
'bring
out',

'move

its

from

storage

(cf.

place'

in Odes

deprome

but

1.9.7),

it

is not

an

obvious

for the context, and the only parallel to be adduced is Odes 3.21.6. In that ode (a
a play on uses of (com)moueo
for the
hymnic parody) many see, and Syndikus documents,
of a sacred object for a ceremony on a religious day. This is a most effective
moving
word

even

connotation,
marks

both

more

wine

and

effective
occasion.

in Epode
So Horace

13

than

presides

in Odes
over

The
3.21.24
a rich
and

verb
singular

ceremoniously
symposium,

a friend who seems both grand and intimate: a climactic occasion


and poem. The
in Section iv, where the reading amice is defended.
identity of the amicus will be discussed

with

3More

Generic

'Mixing'. Other

Contributors

as (Chiron's) prophecy,
The mythical
unlike
story in Epode
13 is couched
explicitly
in
unlike
Horace's
A
Alcaeus'
and
later
Chiron
38A
mythical
exemplum
examples.
is reported, in direct speech, by the Centaurs who are said to have
prophecy about Achilles
come to the marriage of Peleus and Thetis at Eur., 1A 1062-75. Prophetic direct speech is
a feature of choral lyric,25 and Pindar, Pyth. 9.39-65
to
stages a prophecy
by Chiron
is
most
to
conscious
of
all
characters
Chiron
of
But
the
relevant
(and
Apollo,
incongruity).
us is a fragment of Bacchylides
in which someone reports
(Dithyramb 27.34-45 Maehler),
in indirect speech what Chiron
is prophesying
concerning Achilles himself. It seems plain
that Horace

actually

alludes

to,

even

merges

with,

this

choral

lyric

poem:

21

see T44, frs 172-81


For (Aesopian)
201 (fox and
fable in Archilochus,
(fox and eagle), 185-7 (fox and monkey),
Archilochus
Alexandria
hedgehog):
actually uses the word a?vo? in frs 174 and 185. Cf. P. M. Fraser, Ptolemaic
to Archilochus'
and Deianeira,
are, however, made
(1972), 743-4. References
Nessus,
telling the story of Hercules,
some sort of paraenesis
frs 286-9, but there is no hint that it provided
at a symposium.
is no trace left of fable
There
inHipponax
context
in an unknown
in Hipponax
fr. 72 (Rhesus) and 75, 77 ('Odysseus',
(Fraser, ibid., 744); myth
as a title apparently,
in the context of Bupalus.
fr. 74), perhaps
22
Contrast
the drinking
and the wine deemed
in Odes
suitable
the apologetics
and wine
1.9. Note
companion
fitted to the greatness of Maecenas,
in the invitation poem to him, Odes
1.20.
snobbery,
23
See Watson
and Mankin,
opp. cit. (n. 1), ad loc.
24
H. P. Syndikus, Die Lyrik des Horaz.
Band II (2nd edn, 2001), 183, on 3.21.6, with references and bibliography;
Syndikus compares Epode 13.6. In the hymnic parody of Odes 3.21, I am inclined to think that a play on the sense
'move to softer feelings', OLD s.v. moveo
'influence',
14 and 15, is more likely.
25
See R. F?hrer, Formproblem-Untersuchungen
zu der Reden
in der fr?hgriechischen
esp.
(1967), ii2ff.,
Lyrik
117-29.

This content downloaded from 179.210.154.158 on Tue, 17 Feb 2015 21:57:13 PM


All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

R.

O.

^av0?? viv ?i)?[o]iA[o]c


\|/aucov

Kxsivov[xa
a?*

LYNE

Baju[ot <D]iX?,Dpi[8a?
35

())oivi^8iv SKa[|aav?pov

<|)i?,]o7n;o?,8|aoi)?
.a[ ]jLxax[

7i.[_].*i.

c^eivai te.[
?^K?|i0U?[

][
40

]x' S7t[

Mua?v x' g[
Taux'

M.

sv?jrsr

K8(|)[a^]??

(^axi viv [8iva]vxa


Tp

A.

8V87t[

Kap?iav n[
(|)i^a[i]? ?8x[
8' e?<|)i)^[o
(when I remember what?) the wise son of Philyra (Chiron) often says of him, touching his
fair head: he declares that he will crimson eddying Scamander as he kills the battle-loving
...

Trojans;
says

...

and

(Phis)

in a) foreign
(land)
...
in loving
(hands?)

...

lie

(will
...

heart

leafy

valiant
...

...

Mysians

... That

is what

he

in particular
that Bacchylides'
Chiron
focuses
the battle by the river
upon
inHorace
the lack
Scamander, unlike Euripides' Chiron, but in the same area as Horace's:
of detail like (|)Oivi^siv allows us to think of Achilles' duel with Scamander himself, rather
than the initial fouling of his waters with mortal
Chiron not
corpses. And Bacchylides'
as does Horace's:
to Achilles
in person, but with affection,
in Bacchylides
only prophesies
is conveyed clearly by gesture (1. 34?., touching his head),26 in Horace
the affection
by the
1. 12, puer). My hunch would
be that the 'heart' in
mode of address
(most obviously,
so that Chiron's
of Achilles was actually
(1. 43) is Achilles':
'encouragement'
question

Note

mentioned,

the

up

picking

opening

affectionate

gesture.

Other

material

can

be

conjec

tured.27

?
who knows,
The presentation
of Chiron
instructing Achilles may also engage
?
is
But
if
there
allude to
the Hesiodic Xeipcovo?
so,
'YTCoOfJKai.
likely to be some
in an

The

26

interchange

with

incorporation

seemingly

of Bacchylides

grave

and

moral

may
irony

text.28

(at least) is another

arresting

display.

a parent may
a little more
xo?
stroke her child's head
(Hdt. 6.61 xi]V 8? Kaxa\|/G)aav
intimately,
o?v ^oi) xtjv K8<|>aXf|v). The Homeric
(Plato, Phaedo 89B Kaxayf|cra?
xr\v KS^aA-fjv), or a teacher a pupil's
in comparably
intimate situations
formula X?lP? X? uav Kaxspe^ev
(Iliad 1.361,
probably
signifies the same gesture
in C. Sittle, Die Geb?rden
und R?mer
der Griechen
information
(1890), ^?.
5.181 etc.). More
Odyssey
27
Zweiter Teil. Die Dithyramben
und Fragmente
Die Lieder des Bakchylides,
See H. Maehler,
(1997), 47-8, 280?2.
after Barrett, suggests that Thetis or Peleus is calling to mind this prophecy
('Ich erinnere mich daran, was
Maehler,
Greek Lyric Poetry
(2001), 428 n.
...') to help explain the two adjacent verbs of saying in 11. 35f.; G. O. Hutchinson,
to Mysians
tenses. Maehler
also thinks that the reference
3 thinks that this takes too little account of the present
were slain in the waters
of
that
of
Iliad
accords with a possible
Scamander,
though
Mysians
2.858-61:
implication
stated in Iliad 21. Snell's (Jn^ai? ?s X?po~?v in 1. 44 is attractive.
this is not explicitly
28
Inst. 1.1.15 attributing
and West;
fr. 285 isQuintilian,
frs 283-5 Merkelbach
The surviving fragments are Hesiod
that the
to this work
the view that boys should not be taught to read before the age of seven, but also recording
was the author. Fr. 283 preserves
the first three lines, and it
denied that Hesiod
Alexandrian
scholar Aristophanes
is indeed a grave opening
lepa KoXa Geo?? aieiysveirjai;
(e.g. 2-3, Ttp xov ji?v, ?x' dv O?uov e?o"a(|)?KT|ai / sp?siv
and
may give us a further sense of its tone (so Davis,
op. cit. (n. 3), 13). For more references
Pindar, Pyth. 6.19-zj
on the 'YrcoGfjKai, see Watson,
op. cit. (n. 1), 431, Lowrie, op. cit. (n. 6), 420.
bibliography
cf. how,

7tai8ioi3

This content downloaded from 179.210.154.158 on Tue, 17 Feb 2015 21:57:13 PM


All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

AND

STRUCTURE

4 The Occasion

OF

BOOK

EPODES

for the Symposium


a storm

is apparently

occasion

The

IN HORACE'S

ALLUSION

But

(11. 1-3).

the

in the

appearance

storm's

description

of images of human frowning


(11. 1-2)29 suggests straight away that we are concerned
of storm were manifold.
less literal circumstances;
and the symbolic possibilities
were

and

allegories,

sea

at

storms

example,

in Alcaeus

surely

and
as

designed

were

Archilochus
But

such.30

the

in

read

antiquity
in Epode

suggestiveness

as
13

with
For

political
is open:

to a political
less to a
I see nothing
in the text to limit the suggestion
situation, much
and Hubbard
say on Odes 2.9.1, with
specific event, or even day of the month.31 As Nisbet
are often
of human happiness
'The vicissitudes
of true scholars,
documentation
worthy
a
storms
is
and
this
the
and
with
weather':32
trouble,
mysterious
general
figure
compared
The

suggestiveness.
Trouble,

anxiety,

and,

looks
poem
as we
shall

5 The Chiron

Prophecy

Factors

us,
encourage
Horace's
upon,
immediate
instance

strongly

and

enlarging
in the
relates

rather

outwards,
see,

pace
own
to

death

are

to

e.g. Mankin,33
paraenesis.
iuuat
(1. 9),

than

in the

The

to

inwards

something

specific.

air.

see
syntax

the mythical
is tight:

'it is helpful...

just

as

exemplum
ut

(1. 11),
the Centaur

as

like,

'just

as',

sang...'

(Mankin himself compares Epode 1.19 etc.), and the natural inference is that the following
myth provides authority for, and illumination of, what has just been said: cf., for example,
at 3-7ff. with the speech of Apollo
to Admetus,
how Bacchylides
supports his proposition
as well as advises, we
in his case paratactically.
Since Chiron
is a seer and prophesies
should expect his utterance to be denser than the symposiarch's
and to adumbrate points
not

explicitly

made

in

it.

In fact,

the

'just

as Chiron...'

section

works

in Horace's

context

is taken up and 'runs on in'


rather like a Homeric
simile in the Iliad. Horace's
paraenesis
contrasts
in the story, as in Homeric
could
the Chiron-Achilles
There
indeed
be
story.34
our
but
first
be
for
and
should
simile,
justification
expectation
enlargement.

29
For the
too Lowrie,
the weather
...
'obducta

see Rudd, op. cit. (n. 6), 384, referring to Hor.,


Serm. 2.2.125, Quint.
11.3.79; cf.
images of frowning,
in
op. cit. (n. 1), ad loc, Ov., Am. 2.2.33, Sen., Ben. 1. The 'frowning'
op. cit. (n. 6), 416, and Watson,
is then matched
of 1. 5:Horace
talks of a 'clouded brow',
by weather
imagery in the human description
fronte': see Watson,
ad loc. With
like many,
Iouem', Lowrie,
compares Anacreon
'niuesque deducunt
a
fr. 362 jiet? ju?v of] Iloaior|icov
/ scrcriKev
/ xeiuwve?
-fvefyeXr] 8' u?o?p I < > ?apu 8' ?ypioi
Kaxayouatt,
and filled out (with Aid) on the assumption
corrupt text, cited by Schol. T on Iliad 15.192, which Bergk corrected
was
it. The
is certainly
that Horace
verb Kax?youai
rewrites
it, employing
(Eustathius
using
interesting.
The passage could well be noting an occasion
for a symposium
like ours, but as we have no context,
7iaxayoCai).
a matter of conjecture.
the crucial part must remain between obeloi, and a connection
with Horace
30
in the epode storm, see further Lowrie, op. cit. (n. 6), 416
Alcaeus
frs 6, 208, Archil.
105; for political
symbolism
with n. 13, Watson,
op. cit. (n. 1), 4i7ff.
31
Some are keen to fix the poem on the eve of Philippi: Giarratano,
for and
op. cit. (n. 1), 89-90 puts arguments
on 2 October
it at the headquarters
of C. Cassius Longinus
op. cit. (n. 6), n. 8 places
42 b.c. By
against. Kilpatrick,
contrast H. Hierche,
Art et signification
Les Epodes
d'Horace.
(1974), 22 has Horace
'parmi ses compagnons
d'armes' before Actium,
and groups Epode
13 with 7 and 16. Mankin,
op. cit. (n. 1), 214 favours a setting in 'the
time of uncertainty
after Actium
and before the Alexandrian
indeed on 31 December
war,' maybe
31 B.c. More
to the generality
sensitive
of the imagery was E. Fraenkel, Horace
(1957), 66. Watson,
op. cit. (n. 1), 417-20 well
to pin the poem too specifically,
war setting'.
criticizes
such attempts
but favours the inference of 'a contemporary
He provides much useful material:
for a 'symbolic
'a political
his splendid n. 13 allowing
import' without
necessarily
reference'
should have found a place in the text!
32
and Hubbard,
Nisbet
op. cit. (n. 4), 139.
33
'the differences may be as important as the similarities',
Mankin,
op. cit. (n. 1), 2i4f.:
referring to his own article
in WS 102 (1989), 133-401. A full survey of the question,
view, inWatson,
op.
inclining finally towards Mankin's
cit. (n. 1), 420-2.
34
The unmatched
is still H. Fr?nkel, Die homerischen
book on the way Homeric
similes work
Gleichnisse
(1921):
remarks at 98f., 104-7. Fr?nkel,
is another
that Iliad 15.263-8
'wie die
77 n. 22 remarks
summarizing
example
im Gl<eichnis>
weiter
l?uft'. It is hard to imagine a more succinct and penetrating
statement
of the
Erz<?hlung>
are translated
truth. Fr?nkel, 99-114
in G. M. Wright
into English
and P. V. Jones, Homer.
in
German Scholarship
Translation
of the Homeric
Similes'.
(1997), 103-23, as 'Essence and Nature

This content downloaded from 179.210.154.158 on Tue, 17 Feb 2015 21:57:13 PM


All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

R.

The

phrase

uirent

'dumque

O.

A.

M.

(1. 4),

genua'

LYNE

which

some,

puzzles

also

urges

It

likeness.

recalls Homeric
is linked in
images of mortal
vigour,35 so that the present symposium
advance into the world and truths of Chiron's Achilles;
this is akin to 'interaction
in poetic
suits the prophesying
imagery'.36 And there is the verb cecinit of Chiron
(1. 11). It obviously
Chiron
(Catull. 64.383 etc., OLD s.v. cano 8). But it also suggests a kind of twinning
between

Chiron

and

therefore

his

whole

Horace.

and

message

Horace

is not

yet

(explicitly) the singing bard of the Odes, but he seems a potential


lyrist at Epode 13.9; he
can call himself, with suggestive ambiguity, uates in 16.66;37 and he calls his book of iambi
a carmen

at

14.7

(see

below).

A myth in support of a sympotic paraenesis not only makes


it denser, but increases our
sense that the poem looks outwards
(1, 4) rather than being limited in what it addresses.
6 Death
Chiron

is above all stressing death and its inevitability,


indeed imminence. Not even the
is already pregnant
great son of a goddess will escape, and the beginning of the prophecy
note especially
with the message:
the oxymora,
in the first three
centring upon mortalis,
words
1. 12). Horace's
direct paraenesis
('inuicte mortalis dea nate puer Thetide',
(11. 1-10)
'runs on' in the myth, and the imminence of death is added to his direct words, despite the
of 11. ji. In this way the conventional
of symposium
apparent allowance
preoccupation
= Anth. Pal.
with death emerges: cf. Alcaeus
G-P
XVI
12.50, Lucr.
38A, Asclepiades
/ reducet in sedem uice' (11. 7-8)?
3.912-15.38 And what of 'deus haec fortasse benigna
Compare what Chiron says at 1. i5f., 'unde tibi reditum certo subtemine Parcae / rupere':
no home-coming.
In 1. 8 there is a play on the sense 'bring home' in reduco and sedes
as Mankin

'home',

ad

loc.

He

documents.

infers

that

suggestion

the

deus

may

grant

the

a metaphorical
denied by the Fates to Achilles. Temporarily,
symposiasts
'home-coming',
But
intrudes into 11.7?. in retrospect,
Chiron's
and his language
perhaps.
larger message
reconfigures
will
be a

Horace's
time
his

Horace,
all

stops

change,

7 Beginning,
So,

way
But

via

Chiron's

and

amicus,
ends

Middle

us

for

all

prophecy

and

'reducetur
of

us,
'unde

everything,

as well

turns
passing
in sedem'.39

Whatever

language.
none
of

when

'reditum
negant

certo
redire

for

the

There
subtemine

there may
there
be,
good
is something
for
whence,
Parcae
/ rupere'.
Death
(Catull.

quemquam'

3.12).

as End
its reverberations,

Horace

the gloom of The End to drink


introducing
the poem refers to 'beginning'
and 'middle'

?
is

in the

symposiast's

frequent

and conclusive
away, a weighty
topic.
as well as the end. The
'middle' is

interesting.
especially
In the middle,
the meanwhile,
there will be the sympotic comfort of music and wine,
and so on (11. 8-10, 17-18). But Achilles'
it will be
'middle' is much more significant:
?
?
of
The
word
Chiron's
'undefeated'
inuicte,
'invincible',
opening
glorious.
prophecy

35

The strength and activity of the knees was almost


with being alive in the Iliad: note Achilles'
synonymous
... JlIOI
knees is focused on
<|)?^a yo?vax'
opcbprj, and 22.388. The speed of Hector's
phrases at Iliad 9.610 ei? 0 k'
to demonstrate
his restored health at 15.269. In death, one's knees are 'loosed'
(5.176, 11.579, 13.360, etc.), and so
on. Theocritus
(y?vu %k(dp?v).
picks up the idiom at 14.70 and adds the notion of greenness
36
in Poetic Imagery
cf. M. S. Silk, Interaction
and the Poet (1989), 92ff.
(1974), i38ff., R. O. A. M. Lyne, Words
Cf. 11. if. and 5 of this Epode with n. 29 above.
37
Vates was a term used disparagingly
(Ann. 206-7 Sk.), but resuscitated
by Ennius of Naevius
by Vergil for the
uses it of Stesichorus
at Epode
elevated poet: Eel. 7.28, 9.33^, Aen. 7.41; Horace
17.44 and for the canon of lyric
Behind the Public Poetry
poets at Odes
1.1.35. Cf. R. O. A. M Lyne, Horace.
(1995), 185.
38
in the Chiron myth
view of the relevance
in
See further Lyne, op. cit. (n. 37), 66. A very different
of death
Mankin,
op. cit. (n. 1), 214L
39
cf. Rudd, op. cit. (n. 6), 385^,

bringing

'nee mater

domum

... te reuehet'

into the discussion.

This content downloaded from 179.210.154.158 on Tue, 17 Feb 2015 21:57:13 PM


All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

must

in

presage,

of

spite

the

immediate

BOOK

IN HORACE'S

ALLUSION

AND

STRUCTURE

oxymoron

OF

some

(mortalis),

EPODES

glorious

in

event(s)

As Mankin
ad loc.
illustrious fosterling will indeed be unconquered.
the Centaur's
...
a
is
the
is
'since
Achilles
still
or,
rather, pro
"child",
says,
proleptic
epithet [inuicte]
to an
inuicte by prophetically
alluding
phetic'. We should expect Chiron to complement
?
in a loaded way
'Te manet Assaraci
tellus ...' looks forward
episode ? of invincibility.
as
to Troy, but by the end of the Trojan War Achilles will not be unconquered,
(below)
event is brought to mind by the relative
is swiftly going to say. An appropriate
Chiron
flumina lubricus et Simois'
(11. 13?.),
clause,
'quam frigida flaui / findunt Scamandri
to mar it (parui, p. 1): Achilles' duel with
if we do not allow textual corruption
especially
narrated in Iliad 21, with an interesting bit-part role for Simois. This
Xanthus-Scamander,
was indeed an example of Achilles' glorious
invincibility,
arguably his greatest triumph: a
unique scene in which the hero actually takes on a god and prevails, even ifwith eventual
which

divine

assistance.40

but brought to mind the earlier scenes of


Chiron also centred Scamander,
Bacchylides'
corpses in the river ([oiv?]vxa (()Oiv?^8iv XK?[[iavopov). Horace's Chiron allows us to think
subtemine Parcae (1. 15) and
mostly of the duel with the god, but not entirely. His wording
Scamandri flumina (1. 14) recalls another prophecy of the earlier scenes, that of the Parcae
in Catull. 64:41
Parcae

coeperunt

edere

cantus

erit magnis

uirtutibus

unda

Scamandri,

ueridicos

testis

iter densis

alta

tepefaciet
currite
ducentes

The

Parcae

too conceived

But

Achilles.

they

too

aceruis
corporum
caede.

angustans
permixta

with

flumina

currite,

subtemina,

of Scamander
and

357

r?pido diffunditur Hellesponto,

quae passim
cuius

306

as the climactic
?

greater

fusi.

gusto

witness

concentrate

to the living prowess


on

the

early

scenes

of
of

in which Achilles
chokes the river's waters with corpses.42 The final
carnage,
on his tomb (11. ^6z??.).
career is the sacrifice of Polyxena
episode they cite in Achilles'
Once memory of Catullus' Parcae is triggered, this tragic scene is available for recall too.
?
as well as the end ? we can
In Chiron's prophecy of a glorious
'middle' for Achilles
human

see Horace's
too

have

glory

paraenesis
?
and

being
carnage

'running
enlarged,
and
tragedy.

Spare a thought for Achilles. All


and to us. For the young Achilles

40

on'.

Horace

and

his

'friend's'

future

may

is available to Horace's
the above information
amicus
there was, beyond
inuicte and sympotic comforts,43

to the glory of Achilles


scene of the
in this episode:
in the prelude
contributes
given to Xanthus
is ranged on the Trojan
Xanthus
side with the Olympians
Ares, Apollo, Artemis,
Leto, and Aphrodite
sees the great confrontation
in speech and action between Achilles
Iliad 21.212-382
and Xanthus
(Iliad 20.38-40).
see 2i.233ff.
for a sample of the heroic
scale of the Scamander-Achilles
Divine
assistance:
Scamander;
combat,
a dismayed
at 21.284-97;
to assist at 21.330,
Poseidon
and Athena
Achilles
Hera brings in Hephaestus
encourage
but calls him off at 382 when Scamander
backs down. At 21.264 tne narrator reminded us that 'gods are better than
to his brother river Simois to assist him against
men'. Simois' bit-part: at 2i.307ff.
Scamander
appeals emphatically
The

status

Theomachia,

The text does not state that he in fact does so. One inference might be that he does not. Lubricus
could
to this (Chiron is given to occult utterance):
a covert allusion
one of its senses is 'shifty', 'deceitful'.
Iliad
for Achilles'
material
battle with
the male divinity Xanthus-Scamander.
interesting
5-33off. offers
comparative
?
Diomedes
wounds
and drives off a relatively
unwarlike
Dione
tells her stories of gods
goddess,
Aphrodite;
?
outside
the narrative
who
of the Iliad
have been temporarily
discomfited
back in the narrative
by heroes;
a god, Apollo,
Diomedes
then confronts
and finds his come-uppance.
and the more conclusive
Cf. too Apollo
defeat
in Iliad 16.
of Patroclus
41
cf. Lowrie,
in both caiques Homer's
YL?Xh pss8pq
op. cit. (n. 6.), 42.6?. The plural flumina
(Iliad 21.361);
is ostentatiously
Catullus'
Homeric.
prosody unda Scamandri
42
sums this up in Iliad 21.218?20.
Scamander
It is to these lines that Catullus
alludes.
43
Achilles
them. The embassy
does not neglect
finds him playing
the lyre and singing at Iliad 9-i86ff.
After
to bring a bigger bowl of wine, 9.202.
the visitors Achilles
instructs Patroclus
welcoming
Achilles.
contain

This content downloaded from 179.210.154.158 on Tue, 17 Feb 2015 21:57:13 PM


All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

IO

R.

O.

A.

M.

LYNE

Chiron does not even grant the gruesomely


available
nothing but death and topography.
point that Achilles will 'warm' (tepefaciet of the Parcae) the 'chill' (Chiron's own frigida)44
waters

of

Scamander

with

corpses,

or,

more

'redden'

graphically,

them,

as

<|)oivi^?iv,

Chiron. Chiron's policy of withholding


such hints from Achilles
renders one
Bacchylides'
defence of the mss. parui in 1. 13 unlikely
from the start.45
popular but unacceptable
one item of bad news available to us: he alludes to the successor
(Chiron also withholds
one
which
will
the line of Assaracus.)46
day conquer Greece,
kingdom
8 Beginnings
Lines

1 if.

reach

back

to

of

the

Achilles.

In

'grandis

...

alumnus'

(1. 11),

the

beginnings
?
?
it may imply about Achilles'
size47
is now on
that Achilles
whatever
epithet shows
s.v.
a
is
for
the threshold of manhood,
but
Chiron
still
he
ia),
(OLD
child, puer
'grown-up'
reminds us that Chiron has brought him up
(1. 12), and the noun alumnus,
'fosterling',
since he was a baby.48 In the present, Roman
time Horace
reaches back to his own
to
wine
of
of
his
be
he
the
the
birth
orders
year
produced.49
beginning:

9 Sympotic

Comfort.

But No

Talk,

Locutio

?
'illic omne
with a suitable future imperative
tells Achilles
The prophetic Chiron
uino cantuque
leuato...'
and song'. This
malum
(1. 17), 'lighten every ill with wine
the prophecy of Achilles'
death: its power
is in a dark position,
just following
injunction
on
own
to cheer is therefore severely limited. Chiron's
reflects
Horace's
back
phrasing
the
sollicitudinibus'
'iuuat ... leuare diris pectora
(11. ${.), and his context,
especially
context.50 At the time of
colours Horace's
of the cheer offered,
defined temporariness
11.9?. might have seemed quite hopeful; but we could have made inferences from
utterance,
1. 10.51
dominate
the extraordinary way in which
'disquiets', sollicitudinibus,
'Cetera mitte loqu?
between the two passages.
There is a further fascinating connection
'forbear to talk of other things', with cetera referring to what may be
(1. 7), says Horace,
dulcibus
'Deformis aegrimoniae
the
storm, to what is causing sollicitudines.
symbolized by
in the closing line (1. 18). 'Forebear to talk': we may note that
alio quits' ,sl says Chiron
?

Horace

nowhere

makes

any

provision

for

talk

in the

present

time

of

the

epode

at all', wine

44
At Iliad 22.i47ff.
Scamander's
springs are both hot and icy cold.
45
to the 'narrowing'
to defend parui by seeing it as an allusion
I refer to the attempt
(Catull. 64.359 angustans,
waters with corpses: O. Vox, RhM
Iliad 21.219 O"T8iv?(i8V0c) of Scamander's
136 (1993), 190?1 sees an allusion
to Alcaeus
most
?Kavs, cited by a papyrus scholion on Iliad
395 axevco
immediately
.[..] E?vGco po[o?] ?? G?X-aaaav
to Achilles'
is elsewhere
but Chiron
entails
This
21.219.
slaughter,
seeing a reference
triumphant
approach
nor Catullus'
Parcae talk of a Scamander made
'smaller',
any such hint, and in any case neither Homer
withholding
awesome.
In the huge individual
combat that takes
and yet still deep (alta) and, in Homer,
narrowed
but, precisely,
and at 21.268 the \izya
is hardly 'small'! See e.g. Iliad zi.z^?.,
Scamander
after his 'narrowing',
place with Achilles
beats down on Achilles'
shoulders.
K?|na ?iiTCEx?o? noxa\io?o
46
and
in Aeneas'
Assaracus
features
delivered,
(Iliad zo.z^z?.)
ironically
long genealogical
self-description
?
resonant figure in the Trojan past
to Achilles.
context ?
is then a surprisingly
Assaracus
for Horace's
tellingly
and future in the Aeneid: Verg., Aen. 1.284, 6.650, 6.778, 9.259, and others.
47
Mankin,
op. cit. (n. 1), ad loc.
48
//. 11.832.
cf. Horn.,
926-7, Apoll. Rhod.
1.554-8;
Pind., Pyth. 6.2iff., Nem.
3-43?f., Eur., IA 708-10,
49
life puts
The Suetonian
consule Manlio
in Odes 3.21.1, 'o nata mecum
He does so more explicitly
[Torquato]...'
were consuls
his birth in the year in which L. Cotta and L. Torquatus
(65 b.c.), and that year is indicated by Epist.
1.20.27-8.
50
There

are construed with leuo in 11. 10 and 17, but this does not allow the
in the way the ablatives
is a change
a great deal of room for manoeuvre,
op. cit. (n. 1), on 1. 17.
pace Mankin,
optimist
51
a metrical
event unparalleled
in surviving
fills the entire hemiepes,
Sollicitudinibus
epodic verse, and rare in
?
?
a prosaic word.
See Mankin,
It is also
op. cit. (n. 1), on 1. 10.
general.
unsurprisingly
52
Shackleton
conventional
I have followed
puts the comma, not at the end of 1. 17,
Bailey's Teubner
punctuation.
but after aegrimoniae.

This content downloaded from 179.210.154.158 on Tue, 17 Feb 2015 21:57:13 PM


All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

AND

STRUCTURE

IN HORACE'S

ALLUSION

OF

BOOK

II

EPODES

(1. 9): maybe song therefore, but no talk. What of Chiron and his
(1. 6), balsam and music
It is vital to see that, unless we add ac
'sweet consolations
(alloquiis) of ugly melancholy'?
to uino cantuque. Now
is in apposition
this is in
before dulcibus with Bentley, alloquiis
fact

the

occurrence

first

to
it 'ought
seem
critics
the

of
the

Chiron

we

Latin:
and
to

refer

infer

later

construction
appositional
of melancholy.
consolations
the

the

references

conversation.54
that:

excludes

sense

'consolation'

and

and most
suggest;53
at the top
But
level
are
the wine
and
song

in his present and Chiron in Achilles'


future close down talk. The poem ends
ousts locutio. Loquor had been the defining
alloquiis, which paradoxically

So Horace
with a word,
of

that

rate,
the

'sweet-talk',

in surviving
as
etymology
indeed
does

the word

"conversation"',

to assume
at any

text,

term

of

involve

utterance

of

2,

Epode

to Horace's

given

II EPODE

narrator:

surrogate

for a loquor or cognate

67), the only other parallel

13 AND

'haec

ubi

locutus'

(1.

in the book.

CLOSURE

The intention of Section 1was in the first place to show that Epode 13 was special enough
to merit an important structural position.
I hope I have fulfilled the more particular aim
which was to show that the poem might well have been closural. Itmay not actively assert
at times, but the factors are
itself as closural, and I have phrased myself
tendentiously
there. The extraordinary
generic surprises (Section 1, 1 and 3) are, so to speak, a hard act
to follow. After much
iambic specificness
that
(Epodes 8-12), the poem has a generality
out: 'h?rrida tempestas...'
lifts us up and potentially
(Section 1,4), 'cetera mitte loqui', and
in the Epodes
into the world of myth
then the most significant and extended departure
not
return.
from
which
the
It is a poem of beginnings, middles,
does
(Section 1, 5),55
poem
is birth, in the middle
is the darkened glimpse
and ends (Section 1, 6, 7, 8). In the beginning
of glory; the prophesied
death of Achilles
and
present,
picks up links in the Horatian
infuses the whole poem with that most closural of all signs (Section 1, 5-8). And finally,
though music
(fide I cantu) may linger, talk (locutio), the key term in Epode 2, is here
all is taken into account,
sidelined
it will not overstate
the
(Section 1, 9). When
explicitly
case

to

say

that

Epode

13 encourages

of

expectations

closure.

There is also a metrical pattern to notice.56 The first ten poems of the book are all in the
same epodic combination
of iambic trimeter and dimeter. Epodes
11-16 employ more
systems (Epode 17 is then in stichic iambics). The shift to the more
complex Archilochean
complex

metres

is interestingly

sense of closure

at Epode

managed,

and

a structure

13. To make my point

over

I shall have

Epodes

11-13

reinforces

to touch on material

the

familiar

to many.

11 consists of an iambic trimeter, and then a


'Third Archilochean'
of Epode
iambic
The
dimeter.
is conventionally
combination
hemiepes
plus
hemiepes-dimeter
in the Cologne
papyrus
printed as one line, and is so written
(fr. 196a West) where
The

Archilochus
fact

is that

uses
the

this

same

hemiepes-dimeter

system,

but
elements

the whole
are,

as a three-line
be seen
may
in the ancient
metrician's
word,

strophe.

The

asynarteta,

53
cf. Varro, Ling. 6.57, cited by Mankin,
comes. Mankin
the quotation
op. cit. (n. 1), in his note on 1. 18, whence
on the word. L. Mueller,
comment
has a very suggestive
Horatius
Flaccus, Oden und Epoden
Quintus
(1900), ad
loc. compares Catullus'
use o? alio cutio at 38.4.
54
cf. notably Lowrie, op. cit. (n. 6), 430-2: e.g. 'Dulcibus alloquiis
(18), the last two words of Chiron's
song, and
of the poem as a whole,
the importance
of talking in consolation...'.
highlight
55
adduces Medea
and Jason at 11. 9-14,
at 11. 17-18; and
and Hercules
Epode 3 amusingly
similarly Deinanira
and Ajax son of Oileus.
Epode 10.12-14 does the same with Athena
56
on Horace's
There is useful information
I am indebted.
op. cit. (n. 1), 14-22, to which
epodic metres at Mankin,

This content downloaded from 179.210.154.158 on Tue, 17 Feb 2015 21:57:13 PM


All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

12
i.e.

R.

the

first

is treated

element

as

O.

a separate

A.

M.

LYNE

In Archilochus,

measure.57

and

in Horace

who

imitates him, we find hiatus after the hemiepes or a breuis in longo to close it: in Horace,
at Epode 11.6,10,14,
Since the iambic trimeter
24. From this we should note the following.
of 11.1 signals no change at all from Epode 10, the hemiepes which
then follows does so
with surprise. Should the reader have any sense of the asynartete nature of the line, that
in the hemiepes flirts
surprise is focused. It may be focused too by the fact that uersiculos
with a different type of poetry (elegy),58 though the amorous Horace poses as disinclined
to write anything at all at the moment
(see further below).
12 ('First Archilochean',
The metre of Epode
cf. Archilochus
is then
fr. 195 West)
as it were, picking up the hemiepes: dactylic hexameter
in essence dactylic ?
wholly
plus
tetrameter. The metre o? Epode 13 ('Second Archilochean',
cf. frs 199 and 193 West)59 then
seems to continue
this dactylic pattern:
its first line is also a dactylic hexameter.
But its
see 11. 8,
second line is a combination
of an iambic dimeter plus hemiepes,
also asynarteta:
10,

14.

from 11.2, where


the surprise
is, therefore, a kind of metrical
ring-composition
iambic dimeter
starts, through to Epode 13: hemiepes,
11.2),
(Epode
dactylic hexameters
and tetrameters, picking up the hemiepes
iambic dimeter,
(Epode 12), dactylic hexameter,
and finally hemiepes
again (Epode 13). The sense of ring is strengthened
by the fact that
Epode 12, the centre poem, stands out as the only epode with no iambics at all. It is worth
in 13.18 is exactly
the hemiepes
adding too that the metrical
shape of the words comprising
the same as in 11.2, and other lines in Epode 11, but has no precursor
in Epode 13 itself.
The end of the metrical
effect of
ring is affirmed. Ring-composition
gives an obvious
There

closure.60

It should be noted finally that the metre of Epode 13 may have been a rarity, something
above, but we cannot
special: we can point to the suggestive
fragments of Archilochus
in
whole
show
the
Archilochus.
system
surviving
actually

Ill

Epode
attention.

EPODE

13 is suited to closure,
I shall

keep

my

14,

THE

EPODES

AND

CALLIMACHUS

but the book does not close. Epode

comments

to

14 therefore

needs

special

the minimum.61

57

see R. Merkelbach
For the publication
of the Cologne Archilochus,
and M. L. West, ZPE 14 (1974), 97-113, with
the belief that we have actually to do with a short three-line
(102) expresses
strophe, and that the
pi. V. Merkelbach
to the ancient theory of 'asynartete'
verses.
the second two elements as one line was due precisely
practice of writing
attributes
the invention of 'asynartete'
junctions to Archilochus
(Encheiridion
15.1?3), quoted by West
Hephaestion
at the head of frs 168?71.
58
is from Hutchinson,
the hemiepes
The diminutive
'invades'
may suggest elegy, whose metre
(the graphic word
are used
(amor). Diminutives
is, of course,
op. cit. (n. 8)). Horace
subject matter
toying with Roman
elegy's
see R. Maltby
in J. N. Adams
and R. G. Mayer
and in varying degrees by the Latin elegists:
(eds),
judiciously,
on B.
(1999), 387-8, building
of the Language
of Latin Poetry
Aspects
Serm.
But uersiculus
itself is not specific in its implications
(cf. Hor.,
S. J. Heyworth,
Ibis: on the titles, unity, and contents of the
'Horace's
shift
attention
drawn to the metrical
being (metatextually)
continuing
59
use of the iambelegus.
to Archilochus'
Fr. 199: Diomedes
testifies

W?rter
(1945), 41-3.
Unpoetische
as well as Catull.
16.3 and 6, 50.4).
Epodes', PLILS 7 (1993), 85-96, at 87^, sees
at 11.20 incerto pede.
In fr. 193 we find a dactylic
hexameter
Axelson,
1.10.58

iambic dimeter.
combined with
60
I G-P = AP 4.1 and
and epilogue with
the same motifs, Mealeager
cf. Call., Aetia frs 2 and 112, the prologue
= AP
Catull.
Garland
and
close
the
and
of
the
CXXIX
16, 36, 52 etc.,
(note esp. 1.3
CXXIX.5),
12.257,
open
was frequently
in Roman Poetry
used by Roman
G. Williams,
(1980), 98-9 ('Ring-composition
Figures of Thought
and index, s.v., E. J. Kenney, Lucretius
and of the Augustan
poets of the late Republic
Age to effect poetic closure'),
De Rerum Natura
Book III (1971), 79f.
61
is offered
Die erotischen
des Horaz
A very useful discussion
of this poem
Oden
(1966),
by V. Grassmann,
op. cit. (n.
122-44,
op. cit. (n. 1), 438-57. Cavarzere,
though we differ on many points. See too especially Watson,
Horace
is not actually
view. The poem
is in iambic character,
aimed at Maecenas:
1), 206-7 offers a heterodox
is (and 'recusatio' has no part here); interesting,
but I cannot
who
love; it isMaecenas
having any problems with
subscribe

to it.

This content downloaded from 179.210.154.158 on Tue, 17 Feb 2015 21:57:13 PM


All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

AND

STRUCTURE

inertia cur tantam diffuderit

mollis

obliuionem

sensibus,
ut si ducentia

Lethaeos
pocula
?rente
fauce
candide
deus,

traxerim,
occidis
Maecenas,
nam me
uetat
deus

olim,
inceptos
ad umbilicum
non

aliter

Anacreonta
qui

IN HORACE'S

ALLUSION

Samio

arsisse

dicunt

persaepe
non
elaboratum

ureris

ipse miser,
accendit
obsessam

Ilion,
libertina

sorte
tua: me
gaude
contenta
mac?r?t.
Phryne

rogando:
iambos

Bathyllo

fleuit

ad pedem.
non
quodsi

13

somnos

saepe

10
Teium,
caua
testudine

EPODES

OF

imis

carmen,

promissum
adducere.

BOOK

amorem

ignis

pulchrior
nee

uno

15

to Maecenas'
his arch allusions
love affair with
the actor
allowing Horace
note
besides
the
the
torch
and
the
name,
(for which,
Bathyllus
imagery
neglected feminine
two
in
main
11.
the
has
'recusado'.
The key
poem
thrusts,
gender
13-14),62
parodying
component of the parody is the deus, deus who uetat, 'forbids': as the poem soon confirms,
for the admonishing Apollo of Vergil's
this deus is Love,63 and he is substituting
'recusado'
in Eclogue
behind
Horace's
time the
Callimachus'
(and
6.3-9
Apollo
Vergil).64 By
Besides

'recusado'

had

are to excuse
(essentially,
'recusado'

wider

currency

than

the poet from the duty


to continue his present

naturally

has

twists.

Rather

surviving

show,65

examples

and

its

standard

functions

to do one thing (epic), and license him to do another


case, bucolic). Horace's
course; in Vergil's
parody
than

excuse

him

from

attempting

another

type

of

'recusado' seeks to explain why he does not finish the present ongoing
poetry, Horace's
in publishable
book (11. 7-8 clarify the vaguer 11. 1-4), and hand it over for production
form. The cause: Love
Horace's
'recusado' does then, in an amusingly
(not Apollo).
unexpected way,66 appear to seek to license a path of poetry. When Horace first adduces
as a parallel
to himself
Anacreon
(non aliter, 1. 9), we expect the Greek
lyrist to be
are
inaction.
in
his
We
how
fact
shown
Anacreon's
love
(1.9, arsisse) was
literary
matching

62 For
see Tacitus,
Maecenas'
Ann. 1.54.2, J. Griffin, Latin Poets and Roman Life (1985), 25, Watson,
Bathyllus,
and excellent
and bibliography
in Cavarzere,
op. cit. (n. 1), 449 with bibliography,
argument
op. cit. (n. 1), 206,
sees an allusion
to Maecenas'
but at 138-9 interprets
208-9. Grassmann,
op. cit. (n. 61), 131-2 correctly
Bathyllus,
as referring to Helen,
the imagery of ignis etc. (14.13-14)
and talks in those lines of a female lover of Maecenas;
cf.
the imagery of 1. 13 (pulchrior ignis) is indeed that in one
Watson,
449 and 452-3. The usual assumption
concerning
it refers to Helen:
cf. Mueller,
way or another
op. cit. (n. 53), ad loc, Giarratano,
op. cit. (n. 3), 98, H. Dettmer,
a Study in Structure
Horace:
206; Mankin,
op. cit. (n. 1), ad loc. hedges. But many do see that
(1983), 93, Cavarzere,
see
evokes
better suits Paris (the dream of Hecuba)
than Helen;
torches, and therefore
ignis most
immediately
to Helen.
Lines 13-16 therefore not only permit
Watson,
453 for references,
though he himself prefers an allusion
an allusion to a male lover of Maecenas:
but encourage
than Paris. Following
these
himself, more beautiful
Bathyllus
of Paris and a male lover, we should pay attention
to 'obsess^ra Ilion'. 'H. seems to be the first in Latin
suggestions
to use the fern. Ilios ...'., Mankin,
ad loc. Giarratano,
accrues ?
as in
98 points out that no metrical
advantage
Horace's
other sure example of the fern., Odes 4.9.18. This latter example
the
protects
incidentally
reading -am in
that no-one appears to see the additional
in the affair, cf. Catullus
innuendo
Epode 13.14. It is surprising
(passivity
16 etc.) which
the feminine gender of the object adds.
63
Some play too on the Caesarian
dei: cf. Verg., Eel. 5.64 'deus, deus ille Menalca',
also 1.6-7.
64
On 'recusatio',
the Roman
of Callimachus'
(Aetia fr. 1), see Lyne, op. cit.
practical
adaptation
Apollo
preface
the topos elsewhere,
where he also uses the verb ueto (again at
(n. 37), 31-9. Horace
e.g. Serm. i.io.3iff.,
parodies
Odes
in Epode
in 2.13.3-8.
14 is like Propertius'
1.6.10). The parody
(For Cavarzere,
op. cit. (n. 1), ad loc, any
is 'fuorviante',
the Epode
is not a 'recusatio';
because
cf. n. 61.)
thought of Apollo
65
cf. Lyne, op. cit. (n. 37), 34-5.
66
Watson,
op. cit. (n. 1), 447-9 makes much of this 'inconsequentially',
giving three possible
His second and favoured explanation
is quite close to the account
I give above.

This content downloaded from 179.210.154.158 on Tue, 17 Feb 2015 21:57:13 PM


All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

explanations

of it.

R.

14

O.

A.

M.

LYNE

accompanied
by, if not led to, frequent love poems. Our natural inference now must be
is himself seeking to license love poems on his own part. But what love poems?
that Horace
some 'erotic lyric' outside
Not
I think.67 'Recusado'
the Epodes,
licenses something
in
is licensing a shift into love poetry
progress, and a ready deduction would be that Horace
within the Epodes which has already begun, and which could I suppose be seen as a threat
to the conclusion
of a book of 'real' iambi, be they of the aggressive Archilochean
sort

Hipponactean

(e.g.

8,

Epodes

10,

and

12)

or

of

the

new-wave

type

suited

to

the

in Epode
(Epodes 1 and 9). Love interest had already appeared
a disinclination
to write at all, while
simul
feigned in consequence
i-z
see
more
with
of
and
uersiculos,
(11.
14
taneously flirting
above). Epode
thoughts
elegy
erotic involvement,
to
declares
and an inability
decisively
literary and biographical,
complete a book of (real) iambi.
The new erotic direction
is very much a humorous
feint: love surfaces again in Epode
is funnily
15, but not thereafter. And Horace's
(non
aliter) with Anacreon
alignment
a desirable
indeed specious. Anacreon
himself was,
of course,
introduction
fleeting,
Roman
Horace

patronised
11, where

of

because

the

iambist

convenient

overlap

between

the

name

of

one

of

his

lovers

and Maecenas's

But how much of an Anacreontic


Horace do we actually
Bathyllus
permitting
sense and for how long? Nothing
that bears serious scrutiny.68 The formal alignment
itself
is neatly but tenuously based. The facts which Horace
exploited and to which he refers are
as

follows.

were

about

innuendo.

Anacreon
Bathyllus,

wrote
though

love
none

poems,
matching
of these
survive.69

new Horace,
supposed
wrote
Anacreon
metrical

the

and
iambics,

some
as

did in much of his Iambi, and some at least of Anacreon's


iambics were
love
metron
is
of
iambic
Horace
the
relative
the
what
refers to with
surely
simplicity
poems:70
some of Anacreon's
'non elaboratum
ad pedem'.71 And presumably
love poems
Bathyllus
were in iambics. Horace
taking a temporary amorous turn in his often iambic Iambi could

Horace

67

cf. Watson,
op. cit. (n. i), 448.
68
Watson,
14
op. cit. (n. 1), 440L finds features from Anacreon's
lyric in Epode
in the Epodes
is there significant
Horace
evidence of an Anacreontic
impressive. Nor
G-P
But, in view of Epode
14.11 fleuit amorem, Dioscorides
(AP 7.31.3-4)
XIX.3-4
/... noXkUKi 8<xKpu x?a?.
Ba0?AAco
69
and epigrams devoted
These are known to us only by the (many) later testimonia
Maximus
of Tyre cited at Anacreon
402, 'His poems are full of the hair of Smerdies
in the Anacreontea.
also occurs frequently
the youthful
Bathyllus
beauty of Bathyllus'.
Lyric Vol. II, n. 1) s.v. 'Bathyllus'.
70
see fr. 427 (four stichic iambic dimeters),
in Anacreon,
For iambic metre
428 (two

itself, but they are not to me


outside Epode
14 (cf. n. 29).
is slightly
d) '7ti
interesting:
to Anacreon
and his loves; e.g.
and the eyes of Cleobulus
and
See Campbell's
index (Greek

dimeters),
425 (two trimeters),
Ench. 5.3 says that 'the (iambic) dimeter catalectic
424, 431, 432. Hephaesion,
426 (trimeter), and, in combinations,
anacreontean
also arguably wrote
is the so-called
(to Ka?iO?|aevov
citing fr. 429. (Anacreon
XvaKps?vxsiov)',
this is an additional,
Iambi in the generic sense, poems of abuse and invective:
factor, and not I think
complicating
'I?Si 7t?vxa
very relevant to our context. The Suda A 1916 (T 1 Gerber)
reports eypavj/sv
e^eye?a Kai iau?ouc,
See C. Brown, Phoenix
is generic rather than metrical.
37 (1983),
8ia?,8KTCp, but it is hard to know if that reference
tetrameters
Artemon
anaclastic
1-15, interpreting Anacreon's
system is two choriambic
poem 388, whose metrical

and other frs in this way.)


and an iambic dimeter,
71
as many do:
to mean
'in versi non perfetti',
ad pedem'
Tescari,
op. cit. (n. 6), ad loc. takes 'non elaboratum
at length, op. cit. (n. 61), 134-6; Cavarzere,
discussed
Grassmann
'nicht ausgefeilt',
op. cit. (n. 1), ad loc. It is
criticize
Anacreon
and
like this: in the Odes
would
that Horace
(1.23) he elegantly
gratuitously
unlikely
in Giarratano,
of this 'verso oscuro'
op. cit. (n. 3), 90; my own view is
honorifically
adapts him. A long discussion
as an adjective
on the use of the perf. part, elaboratus
is informative.
It can be
TLL V\2.321.7ff.
close to Nauck's.
verses)) and there can be degrees of
(Cic, Verr. 4.126, Orat.
36 (of Pacuvius'
paired with ornatus, elegans, perfectus
et dulcior et in uersibus magis elaboratus'):
the negation would
elaboratus
(Tac, Dial. 18 'Cicerone mitior Coruinus
it could just be 'not ornate',
be 'imperfect';
therefore necessarily
'simple'. And this fits iambics very well, whose
to drama): Aristotle,
to speech
Rhet. 1408b, discussing
is remarked
them suitable
upon
(and makes
proximity
? 8' iafi?oc a?)xf| ?axiv f| X.??i? tgw
prose rhythms, calls the iambus 'the actual speech of the many',
appropriate
iambics are what people most use when
'of all metres
they talk', Tt?vxcov x?)V |Li?xpC?V
7to?,?,G)V; in consequence
Aetia Epilogue,
fr. 112.9 Moua?cov
scholars assume that Callimachus,
rce?ov
^?yovxe?. Most
^G?yyovxai
iau?eia
... vofx?v,
has argued
'the prose pasture of the Muses',
refers to his often
Iambi, but Hutchinson
(chol-)iambic
see ZPE 145 (2003), 58 with n. 31.
that the reference there is simply to prose works:
strongly and succinctly

not

This content downloaded from 179.210.154.158 on Tue, 17 Feb 2015 21:57:13 PM


All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

passingly
conveniently

pretend
named

Love causing
are

these

an

and

be

EPODES

to mention

constrained

15

Anacreon's

lover.

iambus-block,

amusing

Anacreon

with

alliance

OF

BOOK

IN HORACE^

ALLUSION

AND

STRUCTURE

but

enough,

Horace
the wit

in the Epodes
is more

lining up with Anacreon,


How

fundamental.

innuendos,
can

seriously

we

take

poem which stands in a finished book which explains why the poet cannot finish that same
in 65, and at the same time introduces 66 as
in writing
book? Catullus expresses difficulty
for

compensation

notionally

something

more

desirable,

and

at Ol.

Pindar

1.17

an

issues

to take the lyre from the hook seventeen


lines into the song, but apologetics
instruction
references like these have nothing to match the delightful
and circumstantial
implausibility
of Epode 14.72We should note just how concretely Horace brings to mind published books
'ad umbilicum
adducere'.73 To take Epode 14 at its
by the phrase he uses for 'finishing',
face

value,

we

have

to

assume

a reader-attitude

of

truly

extreme

we

ingenuousness:

have

to turn our attention away from books and from the object in our hands, and buy into a
illusion that the composition
of iambi is happening
dramatic
actually in front of us, and,
at the dramatic moment
of the fourteenth poem, is encountering
deep trouble because of
for the delay.
love. And Horace
apologizes
The witty implausibility
of this, plus the other literary feints, pushes us to find a more
of
the poem. We go back to Epode 13. Horace
gave many signs
explanation
sophisticated
that Epode 13 was closural. And now: 'I'm sorry I cannot finish'. This witty apology
draws attention to the fact that he has not closed with the 'closing' poem: it
metatextually
is a metapoetic
that he has not finished his book of Iambi at the point,
acknowledgement
intended to. The reference to physical
where, we infer, he both ought and (as it were)
books of poetry and publication
actually encourages us to think out beyond the supposed
dramatic

circumstances

to

literary

question

and

answer.

Why

doesn't

the

book

close

at

Epode 13?
to the undoing of closure. The sombre end
There is a pleasing
little detail contributing
of death in Epode 13 is now dissolved,
first in the non-deathly
of Lethaeos
forgetfulness
use
ut
in
si..
the
of occidis
'Lethaeos
and
then, completely,
.'),74
(14.3,
jokingly colloquial
(14.5) 'you'll be the death of me with your questions'.75
Well, why doesn't Horace finish his iambi with Epode 13? 'Love' is hardly the answer,
into erotic, uniambic
with the implied diversion
iambi: we only get one more 'love' poem,
and two others that are completely different. And why did Horace
encourage expectations
of closure (now seen to be 'false closure')76 at the thirteenth poem, and allow us to deduce
that this was the 'right' place to close?
72
in augusteischen
And yet E. Lef?vre says of Epode 14 (Horaz. Dichter
Rom
(1993), 82) 'Die Epode ist im ?brigen
von Maecenas
zur Ver?ffentlichung
ein seltenes Zeugnis
in welchem Mass Horaz
Cf. too
daf?r,
gedr?ngt wurde'.
Mueller,
op. cit. (n. 61), 122, 126L, and elsewhere. Watson,
op. cit. (n. 53), ad loc, Grassmann,
op. cit. (n. 1), 438ff.
on published
a poet in a book explaining
has excellent material
but nothing parallels
that he
literary apologetics,
cannot finish that book. For an appreciation
see Hutchinson,
in Horace's
of the humour
op. cit. (n. 8).
position,
73
own concoction,
term. Watson's
The phrase seems to be Horace's
but it is built around a technical
(op. cit. (n.
to the knobs on the ends of the rod around which
refer strictly or originally
1)) note here is very useful. The umbilici
the end-product,
the physical
roll book, was wound,
papyrus
though the exact details of how this was done are
seems to be used, here and elsewhere,
But umbilicus
for the rod itself. Cf. Catullus
22.7,
disputed.
by synecdoche,
on [Tib.] 3.1.13, as well asWatson.
Martial
loves making
reference to the physical object
1.18, Tr?nkle
and in the last poem of Book 4 (4.89.1-2) writes
'ohe, iam satis est, ohe, libelle, / iam peruenimus
usque
?
is unable yet to say. Cf, referring to the reader, Sen., Suas. 6.2.7, <erg?? ut librum uelitis
what Horace
?
reuoluere...'.
Carmen
within
the 'Schema Cornelianum'
usque ad umbilicum
incidentally
pattern
appositional
to a comma after olim) ?
of 'inceptos, olim promissum
must surely refer
carmen, iambos' (I prefer this punctuation
to the Gedichtbuch
as Bentley
of Epodes,
affirmed. Mankin,
229-30
already
(good notes on 11. 7 and 8) and

Ovid, Trist.
of the book,
ad umbilicos'

the interpretation.
Grassmann,
op. cit. (n. 61), 130 question
74
Lethe had been situated in the Underworld
since Theognis
op. cit. (n. 1), note on 1. 3.
(705, 1215): see Mankin,
75
use of occido, cf. Plaut., Pseud. 931, Horace,
For the colloquial
Ars Po?tica 475, etc. Mueller,
op. cit. (n. 53), ad
use of exanimo
at Odes 2.17.1: an interesting passage,
loc. compares Horace's
because here too we may see Horace
the topic of death with a similar colloquialism.
Cf. uses of anaXXvyLi, LSJ. s.v. 2.
defusing
76
On
'false closure',
cf. D. Fowler, Roman
Constructions
F. M. Dunn
and
(2000), 259?63, D. H. Roberts,
D. Fowler, Classical
Closure
'false'.
(1997), index s.v. 'closure',

This content downloaded from 179.210.154.158 on Tue, 17 Feb 2015 21:57:13 PM


All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

i6

R.

O.

A. M.

LYNE

for the first and only time within


At Epode 14.7 Horace
the body of this text suggests
the title for what we call the 'Epodes': Iambi.77 Previously he has advertised alignment with
What
editions of these poets Horace
and, especially, Archilochus.
used, and
Hipponax
78
with what titles, is hard to say. Archilochus
had referred to his iau?oi
but there is no
Book entitled by scholars Iambi. Archilochus'
works were, where
sign of an Archilochean
metre:
cited
specified,
by
elegiacs,
seem
to have
books
borne
the

and

tetrameters,

trimeters,
title

in

iau?oi

later

at

times

Two
epodes.79
But
rate.80
any

of Hipponax's
there were

of

course well-known
as a book by their
Iambi which we know to have been composed
author and actually entitled laju?oi
Now with
this
by him: the Iambi of Callimachus.
hellenistic
book Horace
surreptitiously
aligns himself at Epod. 1.16. He makes very little
use of Callimachus'
text itself, indeed takes steps not to be identified with the hellenistic
?
rather than the archaic iambists besides this allusion81
and the matter of structure, to
as
I
attend. But when iambi is floated
the designation
which
of Horace's
book at 14.7, this
re-stir
of
Callimachus'
book.
Kerkhecker's
edition
authoritative
may
memory
dauntingly
of Callimachus'
Iambi presents us with thirteen poems and argues forcefully for this total.
There is a mass of evidence to be weighed,
but an outstanding
factor is the impression of
closure provided by Iambus XIII, in ring-composition
with Iambus I.82
a
Thirteen
Iambi and closure provided
by Iambus XIII. Here is why Horace
provides
closural poem in Epode 13. But why is it false closure? What game is he playing?
the debate about the extent of Callimachus'
Here we must acknowledge
Iambi, and
minimum
the
the
of
facts. The Milan
of Callimachus'
bare
work,
register
Diegeseis
papyrus

of which

dates

from

c. A.D.

100,

are

summaries

of Aetia,

Iambi,

Hecale,

in

Hymns

the Aetia
without
between
and Hecale
that order, and they show seventeen
poems
I?XIII and four more, a potential
Kerkhecker's
differentiation,
14-17, frs 226-9 Pf-5 tne
lemmata as well as summaries,
and other papyri have supplemented
Diegeseis
provide
a papyrus roll with I?XIII
summarized
227-9. It is a natural inference that the Diegeseis
plus

14-17.

More

evidence:

second-century

A.D.

papyrus

(frs of IV, V, VI, and VII survive) and concluded with


and 14-17 was early in existence. But was this a book

roll

also

contained

the

'17'.83 So a book containing


of seventeen Callimachean

Iambi

I?XIII
Iambi}

77
Ode 1.16.3 and 24 (though not all agree about the point of this
cf. elsewhere, with varying degrees of directness,
metrical
talk. Cf.
titled the book thus. 'Epodes' is grammarians'
ode), Epist. 1.19.23, 2.2.59. Horace
surely officially
op. cit. (n. 1), 9?14 is much more cautious.
Mankin,
op. cit. (n. 1), 12. But Cavarzere,
78
use of
see Epode 6 (above Section
and Hipponax,
For the alignment with Archilochus
1, 1). For Archilochus'
'iau?oi, see fr. 215 and n. 7.
79
on Archilochus
of Rhodes,
We have glimpses
of scholarly work
and, more
substantially
by
by Apollonius
see West
at
from Archilochus'
Aristarchus:
Fraser, op. cit. (n. 21), 452, 462. For citations
(?v ?^eyeioi?),
'elegiacs'
the head of 18-87; trochaic
from his 'trimeters',
the head of frs 1-17; for citations
'tetrameters',
88-167;
'epodes',
168-204.
80
See West

x v iau?cov; metrically,
at the head of frs i-ii4a:
?v x
TCpcoxcp (tc?v) ia|u?G)V, ?v xq> ?eux?pco
besides choliambics.
and dactylic hexameters
also wrote
tetrameters,
Hipponax
epodes,
81
returns
rediuiuus
and programmatic
In Callimachus'
poem, Hipponax
'bearing an iambus that does
opening
?
... (1.3). Horace
to the
alludes
o? ju?xr|V ?ei?ovxa
not' ?
(with Bupalus)',
'sing of battle
paradoxically
in his opening poem, when he calls himself
imbellis (Epode 1.16). This idea,
genial iambic Callimachus
unexpectedly
to Denis
connection
But besides
and is as yet unpublished.
this, a possible
Feeney,
belongs
surely unassailable,
between Epode 15.7-9 and Iamb XII = fr. 202 Pf. 69-70
op. cit. (n. 58),
(E. Fraenkel, Horace
(1957), 67; Heyworth,
text (but
avoids the Callimachean
in Epode 13 and, conceivably
14, suggested below, Horace
86), and the allusions
to Callimachus'
Ibis in the opening word of the book; cf. too Hutchinson,
loc. cit. sees an allusion
op.
Heyworth,
in particular Callimachus'
he does not use Callimachus'
indeed ostentatiously,
cit. (n. 8)). Most
metres,
noticeably,
use of Archilochus'
metres and text: see above
choliambics.
favoured Hipponactean
By contrast he makes noticeable
the
But a public
face does not preclude
Callimachus:
he is no Roman
rather, Archilochus.
p. 12. Publicly
nor does it preclude play with Callimachean
structure.
alignment mentioned;
surreptitious
82
See Kerkhecker,
argues the case for thirteen Iambi, and
esp. 269, 278f. Kerkhecker
op. cit. (n. 10), 255ff., 272-82,
of seventeen
(see below). Cf.
argues against the supposition
11 (1950), 1-168,esp.
132-3.
83
The papyrus book is P. Oxy. 2171 + 2172. See R. Pfeiffer,
evidence of this papyrus and of the Diegeseis.

too C. M.

Dawson,

Callimachus.

'The Iambi of Callimachus',

Volumen

II (1949), xi and xxxvii

This content downloaded from 179.210.154.158 on Tue, 17 Feb 2015 21:57:13 PM


All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

YCS
for the

IN HORACE'S

ALLUSION

AND

STRUCTURE

BOOK

OF

EPODES

?J

Pfeiffer,84 though he believed in the existence of the seventeen


Long before Kerkhecker,
to Callimachus'
not
believe
did
that the 'lyric' frs 226-9 belonged
Iambi, and
poem book,
that frs 227-9 had their own
entitles them M?^n. The possibility
his edition conjecturally
titles

on

early

quite

support

is not

'Lyrics'
While

the

reliably
content
of

of

'Apotheosis

('Pannychis',

But there is room

for their separation.85

from

known

may

'14-17'

any
seem

source

Arsinoe',

(the

A collection

Suda's
the

uniambic,

content

testimony
of
the

increase

may

'Branchus')

for debate.

of Callimachus'
is insubstantial).86
core
I?XIII
is not

indeed is very
formal model
iambic in any way resembling Callimachus'
(Hipponax),
various.87 The 'lyric' metres of '14-17' may likewise seem unsuited to Iambi, but this can
referred to a
that 'iambic' originally
be argued to and fro,88 and it must be remembered
room
a
is
for
debate.
Thirteen
therefore
indeed
There
than
metre.89
rather
type of poetry
or
not?
or seventeen poems in Callimachus'
Pfeiffer's
Iambi} Four miscellaneous
'lyrics'
one
Cameron
forever.
stilled
all
discussion
has
and Kerkhecker's
not,
suspects,
authority
in the contrary direction.90
deploys forceful arguments
The

the

between

parallel

the seventeen
Callimachean
two

seventeen

Horace's

Epodes,

strange

total

by

all

and

accounts,

the
poems has of course been seen, and assistance with
sought therein. And there has surely to be some relation between

Callimachean
problem

totals

of

seventeen

and

some

explanation

of

Horace's

number.91

Cameron

seventeen
Iambi mirrored
the simple answer:
by seventeen Epodes, with
championed
as part of the evidence
for a Callimachean
the
Horace's
total deployed
seventeen;
literary XIII may be seen as 'warning of surprises to follow.92 Another way of
polemically
book of thirteen Iambi was later 'filled out' with four
dealing with the facts: Callimachus'
seventeen
times, by the poet himself or a copyist, and Horace's
poems before Roman
to have provided
mirrors
this expanded
book.93 But the thirteen Iambi are calculated
book (c. 1,000 lines),94 so that there was no actual stimulus
sufficient text for a hellenistic
for padding.
of what he might be
But let us focus on Horace. There is a very interesting explanation
saw that Iambus XIII provided
up to. Horace
satisfying closure for a book of Iambi. But
continued on, and gave four
the edition he read, like the one summarized by the Diegeseis,
or 'false
more poems. A puzzle.
Is XIII
'closure' followed
material
by heterogeneous
closure' followed by more Iambi? Unlike an editor, Horace did not have to declare himself.
He could transform the puzzle into art, and self-consciously
replay what he found in front
of him. He provides a sense of closure in Epode 13, but starts up again in Epode 14, and
advertises
the fact that he had not closed the book; and he then provides
metapoetically
three more poems to make up the total of seventeen that he found in his edition. Perhaps
there

was

debate

about

the

number

of

Iambi

among

cognoscenti

in Horace's

time,

to

84
Pfeiffer, op. cit. (n. 83), esp. vol. II, xxxvii.
85 A.
Callimachus
and his Critics
Cameron,
(1995), 164 argues against the titles having such force, even granted
we rely on Athenaeus,
on Hephaestion,
for Branchus
but *Ek08(?O"I? Apaivor|?
(For Pannychis
they are genuine.
heads the entry in the Diegeseis.)
86
Cameron,
op. cit. (n. 85), 163 with n. 107, more mutedly
Kerkhecker,
op. cit. (n. 10), ir/6i.
87
Kerkhecker,
op. cit. (n. 10), 278 and 29iff.
88
Kerkhecker,
op. cit. (n. 10), 278, Cameron,
op. cit. (n.85), 164-5.
89
See above n. 7.
90
Cameron's
main discussion
is op. cit. (n. 85), 163-73.
91
It is hardly sufficient explanation
is chosen as the next prime number after
of the relation to say that seventeen
Callimachus'
thirteen: Heyworth,
op. cit. (n. 58), 86.
92
see Cameron,
For the idea that XIII 'warns of what
is to follow,
op. cit. (n. 85), 167; cf. too C. Gallavotti,
1 (1946), 12, and a rebuttal in Kerkhecker,
170 n. 139 also interestingly
op. cit. (n. 10), 279^ Cameron,
Antiquitas
seventeen Aetia
in Book 4 of the Aetia.
It is perhaps worth
the
points out that there were
(probably)
focusing
fact that Branchus
fr. 105.
interesting
(Call. fr. 229) occurs in Hipponax
93
D. L. Clayman,
Callimachus's
Iambi, Mnemosyne
Suppl. 59 (1980), 7.
94
a minimum
of 800 lines in I?XIII, a probable
and a possible
Dawson,
op. cit. (n. 82), 133-6 calculated
950-75,
1100-25.

This content downloaded from 179.210.154.158 on Tue, 17 Feb 2015 21:57:13 PM


All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

i8

R.

match
the

that
Epodes

O.

A.

M.

and Kerkhecker.
say, Cameron
of,
would
be an amusing
contribution

LYNE

The
to

non-committal

creatively

of

mimicry

it.

a unit of thirteen or seventeen? Both. And


What
is Horace's
foundational
principle,
there is a third: see Section v. How many Iambi did Horace
think Callimachus
wrote? He
art of it. How many Iambi did Callimachus
sits on the fence, making
write? That is for
Callimachean
scholars to decide.
I have said that Horace makes
little use of the text itself of Callimachus'
Iambi. But
there are two ways in which we can see Epode 13 and Iambus XIII related, in spite of the
of their subject matter. First, Epode 13 is the first and only
general complete difference
poem in the book that is sympotic in setting, and, as I have said, this does not seem to be
in the manner of the archaic iambists. But it is in the manner of Callimachus,
Iambus XIII,
also sympotically
situated.95 Second, Callimachus
is defending himself in XIII against the
inter

charge,

of

alia,

in

composing

too

many

genres,

of,

as

the

it,

put

Diegeseis

7to?A)??8sia.96 Now
is not 7io?A)??8eia, but in his masterly
'Kreuzung der Gattungen'
texts
in
of
and
genres
merging
contributing
Epode 13 (Section 1, 1 and 3), Horace may wish
to parade a versatility analogous
to the one which Callimachus
defends. And Callimachus
was

himself

course

of

magician

of Kreuzung.

The Diegeseis
say that in Iambus 14 rcp?? to?? (bpaiou? c^na?, 'Callimachus
some
with
have
There
could
been
boys
youthful
blooming
beauty'.
Callimachean
for Epode 14 and Bathyllus.
background

IV THE ADDRESSEE

OF EPODE

speaks to
interesting

13

The manuscripts
offer amici in Epode 13.3; the reac ing is surely corrupt. The movement
from plural to singular (tu, 1. 6) is hard to make good sense of, and the supposed parallels
inHorace
and others do not stand up.97 It is natural to seek a proper name in place of the
corruption,

since

it is Horace's

later

practice

to name

in sympotic

addressees

poetry,

unless

indeed seek a grand name, since the


(we infer) a slave;98 we might
is very special (Section 1, 2). Horace's
tu
later practice with vocative
symposium planned
us
a
to
not
also
Housman
named
but
lead
person,
expect
might
irresistibly.99
ingeniously
hence Amici, printed by Shackleton Bailey. But Nisbet points to the
advanced an Amicius,
in an ancient text;100 nor
inartistic and surely unacceptable
this would produce
ambiguity
is any grand Amicius known. Bentley's amice is I think right, cf. incidentally Alcaeus' ana
the addressee

in fr.

346.2,

be

though

this

seems

to have

amorous

flavour.

But

this

is not

a proper

name.

Nor

95
See Kerkhecker,
op. cit. (n. 10), 252 on the sympotic
setting of Iambus XIII.
96
in Iambus
See Kerkhecker,
op. cit. (n. 10), 25 iff. on the charges against and the defences made by Callimachus
XIII.
97
is to
drama. In Ode 3.14.17 the address
In Ode 1.27.10 the change to singular is fully explained
by the unfolding
a slave conveying
which Horace
orders for the private party that is to follow the public celebration
has, as it were,
to plural
is from singular
In Archilochus'
fr. 13 the movement
of the paraenesis
been directing.
(1
elegiac
earlier references
6 d) <{>?X'10 xXf|T8) in a piece that is firmly contextualized
to, the
in, and makes
Ilep?KXsE?,
are the supposed
...tu
cited by Mankin,
for amici
civic group. These
op. cit. (n. 1), 217.
parallels
surrounding
it supports amice.
Cavarzere,
op. cit. (n. 1), ad loc. cites Alcaeus
346 in favour of amici: if anything,
98
A slave boy may be inferred in Ode 1.38. See Mueller,
op. cit. (n. 53), note on 1. 3, for the naming of addressees
in place of amici
is cited in the text above, Mueller
offers
in Odes. Writing
whose
before Housman,
suggestion
Scheibe's Apici or his own Anici.
99
at Odes
a named
or similar contexts
with
addressee
tu occurs
in sympotic
Vocative
1.11.1,
1.7.17,
1.9.16,
At 2.18.17
the unnamed passing sailor as 'at tu, nauta...'
3.29.25. But at 1.28.25 the unnamed dead person addresses
tu may in fact be aimed at Maecenas:
and Hubbard,
cf. Nisbet
nominative
the unidentified
op. cit. (n. 4), 289; Lyne,
his case.
op. cit. (n. 37), i26ff., overstating
100
Classical
is proposed
The proper name vocative Amici
(1972), 1087, and defended
by
Papers
by A. E. Housman,
are cited in n. 98.
that have been suggested
Lowrie,
op. cit. (n. 6), 417 n. 14. Two other proper name vocatives
of ambiguity,
discounted
CR 36 (1986), 232 raises the question
R. G. M. Nisbet,
by Brink (see next note). For plural
uses sodales:
to companions
in the Odes, Horace
addresses
i.zj.y,
1.37.4.

This content downloaded from 179.210.154.158 on Tue, 17 Feb 2015 21:57:13 PM


All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

AND

STRUCTURE

does
vocative

a proper
is going

it visibly
accompany
So what
amice.101

later

Horace's

name,

EPODES

OF

BOOK

IN HORACE'S

ALLUSION

when

practice

19

he

does

use

on?

we can see that


problem of the reading in the context of 'false closure',
as a designed
tease. The End impends, the party is special, the poem is
is this 'friend'? But of course the final close
is it addressed? Who
To whom
restarts the book. And in Epode 14 the
poems away: Epode 14 wittily
until 1. 5: 'amice ...
still
is
revealed,
mystery
tantalisingly
postponed
though
identity
for amice. And, across the
Here at last is the proper name and the specification
Maecenas\
restarts it, we
Epode that appears to close the book and the Epode that then amusingly
If we set the
amice functions
special, and yet:
is actually four

have

the

same

of

pattern

that

address

opened

the Epodes

book:

1.2-4,

Epode

'amice

...//

Maecenas'.

STRUCTURES

IN THE

BOOK

OF EPODES102

structures in Odes Book 1 (1-38 and 9-38), as I


Horace plays with at least two co-existing
show in another paper. In Epodes he operates with at least three:103 we can read a book of
ten (plus seven), a book of thirteen (plus four), or a book of seventeen.
Each is
The first ten poems are distinct,
forming a decimal group like the Eclogues.
in exactly the same epodic metre, iambic trimeter and iambic dimeter; with Epode
written
11 comes

radical

metrical

as we

change,

have

seen.

Here

is the

unit.

first

Roman

poets

who

the opening of the second half a position of


even-numbered
sequences considered
in the DRN ?
in
Lucretius
Aeneid
and
Thus
the
granted that the
importance.
Vergil
?
us
at this
'Proems
in
intention
the
Middle'
reflects
Lucretius'
final
of
4.1-25
give
placing
sets
out
ten
and
In
the
sixth
poem
images
Eclogues,
Vergil's
literary
Vergil's
point.104
the Callimachean
who must refuse
programmes:
Vergil as the first Roman Theocritus,
of the
epic, and, through the surrogate figure of Silenus, the arbiter of modern employment
out
sets
Horace
6
metre.
Horace's
and
programme:
image
supposed
epic
Similarly Epode
and (here) Hipponax.
the real Roman Archilochus
'Closure' at Epode 13 then gives us a sense of a group of thirteen to match Callimachus'
collections
thirteen Iambi. Odd-numbered
put focus on the centred poem, whose
topic
for
may patently reflect the importance of such a position: Prop. 4.6 (Apollo and Actium)
con
or Eclogue
in Vergil's
of Daphnis-Caesar)
5 (the apotheosis
competing
example,
centric structure built out of Eel. 1-9.105 Epodes 1-13 centre the important political Epode
7, the first to reflect serious political concerns since the opening Epode 1.

wrote

And
exitus,
Augustan

Balliol

finally,
taking
as Heyworth
victory

College,

101
An objection
102
For different

Epode
sees.106

poem,

13

as

This

Epode

'false'

encompassing

closure,

we
structure

have

seventeen
centres

the

Ibis
from
poems,
even more
important

to

9.

Oxford
to Bentley's
of
ways

amice made by C. O. Brink, PCPS 28 (1982), 41-2.


at the structure
see W.
in
of the Epodes
'Die Anordnung
Port,
book,
looking
81 (1925-6), 291-6; Dettmer,
Gedichtb?chern
Zeit', Philologus
op. cit. (n. 62), 77-109
(for comments
augusteischer
?
on the place of Epode
no sense of closure ?
see 93); Heyworth,
op. cit. (n. 58), esp. 91; Mankin,
op. cit.
13
cit.
(n. 1), 10?12; Oliensis,
(n. 6), 9iff.
op.
103
^s Professor Hutchinson
(touched on above). See esp. 11.1-2
points out to me, Epode 11 also plays with closure
'Petti, nihil me sicut antea iuuat / scribere uersiculos',
5 'destiti', but then 23 'nunc', and the witty
thought
(25ff.)
that ending can only be achieved by new beginning,
'sed alius ardor'.
104
see
e
i suoi confini
'proemi al Mezzo'.
For phrase and discussion,
G. B. Conte,
// genere
idem,
(1984), i2iff.,
in Classical
'Proems in the middle',
in F. M. Dunn and T. Cole (eds), Beginnings
Literature
(1992), 147-59. See too
on the proem to Fasti Book 4 in The Poet and the Prince
A. Barchiesi's
reflections
interesting
(1997), 56, and esp.
265-6 with n. 6.
105
structure
is O. Skutsch,
The most
of this unmistakeable
sensible discussion
and sense in the
'Symmetry
Eclogues', HSCP 73 (1969), i53ff., esp. i58f.
106
The first and last words of the book: Heyworth,
op. cit. (n. 58), 92.

This content downloaded from 179.210.154.158 on Tue, 17 Feb 2015 21:57:13 PM


All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions