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Marketing Research, 6e (Burns/Bush)

Chapter 4 Defining the Problem and Determining Research Objectives


1) When a manager says to a researcher, "Here is what I want to know..." the researcher should
ask:
A) What decision are you trying to make?
B) When do you want to know it?
C) In which format should we give you the answer?
D) How long have you known this is what you need?
E) What are you willing to pay for that information?
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 83
Topic: General Concept
AACSB: Reflective Thinking Skills Skills
Objective: LO4
2) A manager needs to choose between adding a proposed new product or scrapping the new
product idea. This situation best illustrates:
A) a risk of losing ROI
B) a stable ROI situation
C) decision alternatives that create a problem
D) decision alternatives that eliminate the problem
E) a product design situation
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 84
Topic: General Concept
AACSB: Reflective Thinking Skills Skills
Objective: LO1
3) A researcher determines she must collect data from likely buyers of a proposed new product
on a scale that measures the probability that they will purchase the product. This is an example
of:
A) an opportunity
B) use of research when it is not needed
C) a research objective
D) the problem
E) an RFR, "request for research"
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 84
Topic: General Concept
AACSB: Reflective Thinking Skills Skills
Objective: LO1

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4) When is marketing research NOT needed?


A) the information needed is not already available
B) other components of the MIS do not have the needed information
C) there is a need, but not an IMMEDIATE need to respond to a competitive strategy
D) costs of the research are much greater than the value of the information to be gathered
E) costs of the research are much lower than the value of the information to be gathered
Answer: D
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 86
Topic: General Concept
AACSB: Reflective Thinking Skills Skills
Objective: LO2
5) Which one of the following steps in the research process is thought to be the most important
step in the marketing research process?
A) defining the problem
B) data collection and analysis
C) report writing and determining research objectives
D) determining information types and sources
E) determining the research design
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 87
Topic: General Concept
Objective: LO2
6) In your text, your authors provide some insights from marketing researcher, Lawrence D.
Gibson. Which of the following best describes a key point made by Mr. Gibson relative to
defining the problem?
A) A problem that is solved is well defined.
B) A problem that is half defined is well solved.
C) A problem that is well defined is half solved.
D) A problem that is not defined is partially solved.
E) A problem that is well solved is half defined.
Answer: C
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 87
Topic: General Concept
Objective: LO3

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7) In your text, McDonald's was used as an example of a company that improperly defined the
research problem when the problem was defined as:
A) how to provide a better tasting burger for the present market
B) how to provide a better tasking burger for noncustomers
C) how to improve data collection methods for research
D) how to improve the taste of food products while also being sensitive to environmental issues
such as Styrofoam wastes
E) how to beat Burger King's Deluxe burger
Answer: E
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 87
Topic: General Concept
Objective: LO2
8) In your text, Coke was used as example of a company that improperly defined the research
problem when the problem was defined as:
A) how to provide a better tasting cola for the present market
B) how to provide a better tasting cola for the noncustomers
C) how to keep distributors satisfied
D) how to beat Pepsi in taste tests
E) how to improve advertising's effectiveness
Answer: D
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 87
Topic: General Concept
Objective: LO2
9) When a gap exists between what was supposed to happen and what did happen, it is called:
A) a marketing opportunity
B) gap symptom
C) gap opportunity
D) a problem
E) gap management
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Page Ref: 90
Topic: General Concept
AACSB: Reflective Thinking Skills Skills
Objective: LO5
10) Which of the following best describes the sources of problems?
A) There are actually two sources of problems.
B) Problems come only from nonperformance of a key goal.
C) There are three sources of problems: stockholders, customers and distributors .
D) All problems have a single source.
E) If a company does not have an objective, it cannot have a problem.
Answer: A
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 90
Topic: General Concept
Objective: LO5
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11) Which of the following best characterizes what managers should do in order to recognize
problems?
A) set up a process for opportunity identification to recognize problems
B) set up a control system to identify problems and a process of opportunity identification to
identify opportunities
C) set up a control system to monitor performance
D) set up a control system to identify opportunities
E) set up a control system to identify opportunities and a process of opportunity identification to
identify problems
Answer: B
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 90
Topic: General Concept
AACSB: Reflective Thinking Skills Skills
Objective: LO5
12) Symptoms are:
A) causes of the marketing research problem
B) changes in resources as a result of the marketing management problem
C) changes in the level of some key monitor that measures the achievement of some objective
D) changes in the level of some key objective that measures the achievement of some monitor
E) all of the above
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 91
Topic: General Concept
AACSB: Reflective Thinking Skills Skills
Objective: LO6
13) The key lesson regarding symptoms is that they:
A) are problems
B) are both problems and opportunities
C) should not be confused with opportunity identification
D) should be used in all control systems as well as opportunity identification software
E) should alert managers to recognize problems
Answer: E
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 91
Topic: General Concept
Objective: LO6

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14) When management has defined the problem and the decision to be made before calling in the
marketing researcher, the researcher should:
A) accept the client's wishes
B) accept the client's wishes, except define the problem more specifically
C) ensure that broader questions are asked, in order to ensure that the real problem is dealt with
D) turn the client's statement of the problem into a generally defined research objective
E) "go along" with what the client wants even though the researcher may not agree
Answer: C
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 92
Topic: General Concept
AACSB: Communication Abilities
Objective: LO7
15) Researchers should resist the temptation to accept the first problem defined. Rather, they
should conduct their own investigation to determine if there are alternative problems. This
investigation may take the form of a:
A) secondary problem definition analysis
B) situation analysis
C) self-analysis
D) private investigation
E) secondary problem research
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 93
Topic: General Concept
AACSB: Communication Abilities
Objective: LO7
16) Which of the following best describes the role of the researcher in the problem definition
stage of the marketing research process?
A) Researchers, because they know how to define problems, should undertake this step
independently and without interference of managers.
B) The researcher should immediately conduct a private investigation upon learning of the first
client meeting so as to be aware of the industry and the firm from the beginning.
C) Problem definition should be left up to managers alone, as researchers will almost always
define the problem too broadly, ensuring that too much research will be conducted.
D) Because they are accustomed to dealing with problem definition, researchers should help
managers to define the problem accurately, as this will enable them to provide the manager with
valuable research information.
E) Problem definition should be left up to managers alone as researchers will almost always
define the problem too narrowly, thus ensuring that the research may easily focus on the defined
problem.
Answer: D
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 92
Topic: General Concept
AACSB: Communication Abilities
Objective: LO7

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17) Under what condition is it likely that the problem definition dialogue between manager and
researcher may not take place?
A) when the RRL or the RRB specifies the problem
B) when everything is accomplished via online research
C) when research is commissioned through government agencies
D) when the RFP or ITB specifies the problem
E) None of the above; dialogue is always required to properly define the problem.
Answer: D
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 93
Topic: General Concept
AACSB: Communication Abilities
Objective: LO7
18) Which of the following has these common elements? Introduction, Scope of Proposal,
Deliverables, Evaluation Criteria, Deadline and Bidding specifics.
A) The research report
B) Opening remarks given by marketing researchers to clients
C) ITB's or RFP's
D) IBM's or ICBM's
E) The research process
Answer: C
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 107-108
Topic: General Concept
Objective: LO12
19) Researchers should conduct a "situation analysis" when:
A) clients tell researchers they sense something is wrong and they need help
B) clients tell researchers they know what the problem is and they do not need help
C) the information needed to solve the problem is in the DSS
D) the information needed to solve the problem is in the internal reports system
E) it is time to write the final marketing research report
Answer: A
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 94-95
Topic: General Concept
AACSB: Communication Abilities
Objective: LO7

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20) A marketing researcher investigates the way a client measures sales which are falling. This
illustrates
A) one of the first things a researcher should do
B) validating the symptom
C) conducting a situation setting
D) determining if the client will have enough funds to pay for the research
E) wasted effort; if sales are falling the researcher should determine why
Answer: B
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 95
Topic: General Concept
Objective: LO8
21) It is important, in the problem definition process, to determine ________ causes for the
change identified by the symptom.
A) the most consistent
B) all possible
C) the important
D) the most egregious
E) the latest
Answer: B
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 96
Topic: General Concept
AACSB: Reflective Thinking Skills Skills
Objective: LO8
22) Once the probable cause of the symptom is determined, the ________ should be specified.
A) conclusions
B) recommendations
C) decision
D) budget
E) method of analyzing data
Answer: C
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 96
Topic: General Concept
AACSB: Reflective Thinking Skills Skills
Objective: LO8
23) It is not good enough to specify a decision. Rather, ________ must be specified.
A) the data needed
B) alternatives
C) situation analysis
D) RFP's
E) ITB's
Answer: B
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 96
Topic: General Concept
Objective: LO8
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24) Given a symptom, managers assume that certain causes are at fault. Consequences are
assumed to result from each decision alternative specified. Research is NOT needed when:
A) managers know what the causes are
B) managers know what the symptoms are
C) managers are uncertain about these assumptions
D) managers are certain about these assumptions
E) managers are uncertain about the symptoms
Answer: D
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 98
Topic: General Concept
AACSB: Reflective Thinking Skills Skills
Objective: LO9
25) Managers assess their "information state" when:
A) they evaluate their MIS department
B) they are not certain about their assumptions
C) when their sales are plummeting
D) when sales are stable but other symptoms occur
E) determining which marketing research firm to hire
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 99
Topic: General Concept
AACSB: Reflective Thinking Skills Skills
Objective: LO9
26) Which best represents what the textbook has to say about information gaps? Information
gaps are:
A) discrepancies between what a marketer expects to happen and what feedback says could have
happened
B) discrepancies between what a marketer expects could have happened and what feedback says
has happened
C) discrepancies between the former information state and the current information state
D) discrepancies between the current information level and the desired level of information at
which the manager feels comfortable resolving the problem at hand
E) resolved by using secondary information
Answer: D
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 99
Topic: General Concept
AACSB: Reflective Thinking Skills Skills
Objective: LO9

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27) Which of the following serves as the basis for marketing research objectives?
A) information gaps
B) company objectives
C) differences between expectations and performance
D) the research budget and the time allotted to research
E) project director instructions
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 99
Topic: General Concept
Objective: LO9
28) A restaurant owner makes the following statement: "I believe I will need to place x amount of
food on an entr e dinner plate in order to satisfy my customers." This statement may be viewed
as:
A) an uninformed statement
B) an informed statement
C) a decision criterion
D) a preposterous statement
E) a hypothesis
Answer: E
Diff: 1
Page Ref: 100
Topic: General Concept
AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: LO9
29) Another way of thinking about hypotheses is that they are "statements of the decision
alternative's ________ ________."
A) real goals
B) correct answers
C) incorrect answers
D) assumed consequences
E) uninformed answers
Answer: D
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 100
Topic: General Concept
AACSB: Reflective Thinking Skills Skills
Objective: LO9

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30) Which defines what information will be collected from whom and in what format?
A) the PRC certification board
B) research objectives
C) the client in the initial meeting
D) The Chief Marketing Officer
E) it is included in the statement of "need to do marketing research"
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 100
Topic: General Concept
Objective: LO10
31) Once marketers know which construct is to be used in a research objective they can
determine the proper way to:
A) measure it
B) avoid it
C) keep it confidential
D) input data into SPSS
E) share the construct with the client for the client's use
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 102
Topic: General Concept
Objective: LO10
32) In the "Hierarchy of Effects" model, awareness, knowledge, liking, intention, and purchase
are examples of:
A) research RFPs
B) research ITBs
C) persuasion
D) constructs
E) multicollinearity of concepts
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 102
Topic: General Concept
Objective: LO10
33) The construct "intention to buy" is actually measured by a researcher using a 1 to 7 scale
measuring different levels of likelihood to purchase product X. The way the construct is
measured is referred to as an:
A) operational definition
B) multi-category closed ended question
C) open-ended question
D) CATI question
E) CAPI question
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 103
AACSB: Reflective Thinking Skills Skills
Objective: LO10
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34) If a researcher decided to measure the construct of "attitude" by using a 5-point scale ranging
from "Poor" to "Excellent," this would be an example of:
A) an improper way to measure attitude
B) an operational definition
C) a construct definition
D) modeling a construct
E) action standard
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 103
Topic: General Concept
AACSB: Reflective Thinking Skills Skills
Objective: LO10
35) A researcher and client agree that a difference of 15 percent is needed in the preference
ratings of an existing product, and a proposed new product in order to warrant dropping the old
product and producing the new one. The 15 percent difference in preference is called the:
A) just noticeable difference (jnd)
B) decision criterion percentage
C) decision criterion, mean
D) minimal standard
E) action standard
Answer: E
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 104-105
Topic: General Concept
AACSB: Reflective Thinking Skills Skills
Objective: LO11
36) Problem definition is sometimes aggravated by:
A) researchers and managers' similar experiences within the company
B) researchers and managers always thinking alike
C) researchers being generally indifferent to helping define the problem for the manager
D) the ability of the research office staff to quickly process initial paperwork on research projects
E) managers failing to recognize that they must change their behavior in dealing with outside
suppliers; they must enter into in-depth communication over an extended period of time
Answer: E
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 105-107
Topic: General Concept
AACSB: Reflective Thinking Skills Skills
Objective: LO11

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37) What are the three functions served by the marketing research proposal?
A) defines the problem, specifies the role of the manager, and asks for budget
B) specifies the problem, the method used to solve the problem, and provides the limitations of
the proposed method
C) defines the problem, specifies research objectives, and details the method proposed to
accomplish the research objectives
D) defines the research objectives, the budget, and the required personnel
E) defines the hypotheses, advance decisions, and the action standards
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 107
Topic: General Concept
AACSB: Reflective Thinking Skills Skills
Objective: LO12
38) "If managers are not making a decision, they don't need information," according to Parlin
Award recipient Ron Tatham.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1
Page Ref: 83
Objective: LO2
39) The problem is totally dependent on the research objective. Once we know the research
objective we can accurately surmise the problem.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1
Page Ref: 84
Objective: LO1
40) Marketing research is not needed when the costs of the research are more than the value of
the research information.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1
Page Ref: 86
Topic: General Concept
AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: LO2
41) Although important, properly defining the problem is not as important as analyzing data in
marketing research.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1
Page Ref: 87
Topic: General Concept
Objective: LO3
42) When there is a gap between what was supposed to happen and what did happen, we have a
problem.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 90
Topic: General Concept
Objective: LO5
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43) An opportunity, which is a type of problem, occurs when there is a gap between what did
happen and what could have happened.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 90
Topic: General Concept
Objective: LO5
44) Opportunities and problems have the same consequence for managers; they must make
decisions.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 90
Topic: General Concept
Objective: LO5
45) Control systems that monitor performance against objectives are useful for recognizing
problems.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 90
Topic: General Concept
Objective: LO5
46) Management's ability to recognize opportunities is increased if they use a process called
opportunity identification.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 90
Topic: General Concept
Objective: LO5
47) "We are losing money" is often one of the most prevalent PROBLEMS facing managers.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1
Page Ref: 91
Topic: General Concept
AACSB: Reflective Thinking Skills Skills
Objective: LO6
48) Symptoms are changes in the level of some key monitor that measures the achievement of an
objective.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1
Page Ref: 91
Topic: General Concept
Objective: LO6

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49) The marketing researcher plays an important role in problem definition when management
asks the researcher for help in defining the problem. Researchers do not play an important role in
problem definition when management has already defined the problem.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 92
Topic: General Concept
Objective: LO7
50) Researchers must resist the temptation to "go along" with the first problem definition
suggested.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 93
Topic: General Concept
AACSB: Communication Abilities
Objective: LO7
51) Sometimes researchers must conduct research in order to define the problem. This additional
investigation is sometimes known as a situation analysis.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1
Page Ref: 93
Topic: General Concept
Objective: LO7
52) When ITBs or RFPs are used, it means that there is less dialogue between researchers and
managers in terms of defining the problem. This is a good thing in that it makes for a more
efficient process.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 93
Topic: General Concept
AACSB: Communication Abilities
Objective: LO7
53) It is acceptable in the marketing research industry to send out RFPs and ITBs just to get
feedback from marketing research firms on how they would design the research needed to solve
the problem or opportunity.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 94
Topic: General Concept
AACSB: Ethical Understanding & Reasoning Abilities
Objective: LO7

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54) Once a researcher knows what decision a manager must make, it is not important to
determine the alternatives involved in the decision.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 89, 94, 96
Topic: General Concept
AACSB: Reflective Thinking Skills Skills
Objective: LO8
55) When management has not already defined the problem in terms of a decision to be made,
researchers should first undertake a situation analysis.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 94
Topic: General Concept
Objective: LO7
56) Marketing researchers may take the symptoms provided to them by management as valid
without investigating the validity of the symptoms themselves.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1
Page Ref: 95
Topic: General Concept
Objective: LO7
57) There is always some cause(s) for a change that brings about a symptom.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 96
Topic: General Concept
Objective: LO6
58) It is important for researchers to examine ALL possible causes for the symptoms before
narrowing possible causes down to the probable causes.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1
Page Ref: 96
Topic: General Concept
AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: LO8
59) In the problem definition process, once a symptom has been identified it is important to
specify all possible causes for the change that brought about the symptom.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 96
Topic: General Concept
AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: LO8

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60) Probable causes create decisions that managers must make and decisions require that
decision alternatives be stated.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 96
Topic: General Concept
AACSB: Reflective Thinking Skills Skills
Objective: LO8
61) Once decision alternatives are stated, it is appropriate to determine the "consequences" of the
alternatives.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 98
Topic: General Concept
AACSB: Reflective Thinking Skills Skills
Objective: LO9
62) When managers know the consequence of a decision alternative with certainty, they should
conduct marketing research to make certain of their knowledge.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1
Page Ref: 98
Topic: General Concept
AACSB: Reflective Thinking Skills Skills
Objective: LO9
63) Researchers should try to determine what assumptions have been made about consequences
of decision alternatives.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1
Page Ref: 98
Topic: General Concept
Objective: LO9
64) When management is completely certain of their assumptions regarding consequences to
decision alternatives, they SHOULD NOT conduct marketing research.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 99
Topic: General Concept
Objective: LO9
65) In some cases a manager is uncertain about his or her assumptions and believes he or she
does not have adequate information to support or refute the assumptions.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 99
Topic: General Concept
AACSB: Reflective Thinking Skills Skills
Objective: LO9

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66) Researchers should assess the "information state" that deals with the quality and quantity of
information a manager uses for his or her assumptions.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 99
Topic: General Concept
AACSB: Reflective Thinking Skills Skills
Objective: LO9
67) "Information gaps," as discussed in the textbook, are areas of knowledge not possessed by
the researcher due to a lack of education in that particular area.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1
Page Ref: 99
Topic: General Concept
Objective: LO9
68) Research objectives should be worded in such as way as to close the information gaps
needed for managers to select the correct decision analysis.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 100
Topic: General Concept
AACSB: Reflective Thinking Skills Skills
Objective: LO9
69) While research objectives should be reasonably specific they do not need to specify from
whom the information will be gathered, as this decision is made during the data collection step of
the marketing research process.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 101
Objective: LO10
70) Preference, awareness, and recall could be thought of as marketing constructs and the
constructs to be measured should be defined in the research objectives.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1
Page Ref: 101-102
Topic: General Concept
AACSB: Reflective Thinking Skills Skills
Objective: LO10
71) Marketing researchers find constructs helpful for two reasons: a. they reduce the time needed
to process data and b. once respondents know constructs are being measured, they are more
likely to participate in the research.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 101-102
Topic: General Concept
Objective: LO10

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72) Research objectives should state the "unit of measurement" and define the operational
definition which specifies how the construct(s) will be measured empirically.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 103
Topic: General Concept
Objective: LO10
73) Action standards specify what actions are to be taken during the initial stages of the
marketing research process, and they should follow accepted marketing research standards.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1
Page Ref: 104-105
Objective: LO11
74) One of the functions of the marketing research proposal is to detail the research method
proposed by the researcher to accomplish the research objectives.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1
Page Ref: 107
Topic: General Concept
Objective: LO12
75) Dexter Alvarez learns of a new breakthrough in solar panel technology by reading one of his
online science magazines. Being a businessman, Dexter would like information regarding
whether or not this breakthrough would make practical some solar panel applications that are
presently not in use. Dexter considers hiring a marketing research firm. This would be an
example of:
A) identifying a problem through the control process
B) identifying a type of problem that is called an "opportunity"
C) identifying a symptom
D) using a hypothesis to determine the need for research
E) the value of research information being far less than the cost of the research
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 90
Topic: Application Questions
Objective: LO5

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76) Amy Kuhnert is the CEO for Murphy Manufacturing. She and her board of directors have
decided to hire a marketing research firm to help them explore emerging market opportunities in
Asia. Amy schedules a 30-minute appointment with Josh Husband of Monroe Research
Associates in between 30-minute appointments with three other company representatives
offering to provide Murphy Manufacturing with a. machine leasing contracts, b. computer
software services, and c. photocopying services. This example illustrates:
A) why marketing researchers must use promotional materials to get the attention of prospective
customers
B) why CEOs are paid high salaries
C) why problem definition is sometimes difficult; managers fail to change their normal behavior
D) why problem definition is so easy; managers maintain their normal behavior
E) why a situation analysis may be needed
Answer: C
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 105
Topic: Application Questions
AACSB: Communication Abilities
Objective: LO11
77) Frank C. Church is a brand manager for Heinz. He hires a research firm. When he meets the
research company representative he states: "Here's the information I want to know. Tell me the
change in market shares every time my top three competitors change advertising strategies." The
researcher should ask:
A) Who are your three top competitors?
B) Do you know when your competitors changed advertising strategies?
C) What decision are you trying to make using that information?
D) What decisions have you made in the past and what information did you use to make them?
E) How much money do you want to spend on this project?
Answer: C
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 83
Topic: Application Questions
AACSB: Communication Abilities
Objective: LO2

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78) Ralph Thomas is director of sales for Hopkins Pharmaceutical. He is commissioning research
to help him determine which advertising message will be the most effective at getting MDs to
start prescribing the company's new bird-flu vaccine. He normally thinks of drugs in terms of
form of medicine (tablet vs. liquid), dosage levels, effectiveness vs. competitors' drug, and so on.
But, he knows that MDs are more apt to think in terms of severity of side effects, interactions
with other medicines, factors that would make patients ineligible to take the vaccine, and so on.
By concentrating on how the targeted MDs think about drugs in formulating the research,
Thomas is ensuring that the information collected in the research will be in the proper:
A) quantity
B) quality
C) form to equate to the action standard
D) frame of reference
E) unit of measurement
Answer: D
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 103-104
Topic: Application Questions
AACSB: Communication Abilities
Objective: LO10
79) Ash Morgan was interested in understanding how he could reduce turnover among his sales
force. He read some basic research that was reported in the Journal of Marketing Research that
showed that turnover of industrial salespersons is negatively related to perceived opportunities
for advancement. That is, if salespersons perceive that there are opportunities for advancement
they are less likely to leave the organization; therefore, turnover is reduced. He commissioned a
marketing research firm to conduct several studies on the salespersons in his firm. Eventually, he
was successful in getting top pay scales raised, and he introduced three additional sales force
ranks, each with having additional benefits, vacation time, and pay increases. Within two years,
Ash's firm had the lowest sales force turnover in the industry. In this example, which of the
following best identifies Ash's relationship between turnover and perceived opportunities for
advancement?
A) frames of reference resulting in creating constructs
B) a model showing the relationships between constructs
C) constructs, action standards
D) action standards showing the relationships between frames of reference
E) constructs and operational definitions
Answer: B
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 102
Topic: General Concept
Objective: LO10

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