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EirGrid Offshore Grid Study

Offshore Grid Study


Analysis of the Appropriate Architecture of an Irish Offshore Network

Executive Report

Advancing the Technological Development to Harness Offshore Power

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DISCLAIMER
EirGrid has followed accepted industry practices in the collection and analysis of data available. While all reasonable care has been
taken in the preparation of this data, EirGrid is not responsible for any loss that may be attributed to the use of this information.
Prior to taking business decisions, interested parties are advised to seek separate and independent opinion in relation to the matters
covered by this report and should not solely rely upon data and information contained herein. Information in this document does not
amount to a recommendation in respect of any possible investment. This document does not purport to contain all the information
that a prospective investor or participant may need.

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Offshore Grid Study


Analysis of the Appropriate Architecture of an Irish Offshore Network

Executive Report

Advancing the Technological Development to Harness Offshore Power

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Executive Foreword:
EirGrid is pleased to present the findings of this Offshore Grid Study.
The study was prompted by the first transmission connection offers to be made to offshore generation
in the Republic of Ireland and the need for a holistic view of the future development direction of a
potential offshore grid.
The study does not purport to define a precise network solution. Rather, it provides sound information on
the most efficient development methodologies and standard configurations for developing incrementally
an Irish Sea offshore network.
To ensure the robustness of the results, the sensitivity of changes to key assumptions have been
examined and the impact to the methodologies and configurations investigated.
The findings of the study will be used to guide future EirGrid policy decisions regarding offshore networks
development.
In addition to EirGrids own needs it is expected that this information will provide a valuable source
of information to stakeholders. It will also inform debate on a number of issues relating to offshore
network development in not only Irish waters but also in a wider European and International sense.
The techniques used, discussed in length in this report, to provide the findings of this report are in
EirGrids opinion uniquely applied to this task. These techniques may provide interesting opportunities
internationally for other similar applications requiring the reduction of large numbers of strategic
development options within a reasonable time period to an optimum strategy.
The report is structured to provide information as concisely as possible to meet the needs of the individual
reader with the non-technical executive report, providing the key conclusions to the findings, and a
more technically focussed detailed report. The detailed report discusses the methodology, assumptions
and techniques used in the study, the full spectrum of the findings, and conclusions drawn.
Finally, it is the aim of EirGrid to provide informative, pertinent and accessible information. We would
therefore welcome and value your feedback on the presentation, style and content of this report and
any of our other reports at all times.

Dermot Byrne

Chief Executive, EirGrid

Andrew Cooke
Director, GDC

Study Team
Mark Norton

Andrea Mansoldo

Manager, TS GDC

Senior Engineer

Alejandro Rivera
Engineer

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Contents
1

Executive Report:

14

1.1 Scope of Study

14

1.2 Findings

18

1.2.1

Meshed or Radial network design

18

1.2.2

Incremental Development

20

1.2.3

Symbiosis with the onshore network 21

1.2.4

GRID25 strategy

22

1.2.5

Interconnector Arrangements

23

1.2.6

Smart device use

24


1.2.7

Developed at a high voltage level


at least 220kV

25

1.2.8

AC or DC offshore network

28

1.2.9

Future expansion

29

1.3 Conclusion

30

31

Findings quick list

2.1 High Level findings

31

2.2 Detailed findings

31

33

Introduction

3.1 OVERVIEW

33

3.2 OFFSHORE NETWORKS

34

Objective

35

4.1 Foreword

35

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4.2 scope of the study

35

36

Methodology

5.1 Long Term Expansion Planning (LTEP)

37

5.1.1 Optimisation candidates

37

5.1.2 Optimisation algorithm

38

5.1.3

Horizon Expansion

40

5.1.4

Intermediate years Expansion

41

5.1.5

Contingency Analysis

42

5.2 Short Term Expansion Planning (STP)

43

5.2.1

REliability and MARKet (REMARK)

44

5.2.2

Application to Offshore Grid

45

5.2.3 Other Power System Issues

46

6 Transmission Alternatives

47

6.1 Offshore

47

6.1.1

AC 220 kV three-core

48

6.1.2

AC 220 kV single-core

49

6.1.3

AC 400 kV single-core

50

6.1.4

DC Technology

51

6.2 Onshore

53

6.2.1

AC OHL

53

6.2.2

AC Underground Cables

54

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6.3 Cost of Transmission infrastructure

55

6.3.1

Investments

55

6.3.2

Losses

55

6.3.3

Compensation

55

6.4 AC Vs. DC Technology

56

6.5 smart Planning and operation



of an Offshore grid

58

6.5.1

AC/DC designed circuits

58

6.5.2

Flexibility at Expansion Stage

59

6.5.3 Optimum asset management

59

LTEP Scenarios Assumptions

60

7.1 General

61

7.2 Geographical area

61

7.3 Horizon and Intermediate years

62

7.4 Wind onshore

62

7.4.1

62

7.4.2 Northern Ireland

63

7.4.3

63

Republic of Ireland
Great Britain Onshore

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7.5 Wind offshore

64

7.5.1

64

7.5.2 Northern Ireland

65

7.5.3 Nw-Ne of Scotland

65

7.5.4

66

Republic of Ireland

Rest of Britain

7.6 Load/Generation Combinations

67

7.6.1

High Wind Low Load

67

7.6.2

Low Wind High Load

67

7.6.3

Intermediate periods

68

7.6.4

Summary and weighting factors

68

7.6.5

Energy

69

7.7 Incorporating Gate3/Grid25


reinforcements

70


7.7.1

Additional Reinforcements
from GATE3/GRID25

70

7.7.2

Wind EXPANSION Onshore

71

7.7.3

Wind EXPANSION Offshore

71

Business as Usual Generation


Expansion for Comparisons

72


7.7.4

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Irish Only Results

73

8.1 Long Term ExPansion (ESPAUT)

74

8.1.1

Scenario BaseCase

75

8.1.2

Scenario Mid5

76

8.1.3

Scenario MID10

77

8.2 Short Term Expansion

79

8.2.1

Reliability and MARKet (REMARK)

79

8.2.2

Reactive Planning Estimation

82


8.2.3

AC reactive power strategy


conclusion

86

8.2.4

Harmonic Analysis

87

Irish Interconnection results

90

9.1 examined SENSITIVITIES and CASES

92

9.1.1 Use of Transmission technology

92

9.1.2

92

Generation Expansion Plans

9.2 sensitivity analysis Scenarios

96

96

9.2.1

List of candidates and subset

9.3 Intermediate Years


9.3.1


9.3.2

99

Scenario MID5 Interconnection

100

Sensitivity results:
Wind Curtailment Penalty Factor

106

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9.4 The MIXED AC/DC Transmission MOdel

126

9.4.1

Transmission Alternatives

126

9.4.2

HVDC advantage and challenges

128

9.4.3

Scenarios and Subset

128

9.4.4

MAX10 Interconnection+ISLES

128


9.4.5

MAX10 Interconnection+ISLES
+Wave Energy

131

10

Conclusions

133

11

References

132

12

Appendix 1: Maximum length


of ac cables

135

12.1 ElectricaL Parameters

135

12.2 Three-core 220 kV

136

12.3 Single-core 220 kV

137

12.4 Single-core 400 kV

137

12.5 Buried 400 kV 2500 mm2

138

12.6 Buried 220 kV 1600 mm2

139

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13 Appendix 2: Calculation of AC/DC



Break-even points for offshore

infrastructure
13.1 dc converter losses

140
141

13.2 ac and DC cable losses

142

13.3 Investments, operating costs

142

13.4 Results

143

14

145

Appendix 3: Examples of Smart


planning

14.1 AC to DC advantages

145

14.2 Submarine Cable and AC/HVDC


technology

146

14.3 Example of application

146

15

152

Appendix 4: HVDC Models for


Expansion Planning in MIXED AC/DC
Meshed Transmission Systems

15.1 Introduction

152

15.2 HVDC systems in the ESP Studies

152


15.2.1 Nodal current injection

approach for DC Grids

152


15.2.2 The linear DCLF approach

for AC Grids

153

154

15.2.3 AC/DC similarities


15.2.4 Linear Approximation of AC/DC

interface constraint

154

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15.3 Phase Shifter Transformer (PST)

156

15.3.1 Simplified PST model

156


15.3.2 Candidate PSTs in a ESP tool

for HVDC approximation

157

15.4 The MIXED AC/DC model for ESPAUT

158

16

159

Appendix 5: Pure ACc Model


Senstivity Results

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Executive Report:
Driven in part by European objectives, the development of renewable energy has gone from
strength to strength, culminating in Irelands Government Target of 40% energy used to be from
Renewable sources by 2020, in the framework for 20-20-20 EU initiative.
At the end of 2010, in the region of 1500 MW of renewable generation had been installed in the
Republic of Ireland, approximately 25 MW of which comes in the form of off-shore plant. The
committed development of the group processed renewable generation applications in Gate 11
and Gate 22, in association with those currently being processed in Gate 3 have the capacity
to supplement the existing developed renewable generation to meet or exceed the Irish 40%
renewable energy target by 2020. Gate 3 is committed to providing three connection offers
totalling approximately 800MW of additional offshore renewable wind generation.
Given that Ireland has some of the most favourable offshore wind, tidal and wave conditions in
Europe, offshore development in Irish waters is expected to grow rapidly over the coming years.
This is demonstrated by the scale of applications already present, in development, or awaiting
an offer for connection to the network totalling a further c.11000MW of wind (c.4000MW in Irish
territorial waters and a further c.7000MW in British waters) in the Irish Sea alone.
Although offshore generation applications represent a lower proportion of the overall applications,
the abundant resources of both wind and wave in the Atlantic Ocean off Irelands west coast,
offer an almost unlimited potential energy source for additional future offshore generation.
The need to develop a philosophy, and policies for the development of an offshore network to
meet the immediate need of formulating offers for the generation in Gate 33 in association with
the need for information to a develop strategic position on offshore networks culminated in
EirGrid initiating this Offshore Grid Study.

1.1 Scope Of Study


The need to understand not only the immediate requirements for connection of the Gate 3
generation applications, but also how these connections would ideally be constructed to fit into
longer term network development was a main driver in determining a scope for the study. This
information could then form the basis for the connection of this generation.

Gate 1 2004 Direction under which the Commission for Energy Regulation (CER) directed EirGrid and ESB Networks to
provide offers for connection to 373MW of renewable capacity
Gate 2 2006 Direction (CER/06/112) under which the CER directed EirGrid and ESB Networks to provide offers for
connection to c.1300MW of renewable capacity
Gate 3 2008 Direction (CER/08/260) under which the CER directed EirGrid and ESB Networks to provide offers for
connection to c.3,900MW of renewable capacity

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A further driver for the study was the need to establish a whole new suite of standard equipment
to supplement the existing onshore standard equipment. Standard equipment is used worldwide
to develop networks to provide economies of scale in manufacture, limit the number of spare
parts required, and simplify construction.
Onshore Irish equipment standards and experience have developed over 80 years; there have
effectively been none over this period for offshore equipment.
Best practice for determining both the resilience of an initial optimum network design (or
Expansion Strategy Plan (ESP)) into the future and in defining standard equipment to be used
in network development is to determine the requirements from an predicted initial scenario
and then test this network development with a wide range of alternative scenarios to see if the
development is still acceptable.
The outcome of this analysis demonstrates the robustness of the development to possible
alternative and longer term development requirements placed upon it.
A transmission network Expansion Strategy Plan (ESP) for a scenario must consider not only
the cost of the capital assets i.e. lines, cables and stations, but also the cost of producing
the electrical energy and associated electrical power losses to supply load demand year round.
EirGrid in partnership with RSE (the Italian nationally funded research centre for electricity)
has developed software and a new methodology to calculate the most efficient ESP considering
these three costs.
Engineering judgement based on factual information and experience is critical in defining the
wide range of network scenarios to be studied. However, the impact of necessary assumptions
chosen can be further mitigated by carrying out sensitivity analysis. This analysis varies each
key assumptions whilst fixing all of the other assumptions that have been made and studies the
impact to the results and hence the sensitivity of each choice to the final results.
EirGrid selected the Irish Sea as the focal point of the studies. This decision took account of
both existing offshore generation applications identified with a high probability for immediate
development, and also its geographical location lending to a high probability for the future
development of additional interconnection from Ireland.
The study area selected was further desirable as the largest two of the three offshore generation
applications in Gate 3 are also located in the Irish Sea and the study supplies additional specific
information for both these proposed connections.
The total generation that had been applied for at the time that this study commenced was
selected as a base case level for the purpose of this study (c.3GW) to be examined. To put this
into context this figure is greater than the Gate 1 and Gate 2 grouped renewable generation
applications processed between 2001 and 2007, or roughly 60% of the peak load demand in
Republic of Ireland in 2010.

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Discussion with these applicants also confirmed that they had future development plans to
expand their sites and this increased generation (c.5GW) was selected as the first alternative ESP
development scenario. During the course of the study further offshore generation applications
has increased the total from c.3GW to over 4GW.
To examine the effects of geographical dispersion of generation the c.5GW scenario was split into
two alternatives one with c.5GW in the existing five locations and one with this c.5GW spread
over ten sites. The additional five sites were selected by creating a series of additional stations
further offshore into the Irish Sea in a North South line from the initial five applications.
In order to reflect reality, both the 3GW and 5GW generation scenario were assumed to have a
phased development and a completion date for all generation by 2030 was assumed. Consequently
not only the final stage of an ESP could be compared, but also steps along the way.
These phased increases in generation within the scenarios are in addition to the existing
generation fleet in Ireland, generation which EirGrid is contractually bound to connect, and the
generation within Gate 3 which is in the process of being provided connection offers. Gate 3
has been assumed to be connected in its entirety based on uptake of offers in the previous two
gates.
The examination of the generation scenarios was further divided into two distinct concepts
for the studies, an Irish only development and an interconnected development. The Irish
only study examined developing network from only the Irish transmission network, whilst the
interconnected development looked at the potential added benefits, deficits or changes as a
result of interconnection to other networks.
Sensitivity analysis was selected to look at the key assumptions:



Scale of development in the Irish sea


Development of offshore generation off Ireland being centred in the Irish Sea
Market cost of reducing offshore generation and its impact on the network development
The use of different technologies on network development

To examine the scale of generation in the Irish Sea a third generation increase to c.7GW was
selected as another alternative scenario. This increase was proportionate at c.2GW to the
previous scenarios, and provided sufficient increase to drive an export scenario to adequately
accommodate the scale of generation, and the consequential impact that this might cause to
the offshore network structure.
Sensitivity analysis scenarios were also developed to examine the assumption that generation
would be centred in the Irish Sea. These looked at the impact of the additional generation in
the ISLES project (c.2GWs off the West of Scotland), and wave energy off the west coast of
Ireland (c.4GW).

Presently for the first 15 yrs

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The software used in the study provides the optimum network ESP, which minimises the combined
cost of network development capital costs, the costs of ongoing electrical losses from the
network and the cost of production. Therefore, the assumed penalty to the cost of changing
the generation selection in the electricity market from its most cost effective to another more
costly selection is important. Counter intuitively, a higher cost generation selection may prove
ultimately to be a lower cost solution if the cost of development or losses at the same time can
be reduced.
Therefore sensitivity analysis was conducted on the market penalty costs and the resulting
changes to the Expansion Strategy Plans (ESPs) between the normal market price for electricity
(system marginal price), the current guaranteed4 price available to be paid for renewable
generation (REFIT5), and a penalty level which would ensure that renewable energy was never
reduced.
These three variables provide the widest possible diversity of the resulting ESPs.
The technology choices for an offshore network are in many ways similar to those for an onshore
network. However, as a network purely for the connection of generation and/or the bulk transfer
of power to onshore demand, the technological selections for an offshore grid may be markedly
different to those of an onshore.
Also unlike onshore networks, offshore networks are almost exclusively cable networks. Technical
and cost considerations of a cable network affect the technology choices.
Due to the practicalities in the software of processing millions of possible ESPs to find the
optimum solution, the base case analysis was provided different sizes of connection limited to
only one possible technological cable solution.
Sensitivity analysis was performed with a range of technological solutions to determine what
affect this had on the ESPs.

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1.2 Findings
The outcome of the analysis answered a number of key questions about the design of the
optimum robust offshore network. This network should be:








Meshed or interlinked and not a series of single connections from generators to the
onshore network
Developed incrementally
Symbiotic with the onshore network
In line with the existing GRID25 strategy
Developed with interconnectors from offshore generators to other networks as well as from
onshore points
Developed making use of smart devices to enhance network flexibility and minimise the
scale of the offshore network
Developed at a high voltage level typically at least 200kV
Both an AC and DC offshore cable network interlinked
Designed with the potential for even further future expansion

1.2.1 Meshed Or Radial Network Design


A fundamental aspect of this study was to examine whether the offshore network should be built
Meshed or Radial.
A Meshed offshore network would be designed with interlinked stations to transfer power
between various points offshore, whilst a Radial network would be a series of links from
collection points for offshore generation directly to onshore networks which would then transfer
the power.
Historically in Ireland the transmission network developed from effectively a Radial network
in the early 1930s to the present day highly complex Meshed network. The main rationale
for this development strategy has been to minimise the cost of network development while
simultaneously maintaining an appropriate level of reliability.
However the cost of offshore networks are markedly higher than those of onshore networks and
hence the question arose as to whether it is more efficient to build a Meshed network, which
by its nature would require offshore assets as oppose to delivering the power to shore with the
minimum amount of offshore assets with a Radial network.
Both Meshed and Radial philosophies need to be able to provide adequate capacity to transmit
the power generated across the onshore network to where it is required to be utilised. The
difference is that a Meshed network does some of this transmission offshore whilst the Radial
does this entirely onshore. Hence there are typically greater assets offshore for a Meshed
network.

REFIT Renewable Energy Feed in Tariff, as set by the Department of Communications Energy
and Natural Resources (DCENR)

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All of the ESP scenarios conclusively elected to develop a Meshed network. Initial development
to connect the first generating facilities as examined in the 3GW Irish only ESP, is developed
in some instances as radial connections (see ORIO211 in the Figure below). However even in
this earliest year of the c.3GW ESP, four of the five generators are connected together and then
connected to shore, with an offshore Meshed connection from North to South of Dublin.

BASE CASE
2020
2269 MW WOFF

COLD211
COOD211
MAGD211

Load 7665 MW (+500 MW EWIC)

KELD211
BA1D211

ST1D211
OMAD211

CA1D211
TURD4-211

TAND211

CAVA4-211

LOUA211

400 MW

BALA211
ORIO211
GORA211
BA1C211
WOOC4-211

BALC4-211

MAYC4-211

SHEC211
PBEC211

INCC211

FINC211
QUIC211

DUNC211

BASC211

PBEC211

CARC4-211

KISO211

IRIC211

444 MW

CKSC211

KILC211

500 MW

CHSC211

550 MW

CODO211

LAOC4-2-111
ARKC211

KIAC1-2-411

ARKO211

KELC211
CAHC211
GREC211

475 MW

GLAO211

LODC211
GLSC211

400 MW

CULC211

CUSC211

In later years and in other alternative scenarios the network becomes progressively more meshed.
The consistence of the ESPs to elect Meshed networks to minimise the overall cost of offshore
generation is conclusive.

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1.2.2 Incremental Development


Possibly the highest risk to efficient development of any transmission network is the risk that
a current development project will not be ideally suited to act as part of the network in future.
The result would be either costly modifications or at worst the asset becoming stranded and
unusable.
Given the currently higher costs of building equivalent offshore assets to onshore assets and the
difficulty in practically changing or modifying assets, this risk offshore is compounded.
A major finding from this analysis is that the ESPs show a consistency in their structure for a
wide variation of scenarios. Increases in generation either at individual offshore generators or
with the introduction of other generation points, results in the majority of the network in the

1472 Candidates
(ROW potential reinforcements)
NO2VDC1-2

NORV112

DOUH211-221

NORV111

MYBH211-221
NO3VDC1-2

MORH211-111

WS10211
WS40211

NO4VDC1-2

MOSH111-211

NO5VDC1-2

WS20211

PETH111-211

BRDH111
BEAH111-211
FAGH111
WS50211

WS30211

FEDV111

NO6VDC1-2

FWIH111
HANU111
DASH211-221

ARG0211

FORH113

INVH111

FORH111
COCH111 TORH111

ISL0211

NORTHERN
IRELAND

FORH112

BELH111

KASU111

KSSU111

DOGK113

HUEH111-221

DSUU111

WKNW211

WJNW211

DOGK112

KIN0211

TRIA111-411
COLD211
BUNBEG

BA1D211
KELD211
BAFD211

CACD211

MAGD211

STRD211

OMAD111-211 TURD111-211
ENND111-411

SLIA111-411
BELA111-211-411

-ONCASTLEBAR

FLAA111-411

ENNIS
MONB111-211

PROSPECT

TASB111-211

AV3W211

WGRW211

TARB111-211

CLASHA

WERK111

DRSK111

HNEZ111
TKNK111

YORK111

RCBK111

TKSK111

DEEL111

PENL111

PEMM111

DISS111

BROZ111

GUFM111

SWAM111

LOAN111

COSN111

GRAN111
BR2O211

MAVS111

LOVN111
EXTN111

SELN111

BOLN111

NURN111

DODS111

MESE111

GIEZ111

NINN111
BOSN211

WARF111

ABHN111
LAGN111

DIES111

GEES111

THAN111
CANN111

KEMN111

ALVN111

MERE111

MANF111

HASO211

MASN111
OBEZ111

AVEF111

NETS111

WIWO211
SCIN211

PENF111

LHVF111

COUE111 GRAE111
CHEF111

PASF111

CHEF111

ARGF111
TOUF111

LAMF111

GERZ111

KUSZ111
GRNZ111

GRGM111

BSUE111

INDN111

NEHZ111
LIPZ111

HENS111

WALM111

BR1O211

ZWOS111

NORM113

SIZM111
BRFM111

CASL111
WF5O211

AGHB111

NSUS111

NORM111

CAML111

CROB211

GROZ111

NORM112
NOSM111

WLPM111

WF4O211

SU2O211

BRINNY
BANDON
CROSS
DUNMANWAY

LANZ111

SHHK111
BICM111

LEGL111

BAIM111
GLAO211

GREC111

WAHZ111

WEHZ111

MEES111

DUDK111

DOCK111

TREL111

TRAL111

CULLENAGH
DUNGARVAN

HAMZ111

HORK112

HUGK111

DRXK111

WYLL111

ARKO211

WEDZ111

MEPZ111
HORK111

THTK111

PEWL111

WF3O211

ARKC111
LODC211

QUEL111

SU5O211 WDUO211

DIEZ111
MESS111

THSK111

SU6O211

KELC111

KILC111

DOON

CHARLEVILLE

GLENLARA
MALLOW
BVKB111 KNOB111
COOMACHEO

OUGB211

COOMAGEARLAHY

THURLES

WALO211

WJ1O211 WJ2O211

BALC111

TIPPERARY
CAHC111

KN1B111-411

CLAHANE
TRALEE
OUGHTRAGH

WIAO211

BA1C211

KISO211
CKMC111
CHARLESLAND
DUNC111
SU2O211
TURLOUGH
HILL
BALLYBEG
CODO211

LAOC111
IKERRIN
WEMB111
BALLYRAGGET

NENAGH
ARDNACRUSHA
KILB111-211
KILLONAN

WLAO211

MAYC111

OLDB111-411

MD1B111-211
AV2W211
AF3W211

HUNC111

LACJ111
HUTL111

MANQ211

WF2O211

TYNAGH

HAWJ111

WNAO211

WF1O211

WOOC111
KINNEGAD

GALWAY

AF2W211

SU8O211

ORIO211

HILL
CAVA111-211

SHAA111-411

GSUZ111

HUSL211

SU4O211

LANESBORO
MULLINGAR

CLOON
CASA111-411

AF4W211

ARVA

GILRA

DALTON

CAMUS

WIG0211

CASD211

LOUA211
BALA211

SHANKILL

WESZ111

STEJ111

SOL0211

TAND211

SRANANAGH
SRAA111-411

CUNGHILL

BRBU111
DOGK111

GRNH111
HARJ111

SU7O211

CATA111-411

WHRW211

AV1W211

AUCH211-221

*
HAND211

WIRW211

AF1W211

STSJ111

COOD211

LETA111-411
TIEVEBRACK
GOLA111-411

LONF111

MOUF111

ROUF111
TERF111
MEZF111

PLHF111
DOMF111
LOUF111

VLVF111MORF111
LREF111

LQUF111
DAMF111
VERF111

CORF111
DISF111

VIGF111

FRAF111

HOUF111
MSEF111

GATF111 LCHF111

AVOF111

20
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ESPs being strengthened with additional parallel circuits and not in radical change to the layout
or topography of the network.
Similarly examinations of different generation scenarios show that the phases of network
development of an ESP out to 2030 are structurally consistent, often with the only apparent
changes being when the elements of the network are required. In this way a higher level of
generation may require the same network at an earlier point than a lower level of generation
scenario.
It should be noted that the software methodology starts with a clean sheet both offshore and
onshore for each scenario. As the software is provided with a very diverse list of candidate
reinforcements (see the figure below showing with dotted lines an example of the candidate
reinforcements) it could choose a radically different set of reinforcements to fulfil the
requirements.
As a result the analysis shows that although it is entirely possible for an asset to become
stranded the risk of occurrence is likely to be low. This greatest risk is that of insufficient
capacity into the future.
A number of options to mitigate capacity risk including, conversion of AC to DC circuits, and the
use of smart devices are discussed below.

1.2.3 Symbiosis With The Onshore Network


Almost every development to a transmission network has an interaction with the existing
network. The level of this interaction and the resulting impact defines whether the development
is symbiotic in nature.
The results of the study show that reinforcement onshore is required for the introduction of
generation offshore. This is not purely as a result of the need to strengthen the path from the
offshore generation into the network to load demand centres, but also to provide routes through
the onshore networks to other parts of the offshore network for bulk power transfer (for example
to export to another country). Similarly, pre-identified restrictions in the onshore network are
alleviated by having alternative routes provided by new meshed offshore infrastructure
Consequently both onshore and offshore networks are symbiotic in nature, i.e. they assist one
another and thereby minimise the overall development requirements.
This finding is best demonstrated in the ESP for the 3GW Irish only scenario, which has a
connection from Dublin North via Kish Banks offshore generation to Dublin South (see Figure
below). The power transfer through Dublin has been identified6 as a problem and this link
provides an alternative path for power transfer, solving both power delivery from the offshore
generation and alleviation of an existing network problem.

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Other scenarios have variations on this link, some more convoluted (see Figure below) than others
but principally each ESP provides resolution to this problem using the inherent development
requirements to cater for the additional generation considered in that scenario.

1.2.4 GRID25 Strategy


The Grid Development Strategy GRID25 provides a common understanding of how the development
of the Grid should be undertaken to support a long-term sustainable and reliable electricity
supply.
Although levels of offshore generation where considered in line with the Governments energy
white paper, these levels are significantly smaller than those considered in the scenarios in this
report.
The reinforcements identified in the GRID25 process were not restricted to only the needs for
offshore generation, but the needs of the system in its entirety to deal with a wide spectrum of
load demand and generation scenarios out to 2025.
The GRID25 reinforcements were provided as candidate reinforcements with many other additional
reinforcement options, allowing investigation into whether the GRID25 reinforcements which
were likely to be required over the period to 2025 where aligned with the needs of the offshore
scenarios.
For each of the scenarios some reinforcements are consistently required, and other reinforcements
required for some of the scenarios. These are almost exclusively GRID25 identified reinforcements
and hence provide confirmation not only to the methodology of the offshore study, but also
reaffirmation of the GRID25 reinforcements for even more diverse scenarios.

See Figure A4 of EirGrid Transmission Development Plan

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1.2.5 Interconnector Arrangements


Interconnection has historically been developed from onshore points in the network due to the
low number of interconnectors, the cost of offshore equipment, and limited existing offshore
stations providing no opportunities to do otherwise.
However with the increasing development of offshore generation and hence offshore stations
the opportunity exists to make use of these connection points to limit the overall length of an
interconnection between networks.
In the Irish Sea this provides a major opportunity due to the distance to the British network
and the location of suitable generating sites both of Ireland and Britain. Outside of the Irish
Sea development the Celtic sea also offers opportunity to develop from offshore points to either
Britain or France.
Not unsurprisingly the ESPs for the scenarios make use of these offshore station opportunities
at many points to develop interconnection capacity. This is not exclusive however and the
strength of some offshore points may make it preferential to develop a direct onshore to onshore
interconnector for capacity reasons.
Aside from the needs for capacity, technology will also influence the location that interconnection
is terminated into. Although it is not an assumption of this study that all circuits that are
interconnectors should be DC, in reality for technical and market reasons this is likely to be the
case for the foreseeable future. The properties of DC technology may also dictate its use.
There are two different types of DC technology LCC and VSC. While based on information
currently available LCC has a lower lifecycle cost (is cheaper) it requires a network with its own
self powering generating source, which most offshore generation is not designed to be able
to provide; further, large power filtering devices would create space constraints for offshore
applications. Hence LCC is restricted to onshore to onshore network links in this study.
Therefore the currently more expensive VSC has been considered as possible offshore to offshore/
onshore candidate reinforcements. For connections to offshore stations it has been assumed
that VSC DC technology is used, rather than the cheaper LCC DC technology.
However, both LCC and VSC are developing technologies and as such are subject to fluctuations
including their respective capital costs, ultimately influencing their choice in future
development.
The final scenarios considering both AC and DC technological options have shown development
of both British and French interconnection with both onshore LCC technology and offshore VSC
technology.

23
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1.2.6 Smart Device Use


The definition of Smart devices in the context of this study refers to devices which can be
remotely controlled to control power flows in the network. Examples of these would be devices
which can convert AC power to DC power (and vice versa) and Phase Shifting Transformers.
The use of DC devices in ESPs for the scenarios has been selected by the software either specifically
for their abilities to control power or as a consequence of the need for that technology in that
circuit i.e. for interconnection between networks.
Where power flow devices have been selected as oppose to another capitally cheaper alternative
it is because of the ability to control the power on that circuit will minimise the overall cost of
the ESPs. These cost savings are made by reducing network build, reducing generation production
costs or both.
An example of the use of an AC to DC convertor smart device is shown in the figure below, with
the links between ARK0211 and WF40211 offshore stations east of Arklow in the Irish Sea being
linked by an AC circuit (shown in Red) and a DC circuit (shown in Yellow). The lowest capital
cost solution in this case would have been two AC lines but instead the ESP has utilised a
smart device, i.e. the AC/DC/AC conversion devices for the DC circuit, to provide control to the
power.

TO WF20211
WINDFARM

ARKLOW BANKS
WINDFARM
ARKLOW
STATION

WF40211
WINDFARM

TO PEMBROKE
STATION

The higher capital cost of the DC circuit will be offset in the ESP by either, the cost of rebalancing generation in certain situations to avoid the risk of overloading equipment, or the
cost of additional network infrastructure to resolve this equipment overload risk or both.

24
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Early appraisal of the methodology and software (not contained in this report) examined an AC
power controlled network. The results of which show that similar results can be achieved with
AC power flow control as DC technology.
Given that the combined cost of AC cables and Phase Shifting Transformers (PSTs), which would
allow AC power flow control, is lower than its equivalent DC devices, (it is likely that) some DC
circuits shown in the analysis of this report should be examined to see if they are technically
acceptable and be replaced by an AC equivalent where possible. Confirmation of technical
acceptance requires a more detailed analysis than the present level undertaken in this report.
An important assumption made in this analysis is that a suitable control philosophy can be
found and implemented to operate all of the onshore and offshore networks in perfect unison.
In reality this would require a highly complex and intelligent automated system which may take
some time to be fully resolved. Therefore simpler or numerous smaller control schemes are more
likely with the impact of an increase the number of circuits in the network (closer to an AC only
equivalent solution).

1.2.7 Developed At A High Voltage Level At Least 220 kV


The predicted7 typical size of offshore individual wind generators is c.5MW , wave up to 5MW
and tidal 1MW, and based on historical experience each in future maybe even larger. Current
experience from the existing wind generator applications used in this study is that they are
mainly based on a final potential of 1GW, with a typical application for c.300MW for initial
commercial scale.
In addition resources for both wind, wave and/or tidal exist in the same area.
Consequently the initial assumptions for the size of a cluster of generation at a point offshore
should be expected in the future to also be at least 1GW typically in size.
The analysis has shown that to deliver the quantity of generation and corresponding
interconnection capacity requirements in the Irish Sea alone that typical size links between
offshore stations of the order of c.1GW will be required, not dissimilar to the size of an offshore
generation point. However in many places this can be as high as 3GW links.
To put the size of these circuits into context 1GW is approximately the capacity of two of
the standard 220kV lines used in Ireland. The diagram below shows how the various cable
technologies and voltage could provide an equivalent rating.
Practically and economically speaking high quantities of parallel circuits to provide high capacity
circuits is not desirable. Consequently higher transfers would preferably be built with higher
voltage cables.

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However both the cost of development and increasing technical problems associated with 400kV
(EHV) cables may prove ultimately to restrict their use. Currently the associated equipment
needed to develop offshore EHV cables does not exist, although it is in development, and it may
be many years before its use is considered mainstream.
Another consideration is the termination of any offshore circuit onshore in many cases deeply
inland which require either multiple overhead lines or cables to be built from shore to the
termination point. The practicality (even viability) in comparison to offshore of doing so, and
also the associated costs can be magnified when considering the choices of voltage.
Therefore driven by the requirement for multiple circuits and additional transformation between
voltages, a circuit at 220kV or higher voltage is deemed appropriate from the analysis, providing
the most economic network development voltage.

AC

DC
Transformer

Three 220 kV AC cables with 3 combined conductor


cores rated at 320 MVA each, total 920MVA

+
Vdc/
2

L
s
C
1

V
S
C

A
C

C
2

H
F
1

H
F
2

Two 220 kV AC cables with 3 separate cable conductor


cores rated at 460 MVA each cable, total 920MVA
One + 320 DC cable, with 2 separate conductor
cores rated at 360-1080 MVA
One 400 kV AC cables with 3 separate conductor
cores rated at 930 MVA

See Table 8 of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) of the Offshore Renewable Energy Development Plan
(OREDP) in the Republic of Ireland at http://www.seai.ie/Renewables/Ocean_Energy/Offshore_Renewable_SEA/
Environmental_Report/SEA_ER_Final.pdf

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One interesting increased capacity option is to install 220kV AC cables initially and then seek
to convert these to DC operation, which can provide appreciable increases in their rating, at
a later stage if the initial capacity is insufficient. Technically this is considered possible but
further investigation into the requirements, new standards, qualifications, testing procedures,
practicality and cost of the additional AC/DC conversion devices will be needed. In principle
this would provide future proofing without initial commitment of higher capital costs until such
time as a need arises.

Subset
7 GW
Basecase
2030

DOUH211-221

MYBH211-221
MYSH211

MORH211-111

WS10211
WS40211

MOSH111-211
WS20211

WS30211

WS50211

FWIH111

HANU111

DASH211-221

ARG0211

FARH111

FORH112

COCH111

ISL0211

NORTHERN
IRELAND

FORH113

BELH111

INVH111

FORH111
NEAH111

KSSU111

TORH111

HUEH111-221
KIN0211

TRIA111-411

DOGK113

COLD211
BUNBEG

STSJ111

COOD211

LEAD111-411

CACD211

TIEVEBRACK
GOLA111-411

WIG0211

-ONCASTLEBAR

FLAA111-411
DALTON

ORIO211

HILL
CAVA111-211

LANESBORO
MULLINGAR

CLOON

WOOC111

MAYC111
CKMC111
DUNC111
CHARLESLAND
TURLOUGH
HILL
BALLYBEG

TYNAGH
OLDB111-411

MD1B111-211
AV2W211

AV3W211

LAOC111
IKERRIN
WEMB111
BALLYRAGGET

ENNIS
MONB111-211
TASB111-211
WGRW211

NENAGH
ARDNACRUSHA
KILB111-211
KILLONAN

PROSPECT

TARB111-211
CHARLEVILLE

GLENLARA
MALLOW
BVKB111 KNOB111
COOMACHEO

OUGB211

COOMAGEARLAHY CLASHA
CROSS

KIAC111

RY

GROZ111

SHHK111

NSUS111
NORM111

BRFM111

DISS111

PEMM111

MAVS111

LOAN111

BSUE111

GRAN111

BR2O211

NURN111

BOLN111
LOVN111

EXTN111

SELN111

LAGN111

WARF111

GIEZ111

MERE111

MANF111

HASO211

DODS111

MESE111

BOSN211

CHIN111
ABHN111

DIES111

GEES111

THAN111

CANN111

KEMN111

ALVN111

MASN111
OBEZ111

AVEF111

WIWO211

NETS111

SCIN211

LHVF111

COUE111 GRAE111

PENF111

CHEF111

CHEF111

ARGF111
TOUF111

LAMF111

GERZ111

BROZ111

GUFM111

SWAM111
COSN111

INDN111

LIPZ111
KUSZ111

GRNZ111

GRGM111

PESM212

BR1O211

NEHZ111

HENS111

WALM111

WF5O211

ZWOS111
NORM113

CASL211

CROB211

NORM112

NOSM111

SIZM111

CAML111

SU2O211

AGHB111

BRINNY
BANDON
DUNMANWAY

DOCK111

WLPM111

GLAO211

GREC111

WAHZ111

WEHZ111
LANZ111

BAIM111

DOON

CULLENAGH
DUNGARVAN

HNEZ111

DUDK111

BICM111

LEGL111

TRAL111

WF4O211

MEES111
TKNK111
RCBK111

DEEL111

TREL111

WF3O211

ARKO211

HAMZ111

HORK112

HUGK111

YORK111
TKSK111

PENL111

CODO211

ARKC111
LODC211

TIPPERARY
CAHC111

KN1B111-411

CLAHANE
TRALEE
OUGHTRAGH

SU1O211

WERK111

DRSK111

DRXK111

WEDZ111

MEPZ111
HORK111

THTK111

PEWL111

WYLL111

KISO211

KELC111

THURLES

QUEL111
HAML211

SU6O211

WF2O211

DIEZ111
MESS111

THSK111

WALO211

WJ1O211 WJ2O211

BALC111

GALWAY

AF3W211

WLAO211

SU5O211 WDUO211

BA1C211

HUTL111

MANQ211

WF1O211

GSUZ111

LACJ111
HUSL211

WNAO211

WIAO211
HUNC111

KINNEGAD

SHAA111-411

CASA111-411

AF4W211

ARVA

GILRA

BRBU111
WESZ111

HAWJ111

SU4O211
SU8O211

LOUA211
BALA211

SHANKILL

DOGK112
DOGK111

STEJ111

SOL0211

OMAD111-211 TURD111-211
TAND211

SRANANAGH
SRAA111-411
CUNGHILL

CAMUS

GRNH111
HARJ111

ENND111-411

SLIA111-411

AF2W211

AUCH211-221

SU7O211

CATA111-411

BELA111-211-411
WHRW211

AV1W211

KELD211
BAFD211

*
HAND211

WIRW211

AF1W211

MAGD211

STRD211

KASU111

DSUU111

WKNW211

WJNW211

PETH111-211

BRDH111
BEAH111-211
FAGH111

LONF111

MOUF111

ROUF111
TERF111
MEZF111

DOMF111

PLHF111

LOUF111

VLVF111MORF111

VIGF111

LREF111
DAMF111
VERF111

CORF111
DISF111

FRAF111

HOUF111
MSEF111

LQUF111
GATF111

LCHF111

AVOF111

27
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1.2.8 AC or DC Offshore Network


Another fundamental decision in building a new transmission network is whether the network
will be Alternating Current (AC) or Direct Current (DC). Both have their pros and cons, but as
historically transmission networks onshore have been built as AC the use of DC in an offshore
network requires conversion from AC to DC and vice versa when making links between both
network types.
Although DC can be a more efficient method of power transmission it is very expensive.
Consequently, DC technology is only economically viable over long distances. In the case of
offshore cable networks this has been calculated in this study as being higher than c.60km. Also
long aggregate lengths of EHV AC cables have a number of technical issues favouring the use of
DC cables. These issues have not been examined in-depth in this report and may make the use
of DC preferable at even shorter distances.
The analysis performed with the variety of candidate AC and DC technologies, has shown that
neither AC nor DC is exclusively selected but rather a mixed approach with the cost of the two
technologies dictating heavily their use. Further detailed technical analysis will need to be
conducted to confirm the final quantities of each that will be acceptable.
The diagram below shows that LCC DC technology (shown in purple) forms the majority of the
onshore to onshore interconnector circuits, where as the VSC DC technology forms (shown in
yellow) the majority of the longer circuits that start from an offshore point. The shorter links are
predominately AC (shown in Red); however in some applications the use of DC technology has
been used at a higher capital cost presumably to control power (See Smart device use above
for more details).

Basecase
2030

DOUH211-221

MYBH211-221
MYSH211

MORH211-111

WS10211
WS40211

MOSH111-211
WS20211

WS30211

WS50211

FWIH111

HANU111

DASH211-221

ARG0211

FARH111

FORH112

COCH111

ISL0211

NORTHERN
IRELAND

FORH113

BELH111

INVH111

FORH111
NEAH111

KSSU111

TORH111

HUEH111-221
KIN0211

TRIA111-411

DOGK113

COLD211
BUNBEG

STSJ111

COOD211

LEAD111-411

CACD211

TIEVEBRACK
GOLA111-411

FLAA111-411
DALTON

WOOC111

AV2W211
AF3W211

CKMC111
DUNC111
CHARLESLAND
TURLOUGH
HILL
BALLYBEG

LAOC111
IKERRIN
WEMB111
BALLYRAGGET

ENNIS
MONB111-211
TASB111-211

AV3W211

WGRW211

NENAGH
ARDNACRUSHA
KILB111-211
KILLONAN

PROSPECT

TARB111-211

CLAHANE
TRALEE

CHARLEVILLE

GLENLARA
MALLOW
BVKB111 KNOB111
COOMACHEO

OUGHTRAGH

OUGB211

COOMAGEARLAHY CLASHA
BRINNY
BANDON
CROSS
DUNMANWAY

RY

SU1O211
CODO211

ARKO211

DRSK111

MEES111

RCBK111

DEEL111

LANZ111

DOCK111

GROZ111

SHHK111

NSUS111
WLPM111

NORM111

DOON

SIZM111

CAML111

SU2O211

DISS111

WALM111
PEMM111

CROB211

MAVS111

LOAN111

BSUE111

GRAN111

BR2O211

ALVN111

NURN111

BOLN111
LOVN111

EXTN111

SELN111

LAGN111

WARF111

GIEZ111

MERE111

MANF111

HASO211

DODS111

MESE111

BOSN211

CHIN111
ABHN111

DIES111

GEES111

THAN111

CANN111

KEMN111

MASN111
OBEZ111

AVEF111

WIWO211

NETS111

SCIN211

LHVF111

COUE111 GRAE111

PENF111

CHEF111

CHEF111

ARGF111
TOUF111

LAMF111

GERZ111

BROZ111

GUFM111

SWAM111
COSN111

INDN111

LIPZ111
KUSZ111

GRNZ111

GRGM111

PESM212

BR1O211

NEHZ111

HENS111

BRFM111

CASL211

WF5O211

ZWOS111
NORM113

GLAO211

GREC111
CULLENAGH
DUNGARVAN

NORM112

NOSM111

BAIM111

AGHB111

WAHZ111

WEHZ111

DUDK111

BICM111

LEGL111

HNEZ111

TKNK111

TRAL111

WF4O211

HUGK111

YORK111

TREL111

WF3O211

ARKC111
LODC211

KIAC111

HAMZ111

HORK112

HORK111

THTK111
DRXK111

WEDZ111

MEPZ111

WERK111

TKSK111

PENL111

KELC111

THURLES

TIPPERARY
CAHC111

KN1B111-411

QUEL111
HAML211

SU6O211

WYLL111

KISO211

DIEZ111
MESS111

THSK111

PEWL111

WJ1O211 WJ2O211

BALC111
WF2O211

OLDB111-411

HUTL111

WALO211

SU5O211 WDUO211

BA1C211

MAYC111

TYNAGH
MD1B111-211

WLAO211
WIAO211

HUNC111

KINNEGAD

SHAA111-411

GALWAY

GSUZ111

LACJ111
HUSL211

WNAO211
MANQ211

WF1O211

BRBU111
WESZ111

HAWJ111

SU4O211

ORIO211

HILL
CAVA111-211

LANESBORO
MULLINGAR

CLOON
CASA111-411

AF4W211

ARVA

SU8O211

LOUA211
BALA211

SHANKILL
GILRA

DOGK112
DOGK111

STEJ111

SOL0211

OMAD111-211 TURD111-211
TAND211

ENND111-411

-ON-

CAMUS

GRNH111
HARJ111

SRANANAGH
SRAA111-411
CUNGHILL

AF2W211

AUCH211-221

SU7O211

WIG0211

SLIA111-411

CASTLEBAR

AV1W211

KELD211
BAFD211

CATA111-411

BELA111-211-411
WHRW211

AF1W211

MAGD211

STRD211

HAND211

WIRW211

KASU111

DSUU111

WKNW211

WJNW211

PETH111-211

BRDH111
BEAH111-211
FAGH111

LONF111

MOUF111

ROUF111
TERF111
MEZF111

DOMF111

28

PLHF111

LOUF111

VIGF111

DISF111

GATF111

FRAF111

HOUF111
MSEF111

DAMF111
VERF111

CORF111

2257 Offshore Grid Study FA.indd 28

VLVF111MORF111

LREF111
LQUF111

LCHF111

AVOF111

24/08/2011 16:25

EirGrid Offshore Grid Study

1.2.9 Future Expansion


Developments to the transmission network must be designed to meet not only initial needs on
the network but also must be resilient to the needs of the network into the future.
Predicting the future needs with any level of certainty is a challenge for all system planners
worldwide. The best practice approach is to envisage a number of future scenarios which cover
the widest plausible range of developmental changes to the network. If a development project
addresses the needs for all scenarios then it is considered robust, i.e. able to meet the widest
envisaged range of needs on the network.
Part of the driver for this study was to assess the probability of future development from offshore
stations over future years. This information would define whether spare capacity for future
expansion should be built into these stations design.
For clarity, this does not mean that additional electrical equipment would necessarily be
installed immediately. What it does mean is that consideration for potential future needs should
be built into the development particularly when designing civil works i.e. offshore platforms,
cable routing, etc.
The examination of a number of future generation levels and dispersion provided a diverse range
of future scenarios. Consistently across all of the ESPs offshore development was extensive and
meshed, with continuing incremental strengthening between these stations with additional
circuits of various technologies. The technologies selected would all require additional station
equipment, with varying implications for offshore station design.
While expansion should be catered for, additional in-depth analysis of the detailed design
options to identify how this would be best achieved is a body of work which was beyond the
scope of this study.
However, some key functional requirements can be identified from this study.
Standards and policies for offshore stations should seek a modular electrical design that will
permit changes from AC to DC and vice versa on some circuits, for the installation of Phase
Shifting Transformers and dynamic or variable reactive compensation.
Standards and policies for offshore reactive compensation, AC to DC conversion, high voltage
switchgear equipment, transformers and associated plant should be developed.
Options for expansion of offshore platforms themselves to accommodate future plant should
be evaluated to find the most cost effective method of delivering expansion, including but not
restricted to whether to front load expansion requirements.

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1.3 Conclusion
This Offshore Grid Study has successfully provided EirGrid with the necessary information and
understanding on which to base its functional requirements for offshore generator connections,
and standards or policies for offshore equipment.
It raised and investigated a number of issues relating to the offshore network and its development,
and is envisaged to provide useful insight and source of information into these issues for
interested parties.

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2 Findings quick list


The findings detailed in the main report are shown below:

2.1 High Level findings











Meshed or interlinked and not a series of single connections from generators to the
onshore network
Developed incrementally
Symbiotic with the onshore network
In line with the existing GRID25 strategy
Developed with interconnectors from offshore generators to other networks as well as from
onshore points
Developed making use of smart devices to enhance network flexibility and minimise the
scale of the offshore network
Developed at a high voltage level typically at least 200kV
Both an AC and DC offshore cable network interlinked
Designed with the potential for even further future expansion
Large Transfer of Renewable Power to Mainland Europe and Britain via HVDC electricity
highway concept

2.2 Detailed findings








Developing the Dublin network with a 400kV ring around the city is a robust solution to
wide variations in generation and demand projections (Chapter 8.1)
AC offshore grid off Irish coast feasible with suitable compensation strategy (8.2.2)
Fixed and Variable compensation are required to cope with Wind variability(8.2.3)
An AC submarine cable constructed offshore grid may create assets prone to parallel
resonances, especially in the early stages(8.2.4)
Development of interconnection is phased first to Britain and subsequently to France using
AC only development analysis (Chapter 8.3.2.5)
Significant development of interconnection with Britain may be economically justifiable
prior to the development of additional offshore renewable (Chapter 9.3.2.1)
Large variations in constraint payments in the short term (10 years) has little impact
on justifiable network development at perceived early stages on offshore development
(Chapter 9.3.2.1)
Longer term offshore network development requirements can be significantly impacted
by generation constraint costs assuming major offshore generation deployment (Chapter
9.3.2.1)
Offshore wind can displace onshore generation due to REFIT price when interconnection
developed is constrained (Chapter 9.3.2.1)
Changes in constraint costs in the main only effect the timing of the same network being
built rather than radically changing network topography (Chapter 9.3.2.1)

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Offshore wind in the Irish Sea is never curtailed because symbiotic to developments of
further interconnector with Britain and France (9.3.2.2)
Multiple Mixed/Meshed AC/DC offshore grid poses coordinated control issues to optimise
power transfer in different wind generation scenarios (9.4.4)
Location of HVDC backbone to link Scottish generation from North to South is highly
dependent on development off west coast of wave generation and possibility of building
onshore assets (Chapter 9.4.4-5)
VSC HVDC becomes economically viable compared to an AC (single circuit 220kV) for 1GW
on distances over c.115km (Chapter 13.4)
LCC HVDC becomes economically viable compared to an AC (single circuit 220kV) for 1GW
on distances over c.75km (Chapter 13.4)
VSC-HVDC economically viable for distances lower than the break-even point in a multiterminal expansion strategy (14.3)
VSC-hub provides power flow control on multiple AC links (14.3,fig.A3.1)
AC to DC Technology may offer Smart Planning opportunities to TSOs in implementing
flexible investment strategies over the planning period (14.3 Example)

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3 Introduction
3.1 OVERVIEW
In 1997 the European Commission published a White Paper [6] on renewable energy which
set targets for the exploitation of Europes renewable energy resources. Since then there has
been dramatic growth in the amount of wind farms installed in EU nations, especially in those
countries where wind conditions are particularly favourable.
At present the targets set out in the White Paper have been respected and even surpassed, with
55.9 GW of wind generation installed in the original 15 nations of the EU at the end of 2007.
Projections for the 27 nations of the expanded EU indicate a total installed capacity of 78 GW
of wind generation in 2010, surpassing targets by some 5%.
The directive on the promotion of the use of renewable energy resources published by the
European Commission in 2008[2] has given further impetus to the development of Europes wind
energy resources. The directive sets targets for total installed wind generation in the EU-27 of
180 GW by 2020 and 300 GW by 2030. The European Wind Energy Association (EWEA) believes
that between 20 and 40 GW of the 2020 target will be met through the installation of offshore
wind farms[8]. The vast majority of wind farms in the EU have thus far been installed onshore,
with just 1100 MW of offshore wind generation making up the 55.9 GW total [9].
In the Republic of Ireland, by the end of 2007 approximately 800 MW of wind generation had
been installed, c.25 MW of which comes in the form of off-shore generation.
Given that Ireland has some of the most favourable wind conditions in the whole of Europe,
wind farm development in Ireland and off the coast of Ireland is expected to grow rapidly over
the coming years, as evidenced by the fact that some 6,000 MW of wind generation is currently
awaiting connection to the grid.
In addition to having abundant resources in terms of wind energy, the island of Ireland, with
the Atlantic ocean on its west coast, is also in a favourable location in terms of tidal and wave
energy resources. For the island as a whole, studies carried out for EirGrids Grid Development
Strategy (GRID25) assumed levels of installed offshore renewable generation, of all kinds,
ranging up to and in excess of 950 MW in 2025.
The meeting of these targets have been reinforced by the recent Government Targets in the
framework of 20-20-20 EU initiative, set for ROI a challenging 40% of Renewable Energy for
2020.

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3.2 OFFSHORE NETWORKS


Given the massive potential for the exploitation of renewable energy resources off the coast
of Ireland it would seem prudent to develop an informed perspective on how best to facilitate
connection of this type of generation. Thus far, a radial point-to-point approach to connecting
offshore generation to the onshore transmission network has been used both in Ireland and
across Europe. This approach has been used for expediency given the relatively low levels of
offshore generation connected to date, the dispersal of this generation, and the relatively short
distances of this generation to the shoreline.
Many European utilities are currently investigating offshore transmission networks into which
offshore generation can connect. Offshore network development from radial transmission of
power to power transmission through meshed networks mirrors the development of onshore
transmission networks that improved the reliability and flexibility of power supplies but led to
decreased utilisation of transmission assets (10%-20% average capacity utilisation).
It should be noted that in some countries, including Germany, transmission system operators are
required by law to pay for and build the transmission infrastructure required to connect offshore
renewable generators. This makes it imperative for them to develop a cost-effective long term
strategy for offshore networks. This is reason many utilities in the rest of Europe are currently
investigating the viability of offshore transmission networks.
Uniquely, in Britain, current arrangements are for 3rd parties to become independent offshore
asset owners.
Thus far, the government and the regulatory authorities in Ireland have not introduced any
specific legal framework for offshore networks with respect to the connection of offshore
generation. This may change in the future and EirGrid wishes to be able to pro-actively inform
this process should it arise.
As part of Gate 3, EirGrid is also obliged to provide transmission connection offer to at least 2
offshore developers. A third has applied to the distribution system operator for connection whose
impact on the transmission system EirGrid will also review. Further connection applications from
offshore developers, moreover, are expected in due course.
Therefore to develop the functional requirements for connection of the offshore generation in
Gate 3, to develop its capacity as an authoritative voice in the industry, and its role to provide
support to any regulatory decision, EirGrid performed an Expansion Planning Study. This study
addressed the following questions:

What should the architecture of an offshore grid structure optimally be?


Which technology will be more technically and economically viable for offshore
connections?
Are there synergies between offshore and onshore systems?

8
9

EWEA Annual Report 2007


http://www.ewea.org/index.php?id=203

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4 Objective
4.1 Foreword
EirGrid investigated different approaches for Expansion Planning Studies for the purposes
of this study. A software tool developed by ERSE (ENEA-Ricerca sul Sistema Elettrico) former
CESIRICERCA was identified as providing a wide range of preferential attributes that could be
applied to this type of study.
This methodology was first conceived in the 80s by ENEL Research Centre (CRE Italy) and it has
been used extensively in International Studies [7], [8]. In the 1990s, the approach was used
for the development of the Maghrebin Network, within the framework of Systmed and MEDRING
projects. The experience of local utilities using the software has been utilised to further enhance
the softwares capabilities and facilities[9].
Further improvement and testing has been included under the framework of Ricerca di Sistema
(RdS) a government initiative financially supporting Research on the Electric System.
Consequently the software has been progressively developed, verified and tested prior to its use
for this project, which mitigates potential software related anomalies in the study results.
The software allows for a large number of potential system reinforcements to be evaluated,
and a subset of these selected to provide an optimally developed network, which will deliver
the energy of disparate new offshore generating sources, whilst making best use of existing
generation and network to minimise overall costs. The costs considered include not only network
infrastructure costs, but also production costs and system losses.
Based on preliminary investigations and some worked examples, EirGrid entered into a Cooperation
Agreement with ERSE, to utilise this software in its examination of an offshore network in the
Irish Sea.

4.2 scope of the study


The aims of the Study were to develop a vision for the long term development of a future
Offshore Grid with specific focus on the Irish Sea.
The Irish Sea was selected to focus on for two key reasons. The first is that it provided the
greatest opportunity for a large complex network to develop in the near term given that
applicants already exist in the area, notably two Gate 3 applicants already receiving connection
offers. The second reason is that it provides the most likely location for interconnection to
European networks.

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The main objectives of the investigation were to determine:







the most suitable technology: AC or DC;


the grid structure able to accommodate the massive potential of offshore wind energy;
the schedule of new reinforcements over the planning period;
the impact of Smart devices at the expansion phase;
the impact of changing scenarios to the architectural topology of the offshore grid, and;
the sensitivity of the scenarios to key assumptions made in the production of the
scenarios.

5 Methodology
A methodology for Expansion Planning Studies was developed for a previous study[9].
The methodology has a two step approach that is explained here (see Figure 5.1):
a) Long Term Expansion Planning (LTEP)
b) Short term Planning for specific issues (STP)
2

1
2

2010

2020

2025

2030

4
y1
y11

y12

20

y13
y14

a) Long Term Expansion Planning

Reliability, Market and VAR Planning


(1 year statistical simulation)
Specific Steady-state Scenarios and
Short-Circuit evaluations
Transient Stability. Worst case Scenarios
EMT Studies. Worst case Scenarios on
a portion of the system

b) Short Term Planning

Figure 5.1 Expansion Planning Study

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5.1 Long Term Expansion Planning (LTEP)


The purpose of the LTEP problem is twofold:

1) select new infrastructure to fulfil an horizon target


2) decide the schedule of the reinforcements based on some intermediate years load and
generation scenarios

An Expansion Strategy Plan (ESP) is a process to select, among several possible combination
of candidate alternatives the most cost effective solution which provide the best power system
performances.
The decision making criteria is based on a suitable optimisation process which selects the
least cost subsets of candidate infrastructure reinforcement with the highest reliability and
flexibility.

5.1.1 Optimisation Candidates


The selection is performed on a set of candidate reinforcements, either to connect new generation
points, or to reinforce the existing system or both.
It is duty of the planner to introduce as many candidates as possible in order not to create
artificial restriction in the ESP. Restricting the use of reinforcement as a candidate can only
based on an environmental constraint, i.e. impossibility of developing any infrastructure in
certain areas.
The onshore reinforcements which were drawn from EirGrids GRID25 strategy have already
been assessed as part of a country wide high level examination of environmental constraints;
this information has been used for the other candidate reinforcements to select the use of
appropriate technology.
It has been assumed that no environmental constraints would prevent a candidate being possible
offshore.

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5.1.2 Optimisation Algorithm


The Optimisation function is shown below

Where:
i = number of representative scenarios
BBi = Busbar solution
Nik = number of hours for each scenario and each contingency
Cg = generation cost
PG = generated power
Clsh = load shedding cost
Plsh = Load shedding Power
Peng = Energy not produced
Ci = annuity of investment
Yi = binary variable for candidate system
K = number of contingencies
Two major parts to the function can be underlined:

Continuous cost composed of generation production costs, reliability and energy not
delivered penalties
Discrete cost related to weather and if infrastructure is chosen or not

An ad hoc algorithm, based on Mixed Integer Programming (MIP), has been used to provide
the best solution to the optimisation function, selecting the optimum expansion solution to
minimise the combined cost of power production, system losses, and network development.
The solution is based on a DC load flow, whilst respecting network equipment rating
restrictions.

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The Branch and Bound Method is used by the program to provide a solution, given the
combinatorial nature of the problem; this method is very effective in reducing the number of
scenario combination to be effectively examined. A tree is made, where each node in the tree
corresponds to some combination of integer variables which are constrained to be 1 or 0 only.
In the case of this problem the 1 or 0 relates to whether a candidate reinforcement (e.g. an
offshore cable circuit) is in or not.

Combination of binary
variables solutions Y, 0 or 1

Continous
solution

P1

P11

P2

P12

P1k

P21

Pn

P22

P2k

Pn1

Pn2

Pnk

Cut off
Figure 5.3. Branch and Bound methodology
The number of combination depends on the binary variables to be defined. For large MIP problems
long computation time may be expected.
The program first considers one of the potential solutions to provide a Current Best Solution
(CBS). Then one of the combinations of integers is changed (e.g. a circuit removed or added)
and the resulting new solution is considered, in so doing the new solution may prove to be
optimum and hence a new optimum is obtained. Once, all the integer variables are fixed a
Current Best Solution (CBS) is reached, i.e. P12.
The program re-dispatches generation in each of its potential solutions to minimise the production
cost to permit, which in association with reinforcement and system loss costs provide a final
cost for that solution to be compared to the CBS.
Other branches are explored starting from the most attractive stage, i.e. P1. If during the
process of fixing integer variables a more expensive solution than the CBS is found, i.e. Pn, then
the node Pn and al the branches downstream, Pn1, Pn2, Pnk are eliminated (Cut off).
In the process of proceeding through the tree, the algorithm calculates an Estimated Best
Solution (EBS); a tolerance is calculated between EBS and CBS. This provides a reference as to
how far the CBS is from the optimum solution.

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Given that the EBS is only an estimated value, and may not provide to be accurate (i.e. the EBS
may not exist), a tolerance level is selected within which the current CBS solution is considered
acceptably optimised to terminate the process within a reasonable timeframe.

5.1.3 Horizon Expansion


The first stage of the solving the LTEP problem is setting the conditions, including load and
generation, of the horizon year.
Since the most likely candidate reinforcement projects to cope with the future generation
scenario to be examined is unknown, the planner has to introduce as many potential candidate
reinforcements as allowed by the grid and the new load and generation locations.
The number of candidates typically is very large to the subset at the end.
The horizon year Expansion is aiming at screening the set of candidates, to select the most
attractive subset, as shown in Figure 5.4.
1

Expansion
alternatives

2010

2030

Subset

Figure 5.4. Horizon Year Solution reduction in candidates to a smaller subset

The subset is then used to define the Expansion Strategy Plan over the intermediate years from
present to the horizon year.
It should be noted that the use of this subset may result in higher generation constraints in the
intermediate years; this is especially true when boundary conditions expansion scenarios, i.e.
loads and offshore wind generation, are not uniformly expanded over the geographic locations
and the planning period.
Also the level of accuracy that can be made on an immediate jump to 2030 results in a larger
subset of candidates which can be optimised at a later stage

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5.1.4 Intermediate Years Expansion


The solutions for the intermediate year are calculated by providing the program the restricted
subset of candidate reinforcements and the assumed load/generation conditions for each
intermediate year, as shown in figure 5.5.

2010

2020

2025

y1

y2

2030

y3

Figure 5.5. Intermediate Year Solutions

The purpose of this phase is twofold:



find the candidates from the subset, Yi needed for each of the intermediate years and
remove these from the subset for the subsequent years;
define a timeline of transmission investments in infrastructures over the 20 year period.

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5.1.5 Contingency Analysis


Both the Expansion Phases (Horizon and intermediate) are submitted to a deterministic
contingency analysis. A list of most critical contingencies is provided to the program to use.
Ideally the optimisation process would perform these analyses within the branch and bound
selection optimising the power flow to avoid a single contingency problem. This would allow
better selection of new reinforcements which solve multiple contingencies at the same time.
However, due to increased complexity to process that multiple contingency analyses would
involve, as well as the memory occupancy, such a problem may only be solved in simple cases.
Therefore, an approximation has been implemented which considers the contingency analysis in
a loop as shown in figure 5.6.

(Note: in N-1, N
solution Frozen

Final
solution

Figure 5.6. Contingency Analysis

It is worth noting that during contingency, the selected N network is considered frozen.
In addition, during contingency analysis, transfer capability of the Transmission Grid is permitted
according to the Irish Transmission Planning Criteria (TPC), as shown in Table 5.1

Overhead Line
Underground and Subsea Cables
Transformer

N1

1
1
1

1.1
1.25
1.5

Table 5.1. Coefficients for the transfer capacity

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5.2 Short Term Expansion Planning (STP)


The LTEP analysis provides an Expansion Strategy Plan (ESP) which is able to accommodate the
power flows for the selected load/generation scenarios over the planning period.
However, the network solutions must also be studied to ensure their viability because of the
following approximation:



Limited number of Load/Generation scenarios


Contingency analysis is restricted to a pre-defined list
Steady State operating conditions have only been taken into account
Power Flow is considered with a DCLF approach

It is not possible to implement these multiple Power System analysis issues together and
therefore the tasks are broken down, which sets the framework of the Short Term Planning (STP)
Analysis.
Diagrammatically a typical framework is shown in Figure 5.7.
2

2010

2020

y1
y11
y12
y13
y14

2025

2030

Reliability, Market and VAR Planning


(1 year statistical simulation)
Specific Steady-state Scenarios and
Short-Circuit evaluations
Transient Stability. Worst case Scenarios
EMT Studies. Worst case Scenarios on
a portion of the system

Figure 5.7. Short Term Planning following LTEP

An LTEP Intermediate solution is sequentially submitted to a number of power system analyses


following the traditional planning approach that is Steady State, Transient Stability and
Electromagnetic Transients.
In this study only steady state analysis will be performed at present, considering an adequacy
evaluation of the LTEP solution using a Software tool developed by ERSE, named REMARK.

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5.2.1 Reliability And Market (REMARK)


This tool performs an adequacy evaluation considering the hourly Load/Generation curves. It is
based on a Non Sequential Probabilistic Montecarlo method approach, using a DC load flow.
The algorithm randomly generates network assets and Load/Generation scenarios and evaluates,
using a DC optimal power flow load flow analysis.
A number of technical constraints are considered in the optimisation process:




Maximum and minimum generation limits


Generator emission limits
Thermal constraints of transmission grid components
Economical constraints between Market Areas
Operation constraints between Interconnected Areas

Also the probability of occurrence of faults and time to repair as well as maintenance plan of
grid components, line, cables, generators and transformers are taken into account.
The following Economical data is also provided and used in the optimisation process:



Generation costs
Emission costs by fuel
Load-Shedding costs
Energy curtailments costs

5.2.1.1 Optimisation Problem


Using a DC load flow approach the optimisation problem is solved minimising an overall objective
function cost including:



Generation production costs


Emission costs
Reliability costs
Energy curtailments costs

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Four optimal power flows, at incremental constraints, are sequentially performed:





Bus Bar system (unconstrained)


Market Zones
Interconnections
Entire Transmission System

Busbar System Analysis


Information about Generation Adequacy can be obtained. Furthermore, the final costs is the
absolute minimum for the System
Market Zones and Interconnection
If the Market is divided into multiple Market Zones, this stage allows the evaluation of whether
congestion is affecting the market division. By adding the physical interconnections, in can be
understood if physical flows really determine congestion between areas and reinforcement must
be introduced.
Entire Transmission System
Finally the whole transmission system is included and further calculation allows the verification
of internal congestion in each area.

5.2.1.2 Outputs Of The Evaluation


For each phase a large number of outputs are provided:




LOLP, LOLE and EENS indexes


Nodal LMP
Generator, Area, System Energy productions
Energy exchange between Areas
Marginal cost of congestions (if any)

5.2.2 Application To Offshore Grid


LTEP cannot deal with low probability events that are combination of Load/Generation scenarios,
which can give further congestions problems, load shedding and Energy curtailed.
REMARK hourly investigation with a probabilistic approach allows evaluation of whether the
system may suffer from such events. Consequently further reinforcements may be identified that
are not provided by LTEP alone.
In the framework of the Cooperation Agreement, ERSE used REMARK to evaluate the LTEP solution
related to the Basecase scenario.

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It should be noted that ideally a more comprehensive AC OPF would be required, in order to
properly evaluate Reactive Power and Voltage Control issues for a large number of scenarios
given the large extension of subsea and underground cables.

5.2.3 Other Power System Issues


Other Power System analysis as described in figure 5.7, with exception of a few test cases (in
chapter 8.2) has not been examined in this study and will be carried on in other studies.
These include:


Reactive support impact, Compensation Strategy, VAR Planning and Voltage Stability
Transient Stability in Area which suffers of sudden lack of wind Power due to faults in the
Offshore Grid
Electromagnetic transients with Large Cable Extension

These further investigations may also lead to changes in the selections of offshore technologies,
in particular by limiting the extension of the AC offshore circuits, introducing HVDC in some
places, providing the system of suitable power flow controllers or compensation devices for
voltage control.

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6 Transmission Alternatives
Offshore Grids are unique because they are developed entirely in the sea meaning cable
technology must be used. EirGrid performed a brief investigation on the available technologies
for Offshore Transmission [4]. A more detailed investigated is to be undertaken in 2011.
Costs estimations have been completed as part of the LTEP study, based on a European Average
of infrastructure costs.

6.1 Offshore
Subsea cables have been in service from the 1950s worldwide. Advancement in technology
made three-core HVAC 150 kV Extruded Cables available for subsea application in recent years
following offshore Wind Farm connections in the North Sea.
Today technology is under development for higher HVAC Voltages, 220kV and 400 kV. In particular
three-core configuration can be developed for 220 kV, whereas only single core is likely to be
developed for 400 kV.
For the Offshore Grid study it has been assumed that three AC technologies were available at
220 and 400 kV.
In Figure 6.1 a general configuration of an offshore connection is shown from the gathering
platform on shore.

Land

Submarine

Figure 6.1 Three-core cables

The separation between submarine and land portion needs to be broken out. The gathering
platform is equipped with HV/MV transformers and switching devices.
Land cable can be laid in cross-bonded configuration of the sheath and is normal practice within
Ireland. If connection is close to the sea, the land cable is usually omitted.

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DC technology is also being considered for longer distances. In particular the recent development
of multilevel Voltage Source Converter (VSC) technology is of interest in particular in a Meshed
AC context for the concept of an Offshore Supergrid. Furthermore VSC DC technology allows
the use of XLPE cables.
In this study, land cable sections have been modelled using typical parameters for EirGrids
standard cable types and installation methods (as applicable), and both conventional LCC and
VSC has been considered with PPL and XLPE cable respectively.

6.1.1 AC 220 kV three-core


At present all the offshore wind farm connections have been realised using a cable shown in
Figure 6.2
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

Conductor
Conductor Screen
Insulation
Insulation Screen
Swelling tape
Lead alloy sheath
Phase sheath
Fibre optic cable
Filler
Binder
Bedding
Armour
Outer serving

Figure 6.2. Three-core cable

This particular technology allows some cost savings in installation as in principle only a single
cable needs to be laid. At present the AC technology offshore is predominately at 150 kV
although some smaller section at 220 kV has been installed.
At 150 kV, with a 1000 cu mm2 section no more then 180-200 MVA can be transferred on shore.
However, by increasing the voltage, dimension of the three-core hits the edge of present
manufacturer plants and investment are needed to set up the supply cable chain.
At present the rating limit for 220 kV is about 320 MVA. Larger core sections although theoretically
possible but are likely to require enhancements in cable manufacturer factories, which is not
expected to be developed at present.

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The cable can also provide a fibre optic conductor for signal transmission purposes from the
export platform, and has been assumed to provide communications links as applicable for
studies.
Table 6.1 provides the electric parameters utilised in the studies

Three core 220 kV 1000 mm2 Cu

R
0hm/km

X
0hm/km

C
nF/km

tg
p.u.

S
[MVA]

0.057

0.09

200

1.00E-04

320

Table 6.1. Electrical Parameters

6.1.2 AC 220 kV single-core


For a larger ampacity, a single core arrangement must be used.
Cable and accessories are available for this technology. In figure 6.3 an example of the laying
is shown.

5000 mm

Figure 6.3. Laying Example of Single core

Generally the cable is placed undergrounded at a depth of c.1m at the bottom of the sea, to
protect against anchor strikes.
The single core phase are laying at least 50 m apart each other in order to avoid any potential
damage during installation of subsequent phases, and has been assumed in determining the
electrical parameters used in the studies.

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The cable itself is generally and armour cable as shown in Figure 6.4.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Conductor
Conductor Screen
Insulation
Insulation Screen
Swelling tape
Lead alloy sheath
Bedding
Armour
Outer serving

Figure 6.4. Cross Section of Subsea Single core

This is generally a more expensive solution because of the cable manufacture and installation
complexity. However a higher transfer capacity can be obtained. In table 6.2 the Electrical
parameters are shown.

Single core 220 kV 1200 mm2 Cu

R
0hm/km

X
0hm/km

C
nF/km

tg
p.u.

S
[MVA]

0.046

0.07

198

1.00E-04

460

Table 6.2. Electrical Parameters for 220 kV Single Core

6.1.3 AC 400 kV Single-core


The solution is similar to the previous but at 400 kV voltages. It is worthy of note that the
technology is under development at present for accessories and the solution will be viable in
the near future.
The electrical parameters used in the studies are shown in Table 6.3.

Singlecore 400 kV 1400 mm2 Cu

R
0hm/km

X
0hm/km

C
nF/km

tg
p.u.

S
[MVA]

0.043

0.07

216

1.00E-04

930

Table 6.3. Electrical Parameters for 400 kV Single Core

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6.1.4 DC Technology
DC technology has been proven technically viable since the 50s, using the Line Commutated
Technology (LCC).
The HVDC units were very expensive and break-even points with AC only happened around 100
km for submarine.
Applications, mostly point-to-point and technology, have been used in very specific cases, like
interconnections between un-synchronised countries, or compulsory use of long distance cables.
Oil filled and PPL cables have been used as Cable Transmission technology. They are available
up to 600 kV.
In recent years advancement in the technology has produced Voltage Source Converter technology
(VSC).
The launching of initiatives to develop offshore grids has boosted the possibilities for this
technology as it appears attractive in principle to design a DC meshed system in a multiterminal arrangements. VSC does not need a generating source at both ends of the circuit (unlike
LCC) and therefore is the obvious choice for DC circuits required to energise offshore stations.
VSC can use the same XLPE cable technology as power can be reversed by reversing the current
instead of the voltage. At present, DC XLPE cables are available up to 300 kV voltages.

6.1.4.1 DC LCC Systems


A maximum 2GW LCC system was considered as available for power transfer in the future for the
purpose of these studies. This can be obtained by a bipolar configuration using a 500 kV DC
voltage with a 2000 Amps MI cable.
The system can have a 1 GW modularity in construction as well as in operation; as a bipolar
system can actually work in monopolar configuration.
An example of the cable and DC units are shown in figure 6.5

Figure 6.5. Mass Impregnated cable in Bundle arrangement

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6.1.4.2 DC VSC Systems


A 1 GW system is expected available and assumed for the purposes of this study, using a 300 kV
DC rating with a 1667 Amps XLPE cable.
At present, no monopolar configuration has been proposed and the system can therefore be only
in an ON/OFF states.
An example of DC units and Cables are shown in figure 6.6

Figure 6.6. Extruded Cable

Table 6.4, shows the electrical parameters for both LCC and VSC cable technologies used in the
studies.
DC cable
Type

R
0hm/km

X
0hm/km

Tgd
(p.u.)

C
(nF/km)

Snom
MW

XLPE 1800 mm2 Cu 320 kV


PPL 2000 mm2 Cu 500 kV

0.0101
0.009

na
na

na
na

na
na

1000
1000

Table 6.4. Electrical Parameters for DC cables

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6.2 onshore
The existing onshore infrastructure is overhead line based, with cables only usually applied
in densely populated areas. Overhead line is considered as the main technology for onshore
reinforcements especially at higher voltages. To reduce the need for new overhead line corridors
EirGrid has recently undertaken a strategy of uprating existing circuits to maximise the use of
existing assets.

6.2.1 AC OHL
Figure 6.7 shows a typical 400 kV overhead line of the Irish transmission system. New lines have
been considered in these studies with similar type of structure.

Figure 6.7. Existing Overhead Lines

For 220 and 110 kV uprating, the use of HTLS technology has been considered which enhance
the thermal capacity of about 50% [11].
Table 6.5, shows the electrical parameters for both LCC and VSC cable technologies used in the
studies.

Overhead 380 kV

R
0hm/km

X
(0hm/km)

Tgd
(p.u.)

C
(nF/km)

Snom
MVA

0.03

0.28

13

1500

Table 6.5. Electrical Parameters for 400 kV Overhead lines

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6.2.2 AC Underground Cables


AC cable technologies have been described in [12].
At present XLPE technology, which has been applied since the 1990s, is the cable of choice
in Ireland, in comparison to oil filled cables mainly because of its lower maintenance, less
environmental impact, and costs. This technology is available up to 500 kV.
In this study we consider the use of AC XLPE cable from onshore points up to the interface point
with subsea submarine cable and also consider XLPE cable as an alternative to overhead lines
as applicable.
According to the different ampacity requirements the table shows the Underground for submarine
interface.
R
X
0hm/km (0hm/km)

Type
Buried cable 220 kV for submarine threecore 630 mm2 Cu
Buried cable 220 kV for sub. SINGLEcore Cu 1600 mm2 Cu Flat d=150 mm2
Buried cable 380 kV for sub. SINGLEcore Cu 1600 mm2 Cu Flat d=350 mm2

0.0431
0.025
0.0176

0.174
0.152
0.195

Tgd
(p.u.)

C
(nF/km)

Snom
MVA

1.00E05
1.00E05
1.00E05

150
240
200

311
460
920

Table 6.6. Electrical Parameters for Underground/Submarine Interface

For onshore network reinforcements EirGrids 220kV cable standard is considered.


At 400 kV, a basic 2500 mm2 solution, which has been used in the TEPCO analysis, has been
considered. This technology has been already used in some projects [13].
To match the overhead line ampacity a larger than traditional cable core spacing of 700 mm, has
been considered and used in the studies, shown in Table 6.7.
DC cable
Type

R
0hm/km

X
0hm/km

Tgd
(p.u.)

C
(nF/km)

Snom
MW

Buried cable 380 kV 2500 mm2 Flat 700 mm


Buried cable 220 kV 1600 mm2 Flat 350 mm

0.0105
0.025

0.223
0.152

1.00E05
1.00E05

240
200

1500
600

Table 6.7. Electrical Parameters for 400 and 220 kV Underground Cables

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6.3 Cost of Transmission infrastructure


6.3.1 Investments
The cost of transmission investments has been considered based on a European average scenario.
The use of European costs is driven by the multiplicity of systems included in the investigation,
which includes Ireland, Northern Ireland, Britain and France.
Three reference sources have been considered for a benchmark:


1) Realisegrid
2) Offshore Development Information System ODIS database, National Grid
3) Direct information from cable manufacture

6.3.2 Losses
The cost of losses has been embedded directly into the infrastructure costs. These could have
been managed by the model directly into the optimisation objective function, however, in order
to keep the solution faster this approach has not been utilised.

6.3.3 Compensation
Due to the charging and operational effects of HVAC cables, it is typical to require Var
Compensation to maintain adequate voltage control.
In the case of an offshore grid, Var Compensation is optimally composed of both a fixed base
level of compensation provided by Shunts and a Variable element provided by Statcoms.
In the study it is assumed that these cables should as a minimum level be reactively compensated
to 80%. This is therefore assumed as part of the requirements for each circuit.
Overall Transmission investment costs of any transmission technology has been annualized
including losses, by applying the Net Present Value using allowable rates of return, set by the
Commission for Energy Regulation in Ireland.
At this stage 40% for AC and 80% of DC as average yearly utilisation factor has been assumed.
Results are summarises in Table 6.8.

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Type
Submarine:

Offshore XLPE 400 kV 1200 mm2


2 X Offshore XLPE 400 kV 1200 mm2
Offshore XLPE 220 kV three-core Cu 1000 mm2
Offshore XLPE three-single-core 220 kV Cu 1000 mm2

Onshore:

Buried Cable 220 kV for submarine threecore 630 mm2 Cu


Buried Cable 220 kV for submarine SINGLEcore Cu 1600 mm2 Flat d=150 mm2
Buried Cable 380 kV for submarine SINGLEcore-Cu 1600 mm2 Flat d=350 mm2
2 X Buried Cable 380 kV for submarine SINGLEcore-Cu 1600 mm2 Flat d=350 mm2
Overhead 380 kV
Overhead 380 Kv operated at 275 (Power derating)
Buried cable 380 kV 2500 mm2 Flat 700 mm
Ducted Cable 380 kV
Buried Cable 220 kV 1600 mm2 Flat 350 mm
Ducted Cable 220 kV
Overhead 220 kV 600 mm2 Curlew
Overhead 110 kV 430 mm2 ACSR bison
Transformer 500 MVA 400/220
2 X Buried Cable 380 kV for submarine SINGLEcore-Cu 1600 mm2 Flat d=350 mm2
3 Transformer 500 MVA 400/220
6 Transformer 500 MVA 400/220
Transformer 250 MVA 220/110
Transformer 63 MVA 110/38
Transformer 500 MVA 400/110

bundled
47
138
12327
12327
6164
80
8893

(1 DC HV cables + 1 MV cable ), 500 kV 1 GW


2 DC XLPE CABLES, 300 kV, 1 GW
(1 HVDC Converter), (2*300) kV, 1 GW Onshore
(1 HVDC Converter), (2*300) kV, 1 GW Offshore
(1 HVDC Converter), (1*300) kV, 0.5 GW Offshore
(1 DC HV cables + 1 MV cable ), 500 kV 1 GW
( 1 AC/DC Converters), 500 kV 1 GW

328.24
656.49
120.67
216.06

kEuro/km/y

152
183
207
414
62
62
307
378
186
229
47
32
483
967
1450
2900
453

kEuro/km/y
kEuro/km/y
kEuro/km/y

483
separate
50
158
12327
12327
6164
91
8893

kEuro/km/y
kEuro/km/y
kEuro/km/y

kEuro/km/y
kEuro/km/y
kEuro/km/y
kEuro/km/y
kEuro/km/y
kEuro/km/y
kEuro/km/y
kEuro/km/y
kEuro/km/y
kEuro/y
kEuro/km/y
kEuro/y
kEuro/y
kEuro/y
kEuro/y
Keuro/y

kEuro/km/y
kEuro/k/y
kEuro/y
kEuro/y
kEuro/y
kEuro/km/y
kEuro/y

920
1840
311
460
311
460
920
1840
1500
1031
1500
1500
600
600
431
180
500
1000
1500
3000
250
63
500

1500
1000
1000
1000
500
1000
1000

Extra Plattform
for VSC only

5374
3359

Table 6.8. Annualised costs of Transmission Infrastructure

6.4 AC Vs. DC Technology


There are technical and economical reasons for the selection of AC or DC technologies. However,
when dealing with cable connections the area can overlap and a large grey zone results, which
is dependent on the power transmitted, the load factor of the connection, the technology used,
the voltage level and the system configuration.
In principle, some technical issues prevent the use of AC for long distances. This is due to the
AC electrical parameters of the cable which determine a large charging current and voltage rise
in particular system loading. A suitable reactive compensation strategy can be utilised, but even
if employed provides a limit in the range of 100-150 km for 400 and 220 kV respectively.
When exceeding these distances DC connection is necessary. The technical advantages for a DC
link, is related to the transmission losses, as no skin effect and induced currents take place.
However, high losses are also part of the AC/DC unit so that only after a suitable length the DC
system is economically preferable.

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In Appendix A.1, a thorough analysis of the breakeven point is carried out based on an example
of 1 GW transfer, point to point. The results are shown in figure 6.8. No reliability criteria are
taken into account.
BREAK EVEN 1000 MW Power Transfer (average loading CA SE A)
Offshore XLPE 400 kV 1200 mm2 AO
Offshore XLPE 2200 kV three-core Cu 1000 mm2 3*A3
HVDCVSC offshore

Offshore XLPE three-single-core 220 kV Cu 1000 mm2 2*A2


HVDCVSC
HVDCCSC

80000

AC 400 kV <90

70000

AC 220 kV <150

60000
50000
40000
30000
20000

130
10000

65

0
0

20

40

60

80

100

80

100

120 123

143

120

140

160

180

Figure 6.8. Cable break-even distances

The best AC cable solution is 400 kV XLPE. It benefits from a smaller number of cables to achieve
the same capacity, which reduces cable laying. It should be noted, however that the feasible
maximum single length is in the range of 90 km.
No break-even point exists with HVDC technology within the length that is feasible with AC
cable technology.
The AC 220 kV can be extended further due to the lower charging current of the cable. The
limiting distance is in the range of 150 km.
It should be noted that both 220 kV technologies (single and 3 core) are more expensive than
the 400 kV in the analysis, because of the number of circuits required to deliver the same
power.
The AC single core (magenta line), quickly becomes the most expensive, the break-even point
is reached with LCC technology at 65 km, VSC onshore at 80 km and VSC offshore/onshore at
130 km.
Alternatively, AC three-core cable has a breakeven point at 100, 120 and above 150 km for LCC,
VSC and offshore VSC, respectively.

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For distances above 150 km only DC technologies is feasible with LCC more efficient for a point
to point circuit. For distances below 65 km, AC technology is feasible with AC 400 kV more
efficient for a point to point circuit.
For length between 65 and 150 km, both technologies can be applied with limits on the 400
kV. VSC is always more expensive than conventional due to higher losses, however, it can be the
only feasible solution for connection offshore or in an evolving from a point-to-point to meshed
DC system scenario.
Based on this techno-economic analysis the offshore reinforcement options where reduced. Due
to cost, LCC technology was the only option provided point to point interconnectors between
onshore networks. For all circuits up to 90km with one termination offshore, both AC and VSC
reinforcement options were provided, otherwise only VSC technological reinforcements were
considered

6.5 smart Planning and operation of an Offshore grid


6.5.1 AC/DC Designed Circuits
A preliminary understanding with contacts with manufactures has introduced an interesting long
term planning smart technology approach, which is the capability of XLPE cable to be operated
at either AC or DC. The two technologies are manufactured in a slightly different way and the
insulation compound needs further treatment if it is used for DC; furthermore, insulation design
parameter may be different; in AC the maximum gradient is on the internal conductor surface,
whereas for DC, the gradient is temperature dependant and the average over the insulation has
to be considered.
However, in principle a multipurpose compound could be designed which allows an AC
infrastructure to be converted to DC and vice versa.
Due to different Electromagnetic phenomena a double circuit AC could be upgraded into three DC
circuits gaining 2.5-3 times the AC overall capability. This is because the AC cable can be used
at 1.7 the AC star voltage and the cable ampacity increases by 50% due to lack of skin effect
and induced sheath current.
Therefore, in the longer term period, an infrastructure that is born AC because of short initial
length and that becomes either not technically feasible or desirable to be operated as AC
after some years, may be modified to DC operation by placing AC/DC convertor units into the
circuit.

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6.5.2 Flexibility at Expansion Stage


Smart means also adaptive to different load/generation conditions. An offshore Grid could
typically be subjected to wind variability conditions. In order to minimise the scale of circuits/
capacity needed, the offshore network could benefit from power flow controllers which allow a
better exploitation of the infrastructure by suitably re-routing power flows on a minimum subset
of connections.
This potential must be tested at the expansion phase, when the additional infrastructure costs
can be included. The application of power flow controllers may results in an overall optimisation
benefit reducing network expansion as well as providing further system flexibility to better
optimise dispatch of conventional generation.
Flexible power flow control devices are:

Phase Shifter Transformers


HVDC technologies

Both smart approaches have been investigated in the studies.

6.5.3 Optimum Asset Management


Any offshore grids will also offer the possibility to optimise renewable resources and increase
competitiveness through better integration of the European Transmission System. Compared to
Onshore, Offshore infrastructure will almost certainly result in much more expensive investments
as well as higher operating costs of O&M.
Therefore to maximise the investment in offshore infrastructure the system configuration to
maximise energy export is also essential and inherent the methodology and assumption in the
studies.

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7 LTEP Scenarios assumptions


7.1 General
The Expansion Strategy Plan (ESP) studies are a technical/economical investigation of possible
grid topologies aiming at transferring onshore energy produced offshore.
Different parameters may influence the results and must be considered in a scenario approach.
This is aimed at understanding if:


Common developments are envisaged;


What technology and parameters most influences grid structure;
And, what the optimisation process can add to reducing cost and maintaining security in
the development of the Transmission System as a whole.

Data collection and a preliminary investigation was performed in EirGrid in 2008/9 and a guide
[4] has been written where some cost benchmarks, available technologies and scheduling of
wind farm installation offshore has been shown.
Building on this work the Irish Sea was selected as the focus on which to perform these studies.
The area was selected as it is the most urgent area of investigation prompted by existing wind
farm developers to be processed in Gate 3 group process, and with the exception of one applicant
all offshore applications received have been in the Irish Sea. Combined these applications are
already in excess of 3GW.
General parameters include the horizon and intermediate years of investigation, some economic
parameters such as the discount rates, growth rates of demand and generation (in particular
wind) and infrastructure investment costs.
The scenarios are broken down into three areas:
1.


Basecase Scenario aimed at investigating:


Expansion planning grid structure;
Technology to be used;
Dynamic of Investments over the planning period 2010-2030.

2. Variants may investigate the following issues:


Synergy between Offshore and onshore systems;
Interconnection enhancements with GB and EU;
The following parameter may be used for a sensitivity analysis:


Cost of Wind penalty factor.


Location of new Wind farms further off east coast
Increase injected wind power

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Results offer an indication on:








Best places for onshore connection


Multirole of Interconnections i.e. intermarket power trading and generation connection
Offshore Transmission System as extension of onshore or a separate specific TSO,
or connection left to customers?
Reliability Minimum Requirements at Transmission Planning Criteria
Type of regulatory framework to be arranged
Offshore Grid Ownership
Market model impact on expansion results

7.2 Geographical area


The main focus of the studies is an area composed of the following countries: Ireland, Northern
Ireland and Great Britain.
In order to take account the impact of the European system its network was also modelled. Part
of the EHV network including North of France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, and Denmark
were represented. Norway was also introduced as a node that could be connected into several
points. A diagrammatic representation of the network is shown in Figure 7.1.

Existing
Network

DOUH211-221

MYBH211-221
MYSH211

MORH211-111

WS10211
WS40211

MOSH111-211
WS20211

WS50211

FWIH111

HANU111

DASH211-221

ARG0211

FORH113

BELH111

INVH111

FARH111

FORH112

COCH111

ISL0211

NORTHERN
IRELAND

FORH111
NEAH111

HUEH111-221

DSUU111

KIN0211

TRIA111-411

DOGK113

COLD211
BUNBEG

STSJ111

COOD211

LEAD111-411

CACD211

TIEVEBRACK
GOLA111-411

DALTON

LANESBORO

ORIO211

OLDB111-411

LAOC111
IKERRIN
WEMB111
BALLYRAGGET
NENAGH

ENNIS
MONB111-211
TASB111-211

AV3W211

WGRW211

ARDNACRUSHA
KILB111-211
KILLONAN

PROSPECT

TARB111-211
CHARLEVILLE

GLENLARA
MALLOW
BVKB111 KNOB111
COOMACHEO

OUGHTRAGH

OUGB211

COOMAGEARLAHY CLASHA
CROSS

BRINNY
BANDON
DUNMANWAY

DRSK111

DRXK111

WF3O211

MEES111

LANZ111

GROZ111

SHHK111

NSUS111

BICM111

LEGL111

WLPM111

NORM111

GREC111

SIZM111
DISS111

WALM111
PEMM111

LOVN111

BSUE111

GEES111

CHIN111

DODS111

SELN111

GIEZ111

BOSN211

WARF111

ABHN111
LAGN111

DIES111

CANN111

KEMN111
BOLN111
NURN111

EXTN111

MAVS111

THAN111

GRAN111

BR2O211

MERE111

MANF111

HASO211

MASN111
OBEZ111

AVEF111

WIWO211

NETS111

SCIN211

LHVF111

COUE111 GRAE111

PENF111

CHEF111

CHEF111

ARGF111
TOUF111

LAMF111

GERZ111

BROZ111

LOAN111
COSN111

ALVN111

INDN111

LIPZ111
KUSZ111

GRNZ111

GRGM111
GUFM111

SWAM111

PESM212

BR1O211

NEHZ111

HENS111

BRFM111

CASL211

WF5O211

ZWOS111
NORM113

CAML111

SU2O211

CULLENAGH
DUNGARVAN

AGHB111

NORM112

NOSM111

BAIM111

GLAO211

CROB211

WAHZ111

WEHZ111

DUDK111

DOCK111

WF4O211

HNEZ111

TKNK111
RCBK111

TKSK111

TRAL111

ARKO211

DOON

HAMZ111

HORK112

HUGK111

YORK111

DEEL111

TREL111

WEDZ111

MEPZ111

WERK111

HORK111

PEWL111

SU6O211

PENL111

DIEZ111
MESS111

THSK111
THTK111

HAML211

SU5O211

SU1O211
CODO211

ARKC111
LODC211

KIAC111

HUTL111
QUEL111

WYLL111

KISO211

KELC111

THURLES

TIPPERARY
CAHC111

KN1B111-411

CLAHANE
TRALEE

HUSL212
WALO211

WJ2O211

WF2O211

CKMC111
DUNC111
CHARLESLAND
TURLOUGH
HILL
BALLYBEG

TYNAGH

AF3W211

WJ1O211

BALC111

MAYC111

GALWAY

MD1B111-211
AV2W211

GSUZ111

LACJ111

HUSL211
WNAO211

WLAO211
WIAO211

BRBU111
WESZ111

HAWJ111

MANQ211

WF1O211

HUNC111 BA1C211
WOOC111
KINNEGAD

SHAA111-411

CASA111-411

SU8O211

LOUA211
BALA211

HILL
CAVA111-211

WDUO211

MULLINGAR

CLOON

CAMUS

ARVA

GILRA

FLAA111-411

DOGK112
DOGK111

STEJ111

SOL0211

SU4O211

SRANANAGH
SRAA111-411
SHANKILL

AF2W211

GRNH111
HARJ111

WIG0211

CUNGHILL
-ON-

AF4W211

OMAD111-211 TURD111-211
TAND211
ENND111-411

SLIA111-411

CASTLEBAR

AV1W211

AUCH211-221

SU7O211

CATA111-411

BELA111-211-411
WHRW211

AF1W211

MAGD211

STRD211

KELD211
BAFD211

HAND211

WIRW211

KASU111

KSSU111

TORH111

WKNW211

WJNW211

PETH111-211

BRDH111
BEAH111-211
FAGH111
WS30211

LONF111

MOUF111

ROUF111
TERF111
MEZF111

DOMF111

PLHF111

LOUF111

VLVF111MORF111

VIGF111

LREF111
DAMF111
VERF111

CORF111
DISF111

GATF111

FRAF111

HOUF111
MSEF111

LQUF111
LCHF111

AVOF111

Figure 7.1 Geographical Areas

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7.3 Horizon and Intermediate years


The horizon year is fundamental to the study and to the Expansion Strategy Plan (ESP) to fulfil
the targets. A shorter time frame will provide limited strategic expansion planning; a longer time
frame will face too many uncertainties.
For development of an offshore grid, the major issue is how to accommodate a large amount of
generation offshore and connect it onshore.
Based on the present situation and the future perspectives of expansion and data provided by
many International Agencies [1], [2], [6], a 20 year Interval period from 2010 to 2030 fits with
the features of a LTEP study.
The following have been chosen as intermediate years: 2013, 2015, 2018, 2020, 2023, 2025,
2028, and 2030.
A horizon year of 2030 is also harmonious with the time period that EirGrid has reliable future
requirements for the onshore network. These sources include data available in the framework of
the GRID25 Strategy, a thorough analysis of the requirements in the Irish Grid for a number of
scenarios up to 2025, and the recent output analysis from Gate 3 for scheduled infrastructure
projects up to 2023.

7.4 Wind onshore


The deployment of wind resources started in Ireland in early 2000, with the first onshore
installation. Current government targets for renewables for 2020 have been specified in the
context of EU directives aimed at a lower carbon emission strategy.

7.4.1 Republic of Ireland


The Commission for Energy Regulation in Ireland has to date issued 3 group processing campaigns
known as Gates (a group of generation applications to be processed simultaneously).
Within these processes a total of 5000 MW of connection applicants were for onshore wind.
In Figure 7.2 the broad location of these and amounts are shown. Information for Northern
Ireland up to 2020 has also been included.

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7.4.2 Northern Ireland


Government targets for 2020 are in line with that of ROI, at 40 % in term of energy yearly
produced by renewables. In total this is c.2000 MW, see Figure 7.2.

NI 1972 MW

NW ROI 2233 MW

SE ROI 1170 MW

SW ROI 2051 MW

Figure 7.2 Wind onshore in Ireland

7.4.3 Great Britain Onshore


Great Britain has set target values of 17% by 2020. Onshore development is progressing but
is slow because of the difficulties in building new infrastructure. Consequently government
targets are expected to be obtained mainly with an aggressive offshore deployment strategy. The
expected amount of onshore is shown in Figure 7.3.

GB Onshore 6800 MW

GB Onshore 1200 MW

Figure 7.3 Wind Onshore United Kingdom

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7.5 Wind offshore


The deployment of offshore generation is expected to become increasingly favourable, especially
given the increasing difficulty in finding suitable onshore sites. Offshore wind is at an early stage
of deployment, however, and many issues make its deployment a major challenge compared to
onshore. Major challenges include:


The number and scale of generation to be accommodated into the market


The need of offshore connections
The complex supply chain for the deployment.

7.5.1 Republic of Ireland


From a preliminary EirGrid investigation a potential for in excess of 5000 MW of offshore
generation (based on applicants) in the Irish Sea for the All Ireland jurisdictional area was
predicted. At the time studies commenced, five applicants were seeking connection for offshore
wind farms in the Irish Sea.
These are shown in table 7.1.
Post Gate 3
Wind Developer

Gate 3

Phase 1

Final

Arklow Bank (Aitricity)


Codlin Park (Fredolsen)
Kish and Bray (Saorgus)
Oriel Windfarm
Glossgorman
Aran Island (FSP West)
Total

none
none
364
300
none
100
764

435
660 - 1100
300

1100
1200 - 2000
664
700
300
300
4528 - 5328

200
1160 - 1600

Table 7.1. Offshore windfarm applications with EirGrid


at commencement of studies with breakdown

Table 7.1 shows the scale of these applicants and identifies their connection offer in Gate 3,
the 1st phase of development they applied for and ultimately what their individual sites could
be developed to.

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7.5.2 Northern Ireland


The scale and location of offshore generation in Northern Ireland is in line with the Isles Project
[5], a separate cross jurisdictional government funded study which is in progress at the time of
writing. Figure 7.4 shows the distribution generation assumed in the studies between ROI and
Northern Ireland.
OFFSHORE
NW All Ireland
220 MW

OFFSHORE
ROI
5284 MW

Figure 7.4. Wind Offshore in ROI and NI

7.5.3 NW-NE of Scotland


The scale and location of offshore generation in NW Scottish waters is in line with the Isles
Project [5], a separate cross jurisdictional government funded study which is in progress at the
time of writing. The scale and location of offshore generation in NE Scottish waters is in line
with the National Grids, Offshore Development Information System[14].
Figure 7.5 shows the distribution of generation assumed in the studies in Scottish waters.

OFFSHORE
NE Scotland
3500 MW

OFFSHORE
NW Scotland
5500 MW

Figure 7.5. Wind Offshore Scotland

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7.5.4 Rest of Britain


Britain has launched a programme for the development of offshore wind. The Crown Estate has
pursued a series of leasing rounds under which areas of seabed have been made available for
the development of offshore wind farms. At present some 30 to 50 GW have been considered for
development up to 2030.

7.5.4.1 Irish Sea and the Channel


The offshore licences granted by the Crown Estate in the Irish Sea offers potential opportunities
for further interconnection between Ireland and the UK whilst simultaneously connecting the
offshore generation. These licences currently total about 11.5 GW of generation.
Furthermore, the installation in the Channel may facilitate further Britain-France interconnection,
partially induced by the export from Ireland.

7.5.4.2 North Sea


The North Sea area is the largest potential development area in British waters with the Dogger
Bank zone alone accounting for a potential of up to 13 GW. This area is 200-300 km off the east
British coast. Connection of these generators offers potential synergies to interconnect with
Norway, Denmark and North of Germany.
Further south, at Norfolk and East of the Thames estuary, there are potential synergies for
interconnection with Belgium, Netherlands and France.
Figure 7.6 shows the distribution of generation assumed in the studies in British waters
(excluding Northern Ireland and Scottish waters).

OFFSHORE
GB North Sea
17000 MW
OFFSHORE
GB Irish Sea
6000 MW

OFFSHORE
GB Norfolk
5000 MW

OFFSHORE
GB Bristol Ch.
1500 MW

OFFSHORE GB Channel 3000 MW

Figure 7.6. Wind Offshore England and Wales

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7.6 Load/Generation Combinations


The Load/Generation scenarios are of major importance for the results. In particular the following
requisite must be fulfilled in selecting scenarios to be analysed:



Limited number of combinations


Representative of the worst cases
Balanced with the probability of occurrence
Representative of the Yearly Energy produced and consume in the system

The System is modelled in detail for Ireland, Northern Ireland and Britain. The remaining
European Network is represented as equivalent.

7.6.1 High Wind Low Load


This combination is important in the identification of the need for interconnection. Both
countries in Low Load conditions can offer an excess of wind energy which might be exported
to mainland Europe.
The probability of occurrence has been calculated according to available historic wind and load
data profiles.

7.6.2 Low Wind High Load


This combination is fundamental as it is the most frequent over the year.
In this scenario most of the conventional generation has to supply the load. The scenario therefore
provides the most onerous case for the expansion to cater for conventional generation.

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7.6.3 Intermediate periods


The aforementioned scenarios are not sufficient to fully represent the yearly behaviour.
Historic data show that some intermediate scenarios may occur in particular for windy conditions,
where some conditions across Ireland and the UK do not match those in both 7.6.1 and 7.6.2.
This mainly depends on the geographical distribution of the wind resources.
Three intermediate scenarios have been considered which better integrate the equivalent yearly
behaviour:


(HWind-Med Load)AI with (HWind Low Load)GB


(HWind-Low Load)AI with (HWind-Med Load+Med Wind- Low Load)GB
(HWind-Med Load+Med Wind- Low Load) AI with (HWind-Low Load)GB

7.6.4 Summary and weighting factors


Scenarios summary and weighting factors are shown in table 7.2.
Scenarios

ALL IRELAND

GREAT BRITAIN

Hours

1
2
3
4
5

HWind-Low Load
HWind-MedLoad+MedWind-Low Load
HWind-Low Load
HWind-MedLoad+MedWind-Low Load
Low High Load

HWind-Low Load
HWind-Low Load
HWind-MedLoad+MedWind-Low Load
HWind-MedLoad+MedWind-Low Load
Low High Load

589
609
385
3705
3473

Table 7.2. Scenarios Summary and Weighting factors

In Table 7.3 the definition of High Medium and Low is shown, as well as the probability of each
Wind and Load scenario to occur.
Scaling coefficient

Wind AI+NW SCO

WIND G B

Load

high
medium
low

1
0.37
0.11

1
0.34
0.11

1
0.58
0.37

Probability

Wind AI+NW SCO

WIND G B

Load

high
medium
low

0.15
0.58
0.28

0.10
0.58
0.32

0.23
0.46
0.32

Table 7.3. Scaling factors and probability

Note that Wind in the NW of Scotland has been considered synchronised with the All Ireland
Wind Curves.

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7.6.5 Energy
To cross-check the previous assumptions, an Overall Yearly Energy calculation must be performed
on the discretised curve assumed to represent the Load Generation scenarios combinations.
This is important to obtain a good estimate of the Production Costs in the objective functions.
An incorrect energy estimation would favour or oppose the benefit of expanding the network
infrastructure.
The results are shown in Table 7.4
2030 5GW
ROI

Wind Offshore Irish Sea


Wind Onshore

Installed
MW
5284
5401

Energy
GWh/y
16967
17376

Capacity Factor
%
0.367
0.367

NI

Wind Offshore NWest


Wind Onshore

0
1952

0
6282

0.000
0.367

GB

Wind Offshore Irish Sea + Channel


Wind Onshore East
Wind Onshore

9077
24353
1205

26495
76648
3793

0.333
0.359
0.359

Scotland

Wind Offshore NWest


Wind Onshore NEast
Wind Onshore

5438
3565
6895

17496
11220
21701

0.367
0.359
0.359

Loads

Load AI
Load GB

8875
74284

49200
409862

0.633
0.630

Table 7.4. Yearly Energy and capacity factor of Generation and Load

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7.7 Incorporating Gate3/Grid25 reinforcements


Gate 3 is the third round of connection offers that are currently being issued to generators under
the Group Processing Approach (GPA). The GPA allows for strategic processing of generation
applications for grid connection and was introduced by the Commission for Energy Regulation
(CER) in 2004. It allows applications to be processed by the System Operators (EirGrid and ESB
Networks) in groups or batches known as Gates.
The Gate 3, ITC Programme is an innovative methodology adopted by EirGrid to assess the
capability of the transmission grid to accommodate Gate 3 applications on a firm basis.
The results of the ITC Programme were incorporated in our models in order to represent the
growth of the onshore generation in the Republic of Ireland. The generation added each year
and the accumulative figure can be seen in the graphic below. The ITC used GRID 25 identified
reinforcements to alleviate network problems to permit additional generation to be connected
to the network.
Consequently GRID 25 is also incorporated with the use if the ITC Programme results.

7.71 Additional Reinforcements from GATE3/GRID25


The addition of all the generation requires both new reinforcements in the network as well
as the enhancement of existing links (upratings). The new lines scheduled were included as a
candidate in the list (please refer to Methodology section). The uprating of lines were included
as implemented according to the year of its completion. This can be seen in Figure. 7. 7.
In the ye ar

Accumulative figure

3000
2500
2000
km
1500
1000
500
0
2005

2010

2015

2020

2025

2030

2035

Figure 7.7. Grid Reinforcements as for ITC results

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7.7.2 Wind Expansion Onshore


The assumptions have considered the lead-time it takes to construct a reinforcement.
Combining these with different Load/Generation Scenarios and Wind Conditions, a feasible
expansion installation program of Wind Onshore has been obtained for ROI. Fig.6.8a shows the
results.
For Northern Ireland, a proportional figure has been considered, see Figure.7.8b.
Wind Generation Onshore Ireland

Generation Onshore Included in ROI as per ITC Programme

8 0 00

70 0 0

7 5 00
60 0 0
7 0 00

G
e

50 0 0

6 5 00

n
e
r

6 0 00
40 0 0

a
t

5 5 00

G e n e r a tio n A d d e d ( M W )

Total

i
o

Per Year

30 0 0
5 0 00

Accumulative
M

4 5 00

20 0 0

4 0 00
10 0 0
3 5 00

3 0 00

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

2018

2019

2020

2021

2022

2023

2010 2011 2012 2013

2014 2015

2016 2017 2018 2019

2020 2021 2022 2023

Year

Year

a) ITC Results

b) +NIE Onshore

Figure 7.8. Wind Onshore Expansion in AI

7.7.3 Wind Expansion Offshore


In order to define an expansion strategy for offshore, an assumption has been taken on the pace
of installation, for each site. A quadratic curve has been used in order to account for a learning
curve on the technology and the supply chain for manufacturing and installing, i.e. factory
location, ports, barges, platforms.
Wind Offshore Assumptions (NOW Ireland with 5284 MW)
2500

2000

1500

ARKLOW BANKS
CODLING
GLASSGORMAN
KISHBANKS

1000

ORIOL

5 00

2012

2014

2016

2018

2020

2022

2024

2026

2028

2030

2032

Year

Figure 7.9. Expansion Offshore in ROI

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Irish Se a RO I

NE Scotland

Irish Sea G B

NW Scotland (Crow ns)

Extra NW Sco (Isle s)

Extra NW NI (Isles)

Wave Ene rgy (Eirgrid)


10000
9000
8000
7000
6000
MW

5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
2010

2015

2020

2025

2030

2035

Ye ars

Figure 7.10. Expansion Offshore

7.7.4 Business as Usual Generation Expansion for Comparisons


A conventional generation expansion strategy, Business as Usual (BasU), has also been
considered in order to compare with the performance of adding in offshore generation. In this
case NO Offshore expansion is undertaken in the Irish Sea within jurisdictional waters of ROI.
Extra Thermal Gas (CCGT) Generation has been added onshore to the model to provide the same
energy as the offshore generation. Figure 7.11 shows location and size of the thermal units.

Louth 400 MW

Woodland 400 MW

Kilbride 400 MW

Figure 7.11. Conceivable Generators

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8 Irish Only Results


In the following paragraph, results are shown in terms of Offshore Expansion strategy over
the planning period. In Figure 8.1, Candidate Network and Existing Grid are shown. Solving
a Mixed Integer Problem (MIP) optimisation problem, the optimum Expansion Strategy is
selected in order to connect the offshore wind generation gathering platforms to the All Ireland
transmission system.

COLD211
COOD211
MAGD211

KELD211
BA1D211

ST1D211
OMAD211

CA1D211
TURD4-211

TAND211

CAVA4-211
LOUA211
BKEA211
ORIO211
GORA211
WF1O211
BA1C211
WOOC4-211

BASC211
BALC4-211

MAYC4-211

INCC211
FINC211
PBEC211
QUIC211
CARC4-211

DUNC211

KILC211

SHEC211
PBEC211

WF2O211

KISO211

IRIC211

SU1O211

CKSC211
CHSC211

CODO211

LAOC4-2-111

ARKO211

KELC211

GLAO211

LODC211

CAHC211

WF3O211

ARKC211

KIAC1-2-411

WF4O211

GLSC211

GREC211

GRSC211
SU2O211

WF5O211

Figure 8.1. Existing Grid (solid lines) and Candidate Network (broken lines)

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8.1 Long Term ExPansion (ESPAUT)


8.1.1 Scenario BaseCase
Results of the Expansion Strategy Plan (ESP) are shown in Figure 8.2.a, b, c, for the 2020, 2025
and 2030 year respectively.
C O LD 211

C O LD 211

C O LD 211

C OO D 211

C OO D 211

C OO D 211
M AG D 211

K E LD 211

M AG D 211
B A1D 211

S T 1D 211
O M AD 211

B A1D 211

O M AD 211

C A1D 211
T URD 4-211

LO UA211

B A1C 211

O RIO 211
GO R A211

B A1C 211

B AS C 211

INCC 211
F INC 211
P B E C 211
Q UIC 211
C ARC 4-211

444 MW
W
550
0 MW

CH S C 211

DUNC 211

500 MW

INCC 211
F INC 211
P B E C 211
Q UIC 211
C ARC 4-211

B ALC 4-211

S HE C 211
P B E C 211

M AY C 4-211

IR IC 211

KIS O 211

CK S C 211

KILC 211

544 MW
W
110
00 MW

CH S C 211

C O D O 211

L AO C 4-2-111
ARKC 211

G L AO 211

LO DC 211

C AHC 211
G R E C 211
CU L C 211

G R E C 211

400 MW
CU S C 211

ARKC 211
ARK O 211

CU LC 211

KIAC 1-2-411
K E LC 211

KIS O 211

CK S C 211

544 MW
W
110
00 MW

CH S C 211

500 MW

C O D O 211

G R E C 211
CU LC 211

400 MW

ARKC 211
ARK O 211

675 MW
W

G LAO 211

LO DC 211

C AHC 211

G LS C 211

G LS C 211

400 MW
CU S C 211

CU S C 211

BASE CASE 2020 2269 MW WOFF


Load 7665 MW (+500 MW EWIC)

S HE C 211
P B E C 211

IR IC 211

KILC 211

W
675 MW

G LAO 211

LO DC 211

C AHC 211

G L S C 211

500 MW
LAO C 4-2-111

KIAC 1-2-411
K E LC 211

475 MW
W

ARK O 211

INCC 211
F INC 211
P B E C 211
Q UIC 211
C ARC 4-211

DUNC 211

C O D O 211

LAO C 4-2-111
KIAC 1-2-411
K E LC 211

B AS C 211

W OO C 4-211

B ALC 4-211
M AY C 4-211
KIS O 211

CK S C 211

KILC 211

B A1C 211

B AS C 211

W OO C 4-211

S HE C 211
P B E C 211

IR IC 211

500 MW

B ALA211

O RIO 211

B ALC 4-211
M AY C 4-211

LO UA211

500 MW

B ALA211

GO R A211

W OO C 4-211

T AND 211

C AV A4-211

O RIO 211
GO R A211

DUNC 211

C A1D 211
T URD 4-211

LO UA211

400 MW

B ALA211

B A1D 211

O M AD 211

T AND 211

C AV A4-211

K E LD 211

S T 1D 211
C A1D 211

T URD 4-211

T AND 211

C AV A4-211

M AG D 211

K E LD 211

S T 1D 211

BASE CASE 2025 3219 MW WOFF


Load 8235 MW (+500 MW EWIC)

BASE CASE 2030 3219 MW WOFF


Load 7665 MW (+500 MW EWIC)

Figure 8.2. ESP for BASECASE scenario, 2020, 2025, 2030

This scenario examines the Expansion Strategy Plan (ESP) for 5 offshore generation sites
producing c.32GW of generation by 2030.
The results show a mainly radial network initially connecting the offshore generation into the
network in 2020.
However, a meshed solution has been selected across Dublin Bay, using Kish Banks offshore
platform as a multiple connection point. Note that this meshed structure is also used to connect
Codling Park Wind Farm.
The offshore connections are supplemented by a 400 kV onshore circuit between ArklowCarrickmines and Dunstown-Maynooth, and also favoured is the already initiated TandrageeWoodland 400kV interconnector circuit.
Further south, Arklow connection is developed to allow for Glass Gorman wind farm connection
as well.
By 2025, the same offshore structure is kept with additional reinforcements strengthening from
Codling to Kish and on the Arklow to shore routes.
Onshore, the 400 kV strategy progresses with further connection from Carrickmines to Dunstown,
creating a southern 400 kV ring of the Dublin metropolitan Area.

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No further expansion is observed for 2030.


During the whole expansion period Oriel is radially connected. This is probably due to the
relative distances of this gathering platform from the others and the connection option into
Louth-Tandragee, which has a reduced loading as a result of the Turleenan - Woodland (NorthSouth) 400kV Interconnector. These impacts do not encourage any synergies with other offshore
connections as well as onshore reinforcements.
The offshore looped connection from Balgriffin 220kV stations through Kish Banks Platform
to Carrickmines 220kV stations is an example of synergies with the onshore system. This
reinforcement fulfils a number of objectives, namely:


Connecting Kish Banks generation


Shortening Codling Parks generation connection
Solving congestion in the Dublin Area

8.1.1.1 Focus on Carrickmines-Kish-Balgriffin


With reference to Figure 8.3 the east offshore by pass of the Dublin area is shown. This
corresponds to the 2020 stage of the Expansion strategy.
BA1C

WOOC
BALC

CORK
MAYC

FINC

INCC
KISO

QUIC

CKSC

DUCC

KILC
TURC

CODO

Figure 8.3. East Coast Dublin Bay focus

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In figure 8.4 a DC load flow solution is represented of one of the six Load/Generation scenarios
selected for the Optimal Power Flow (OPF) expansion analysis (see Table 7.3).
This is the High South (HS) - Low North (LN) wind onshore condition coupled with Low Wind
OFfshore (LWOF) which creates high North to South power flows onshore. At this time of the
demand is High Load in the All Island system (HLAI)
BALC

Senza PST
409 MW
108 MW(KISO)

CKSC
81 MW

220 MW

220 MW (CODO)

Figure 8.4. DC load flow of HS-LN-HLAI-LWOF scenario

It is interesting to note that despite injection of power from either Kish Bank or Codling Park
wind farms, the flows on the Carrickmines to Kish Banks circuit are from onshore to offshore and
they keep flowing to Balgriffin, using effectively the offshore East Dublin Bypass.
This demonstrates the use of the offshore network to support the onshore network and therefore
the symbiotic nature of the onshore and offshore networks in this case.

8.1.2 Scenario Mid5


Results of the Expansion Strategy Plan (ESP) are shown in Figure 8.5.a, b, c, for the 2020, 2025
and 2030 year respectively.
C O LD 211

C O LD 211

C O LD 211

C OO D 211

C OO D 211
M AG D 211

B A1D 211

O M AD 211

BK E A211

600 MW

LO UA211
BK E A211

700 MW

LO UA211
BK E A211

O RIO 211
GO R A211

B A1C 211

BAS C 211

W OO C 4-211

INCC 211
F INC 211
P B E C 211
Q UIC 211
C ARC 4-211

IR IC 211

84 MW
78

CH S C 211

C O D O 211

L AO C 4-2-111
KIAC 1-2-411
K E LC 211

97
77 MW

ARK O 211

INCC 211
F INC 211
P B E C 211
Q UIC 211
C ARC 4-211

KIAC 1-2-411
K E LC 211

S U2O 211

S HE C 211
P B E C 211

M AY C 4-211

INCC 211
F INC 211
P B E C 211
Q UIC 211
C ARC 4-211

KIS O 211

88
84 MW

CK S C 211
CH S C 211

C O D O 211

20
000 MW

DUNC 211

500 MW

ARK O 211
G L AO 211

KIAC 1-2-411
K E LC 211

88
84 MW

CH S C 211

C O D O 211

600 MW

500 MW

20
000 MW

ARKC 211
ARK O 211
G L AO 211

LO DC 211

C AHC 211

11
100 MW

G L S C 211

G R E C 211

S U2O 211

KIS O 211

CK S C 211

LAO C 4-2-111

11
100 MW

G L S C 211

G R S C 211

IR IC 211

KILC 211

ARKC 211

LO DC 211

C AHC 211

600 MW

B AS C 211
B ALC 4-211

L AO C 4-2-111

G R E C 211

G R S C 211

IR IC 211

KILC 211

800 MW

G L AO 211
G L S C 211

G R E C 211

DUNC 211

500 MW

ARKC 211

LO DC 211

C AHC 211

W OO C 4-211

S HE C 211
P B E C 211

M AY C 4-211

KIS O 211

CK S C 211

KILC 211

B A1C 211

BAS C 211
B ALC 4-211

S HE C 211
P B E C 211

M AY C 4-211

700 MW

O RIO 211

B ALC 4-211

DUNC 211

T AND 211

C AV A4-211

GO R A211

B A1C 211

C A1D 211
T URD 4-211

O RIO 211
GO R A211

W OO C 4-211

B A1D 211

O M AD 211

T AND 211

C AV A4-211

K E LD 211

S T 1D 211
C A1D 211

T URD 4-211

LO UA211

M AG D 211
B A1D 211

O M AD 211

T AND 211

C AV A4-211

K E LD 211

S T 1D 211

C A1D 211
T URD 4-211

C OO D 211
M AG D 211

K E LD 211

S T 1D 211

G R S C 211
S U2O 211

600 MW

W F 5O 211

CASE MID-5 2020 3761 MW WOFF


Load 7665 MW (+500 MW EWIC)

CASE MID-5 2025 5284 MW WOFF


Load 8235 MW (+500 MW EWIC)

CASE MID-5 2030 Final Choice 5284 MW WOFF


Load 8876 MW (+500 MW EWIC)

Figure 8.5. ESP for MID5 scenario, 2020, 2025, 2030

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This scenario examines the Expansion Strategy Plan (ESP) for the previous 5 offshore generation
sites from the BASECASE scenario, but at a higher installed capacity of c.5.2GW of generation
by 2030.
In year 2020 the offshore solution is basically radial. In two areas multiple circuits deliver offshore
power into Arklow and Balgriffin respectively, triggering the development of 400 kV circuits
onshore in the North and the South of Dublin as well as the North-South Interconnector.
However by 2025 a mesh is generated East of Dublin Bay similar to the BASECASE network,
connecting Codling offshore generation site to Charlesland (Kilpedder); this strategy is completed
by a 220 kV double circuit line from Kilpedder to Carrickmines 220kV station.
Further 400 kV is developed in the North from Balgriffin-Huntstown and in the West between
Dunstown-Maynooth.
Finally, in 2030, further 400kV reinforcement on the western side Dublin creates a predominately
400kV ring around Dublin, part of which is offshore. This ring creates a very strong network
development for both delivery of power into and around Dublin from both onshore and offshore
sources.

8.1.3 Scenario MID10


Results are shown in figure 8.6a, b and c. It should be noted that compared to MID5, this
scenario shares the same total amount of offshore wind on ten locations instead of five.
C O LD 211

C O LD 211
C OO D 211

C OO D 211

C ACD 211

C ACD 211
M AG D 211

C A1D 211

S T 1D 211

T URD 4-211

B AL A211

B ALA211

O RIO 211

500 MW

B A1C 211
W OO C 4-211

B A1C 211

INCC 211
F INC 211
P B E C 211
Q UIC 211
C ARC 4-211

CH S C 211

400 MW

C O D O 211

L AO C 4-2-111

INCC 211
F INC 211
P B E C 211
Q UIC 211
C ARC 4-211

DUNC 211

500 MW

280 MW

KIS O 211

CK S C 211
CH S C 211

1
1100
MW

C O D O 211

KIAC 1-2-411

ARKC 211
ARK O 211

K E L C 211

G L AO 211

L O DC 211

C AHC 211

G L S C 211

G R E C 211

140 MW

KIAC 1-2-411

W F 3O 211

ARKC 211
ARK O 211

K E LC 211

G L AO 211

LO DC 211

C AHC 211

G L S C 211

G R E C 211

W F 2O 211

IR IC 211

413 MW

KIS O 211

CK S C 211

KILC 211

W F 4O 211

280 MW
675 MW
280 MW

KIAC 1-2-411

CH S C 211

500 MW

1
1100
MW

C O D O 211

280 MW

ARK O 211
G L AO 211

LO DC 211
G L S C 211

G R E C 211

G R S C 211

W F 5O 211

CASE MID-10 2025 4600 MW WOFF


Load 8235 MW (+500 MW EWIC)

W F 3O 211

ARKC 211
K E LC 211

C AHC 211

400 MW

G R S C 211

W F 5O 211

CASE MID-10 2020 2969 MW WOFF


Load 7665 MW (+500 MW EX EWIC)

INCC 211
F INC 211
P B E C 211
Q UIC 211
C ARC 4-211

DUNC 211

500 MW
LAO C 4-2-111

400 MW

G R S C 211

W F 5O 211

W F 4O 211

140 MW
44 MW
444
140 MW

W
544 MW

S HE C 211
P B E C 211

M AY C 4-211

W F 2O 211

IR IC 211

KILC 211

BAS C 211
B ALC 4-211

L AO C 4-2-111
W F 3O 211

413 MW
W F 1O 211

W OO C 4-211

W
544 MW

S HE C 211
P B E C 211

M AY C 4-211

140 MW

KIS O 211

CK S C 211

O RIO 211

B A1C 211

BAS C 211
B ALC 4-211

W F 2O 211

IR IC 211

KIL C 211

W OO C 4-211

550 MW
W

S HE C 211
P B E C 211

M AY C 4-211

DUNC 211

500 MW

GO R A211

W F 1O 211

BAS C 211
B AL C 4-211

LO UA211
B ALA211

280 MW

GO R A211

W F 1O 211

C A2D 211
C AS D 211

T AND 211

C AV A4-211

O RIO 211

140 MW

B A1D 211
HAND 211

KILD 211
T URD 4-211

LO UA211

B ALD 211

B AF D 211

K E LD 211

O M AD 211

C A2D 211
C AS D 211

T AND 211

C AV A4-211

475 MW

HAND 211

M AG D 211

C A1D 211

S T 1D 211

B A1D 211
KILD 211

O M AD 211

GO R A211

B ALD 211

B AF D 211

K E LD 211

W F 4O 211

413 MW
675 MW
413 MW

400 MW

413 MW

CASE MID-5 2030 Final Choice 5284 MW WOFF


Load 8876 MW (+500 MW EWIC)

Figure 8.6. ESP for MID10 scenario, 2020, 2025, 2030

This scenario examines the Expansion Strategy Plan (ESP) for 10 offshore generation sites, 5 of
which are defined by the applications received, and 5 for geographic variation in a row of further
offshore, in total producing c.5.2GW of generation by 2030.

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In year 2020 similar to both the CASECASE and MID5 scenarios a full radial strategy is chosen
for the offshore network. Most of the radial circuits from the shoreline connect at least two
of the offshore generation sites. Consequently even as a radial circuit, offshore stations have
the potential to economically become a centre for the development of further infrastructure to
connect additional generation.
Onshore, 400 kV expansion is chosen where large offshore power is injected into the network,
i.e. Arklow, Charlesland, Carrickmines, Balgriffin, to southwest ring circuits, from ArklowCarrickmines-Dunstown-Maynooth and an initial North Ring circuit from Balgriffin-Huntstown.
Outside of Dublin the upper part of Turleenan - Woodland (North-South) Interconnector is
selected, to permit power flows to be driven North-West to the Northern Ireland network.
By year 2025, an east of Dublin offshore by-pass appears this arrangement accommodates the
increasing Wind in Kish Bank and Codling Park in a flexible way to the onshore network in the
Dublin area. As a result the power can not only be directed to the North and South of Dublin, but
also allow an onshore power transfer across Dublin via this link. It should be noted that there is
reinforcement on the Kish Bank-Balgriffin Offshore connection.
Elsewhere an offshore radial structure is maintained.
Onshore, 400kV reinforcement from Balgriffin-Woodland and the second part of the NorthSouth Interconnector is developed. Together these reinforcements, coupled with the offshore
reinforcement of Kish-Balgriffin make a low impedance path which would permit easy power
transfer from the Kish and Codling offshore generating sites into the onshore network.
By 2030 further increases to the offshore meshed network topology is included. This primary
reason is likely to be the increasing generating capacity installed in the offshore five locations.
However this increase of offshore network capacity also provides enhanced flexibility for power
transfer onshore through the symbiotic nature of the transmission network.
Structurally the offshore network in 2030 is very similar to that of the MID5 network with the
difference being the dispersed double circuit link across the east of Dublin from Balgriffin - Kish
Banks - Codling - Carrickmines and also Balgriffin to Arklow via two of the additional offshore
(WF2 & 3) generating sites further offshore from Codling and Kish Banks. Combined these
circuits provide approximately the same capacity as the single Balgriffin - Kish Banks - Codling
- Carrickmines offshore link in the MID5 scenario and can therefore be considered comparable.
Similarly onshore, further 220kV reinforcement on the western side Dublin from Maynooth to
Gorman creates a convoluted predominately 400kV ring around Dublin, part of which is offshore.
This ring creates a very strong network development for both delivery of power into and around
Dublin from both onshore and offshore sources.
Other 220 kV connections are also chosen from Arklow to Carrickmines and CarrickminesQuinsborough.
In all the years WF1 and WF5 are radially connected. Due to the distance from the other
gathering platforms no economic synergies are found.

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8.2 Short Term Expansion


Due to the limited number of Scenarios, the ESPAUT solution is a first screening of the strategic
development plan of infrastructures. However the planning process requires further technical/
economical investigation, see figure. 8.7.
2

2010

2020

y1

2025

2030

Reliability, Market and VAR Planning


(1 year statistical simulation)

y11

Specific Steady-state Scenarios and


Short-Circuit evaluations

y12

Transient Stability. Worst case Scenarios

y13

EMT Studies. Worst case Scenarios on


a portion of the system

y14

Figure 8.7. DC load flow of HS-LN-HLAI-LWOF scenario

8.2.1 Reliability and MARKet (REMARK)


The Expansion Strategy Plan of the BASECASE scenario has been examined with REMARK tool
developed by ERSE for the Statistical Reliability evaluation.
In table 8.1 the Expected Energy Not Served (EENS) reliability Index is shown.

A
B
C
D
O

2020
1.75
2.47
6.36
7.85
0.00

2025
1.83
2.58
5.37
8.39
0.00

2030
1.92
2.71
6.60
8.40
0.00

System

5.12

4.88

5.42

Table 8.1. Expected Energy Not Served*1.e-5


(Area A-C is in RoI, D in NI, and O is offshore)

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For all the years, the solution show a Reliability Index in the region of 5 nine (99.999%)
reliability either for the whole system or uniformly distributed through the regions in Ireland.
Although there is no fixed criteria in Ireland for EENS, internationally a reliability of 5 nine is
considered a reliability target.
In Table 8.2 Generation dispatches are shown with increasing network constraints by 2020, 2025
and 2030 respectively.
U nc ons tra ined
G enera tion

A rea

E n erg y
[G W h ]

C o s ts
[E u ro ]

T ota l Conv entiona l


T ota l Conv entiona l
T ota l Conv entiona l

A
B
C

234
12332
5319

T ota l Conv entiona l


T ota l Conv entiona l

D
O

2455
0

T ota l Conv entiona l

S ys tem

Tota l Fix ed
Tota l Fix ed
Tota l Fix ed

A
B
C

Tota l Fix ed
Tota l Fix ed

D
O

T ota l Fix ed

20340

A
B
C

Tota l W ind
Tota l W ind

D
O

Tota l W ind
Tota l AIT S

11007
662373
175808

E n er g y
[G W h ]

S ys tem

C o s ts
[E u ro ]

234
12332
5319

132149
0

2455
0

981337

20340

502
785
1582

S ys tem

Tota l W ind
Tota l W ind
Tota l W ind

a dd
s ec tion

a dd
Interc onnec tions

11007
662373
175808
132149
0
981337

E n erg y
[G W h ]

C o s ts
[E u r o ]

E n erg y
[G W h ]

C o s ts
[E u ro ]

234
12311
5341

11041
661208
177005

243
11987
5644

11530
643108
194168

2455
0

132162
0

2480
0

133633
0

20342

502
785
1582

real
s ys tem

981417

20354

502
785
1582

982439

502
785
1581

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

2869

2869

2869

2868

5707
4857
2858

5707
4857
2858

5708
4858
2859

5707
4850
2857

681
5701

681
5701

681
5697

682
5694

19805
43013

19805
43013

19803
43013

19790
43012

Table 8.2a Generation Results 2020


U nc ons trained
G eneration
Total Conventional
Total Conventional
Total Conventional
Total Conventional
Total Conventional
Total Conventional
Total Fixed
Total Fixed
Total Fixed
Total Fixed
Total Fixed
Total Fixed
Total Wind
Total Wind
Total Wind
Total Wind
Total Wind
Total Wind
Total AIT S

Area
A
B
C
D
O
S ys tem
A
B
C
D
O
S ys tem
A
B
C
D
O
S ys tem

E nerg y
[G W h]

C o s ts
[E uro ]

259
12591
12711
684692
5770 204473
2607 141568
0
0
21347 1043324
499
781
1573
0
0
2853
5656
4819
2812
676
8041
22004
46204

add
s ec tion

E nerg y
[G W h ]

C o s ts
[E u ro ]

add
Interc onnections

259
12591
12711
684692
5770
204473
2607
141568
0
0
21347 1043324
499
781
1573
0
0
2853
5656
4819
2812
676
8041
22004
46204

E n erg y
[G W h]

C o s ts
[E uro ]

261
12672
12687
683403
5797 205923
2607 141564
0
0
21352 1043562
499
781
1571
0
0
2851
5663
4821
2810
676
8031
22000
46204

real
sys tem

E nerg y
[G W h ]

C o s ts
[E u ro ]

266
12921
12349
664786
6112
223827
2636
143258
0
0
21364 1044792
499
781
1571
0
0
2851
5656
4813
2812
676
8032
21989
46203

Table 8.2b Generation Results 2025

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Unconstrained
G eneratio n
Total Conventional
Total Conventional
Total Conventional
Total Conventional
Total Conventional
Total Conventional
Total Fixed
Total Fixed
Total Fixed
Total Fixed
Total Fixed
Total Fixed
Total Wind
Total Wind
Total Wind
Total Wind
Total Wind
Total Wind
Total AIT S

A re a
A A
B B
C

D D
O O
S ystem
A A
B B
C

D D
O O
S ystem
A A
B B
C

D D
O O
S ystem

E ne rgy
[G W h]

C os ts
[E uro]

351
14346
6817
3101
0
24615
502
785
1584
0
0
2871
5714
4866
2865
683
8144
22272
49758

18150
775932
259971
170447
0
1224500

add
section

E nergy
[G W h]
351
14346
6817
3101
0
24615
502
785
1584
0
0
2871
5714
4866
2865
683
8144
22272
49758

C os ts
[E uro]

add
Interconne ctio ns

18150
775932
259971
170447
0
1224500

E ne rgy
[G W h]
354
14315
6850
3101
0
24620
502
785
1583
0
0
2870
5720
4868
2863
682
8134
22267
49758

C os ts
[E uro]

rea l
syste m

18322
774249
261805
170438
0
1224814

E ne rgy
[G W h]
352
13944
7204
3133
0
24632
502
785
1583
0
0
2870
5714
4860
2865
683
8133
22254
49756

C os ts
[E uro]
18106
754343
282056
172217
0
1226723

Table 8.2c Generation Results 2030

A focus on the wind energy is interesting, see table 8.3. values are in GWh.
In any year, the network is capable of delivering most of the available wind energy. The quality
index, Wind Energy Not Generated (WENG) is calculated in the last column. This is the ratio on
a yearly basis between the wind energy available, calculated in the unconstrained case, and the
energy effectively delivered once the whole transmission system is included. It is worth noting
that in any area the WENG is kept around 0.1% in the worst cases.
2020
Total
Total
Total
Total
Total
Total

Wind
Wind
Wind
Wind
Wind
Wind

Total
Total
Total
Total
Total
Total

Wind
Wind
Wind
Wind
Wind
Wind

Total
Total
Total
Total
Total
Total

Wind
Wind
Wind
Wind
Wind
Wind

A
B
C
D
O
S ys t e m

Unconstrained
5707
4857
2858
681
5701
19805

Unconstrained
5707
4857
2858
681
5701
19805

Interconnections
5708
4858
2859
681
5697
19803

HV Grid
5707
4850
2857
681
5694
19790

W E NG (%)
0.0075%
0.1451%
0.0350%
0.0161%
0.1188%
0.0747%

A
B
C
D
O
S ys t e m

Unconstrained
5656
4819
2812
676
8041
22004

Unconstrained
5656
4819
2812
676
8041
22004

Interconnections
5663
4821
2810
676
8031
22000

HV Grid
5656
4813
2812
675
8032
21989

W E NG (%)
0.0117%
0.1349%
0.0117%
0.0326%
0.1062%
0.0716%

A
B
C
D
O
S ys t e m

Unconstrained
5714
4866
2865
683
8144
22272

Unconstrained
5714
4866
2865
683
8144
22272

Interconnections
5720
4868
2863
682
8134
22267

HV Grid
5714
4860
2864
682
8133
22254

W E NG (%)
0.0126%
0.1290%
0.0084%
0.0483%
0.1357%
0.0791%

2025

2030

Table 8.3. Wind Energy Delivered

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Finally, a focus on the offshore part, in particular the east Dublin looped connection through
the Kish Banks generation platform.
Y ea r

Node 1

N ode 2

2020
2020

K ish B a nk
B a lgriffin

C arrickmines
K ish B ank

2025
2025
2030
2030

K ish B a nk
B a lgriffin
K ish B a nk
B a lgriffin

C arrickmines
K ish B ank
C arrickmines
K ish B ank

F low
A ve ra ge
(M W )
100
282
173
366
168
372

Constraint Violation
%
10.85
30.55
18.71
39.59
18.18
40.3

1 S igma
p.u.
76
173
161
237
159
247

D uration
(H ours)
8740
8706
8738
8695
8738
8695

MAX
(M W )
937
891
1489
1443
1489
1443

D ura tion (h)


(H o urs)
0.74
0

C ost
(E uro/M W )
48.17
0

9.38
92.69
10.16
131

47.56
24.86
51.38
23.11

Table 8.4 Results on the Kish Bank looped connection

It is interesting to note that the connection of Balgriffin-Kish Bank circuit is loaded between
30 and 40% on a yearly basis. On average this is approximately double the typical loading on
transmission circuits in Ireland and shows a high utilisation factor of the network.
This is of particular interest as the wind load factor of the Offshore Wind farm is below 30%. The
extra load is due to the use of the Carrickmines-Kish Bank- Balgriffin circuits route as part of
the South to north flow across Dublin in particular Load/Generation combination scenarios. This
has been also described in Figure 8.4.
Moreover, this has the effect of reducing the Kish-Carrickmines circuit loading; therefore the
natural injection of power from Kish Banks generation is partially compensated by the South to
North flows.

8.2.2 Reactive Planning Estimation


An offshore grid must be composed of subsea cables; due to the relative short distances and
the meshed structure it is not straightforward either technically or economically to understand
whether AC or DC technology is optimum for this purpose.
EirGrid/ERSE position was to start from an AC approach; consequently the reactive impact on the
power system has to be considered carefully and in a large variety of scenarios. Voltage control
will be a major issue because of:

the large extension of the offshore grid


the variability of the wind power resources and therefore of the infrastructure loading.

In some cases a technical limit could be reached which may suggest some offshore reinforcements
need to be selected to be DC or embedded DC.

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This analysis is not part of the LTEP study and therefore was followed up with a comprehensive
power system analysis investigation involving steady state voltage, dynamic transient stability
and electromagnetic transients investigations.
Analysis of one of these aspects, the steady state voltage has been performed. This analysis has
been undertaken with the electric parameters of Table 8.4.
R

tg d

[O h m /k m ]

[O h m /k m ]

[n F /k m ]

p .u .

[M V A ]

T h re e C o re 220 k V 1000 m m 2 C u

0 .0 5 7

0 .0 9

200

1 .0 0 E - 0 4

320

S in g le C o r e 2 2 0 k V 1 2 0 0 m m 2 C u

0 .0 4 6

0 .0 7

198

1 .0 0 E - 0 4

460

S in g le C o r e 4 0 0 k V 1 4 0 0 m m 2 C u

0 .0 4 3

0 .0 7

216

1 .0 0 E - 0 4

930

Table 8.4. Electrical parameters of transmission offshore alternatives

The analysis has investigated the previous Expansion Strategy Plan (ESP) for the previous
BASECASE, MID5, and MID10 2030 scenarios, with circuits of an assumed 930 MVA capacity
and to investigate this network utilising the cables or multiples of in Table 8.4 to provide this
capacity.
Results of each scenario are shown in terms of total kilometres of circuit and Reactive Power
produced at nominal voltage.

8.2.2.1 Reactive Requirements Basecase


In Figure 8.8 the extension of BASECASE ESP scenario is shown in term of kilometre of circuit
for different alternatives.
Offshore Grid Technologies
2 02 0

20 25

2 03 0

4 50

4 00

3 50

3 00

2 50

2 00

1 50

1 00

50

3 core 220 kV

single core 220 kV

single core 400 kV

Figure 8.8. Kilometres of circuit for BASECASE

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In this scenario between 200 and 400 km is the variation in cable length as a result of moving
between each cable type from Table 8.4
Base on this network, and estimation of the reactive power to be compensated is shown in
Figure 8.9. Note that cable reactive power depends on the square of the voltage.
Offshore Grid Technologies
2 02 0

20 25

2 03 0

2 5 00

2 0 00

1 5 00

1 0 00

5 0 0

3 core 220 kV

single core 220 kV

single core 400 kV

Figure 8.9. MVAr requirements of the circuits for BASECASE

Not surprisingly, the major impact is due to use of a 400 kV offshore strategy, as oppose to a
220kV as the 220 kV single core has the least reactive impact.

8.2.2.2 Reactive Requirements MID5


Figure 8.10 shows the MID5 ESP scenario results.
Offshore Grid Technologies
2 02 0

20 25

2 03 0

7 0 0

6 0 0

5 0 0

4 0 0

3 0 0

2 0 0

1 0 0

3 core 220 kV

single core 220 kV

single core 400 kV

Figure 8.10. Kilometres of circuit for MID5

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In this scenario between 300 and 700 km is the variation as a result of moving between each
cable type from Table 8.4. The increase is due to the increase of the installed wind power.
Offshore Grid Technologies
2 02 0

20 25

2 03 0

3 5 0 0

3 0 0 0

2 5 0 0

2 0 0 0

1 5 0 0

1 0 0 0

5 0 0

3 core 220 kV

single core 220 kV

single core 400 kV

Figure 8.11. MVAr requirements of the circuits for MID5

In term of reactive impact single core 220 kV is slightly better than the three core alternative.

8.2.2.3 Reactive Requirements MID10


Due to a more dispersed wind offshore generation expansion, the requirements in this ESP
scenario for the variation in cable type is the widest of those analysed. In 2030 it is expected
between 600 and 1000 km, see Figure 8.12.
Offshore Grid Technologies
2 02 0

20 25

2 03 0

1 2 0 0

1 0 0 0

8 0 0

6 0 0

4 0 0

2 0 0

3 core 220 kV

single core 220 kV

single core 400 kV

Figure 8.12. Kilometres of circuit for MID5

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Offshore Grid Technologies


2 02 0

20 25

2 03 0

80 0 0

70 0 0

60 0 0

50 0 0

40 0 0

30 0 0

20 0 0

10 0 0

3 core 220 kV

single core 220 kV

single core 400 kV

Figure 8.13. MVAr requirements of the circuits for MID5

As a consequence, a larger reactive impact is expected especially if a 400 kV offshore strategy


is used.
This scenario shows the highest reactive impact, especially when developed using the 400 kV
cables.
However the 220 kV alternatives are similar, with single core less marginal less than a three-core
strategy.

8.2.3 AC Reactive Power Strategy Conclusion


To provide absolute certainty, the reactive compensation issue for the amount of AC cable in
these scenarios would require a more detailed and robust examination study in order to verify
that the ESPs could be sustainably connected from only the All Island transmission network.
However, based on the findings of the studies completed as part of this analysis and based on
other utilities experience [TEPCO], [Singapore], it seems to be possible in principle to operate
an underground transmission system with a reasonable extension.
For instance:
Singapore:
650 km of 220 kV Cable
111 km of 400 kV Cable


TEPCO:
1700 km of 275 kV Cable
80 km of 500 kV Cable

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Since no issues have been identified and the offshore expansion AC solutions for the All Island
transmission network are well within other world experience of transmission system operation,
a DC alternative does not appear to be necessary for any of the scenarios (BASECASE, MID5, and
MID10).
Furthermore, considering the relative short distances between platforms and the shore, it is not
considered to be economically viable for this application.

8.2.4 Harmonic Analysis


Following the steady state reactive planning analysis and setting up the suitable compensation
strategy an Electromagnetic Transient analysis has been performed on a simplified ESP of the
Irish Context, see Figure 8.14.

Finglas 220 kV
Carrick 220 kV

Arklow
220 kV

Figure 8.14. Example for EMT Analysis

The 220 kV Single Core Cable Technology is considered in the expansion. Three scenarios are
considered:


The Existing Grid without Offshore


The Existing Grid with Offshore of Figure 8.14
The previous scenario in N-1 Contingency on Arklow-Codling Connection.

A frequency scan was performed on the main 220 kV nodes of the area, aiming at finding the
impact of the Offshore Grid and the potential for parallel resonances conditions in some of the
assets.

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As thoroughly investigated in [5], severe conditions for operation are considered when the
natural frequency approaches a low multiple of the Power Frequency, say 300 Hz and below.
This is due to the potential Temporary Overvoltages with high energy contents that might be
triggered by some switching procedures that may introduce low harmonic orders stresses, i.e.
transformer energisation.
The results are shown in figure 8.15.
ARKLOW 220 kV

No OFFSHORE
CARRICKMINES 220 kV
+ N OFFSHORE

+N-1 OFFSHORE
(Arklow-Codling)
FINGLAS 220 kV

Figure 8.15. Results of Frequency Scan

With no offshore, Arklow and Carrickmines show parallel resonances at 1000 and 2000 Hz
respectively. Finglas does not show any significant resonance within 3000 Hz. These values are
well above critical frequencies.
When introducing the offshore grid, which is submarine cable based, the effect is twofold:

The New Capacitive based grid lowers the natural system frequency
The structure of the Grid, radial or meshed may increase or further decrease the natural
frequency as a consequence of decreasing the short circuit impedance of the Onshore
Grid nodes.

With reference to the red curve, it is worth noting that for Arklow and Carrickmines, the assumed
offshore grid will strengthen the two nodes; this effect counteracts against the capacitance
effect.
Particular care must be taken during outages. Considering the N-1 case of the Arklow-Codling
connection, the cable in radially connected to Arklow, negating the strengthened effect at
Arklow, creating a more onerous case to analyse.

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For this scenario Carrickmines and Finglas are still strengthened by the offshore network, whilst
for other outages they are not. Therefore all outages should be considered.
Comparing the Green curves in Figure 8.15, it is worth noting a decreasing of the natural
frequency in Arklow towards 300 Hz. The calculated 1000 Ohm impedance may not amplify the
overvoltage significantly however, a time domain simulation of this scenario, which is out of the
scope of this study, should be performed.
Similar effects may be observed in Finglas for the Balgriffin-Kish outage.
It should be noted that Carrickmines always benefits from a meshed offshore grid.

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9 Irish Interconnection results


After initial analysis with candidate reinforcements from Ireland the same investigations were
repeated for the MID5 scenario with a new candidate list of reinforcements. These included
options to develop the offshore network into an interconnected network with other European
countries notably Britain and France.
In order to do so the existing network model has to been extended to the neighbouring countries;
in particular:



The complete 400 kV and 275 kV 2010 Britain transmission network


has been introduced using National Grid Web site data;
The northern part of the RTE transmission network has been represented
in terms of existing 400 kV grid as indicated in RTE web;
The Belgium, Netherland, north of Germany, Denmark 400 kV transmission
network has been considered according to information from web site documents;
The Norwegian transmission network has been represented as equivalent nodes.

For computation reasons, the load and generation models for mainland European are equivalents;
three equivalent load/generation nodes have been modelled to account for France, Netherlands
and Germany.
The fundamental reason for modelling a wider northern European equivalent network is that
exporting/importing power from/to Ireland will have a cascading impact on the need for grid
expansion not only in Britain, but also the British interface with mainland Europe especially in
the Channel and the Thames Estuary as well as the North Sea.
Therefore it is important for accuracy in the Ireland network expansion to realistically model
transmission capacity available onshore in neighbouring countries considering, if any, grid
expansion projects elsewhere in Europe.
The philosophy for the wider offshore candidate reinforcements is identical to Irish only analysis.
Existing strategic network plans were used and supplemented with other conceivable potential
reinforcement options.

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In Figure 9.1 the list of candidates is geographically shown. About 1470 new reinforcements
have been assumed over the Irish Sea and the North Sea for the purely AC scenario.

1472 Candidates
(ROW potential reinforcements)
DOUH211-221

MYBH211-221
MORH211-111

WS10211
WS40211

MOSH111-211
WS20211
BRDH11
BEAH111-211
FAGH111
1

WS50211

WS30211

PETH111
-211

FWIH111

HANU11
1

DASH211-22
1

ARG0211

FORH113

INVH111

COCH111TORH111

ISL0211

NORTHERN
IRELAND

FORH112

FORH111

DSUU111

DOGK11
3

KIN0211

TRIA111-411

KASU111

KSSU111

HUEH111-22
1

WJNW211 WKNW211

COLD211
BUNBEG

STSJ111

COOD211

LEAD111-411

CACD211

TIEVEBRACK
GOLA111-411
WIRW211

STRD211

CUNGHILL

WOOC111
MULLINGAR KINNEGAD

CASA111-411 SHAA111-411

ENNIS

WGRW211TARB111-211
KN1B111-411
CLAHANE
TRALEE
OUGHTRAGH

WF1O211
HUNC111 BA1C211

OLDB111-411

GLENLARA
MALLOW

BVKB11
OUGB21COOMACHEO
1
1
COOMAGEARLAHYCLASHA

KNOB11
1
RY

DOON

TREL111

CULLENAGH
DUNGARVAN

GREC11
1

HUGK111

HORK11
HORK11
1
2

YORK11
1

DOCK111

WALM111

WALM111

NEHZ111

HENS111
DISS111

LIPZ111

BR2O211

NURN111

ALVN111
EXTN111

BOLN111

BROZ111

LOAN111

GRAN11
1 SELN111

DIES111

GEES111

THAN111

DODS111

MESE111

LOVN111

ABHN111
LAGN111

MAVS111

BSUE111

BOSN211

WARF111

MANF111

HASO211

GIEZ111

MERE111

MASN111
OBEZ111

AVEF111

WIWO211

NETS111

SCIN211

LHVF111

PENF111

CHEF111

COUE111GRAE111
CHEF111

ARGF111
TOUF111

LAMF111

GERZ111

KUSZ111

GRNZ111

GRGM111
GUFM111

SWAM111
COSN111

INDN111

WAHZ11
1
LANZ111

ZWOS111

NORM11
3

SIZM111
BRFM11
1

CASL211

BR1O211

HNEZ111 WEHZ11
1

GROZ11
1

NORM11
2
NSUS111

NOSM11
NORM11 1
1

BAIM111

SU2O211

PEMM11
1

HAMZ11
1

DUDK111
SHHK111

BICM111

LEGL111

CAML11
1

WF5O211

BRINNY
BANDON
CROSS
DUNMANWAY

CROB21
1

MEES111

TKNK111
RCBK111

TKSK111

TRAL111

WF4O211

WEDZ11
1

MEPZ111

WERK111

DRSK111

DRXK111

DIEZ111
MESS111

DEEL111

PENL111

GLAO211

AGHB111

GSUZ111

THSK111

WYLL111

WF3O211

ARKO211

HAWJ11
1

THRK111

PEWL11
1

SU6O211

WF2O211

TIPPERARY
CAHC11

CHARLEVILLE1

SU5O211WDUO211

BRBU11
1
WESZ11
1

LACJ111

QUEL111

WJ1O211 WJ2O211

BALC111

MAYC111

LAOC111
IKERRIN
WEMB111
ARKC11
BALLYRAGGET
NENAGH
KELC111 1
THURLES
ARDNACRUSHA
KILB111-211
LODC21
KILLONAN
KILC111

STEJ111

HUTL111

WLAO211 WALO211

WIAO211

DOGK11
2

DOGK11
1

HUSL211
WNAO211

MANQ211

ORIO211

KISO211
CKMC111
CHARLESLAND
DUNC111
SU2O211
TURLOUGH
HILL
BALLYBEG
CODO211

TYNAGH

MONB111-211
PROSPECT
TASB111-211

SU8O211

LOUA211
BALA211

HILL
CAVA111-211

LANESBORO

GALWAY
MD1B111-211
AV2W211

AF4W211

ARVA

GILRA

GRNH11
1
HARJ111

WIG0211 SOL0211

SU4O211

SRANANAGH
SRAA111-411

FLAA111-411

CLOON

CAMUS

AF2W211

AV3W211

HAND211 SU7O211

SHANKILL
CASTLEBAR
DALTON

AF3W211

OMAD111-211TURD111-211
TAND211
ENND111-411

-ONAV1W211

AUCH211-221

MAGD211

CATA111-411

SLIA111-411
BELA111-211-411
WHRW211

AF1W211

KELD211
BAFD211

LONF111MOUF111

ROUF111
TERF111
MEZF111

DOMF111
LOUF111

VLVF111
MORF111
LREF111

LQUF111
DAMF111
VERF111

CORF111
DISF111

VIGF111

FRAF111

HOUF111
MSEF111

GATF111 LCHF111

AVOF111

Figure 9.1. Geographical representation of candidate reinforcements

Although it is recognised that a full AC strategy cannot be technically fulfilled, due to long
distances of some candidate connections and interconnections, the first examination used only
AC candidate reinforcements. The rationale for an AC only first examination was a practical
one due to the computation resources and modelling requirements of examining different
technologies simultaneously.
However, this model gives indicative information about the overall interconnected system
behaviour, particularly:




Congested areas;
Preferential exporting routes from Ireland to Britain and to Europe;
Wind delivered and curtailed;
A conservative value of Grid utilisation factor;
The size of infrastructure expansion plan.

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9.1 Examined Sensitivities and Cases


Given the number of assumptions required in order to perform the analysis for the offshore
network topologies some sensitivity analysis has been performed to identify the criticality of
the individual assumptions on the overall results.
This is particularly pertinent given the uncertainties over a 20 year planning period.
The approach for this examination is to select individual key assumed parameters, which are
varied to determine whether there is any variation in the resulting network topologies, the scale
of any changes, and draw conclusions regarding the impact of changes in assumptions.

9.1.1 Use of Transmission Technology


According to the description in Chapter 6, different transmission technologies have been
considered.

9.1.2 Generation Expansion Plans


The analysis examined variations on the previous Irish offshore generation network topographies,
as a consequence of changing Irish generation expansion plans and those of adjacent transmission
network operators, considered geographically close.
This analysis considered both Northern Ireland and Scotlands generation offshore expansion
plan strategies which could interact with the Irish transmission network.
The MID5 scenario was utilised for this analysis given it represented the maximum generation
potential at the existing applicants sites totalling a 5 GW offshore potential off the East Coast
of Ireland in five locations.
Sensitivities on the generation expansion strategies have been considered:


Further increase of Eastern Offshore generation by 2 GW;


Isles Project assumptions;
Ocean Energy Deployment.

The focus of this sensitivity analysis is to provide EirGrid with information on whether there is
a core network structure regardless of changes in generation expansion plans or whether the
resulting network topographies are highly variable as generation targets change.

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9.1.2.1 Scenario MAX10 interconnection


Figure 9.2, shows the existing network with the assumed extra 5 future locations shown.

WF10211

WF20211
WF30211
WF40211
WF50211

Figure 9.2. Geographical Location of extra 2 GW offshore

Future locations are marked WF10211 to WF50211. These locations provide for uncertainties
due to the location of potential extra offshore facilities that may arise following a future tranche
of generation in the Gate process including extra offshore generation.

9.1.2.2 Isles Project Assumptions


In June 2010, the Scottish Government launched a comprehensive Offshore Grid study aiming
at evaluating the Renewable Resource available in the area included by the West of Scotland,
Northern Ireland and the Irish Sea [15]. Part of the scope is also to identify the suitable
transmission technology to permit connections to be made which fully exploit the resources.
The study boundaries extended to include a large proportion of the All Island network territorial
waters.

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Figure 9.3, location and amount of extra potential offshore resources are shown for both Northern
Ireland and Northwest of Scotland.

Location A: 300 MW

Location B: 1000 MW

Location C: 1000 MW

Location K: 600 MW
Location J: 600 MW

Location I: 600 MW

Location H: 300 MW

Figure 9.3. Extra offshore Resources in NW Scotland and Northern Ireland

9.1.2.3 Ocean Energy Deployment


Recent technological advances have put attention on all forms of ocean energy. In Ireland, wave
energy has already been deployed in pilot test projects and a specific Renewable Energy Feed In
Tariff (REFIT) was announced in 2008 for offshore generation.
Based on currently available information it is anticipated that the greatest resource for
development for non-wind ocean energy is expected to be off the West Coast of Ireland (see
Figure 9.4). This is in line with the findings of the offshore Strategic Environmental Assessment
(SEA) performed for SEAI [16].
Although the governments Energy White Paper of 2007 set out a target of 500MW by 2020, a
higher quantity can be reasonable expected over a longer period up to 2030. Using the profile
of growth in onshore windfarms experienced from the early introduction of wind energy, a figure
of 4GW of wave energy was predicted for 2030.

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Given the scale of generation being examined in the Irish Sea, 4GW is considered of sufficient
size to trigger any potential changes in the general network topography rather than simply
augmenting the existing network in Ireland.
Based on existing wave resources 4GWs falls well within development potential off the west
coast of Ireland.

4 GW Wave
Location
Assumption

Annual Avg Hyd Energy MWhr


25125
125250
250425
425600
600730

Figure 9.4. Wave offshore resources west coast of Ireland

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9.2 Sensitivity analysis Scenarios


Table 9.1 shows the Scenarios which have been examined in this analysis.

BAS E CASE
VARIANT P F 1
VARIANT P F 2
BUS INESS AS USUAL
VARIANT T 1
VARIANT T 2
VARIANT W O F F 1
VARIANT W O F F 1-T 2

Tran.Altern
O nshore
O HL

O HL
UG C
O HL
O HL

O ffshore
RO I
AC
5 G W 5 Location
AC
5 G W 5 Location
AC
5 G W 5 Location
AC
0
AC /DC
5 G W 5 Location
AC /DC 5 G W 5 LO C ATIONS
AC /DC
7 G W 10 Location
AC /DC
7 G W 10 Location

Wind Offshore
NI
0
0
0
0
0
0
2.2 G W (ISLE S )
2.2 G W (ISLE S )

NW -S C O
2GW
2GW
2GW
2GW
2GW
2GW
5.3 G W (ISLE S )
5.3 G W (ISLE S )

Penalty Factor

Storage

P S Ts

O C E AN

10000
0
RE AL

NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO

NO
NO
NO
NO
YES
YES
YES
YES

NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
YE S

RE AL
RE AL
RE AL
RE AL

INTERM EDIATE
S TE P S
YES
YES
YES
YES
NO
NO
NO
NO

Table 9.1. Scenarios examined

The purpose of sensitivity analysis is to examine individual parameters effects on the Expansion
Strategy Plans for offshore development.
Consequently every combination of parameters is not analysed but rather a smaller number of
scenarios which adequately demonstrate the effect of changing the parameters.
The sequences of studies were selected to allow for understanding of the assumed impact of
key parameters in order of their perceived significance. Following this examination order an
appropriate (possibly revised) value for each parameter could be fixed in subsequent studies into
the sensitivity of another parameter.
In particular, the penalty factor was revised to REAL after the preliminary investigation, and
offshore technology was revised to Mixed AC/DC, as some connections are not technically
feasible with AC cable technology.
REAL identifies the scenario with penalty factors corresponding to the Renewable Feed-in Tariff
(REFIT), available in each jurisdiction.
After initial investigations into the impact on the intermediate steps of development, it was
found that an economy in the sensitivity analysis could be reasonably be made by only studying
and comparing the ESP subset (i.e. 2030) for changes to the parameters. This is proposed
to become a benchmark for the methodology and for future thorough investigation of other
scenarios and cases.

9.2.1 List of candidates and subset


As explained in chapter 4, the first step in the process is to determine a subset of reinforcements
for the Horizon year (2030) from the reinforcement options available, see Figure 9.5. This subset
can be different depending on the sensitivities and cases.

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Expansion
alternatives

2010

2030

Subset

Figure 9.5. Definition of the Subset of Candidates

9.2.1.1 Max 10 Interconnection + Isles


Figure 9.6 subset results are shown. This scenario has been obtained using the Isle Project
assumptions and the Extra 2GWs in the Irish Sea. Penalty factor for wind curtailment has been
considered 10000 Euro/MWh.
This is the most general case to be considered
and selects the largest number of candidate
reinforcements in any of the sensitivity
analysis. This ESP therefore is significant
reduction of the candidate list but offers
a high potential for further refinement.
Therefore, the resulting subset in Figure 9.6
will be considered for all the cases except for
the Wave Energy Scenario. As a consequence
of this approach the sensitivity scenarios can
also be easily compared with each other.

DOUH211 -221

MYBH211 - 221

MORH211 -111
WS10211
WS40211
MOSH111 - 211
WS20211

BRDH111

PETH111 -211

BEAH111 -211
FAGH111

WS50211

WS30211
FWIH111
ERRH111 -411

DASH211 - 221
ARG0211

BEL H1 1 1

F ARH1 1 1

DENH111 -211
COCH111
N O R TH ER N
IR ELA N D

SMEH111

HUEH111 - 221

STHH111

KIN0211
T R IA 1 1 1 - 4 1 1

COL D2 1 1

STSJ111

COOD2 1 1

L EAD1 1 1 - 4 1 1

CACD2 1 1

KEL D2 1 1

AUCH211 -221

BAF D2 1 1
TE
I VEBRACK
ST RD2 1 1

GRNH111

MA G D 2 1 1

GOL A1 1 1 - 4 1 1
HAND2 1 1
CAT A1 1 1 - 4 1 1

WIG 0 2 1 1

-2 1
T AND2 1 1

S U4 O2 1 1

E N N D 1 1 1 -4 1 1

HUSL211
S U8 O2 1 1

CUNGHL
I L
WH R W2 1 1

Note no N-1 contingency has been applied


in the North-Sea connections. The impact
of doing so is expected to have negligible
impact on the results in the network
topography around the Island of Ireland.

HUSL212

WN A O 2 1 1

L OUA2 1 1
BAL A2 1 1

S H A N K IL L
-O N -

G IL R A

ARVA

WL A O 2 1 1

WD U O 2 1 1
BASC2 1 1

HUNC1 1 1

M U L L IN G A R

K IN N E G A D

THTK111

H A ML 2 1 1

PEWL111

S U5 O2 1 1
WJ 1 O 2 1 1

BAL C1 1 1

WO O C 1 1 1

WJ 2 O 2 1 1

SHAA1 1 1 4
- 1 1

CASA1 1 1 - 4 1 1

QUEL111

WIA O 2 1 1

L A NE S B ORO

CL OON

C A MU S

WA L O 2 1 1

WF 1 O 2 1 1

F L AA1 1 1 - 4 1 1
DA L T ON

HUTL111

MA N Q 2 1 1
O R IO 2 1 1

H IL L
CAVA1 1 1 - 2 1 1

CAST L EBAR

HAWJ111

S OL 0 2 1 1

SRAA
1 A
- 4
S1
R1
AN
N1
A1
GH

A V 1 W2 1 1

STEJ111

HARJ111

S U7 O2 1 1

T U R D 1 1 1 -2 1 1

O MA D 1 1 1
S L IA 1 1 1 - 4 1

A F 1 W2 1 1

NEAH1 1 1

TORH111

ISL0211

BUNBEG

B E L A 1 1 1 -2 1 1 -4 1

FORH112

FORH111

WK N W2 1 1

WJ N W2 1 1

WIR W2 1 1

FORH113

INVH111

S U6 O2 1 1

WF 2 O 2 1 1
MA Y C 1 1 1

Q U IC 2 1 1

WYLL111

G A L WA Y
K IS O 2 1 1
A F 2 W2 1 1

T Y NA GH

MD 1 B 1 1 1

C K MC 1 1 1

DUNC1 1 1

OL DB1 1 1 - 4 1 1

1 1
-2

CHARL ESL AND

BAL L YBEG

WE M B 1 1 1
NE NA GH

MO N B 1 1 1 - 2 1

WG R W2 1 1

B A L L Y RA GGE T

K IL B 1 1 1

CAML111
GL AO2 1 1

GREC111
S U2 O2 1 1

CUL C2 1 1
MA L L O W

OUGB211

CUL L E NA GH

KNOB111

BVKB1 1 1

WF 4 O 2 1 1

GL S C2 1 1

L OS C2 1 1

DOON
C H A R L E V IL L E

GL E NL A RA
OUGHT RA GH

TRAL111

LODC211
KA
I C111

CAHC111
TP
I PERARY

KN1 B1 1 1 - 4 1 1

L E GL 1 1 1

WF 3 O 2 1 1

ARKO2 1 1

-2 1 1

K IL L O N A N
T A R B 1 1 1 -2 1 1

CL AHANE
T RAL EE

GRS C2 1 1

CUSC2 1 1

CASL211

DUNGA RV A N

C O O MA C H E O
C O O MA G E A R L A H Y

WF 5 O 2 1 1

K IL B A R R Y
CL A S HA V OON

WALM111

AGHB1 1 1

B R IN N Y
CROS S

DEEL111

PENL111

T REL 1 1 1

ARKC111

KEL C1 1 1

T HURL ES

ARDNACRUSHA

P ROS P E CT
T ASB1 1 1 - 2 1 1

A V 3 W2 1 1

PESL1 1 1

CODO2 1 1

L AOC1 1 1
IK E R R IN

E N N IS

A F 3 W2 1 1

A F 4 W2 1 1

S U1 O2 1 1

T U R L O U G H H IL L

MD 1 B 1 1 1 - 4
1 1
A V 2 W2 1 1

PEMM111

B A NDON
D U N M A N WA Y

CROB211

SWAM111

P E S M2 1 2

BR1 O2 1 1
BR2 O2 1 1

AL VN1 1 1

EXT N1 1 1

NURN1 1 1

CHN
I 111

ABHN1 1 1

L AGN1 1 1
IN D N 1 1 1

WIW O211

S C IN 2 1 1

Figure 9.6. Subset of Elements MAX10+Isles

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9.2.1.2 MAX10 Interconnection plus Isles and Wave Energy


In this analysis a further step increase to the north of Ireland is applied with an additional 2GW
of generation off the west coast of Scotland and 4GW of ocean energy off the west coast of
Ireland on to the Max10 scenario shown in figure 9.7.
The solution refers to the case of 10000 Euro/MWh penalty factors, therefore no curtailment
happens and all the assumed wind and wave energy are delivered.
With the 6GW increase in additional generation above the MAX10 scenario in 9.1.2.1, the
network in the western side of Ireland is heavily developed with additional circuits, required to
transmit the power produced.
The much greater change in geographical dispersion of the generation beyond the Irish Sea to
the North of Ireland, provides a high probability for change to the network topography both
onshore in the Irish All Island network and Britain, and also the offshore network in the Irish
Sea
However the topography of the offshore network has not fundamentally changed, but instead
additional circuits have once again mainly augmented the existing network increasing the size
of the capacity to transmit power between nodes on the system.
It should be noted that the analysis commenced with the full list of candidate reinforcements
available and no pre-selections.
This adds further conviction to the solutions robust nature, demonstrating the structure in
the Irish Sea to be flexible to deal with a major step change in generation and its location.
This supports the low probability of structural change to the network topography as a result of
changes in the scale of offshore generation and also its geographical location.
The symbiotic nature of the onshore and offshore networks appears to become even stronger,
with each network complementing and supporting each other reducing the overall need for
additional assets by sharing their capabilities.
Reinforcement of the westerly side of the Irish onshore network to link generating sources of the
north Irish coast line to interconnection with France permits a two way flow of power dependent
on prevailing market prices and generation availability.
On the easterly side of the Irish onshore network from Waterford/Wexford to Louth a highly
meshed onshore/offshore network has developed to transmit power in all directions not only
north-south (or vice-versa) either onshore or offshore, but also east/west offshore (or viceversa) for national or international consumption.

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DOUH211 -221

MYBH211 - 221

MORH211 -111
WS10211
WS40211
MOSH111 - 211
WS20211

BRDH111

PETH111 -211

BEAH111 -211
FAGH111

WS50211

WS30211
FWIH111
ERRH111 -411

DASH211 - 221
ARG0211

BEL H1 1 1

F ARH1 1 1

DENH111 -211
COCH111
N O R TH ER N
IR ELA N D

SMEH111

HUEH111 - 221

STHH111

KN
I 0211
T R IA 1 1 1 - 4 1 1

COL D2 1 1

STSJ111

COOD2 1 1

BUNBEG

CACD2 1 1

KEL D2 1 1

AUCH211 -221

BAF D2 1 1
T IE V E B R A C K
ST RD2 1 1

GRNH111

MA G D 2 1 1

GOL A1 1 1 - 4 1 1
HAND2 1 1
CAT A1 1 1 - 4 1 1

O MA D 1 1 1

-2 1
T AND2 1 1

S U4 O2 1 1

E N N D 1 1 1 -4 1 1

HUSL211

SRAA
1 A
- 4
S1
R1
AN
N1
A1
GH
S U8 O2 1 1

WH R W2 1 1

HUSL212

WN A O 2 1 1

L OUA2 1 1
BAL A2 1 1

S H A N K IL L
-O N -

G IL R A

ARVA

WL A O 2 1 1

WA L O 2 1 1

WF 1 O 2 1 1

F L AA1 1 1 - 4 1 1
DA L T ON

QUEL111

THTK111

WIA O 2 1 1
WD U O 2 1 1

L A NE S B ORO
BASC2 1 1

HUNC1 1 1

M U L L IN G A R

K IN N E G A D

CL OON

H A ML 2 1 1

PEWL111

S U5 O2 1 1
WJ 1 O 2 1 1

BAL C1 1 1

WO O C 1 1 1

WJ 2 O 2 1 1

SHAA1 1 1 4
- 1 1

CASA1 1 1 - 4 1 1

HUTL111

MA N Q 2 1 1
O R IO 2 1 1

H IL L
CAVA1 1 1 - 2 1 1

CAST L EBAR

C A MU S

HAWJ111

S OL 0 2 1 1

WIG 0 2 1 1

CUNGHL
I L

A V 1 W2 1 1

STEJ111

HARJ111

S U7 O2 1 1

T U R D 1 1 1 -2 1 1

S L IA 1 1 1 - 4 1

A F 1 W2 1 1

NEAH1 1 1

TORH111

ISL0211

L EAD1 1 1 - 4 1 1

B E L A 1 1 1 -2 1 1 -4 1

FORH112

FORH111

WK N W2 1 1

WJ N W2 1 1

WIR W2 1 1

FORH113

INVH111

S U6 O2 1 1

WF 2 O 2 1 1
MA Y C 1 1 1

Q U IC 2 1 1

WYLL111

G A L WA Y
KS
I O2 1 1
A F 2 W2 1 1

T Y NA GH

MD 1 B 1 1 1

C K MC 1 1 1

DUNC1 1 1

OL DB1 1 1 - 4 1 1

-2
1 1

CHARL ESL AND

BAL L YBEG

WE M B 1 1 1
NE NA GH

K IL B 1 1 1

T ASB1 1 1 - 2 1 1

WG R W2 1 1

KIAC111

CAHC111

WF 4 O 2 1 1

GL S C2 1 1

CAML111
GL AO2 1 1

GREC111
S U2 O2 1 1

CUL C2 1 1
MA L L O W

TRAL111

L OS C2 1 1

DOON
C H A R L E V IL L E

GL E NL A RA

CUL L E NA GH

KNOB111

BVKB1 1 1

L E GL 1 1 1

WF 3 O 2 1 1

ARKO2 1 1

LODC211

T IP P E R A R Y

KN1 B1 1 1 - 4 1 1

OUGB211

ARKC111

KEL C1 1 1

-2 1 1

KL
I L ONA N
T A R B 1 1 1 -2 1 1

CL AHANE
T RAL EE

OUGHT RA GH

GRS C2 1 1

CUSC2 1 1

CASL211

DUNGA RV A N

C O O MA C H E O
C O O MA G E A R L A H Y

WF 5 O 2 1 1

K IL B A R R Y
CL A S HA V OON

WALM111

AGHB1 1 1

B R IN N Y
CROS S

DEEL111

PENL111

T REL 1 1 1

B A L L Y RA GGE T
T HURL ES

ARDNACRUSHA

P ROS P E CT

A V 3 W2 1 1

PESL1 1 1

CODO2 1 1

L AOC1 1 1
IK E R R IN

E N N IS
MO N B 1 1 1 - 2 1

A F 4 W2 1 1

S U1 O2 1 1

T U R L O U G H H IL L

MD 1 B 1 1 1 - 4
1 1
A V 2 W2 1 1
A F 3 W2 1 1

PEMM111

B A NDON
D U N M A N WA Y

CROB211

SWAM111

P E S M2 1 2

BR1 O2 1 1
BR2 O2 1 1

AL VN1 1 1

EXT N1 1 1

NURN1 1 1

CHN
I 111

ABHN1 1 1

L AGN1 1 1
IN D N 1 1 1

WIW O211

S C IN 2 1 1

Figure 9.7. Subset of Elements MAX10+Isles+Wave Energy

9.3 Intermediate Years


Following the Subset definition, as explained in chapter 5, the expansion analysis is performed
for each intermediate year, with the proper Load/Generation conditions. The existing network
for each intermediate year is incrementally updated with the expansion results of the previous
year, see Figure.9.8.

2010

2030
T-1

Yi-1

T+1

Yi

Yi+1

Figure 9.8. Intermediate Steps procedure

The purpose is to provide a timeline of the new reinforcements which are needed to meet the
2030 target.

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9.3.1 Scenario MID5 Interconnection


This scenario examines the Expansion Strategy Plan (ESP) for 5 offshore generation sites producing
c.5GW of generation by 2030. Isles and Wave Energy are not included. Wind curtailment penalty
is 10000 Euro/MWh.
5 GW
Basecase
2013

DOUH211-221

MYBH211-221
MYSH211

MORH211-111

WS10211
WS40211

MOSH111-211
WS20211

FWIH111

HANU111

DASH211-221

ARG0211

FORH113

BELH111

INVH111

FARH111

FORH112

COCH111

ISL0211

NORTHERN
IRELAND

FORH111
NEAH111

KSSU111

TORH111

HUEH111-221
KIN0211

TRIA111-411

DOGK113

COLD211
BUNBEG

STSJ111

COOD211

LEAD111-411

CACD211

TIEVEBRACK
GOLA111-411

STRD211

CUNGHILL

ARVA

GILRA

FLAA111-411
DALTON

ORIO211

HILL
CAVA111-211

AF3W211

MONB111-211

AF4W211

COOMAGEARLAHY CLASHA
CROSS

LODC211

KIAC111

MEES111

YORK111

LANZ111

GROZ111

SHHK111

NSUS111
WLPM111

WF4O211

CULLENAGH
DUNGARVAN

DISS111

WALM111
PEMM111

BSUE111

NURN111

SELN111

LOVN111

EXTN111

GEES111

CANN111

KEMN111
BOLN111

ALVN111

CHIN111

WARF111

ABHN111

GIEZ111

MERE111

MANF111

HASO211

DODS111

MESE111

BOSN211

LAGN111

DIES111

THAN111

GRAN111

BR2O211

INDN111

BROZ111

MAVS111

LOAN111
COSN111

MASN111
OBEZ111

AVEF111

WIWO211

NETS111

SCIN211

COUE111 GRAE111

PENF111

LHVF111
CHEF111

CHEF111

ARGF111
TOUF111

LAMF111

GERZ111

KUSZ111

GRNZ111

GRGM111
GUFM111

SWAM111

PESM212

BR1O211

NEHZ111
LIPZ111

HENS111

BRFM111

CASL211

WF5O211

ZWOS111
NORM113

SIZM111

AGHB111

BRINNY
BANDON
DUNMANWAY

CROB211

NORM112

NOSM111

NORM111

BAIM111

CAML111

SU2O211

WAHZ111

WEHZ111

DUDK111

DOCK111

GLAO211

GREC111

HNEZ111

TKNK111
RCBK111

TKSK111

BICM111

TRAL111

ARKO211

DOON

CHARLEVILLE

GLENLARA
MALLOW
OUGHTRAGH
BVKB111 KNOB111
OUGB211
COOMACHEO

DRXK111

LEGL111

HAMZ111

HORK112

HUGK111

DEEL111

TREL111

WF3O211

TIPPERARY
CAHC111

KN1B111-411

CLAHANE
TRALEE

PEWL111

PENL111

CODO211

KELC111

THURLES

ARDNACRUSHA
KILB111-211
KILLONAN

TARB111-211

WGRW211

SU1O211

BALLYBEG

DRSK111

WYLL111

KISO211
CHARLESLAND

ARKC111

WEDZ111

MEPZ111

WERK111

HORK111

THTK111

SU6O211

CKMC111

DUNC111
TURLOUGH
HILL

LAOC111
IKERRIN
WEMB111
BALLYRAGGET
NENAGH

DIEZ111
MESS111

THSK111

QUEL111
HAML211

WJ2O211

WF2O211
MAYC111

OLDB111-411

PROSPECT

TASB111-211

AV3W211

WJ1O211

BALC111

KINNEGAD

TYNAGH

ENNIS

HUTL111

WALO211

SU5O211

GSUZ111

LACJ111

HUSL212

WLAO211
WIAO211

HUNC111 BA1C211
WOOC111

MULLINGAR
SHAA111-411

CASA111-411
GALWAY

MD1B111-211
AV2W211

WNAO211
MANQ211

WF1O211

WDUO211

LANESBORO

CLOON

CAMUS

AF2W211

SU8O211

LOUA211
BALA211

SHANKILL
-ONCASTLEBAR

HUSL211

SU4O211

SRANANAGH
SRAA111-411

BELA111-211-411
WHRW211

BRBU111
WESZ111

HAWJ111

SOL0211

WIG0211
OMAD111-211 TURD111-211
TAND211

ENND111-411

DOGK112
DOGK111

STEJ111

GRNH111
HARJ111

CATA111-411

SLIA111-411

AV1W211

AUCH211-221

SU7O211
HAND211

WIRW211

AF1W211

KELD211
BAFD211

MAGD211

KASU111

DSUU111

WKNW211

WJNW211

PETH111-211

BRDH111
BEAH111-211
FAGH111
WS30211

WS50211

LONF111

MOUF111

ROUF111
TERF111
MEZF111

DOMF111

VIGF111

VLVF111MORF111
LREF111

PLHF111
DAMF111

GATF111 LCHF111

VERF111

CORF111
DISF111

FRAF111

HOUF111
MSEF111

LQUF111

LOUF111

AVOF111

a) Year 2013
5 GW
Basecase
2015

DOUH211-221

MYBH211-221
MYSH211

MORH211-111

WS10211
WS40211

MOSH111-211
WS20211

WS30211

WS50211

FWIH111

HANU111

DASH211-221

ARG0211

FORH113

BELH111

INVH111

FARH111

FORH112

COCH111

ISL0211

NORTHERN
IRELAND

FORH111
NEAH111

KSSU111

TORH111

HUEH111-221
KIN0211

TRIA111-411

DOGK113

COLD211
BUNBEG

STSJ111

COOD211

LEAD111-411

CACD211

TIEVEBRACK
GOLA111-411

STRD211

MULLINGAR

MONB111-211
TASB111-211

AV3W211

WGRW211

AF4W211

ARDNACRUSHA
KILB111-211
KILLONAN

PROSPECT

TARB111-211
CHARLEVILLE

GLENLARA
MALLOW
OUGHTRAGH
BVKB111 KNOB111
OUGB211
COOMACHEO
COOMAGEARLAHY CLASHA
CROSS

BALLYBEG

BRINNY
BANDON
DUNMANWAY

SU1O211

LODC211

KIAC111

DRXK111

LANZ111

GROZ111
NSUS111

WLPM111

TRAL111
WF4O211

NORM111

CULLENAGH
DUNGARVAN

PEMM111

BRFM111

DISS111

BROZ111

MAVS111

BSUE111

LOVN111

GEES111

CANN111

KEMN111
BOLN111
NURN111

EXTN111

SELN111

CHIN111

WARF111

ABHN111

GIEZ111

MERE111

MANF111

HASO211

DODS111

MESE111

BOSN211

LAGN111

DIES111

THAN111

GRAN111

BR2O211

MASN111
OBEZ111

AVEF111

WIWO211

NETS111

SCIN211

LHVF111

PENF111

CHEF111

COUE111 GRAE111
CHEF111

ARGF111
TOUF111

LAMF111

GERZ111

KUSZ111

GRNZ111

GRGM111

LOAN111
COSN111

ALVN111

INDN111

LIPZ111

GUFM111

SWAM111

PESM212

BR1O211

NEHZ111

HENS111

WALM111

WF5O211

ZWOS111
NORM113

SIZM111

CASL211

AGHB111

CROB211

NORM112

NOSM111

BAIM111

CAML111

SU2O211

WAHZ111

WEHZ111

DUDK111
SHHK111

GLAO211

GREC111

HNEZ111

TKNK111
RCBK111
DOCK111

BICM111

LEGL111

ARKO211

DOON

MEES111

YORK111

DEEL111

TREL111

WF3O211

HAMZ111

HORK112

HUGK111

TKSK111

PENL111

CODO211

KELC111

THURLES

TIPPERARY
CAHC111

KN1B111-411

CLAHANE
TRALEE

CHARLESLAND

ARKC111

DRSK111

WYLL111

KISO211

LAOC111
IKERRIN
WEMB111
BALLYRAGGET
NENAGH

WEDZ111

MEPZ111

WERK111

HORK111

THTK111

SU6O211

WF2O211
CKMC111

DUNC111
TURLOUGH
HILL

OLDB111-411

DIEZ111
MESS111

THSK111

QUEL111
HAML211

PEWL111

WJ1O211 WJ2O211

BALC111

MAYC111

TYNAGH

ENNIS

HUTL111

WALO211

SU5O211

BA1C211

WOOC111
KINNEGAD

GALWAY

MD1B111-211
AV2W211

HUSL212

WLAO211
WIAO211

GSUZ111

LACJ111

HUSL211

WNAO211
MANQ211

WF1O211

WDUO211
HUNC111

SHAA111-411

CASA111-411

ORIO211

HILL
CAVA111-211

LANESBORO

CLOON

CAMUS

ARVA

GILRA

SU8O211

LOUA211
BALA211

SHANKILL
-ON-

FLAA111-411

BRBU111
WESZ111

HAWJ111

SOL0211

SU4O211

SRANANAGH
SRAA111-411
CUNGHILL

CASTLEBAR

DOGK112
DOGK111

STEJ111

HARJ111
WIG0211

DALTON

AF3W211

GRNH111

OMAD111-211 TURD111-211
TAND211

ENND111-411

BELA111-211-411
WHRW211

AF2W211

AUCH211-221

SU7O211

CATA111-411

SLIA111-411

AV1W211

KELD211
BAFD211

*
HAND211

WIRW211

AF1W211

MAGD211

KASU111

DSUU111

WKNW211

WJNW211

PETH111-211

BRDH111
BEAH111-211
FAGH111

LONF111

MOUF111

ROUF111
TERF111
MEZF111

DOMF111

VLVF111MORF111
LREF111

PLHF111

LOUF111

LQUF111
DAMF111
VERF111

CORF111
DISF111

VIGF111

FRAF111

HOUF111
MSEF111

GATF111 LCHF111

AVOF111

b) Year 2015
Figure 9.9. Intermediate Steps solution of MID5 Interconnection Scenario
100
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5 GW
Basecase
2018

DOUH211-221

MYBH211-221
MYSH211

MORH211-111

WS10211
WS40211

MOSH111-211
WS20211

WS30211

WS50211

FWIH111

HANU111

DASH211-221

ARG0211

FORH113

BELH111

INVH111

FARH111

FORH112

COCH111

ISL0211

NORTHERN
IRELAND

FORH111
NEAH111

KSSU111

TORH111

HUEH111-221
KIN0211

TRIA111-411

DOGK113

COLD211
BUNBEG

STSJ111

COOD211

LEAD111-411

CACD211

TIEVEBRACK
GOLA111-411

STRD211

ORIO211

HILL
CAVA111-211
HUNC111

CKMC111

MONB111-211
TASB111-211
WGRW211

COOMAGEARLAHY CLASHA
CROSS

LODC211

KIAC111

PEWL111
DRXK111

MEES111

YORK111

LANZ111

GROZ111

SHHK111

NSUS111
WLPM111

TRAL111
WF4O211

NORM111

NORM112

NOSM111

ZWOS111

BAIM111

SIZM111

CAML111

SU2O211

CULLENAGH
DUNGARVAN

DISS111

WALM111

WF5O211

PEMM111

BSUE111

NURN111

SELN111

LOVN111

EXTN111

GEES111

CANN111

KEMN111
BOLN111

ALVN111

CHIN111

WARF111

ABHN111

GIEZ111

MERE111

MANF111

HASO211

DODS111

MESE111

BOSN211

LAGN111

DIES111

THAN111

GRAN111

BR2O211

INDN111

BROZ111

MAVS111

LOAN111
COSN111

MASN111
OBEZ111

AVEF111

WIWO211

NETS111

SCIN211

COUE111 GRAE111

PENF111

LHVF111
CHEF111

CHEF111

ARGF111
TOUF111

LAMF111

GERZ111

KUSZ111

GRNZ111

GRGM111
GUFM111

SWAM111

PESM212

BR1O211

LIPZ111

HENS111

BRFM111

CASL211

AGHB111

BRINNY
BANDON
DUNMANWAY

CROB211

NEHZ111

NORM113

GLAO211

GREC111

WAHZ111

WEHZ111

DUDK111

DOCK111
BICM111

LEGL111

HNEZ111

TKNK111
RCBK111

DEEL111

TREL111

HAMZ111

HORK112

HUGK111

TKSK111

PENL111

ARKO211

DOON

CHARLEVILLE

GLENLARA
MALLOW
OUGHTRAGH
BVKB111 KNOB111
OUGB211
COOMACHEO

SU1O211
CODO211
WF3O211

TIPPERARY
CAHC111

KN1B111-411

CLAHANE
TRALEE

AF4W211

BALLYBEG

KELC111

THURLES

ARDNACRUSHA
KILB111-211
KILLONAN

PROSPECT

TARB111-211

CHARLESLAND

ARKC111

DRSK111

WYLL111

KISO211
DUNC111
TURLOUGH
HILL

LAOC111
IKERRIN
WEMB111
BALLYRAGGET
NENAGH

WEDZ111

MEPZ111

WERK111

HORK111

THTK111

SU6O211

WF2O211
MAYC111

OLDB111-411

ENNIS

DIEZ111
MESS111

THSK111

QUEL111
HAML211

WJ1O211 WJ2O211

BALC111

KINNEGAD

TYNAGH
MD1B111-211
AV2W211

HUTL111

WALO211

SU5O211

BA1C211

WOOC111

MULLINGAR
SHAA111-411

CASA111-411
GALWAY

AF2W211

HUSL212

WLAO211
WIAO211

GSUZ111

LACJ111

HUSL211

WNAO211
MANQ211

WF1O211

WDUO211

LANESBORO

CLOON

CAMUS

ARVA

GILRA

SU8O211

LOUA211
BALA211

SHANKILL
-ON-

FLAA111-411

BRBU111
WESZ111

HAWJ111

SOL0211

SU4O211

SRANANAGH
SRAA111-411
CUNGHILL

CASTLEBAR
DALTON

AV3W211

HARJ111
WIG0211

DOGK112
DOGK111

STEJ111

GRNH111

OMAD111-211 TURD111-211
TAND211

ENND111-411

BELA111-211-411
WHRW211

AF3W211

AUCH211-221

SU7O211

CATA111-411

SLIA111-411

AV1W211

KELD211
BAFD211

*
HAND211

WIRW211

AF1W211

MAGD211

KASU111

DSUU111

WKNW211

WJNW211

PETH111-211

BRDH111
BEAH111-211
FAGH111

LONF111

MOUF111

ROUF111
TERF111
MEZF111

DOMF111

PLHF111

VIGF111

VLVF111MORF111

FRAF111

LREF111

HOUF111
MSEF111

LQUF111

LOUF111

DAMF111
GATF111 LCHF111

VERF111

CORF111
DISF111

AVOF111

c) Year 2018
5 GW
Basecase
2020

DOUH211-221

MYBH211-221
MYSH211

MORH211-111

WS10211
WS40211

MOSH111-211
WS20211

WS30211

WS50211

FWIH111

HANU111

DASH211-221

ARG0211

FORH113

BELH111

INVH111

FARH111

FORH112

COCH111

ISL0211

NORTHERN
IRELAND

FORH111
NEAH111

HUEH111-221

DSUU111

KIN0211

TRIA111-411

DOGK113

COLD211
BUNBEG

STSJ111

COOD211

LEAD111-411

CACD211

TIEVEBRACK
GOLA111-411

STRD211

HUNC111

AF3W211

MONB111-211
TASB111-211

AV3W211

WGRW211

ARDNACRUSHA
KILB111-211
KILLONAN

PROSPECT

TARB111-211
CHARLEVILLE

GLENLARA
MALLOW
OUGHTRAGH
BVKB111 KNOB111
OUGB211
COOMACHEO
COOMAGEARLAHY CLASHA
CROSS

BALLYBEG

BRINNY
BANDON
DUNMANWAY

SU1O211

LODC211

KIAC111

DRXK111

LANZ111

GROZ111
NSUS111

WLPM111

TRAL111
WF4O211

NORM111

CULLENAGH
DUNGARVAN

PEMM111

BRFM111

DISS111

BROZ111

MAVS111

BSUE111

LOVN111

GEES111

CANN111

KEMN111
BOLN111
NURN111

EXTN111

SELN111

CHIN111

WARF111

ABHN111

GIEZ111

MERE111

MANF111

HASO211

DODS111

MESE111

BOSN211

LAGN111

DIES111

THAN111

GRAN111

BR2O211

MASN111
OBEZ111

AVEF111

WIWO211

NETS111

SCIN211

LHVF111

COUE111 GRAE111

PENF111

CHEF111

CHEF111

ARGF111
TOUF111

LAMF111

GERZ111

KUSZ111

GRNZ111

GRGM111

LOAN111
COSN111

ALVN111

INDN111

LIPZ111

GUFM111

SWAM111

PESM212

BR1O211

NEHZ111

HENS111

WALM111

WF5O211

ZWOS111
NORM113

SIZM111

CASL211

AGHB111

CROB211

NORM112

NOSM111

BAIM111

CAML111

SU2O211

WAHZ111

WEHZ111

DUDK111
SHHK111

GLAO211

GREC111

HNEZ111

TKNK111
RCBK111
DOCK111

BICM111

LEGL111

ARKO211

DOON

MEES111

YORK111

DEEL111

TREL111

WF3O211

HAMZ111

HORK112

HUGK111

TKSK111

PENL111

CODO211

KELC111

THURLES

TIPPERARY
CAHC111

KN1B111-411

CLAHANE
TRALEE

CHARLESLAND

ARKC111

DRSK111

WYLL111

KISO211

LAOC111
IKERRIN
WEMB111
BALLYRAGGET
NENAGH

WEDZ111

MEPZ111

WERK111

HORK111

THTK111

SU6O211

WF2O211
CKMC111

DUNC111
TURLOUGH
HILL

OLDB111-411

DIEZ111
MESS111

THSK111

QUEL111
HAML211

PEWL111

WJ1O211 WJ2O211

BALC111

MAYC111

TYNAGH

ENNIS

HUTL111

WALO211

SU5O211

BA1C211

WOOC111
KINNEGAD

SHAA111-411

CASA111-411
GALWAY

MD1B111-211

HUSL212

WLAO211
WIAO211

GSUZ111

LACJ111

HUSL211

WNAO211
MANQ211

WF1O211

WDUO211

MULLINGAR

CLOON

ORIO211

HILL
CAVA111-211

LANESBORO

AV2W211

AF4W211

ARVA

SU8O211

LOUA211
BALA211

SHANKILL
GILRA

BRBU111
WESZ111

HAWJ111

SOL0211

SU4O211

SRANANAGH
SRAA111-411

-ON-

FLAA111-411
DALTON

DOGK112
DOGK111

STEJ111

HARJ111
WIG0211

CUNGHILL

CASTLEBAR

CAMUS

GRNH111

OMAD111-211 TURD111-211
TAND211

ENND111-411

BELA111-211-411
WHRW211

AF2W211

AUCH211-221

SU7O211

CATA111-411

SLIA111-411

AV1W211

KELD211
BAFD211

*
HAND211

WIRW211

AF1W211

MAGD211

KASU111

KSSU111

TORH111

WKNW211

WJNW211

PETH111-211

BRDH111
BEAH111-211
FAGH111

LONF111

MOUF111

ROUF111
TERF111
MEZF111

DOMF111

PLHF111

LOUF111

VLVF111MORF111

VIGF111

LREF111
DAMF111
VERF111

CORF111
DISF111

GATF111

FRAF111

HOUF111
MSEF111

LQUF111
LCHF111

AVOF111

d) Year 2020
Figure 9.9. Intermediate Steps solution of MID5 Interconnection Scenario
101
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5 GW
Basecase
2023

DOUH211-221

MYBH211-221
MYSH211

MORH211-111

WS10211
WS40211

MOSH111-211
WS20211

FWIH111

HANU111

DASH211-221

ARG0211

FORH113

BELH111

INVH111

FARH111

FORH112

COCH111

ISL0211

NORTHERN
IRELAND

FORH111
NEAH111

KSSU111

TORH111

HUEH111-221
KIN0211

TRIA111-411

DOGK113

COLD211
BUNBEG

STSJ111

COOD211

LEAD111-411

CACD211

TIEVEBRACK
GOLA111-411

STRD211

CUNGHILL

ARVA

GILRA

FLAA111-411
DALTON

ORIO211

HILL
CAVA111-211

AF3W211

MONB111-211

AF4W211

COOMAGEARLAHY CLASHA
CROSS

LODC211

KIAC111

MEES111

YORK111

LANZ111

GROZ111

SHHK111

NSUS111
WLPM111

WF4O211

CULLENAGH
DUNGARVAN

DISS111

WALM111
PEMM111

BSUE111

NURN111

SELN111

LOVN111

EXTN111

GEES111

CANN111

KEMN111
BOLN111

ALVN111

CHIN111

WARF111

ABHN111

GIEZ111

MERE111

MANF111

HASO211

DODS111

MESE111

BOSN211

LAGN111

DIES111

THAN111

GRAN111

BR2O211

INDN111

BROZ111

MAVS111

LOAN111
COSN111

MASN111
OBEZ111

AVEF111

WIWO211

NETS111

SCIN211

COUE111 GRAE111

PENF111

LHVF111
CHEF111

CHEF111

ARGF111
TOUF111

LAMF111

GERZ111

KUSZ111

GRNZ111

GRGM111
GUFM111

SWAM111

PESM212

BR1O211

NEHZ111
LIPZ111

HENS111

BRFM111

CASL211

WF5O211

ZWOS111
NORM113

SIZM111

AGHB111

BRINNY
BANDON
DUNMANWAY

CROB211

NORM112

NOSM111

NORM111

BAIM111

CAML111

SU2O211

WAHZ111

WEHZ111

DUDK111

DOCK111

GLAO211

GREC111

HNEZ111

TKNK111
RCBK111

TKSK111

BICM111

TRAL111

ARKO211

DOON

CHARLEVILLE

GLENLARA
MALLOW
OUGHTRAGH
BVKB111 KNOB111
OUGB211
COOMACHEO

DRXK111

LEGL111

HAMZ111

HORK112

HUGK111

DEEL111

TREL111

WF3O211

TIPPERARY
CAHC111

KN1B111-411

CLAHANE
TRALEE

PEWL111

PENL111

CODO211

KELC111

THURLES

ARDNACRUSHA
KILB111-211
KILLONAN

TARB111-211

WGRW211

SU1O211

BALLYBEG

DRSK111

WYLL111

KISO211
CHARLESLAND

ARKC111

WEDZ111

MEPZ111

WERK111

HORK111

THTK111

SU6O211

CKMC111

DUNC111
TURLOUGH
HILL

LAOC111
IKERRIN
WEMB111
BALLYRAGGET
NENAGH

DIEZ111
MESS111

THSK111

QUEL111
HAML211

WJ2O211

WF2O211
MAYC111

OLDB111-411

PROSPECT

TASB111-211

AV3W211

WJ1O211

BALC111

KINNEGAD

TYNAGH

ENNIS

HUTL111

WALO211

SU5O211

GSUZ111

LACJ111

HUSL212

WLAO211
WIAO211

HUNC111 BA1C211
WOOC111

MULLINGAR
SHAA111-411

CASA111-411
GALWAY

MD1B111-211
AV2W211

WNAO211
MANQ211

WF1O211

WDUO211

LANESBORO

CLOON

CAMUS

AF2W211

SU8O211

LOUA211
BALA211

SHANKILL
-ONCASTLEBAR

HUSL211

SU4O211

SRANANAGH
SRAA111-411

BELA111-211-411
WHRW211

BRBU111
WESZ111

HAWJ111

SOL0211

WIG0211
OMAD111-211 TURD111-211
TAND211

ENND111-411

DOGK112
DOGK111

STEJ111

GRNH111
HARJ111

CATA111-411

SLIA111-411

AV1W211

AUCH211-221

SU7O211
HAND211

WIRW211

AF1W211

KELD211
BAFD211

MAGD211

KASU111

DSUU111

WKNW211

WJNW211

PETH111-211

BRDH111
BEAH111-211
FAGH111
WS30211

WS50211

LONF111

MOUF111

ROUF111
TERF111
MEZF111

DOMF111

VIGF111

VLVF111MORF111
LREF111

PLHF111
DAMF111

GATF111 LCHF111

VERF111

CORF111
DISF111

FRAF111

HOUF111
MSEF111

LQUF111

LOUF111

AVOF111

e) Year 2023
5 GW
Basecase
2025

DOUH211-221

MYBH211-221
MYSH211

MORH211-111

WS10211
WS40211

MOSH111-211
WS20211

WS30211

WS50211

FWIH111

HANU111

DASH211-221

ARG0211

FORH113

BELH111

INVH111

FARH111

FORH112

COCH111

ISL0211

NORTHERN
IRELAND

FORH111
NEAH111

KSSU111

TORH111

HUEH111-221
KIN0211

TRIA111-411

DOGK113

COLD211
BUNBEG

STSJ111

COOD211

LEAD111-411

CACD211

TIEVEBRACK
GOLA111-411

STRD211

MULLINGAR

MONB111-211
TASB111-211

AV3W211

WGRW211

AF4W211

ARDNACRUSHA
KILB111-211
KILLONAN

PROSPECT

TARB111-211
CHARLEVILLE

GLENLARA
MALLOW
OUGHTRAGH
BVKB111 KNOB111
OUGB211
COOMACHEO
COOMAGEARLAHY CLASHA
CROSS

BALLYBEG

BRINNY
BANDON
DUNMANWAY

SU1O211

LODC211

KIAC111

DRXK111

LANZ111

GROZ111
NSUS111

WLPM111

TRAL111
WF4O211

NORM111

CULLENAGH
DUNGARVAN

PEMM111

BRFM111

DISS111

BROZ111

MAVS111

BSUE111

LOVN111

GEES111

CANN111

KEMN111
BOLN111
NURN111

EXTN111

SELN111

CHIN111

WARF111

ABHN111

GIEZ111

MERE111

MANF111

HASO211

DODS111

MESE111

BOSN211

LAGN111

DIES111

THAN111

GRAN111

BR2O211

MASN111
OBEZ111

AVEF111

WIWO211

NETS111

SCIN211

LHVF111

PENF111

CHEF111

COUE111 GRAE111
CHEF111

ARGF111
TOUF111

LAMF111

GERZ111

KUSZ111

GRNZ111

GRGM111

LOAN111
COSN111

ALVN111

INDN111

LIPZ111

GUFM111

SWAM111

PESM212

BR1O211

NEHZ111

HENS111

WALM111

WF5O211

ZWOS111
NORM113

SIZM111

CASL211

AGHB111

CROB211

NORM112

NOSM111

BAIM111

CAML111

SU2O211

WAHZ111

WEHZ111

DUDK111
SHHK111

GLAO211

GREC111

HNEZ111

TKNK111
RCBK111
DOCK111

BICM111

LEGL111

ARKO211

DOON

MEES111

YORK111

DEEL111

TREL111

WF3O211

HAMZ111

HORK112

HUGK111

TKSK111

PENL111

CODO211

KELC111

THURLES

TIPPERARY
CAHC111

KN1B111-411

CLAHANE
TRALEE

CHARLESLAND

ARKC111

DRSK111

WYLL111

KISO211

LAOC111
IKERRIN
WEMB111
BALLYRAGGET
NENAGH

WEDZ111

MEPZ111

WERK111

HORK111

THTK111

SU6O211

WF2O211
CKMC111

DUNC111
TURLOUGH
HILL

OLDB111-411

DIEZ111
MESS111

THSK111

QUEL111
HAML211

PEWL111

WJ1O211 WJ2O211

BALC111

MAYC111

TYNAGH

ENNIS

HUTL111

WALO211

SU5O211

BA1C211

WOOC111
KINNEGAD

GALWAY

MD1B111-211
AV2W211

HUSL212

WLAO211
WIAO211

GSUZ111

LACJ111

HUSL211

WNAO211
MANQ211

WF1O211

WDUO211
HUNC111

SHAA111-411

CASA111-411

ORIO211

HILL
CAVA111-211

LANESBORO

CLOON

CAMUS

ARVA

GILRA

SU8O211

LOUA211
BALA211

SHANKILL
-ON-

FLAA111-411

BRBU111
WESZ111

HAWJ111

SOL0211

SU4O211

SRANANAGH
SRAA111-411
CUNGHILL

CASTLEBAR

DOGK112
DOGK111

STEJ111

HARJ111
WIG0211

DALTON

AF3W211

GRNH111

OMAD111-211 TURD111-211
TAND211

ENND111-411

BELA111-211-411
WHRW211

AF2W211

AUCH211-221

SU7O211

CATA111-411

SLIA111-411

AV1W211

KELD211
BAFD211

*
HAND211

WIRW211

AF1W211

MAGD211

KASU111

DSUU111

WKNW211

WJNW211

PETH111-211

BRDH111
BEAH111-211
FAGH111

LONF111

MOUF111

ROUF111
TERF111
MEZF111

DOMF111

VLVF111MORF111
LREF111

PLHF111

LOUF111

LQUF111
DAMF111
VERF111

CORF111
DISF111

VIGF111

FRAF111

HOUF111
MSEF111

GATF111 LCHF111

AVOF111

f) Year 2025
Figure 9.9. Intermediate Steps solution of MID5 Interconnection Scenario
102
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EirGrid Offshore Grid Study

5 GW
Basecase
2028

DOUH211-221

MYBH211-221
MYSH211

MORH211-111

WS10211
WS40211

MOSH111-211
WS20211

WS30211

WS50211

FWIH111

HANU111

DASH211-221

ARG0211

FORH113

BELH111

INVH111

FARH111

FORH112

COCH111

ISL0211

NORTHERN
IRELAND

FORH111
NEAH111

KSSU111

TORH111

HUEH111-221
KIN0211

TRIA111-411

DOGK113

COLD211
BUNBEG

STSJ111

COOD211

LEAD111-411

CACD211

TIEVEBRACK
GOLA111-411

STRD211

ORIO211

HILL
CAVA111-211
HUNC111

CKMC111

MONB111-211
TASB111-211
WGRW211

COOMAGEARLAHY CLASHA
CROSS

LODC211

KIAC111

PEWL111
DRXK111

MEES111

YORK111

LANZ111

GROZ111

SHHK111

NSUS111
WLPM111

TRAL111
WF4O211

NORM111

NORM112

NOSM111

ZWOS111

BAIM111

SIZM111

CAML111

SU2O211

CULLENAGH
DUNGARVAN

DISS111

WALM111

WF5O211

PEMM111

BSUE111

NURN111

SELN111

LOVN111

EXTN111

GEES111

CANN111

KEMN111
BOLN111

ALVN111

CHIN111

WARF111

ABHN111

GIEZ111

MERE111

MANF111

HASO211

DODS111

MESE111

BOSN211

LAGN111

DIES111

THAN111

GRAN111

BR2O211

INDN111

BROZ111

MAVS111

LOAN111
COSN111

MASN111
OBEZ111

AVEF111

WIWO211

NETS111

SCIN211

COUE111 GRAE111

PENF111

LHVF111
CHEF111

CHEF111

ARGF111
TOUF111

LAMF111

GERZ111

KUSZ111

GRNZ111

GRGM111
GUFM111

SWAM111

PESM212

BR1O211

LIPZ111

HENS111

BRFM111

CASL211

AGHB111

BRINNY
BANDON
DUNMANWAY

CROB211

NEHZ111

NORM113

GLAO211

GREC111

WAHZ111

WEHZ111

DUDK111

DOCK111
BICM111

LEGL111

HNEZ111

TKNK111
RCBK111

DEEL111

TREL111

HAMZ111

HORK112

HUGK111

TKSK111

PENL111

ARKO211

DOON

CHARLEVILLE

GLENLARA
MALLOW
OUGHTRAGH
BVKB111 KNOB111
OUGB211
COOMACHEO

SU1O211
CODO211
WF3O211

TIPPERARY
CAHC111

KN1B111-411

CLAHANE
TRALEE

AF4W211

BALLYBEG

KELC111

THURLES

ARDNACRUSHA
KILB111-211
KILLONAN

PROSPECT

TARB111-211

CHARLESLAND

ARKC111

DRSK111

WYLL111

KISO211
DUNC111
TURLOUGH
HILL

LAOC111
IKERRIN
WEMB111
BALLYRAGGET
NENAGH

WEDZ111

MEPZ111

WERK111

HORK111

THTK111

SU6O211

WF2O211
MAYC111

OLDB111-411

ENNIS

DIEZ111
MESS111

THSK111

QUEL111
HAML211

WJ1O211 WJ2O211

BALC111

KINNEGAD

TYNAGH
MD1B111-211
AV2W211

HUTL111

WALO211

SU5O211

BA1C211

WOOC111

MULLINGAR
SHAA111-411

CASA111-411
GALWAY

AF2W211

HUSL212

WLAO211
WIAO211

GSUZ111

LACJ111

HUSL211

WNAO211
MANQ211

WF1O211

WDUO211

LANESBORO

CLOON

CAMUS

ARVA

GILRA

SU8O211

LOUA211
BALA211

SHANKILL
-ON-

FLAA111-411

BRBU111
WESZ111

HAWJ111

SOL0211

SU4O211

SRANANAGH
SRAA111-411
CUNGHILL

CASTLEBAR
DALTON

AV3W211

HARJ111
WIG0211

DOGK112
DOGK111

STEJ111

GRNH111

OMAD111-211 TURD111-211
TAND211

ENND111-411

BELA111-211-411
WHRW211

AF3W211

AUCH211-221

SU7O211

CATA111-411

SLIA111-411

AV1W211

KELD211
BAFD211

*
HAND211

WIRW211

AF1W211

MAGD211

KASU111

DSUU111

WKNW211

WJNW211

PETH111-211

BRDH111
BEAH111-211
FAGH111

LONF111

MOUF111

ROUF111
TERF111
MEZF111

DOMF111

PLHF111

VIGF111

VLVF111MORF111

FRAF111

LREF111

HOUF111
MSEF111

LQUF111

LOUF111

DAMF111
GATF111 LCHF111

VERF111

CORF111
DISF111

AVOF111

g) Year 2028
5 GW
Basecase
2030

DOUH211-221

MYBH211-221
MYSH211

MORH211-111

WS10211
WS40211

MOSH111-211
WS20211

WS30211

WS50211

FWIH111

HANU111

DASH211-221

ARG0211

FORH113

BELH111

INVH111

FARH111

FORH112

COCH111

ISL0211

NORTHERN
IRELAND

FORH111
NEAH111

HUEH111-221

DSUU111

KIN0211

TRIA111-411

DOGK113

COLD211
BUNBEG

STSJ111

COOD211

LEAD111-411

CACD211

TIEVEBRACK
GOLA111-411

STRD211

HUNC111

AF3W211

MONB111-211
TASB111-211

AV3W211

WGRW211

ARDNACRUSHA
KILB111-211
KILLONAN

PROSPECT

TARB111-211
CHARLEVILLE

GLENLARA
MALLOW
OUGHTRAGH
BVKB111 KNOB111
OUGB211
COOMACHEO
COOMAGEARLAHY CLASHA
CROSS

BALLYBEG

BRINNY
BANDON
DUNMANWAY

SU1O211

LODC211

KIAC111

DRXK111

LANZ111

GROZ111
NSUS111

WLPM111

TRAL111
WF4O211

NORM111

CULLENAGH
DUNGARVAN

PEMM111

BRFM111

DISS111

BROZ111

MAVS111

BSUE111

LOVN111

GEES111

CANN111

KEMN111
BOLN111
NURN111

EXTN111

SELN111

CHIN111

WARF111

ABHN111

GIEZ111

MERE111

MANF111

HASO211

DODS111

MESE111

BOSN211

LAGN111

DIES111

THAN111

GRAN111

BR2O211

MASN111
OBEZ111

AVEF111

WIWO211

NETS111

SCIN211

LHVF111

COUE111 GRAE111

PENF111

CHEF111

CHEF111

ARGF111
TOUF111

LAMF111

GERZ111

KUSZ111

GRNZ111

GRGM111

LOAN111
COSN111

ALVN111

INDN111

LIPZ111

GUFM111

SWAM111

PESM212

BR1O211

NEHZ111

HENS111

WALM111

WF5O211

ZWOS111
NORM113

SIZM111

CASL211

AGHB111

CROB211

NORM112

NOSM111

BAIM111

CAML111

SU2O211

WAHZ111

WEHZ111

DUDK111
SHHK111

GLAO211

GREC111

HNEZ111

TKNK111
RCBK111
DOCK111

BICM111

LEGL111

ARKO211

DOON

MEES111

YORK111

DEEL111

TREL111

WF3O211

HAMZ111

HORK112

HUGK111

TKSK111

PENL111

CODO211

KELC111

THURLES

TIPPERARY
CAHC111

KN1B111-411

CLAHANE
TRALEE

CHARLESLAND

ARKC111

DRSK111

WYLL111

KISO211

LAOC111
IKERRIN
WEMB111
BALLYRAGGET
NENAGH

WEDZ111

MEPZ111

WERK111

HORK111

THTK111

SU6O211

WF2O211
CKMC111

DUNC111
TURLOUGH
HILL

OLDB111-411

DIEZ111
MESS111

THSK111

QUEL111
HAML211

PEWL111

WJ1O211 WJ2O211

BALC111

MAYC111

TYNAGH

ENNIS

HUTL111

WALO211

SU5O211

BA1C211

WOOC111
KINNEGAD

SHAA111-411

CASA111-411
GALWAY

MD1B111-211

HUSL212

WLAO211
WIAO211

GSUZ111

LACJ111

HUSL211

WNAO211
MANQ211

WF1O211

WDUO211

MULLINGAR

CLOON

ORIO211

HILL
CAVA111-211

LANESBORO

AV2W211

AF4W211

ARVA

SU8O211

LOUA211
BALA211

SHANKILL
GILRA

BRBU111
WESZ111

HAWJ111

SOL0211

SU4O211

SRANANAGH
SRAA111-411

-ON-

FLAA111-411
DALTON

DOGK112
DOGK111

STEJ111

HARJ111
WIG0211

CUNGHILL

CASTLEBAR

CAMUS

GRNH111

OMAD111-211 TURD111-211
TAND211

ENND111-411

BELA111-211-411
WHRW211

AF2W211

AUCH211-221

SU7O211

CATA111-411

SLIA111-411

AV1W211

KELD211
BAFD211

*
HAND211

WIRW211

AF1W211

MAGD211

KASU111

KSSU111

TORH111

WKNW211

WJNW211

PETH111-211

BRDH111
BEAH111-211
FAGH111

LONF111

MOUF111

ROUF111
TERF111
MEZF111

DOMF111

PLHF111

LOUF111

VLVF111MORF111

VIGF111

LREF111
DAMF111
VERF111

CORF111
DISF111

GATF111

FRAF111

HOUF111
MSEF111

LQUF111
LCHF111

AVOF111

h) Year 2030
Figure 9.9. Intermediate Steps solution of MID5 Interconnection Scenario
103
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The results show a significantly different level of development in comparison to the MID5 Irish
only results with significant interconnection being developed even in the earlier years.
It can be seen that many of these interconnectors are developed from offshore stations, reducing
the length and consequently the cost of their development.
In many cases the same circuits selected in the Irish only network in 2020 (see chapter 8.1) to
reinforce both offshore and also on shore are identical.
However, in many of these routes the number of circuits has been increased to allow for the higher
levels of power transfer that exist with following the interconnection with other networks.
Over the study periods similarities are evident with the Irish only study which makes the networks
comparable.

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The shallow connection of three of the five windfarms is unchanged to the Irish only results
(Codling, Arklow and Glasmore). Kish banks, change in connection is very marginal, both in
distance and cost and is therefore comparable.
Only Oriel has a more pronounced change in connection point, how the appears to be unique to
this study as other AC studies (Chapter 9.2.1.2) and Mixed AC/DC studies (Chapter 9.4) retain
the same connection point found throughout Chapter 8.1.
The selected interconnections do however provide some changes in the needs of the network. The
offshore reinforcement from the north to south of Dublin, is now not selected but comparable
network loops are naturally made via Britain albeit with a longer path for power transfer. As
with the shallow connections this appears to be scenario dependant with the higher generation
scenario in Chapter 9.2.1.2 selecting an east Dublin offshore reinforcement.
Many of the onshore network reinforcements are also consistent
Differences in the network topography that exist in comparison to the Irish only context are
mainly driven therefore by interconnection which enlarge the system horizon, and unlike the
Irish only context all offshore generation points have been used to develop further offshore
infrastructure. As a consequence offshore transmission stations should be designed suitable for
expansion.
Another finding of the MID 5 interconnection study is the significant development of
interconnectors both to Britain and France from the All Island network dispersed over the
entire length of the east and south coast of Ireland. This implies not only desirable conditions
for power exchange between more than one country but also that power transfer through each
others networks minimises network reinforcement requirements. Therefore strengthening of the
Irish and British networks, for example, can be avoided by rerouting power through the other.
It is noteworthy that Interconnection with France is active after 2025. This is due to the
combined effect of the full utilisation of transmission capacity on the British side, and the
increasing offshore wind in Ireland and Britain.
Finally, a new North-South backbone has been also developed on the west side of Ireland
from 2020. This allows the transfer of large amount of wind in Northern Ireland and of the
Scottish Crown 3 Wind Farms to the South. The short distances to the shore are considered
as an attractive alternative for energy transfer as onshore development throughout Ireland is
considered possible.

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9.3.2 Sensitivity Results: Wind Curtailment Penalty Factor


A parameter required for the Expansion Strategy Plan (ESP) analysis is the penalty factor related
to the Wind Energy Not Delivered (WEND). This reflects the market price, and notably the price
paid for the wind under REFIT regardless of network constraints.
Refit tariff is set up in Ireland and Britain to:



60 Euro/MWh onshore
140 Euro/MWh offshore
220 Euro/MWh for waves
150 Euro/MWh for GB Offshore

In the sensitivity analysis the following penalty factors were considered:




10000 Euro/MWh everywhere


140, 60, 150 Euro/MWh respectively for ROI Offshore, ROI onshore and Britain Offshore,
(220 Euro/MWh if wave exists) referred to as REAL subsequently in the report.
0 Euro/MWh everywhere

The effect of raising the penalty factor is to encourage expansion in order to avoid curtailments
for any transfer of power, and the reverse if the penalty is lowered. For instance, with 10000
Euro/MWh, virtually any reinforcement will be preferable to curtailment and with 0 Euro/MWh
the reverse. Therefore using both 10000 and 0 Euro/MWh should provide the full variation in
network build in the ESPs.
Furthermore, the ROI offshore generation strategy is compared to using conventional Gas Turbine
Units (BasU) to meet the increasing need for generation out to 2030.

9.3.2.1 Grid Expansion


Figure 9.10 shows the overall results in terms of km of new circuits and yearly investments, for
different wind penalty factors and BasU
Km Installed
1 6 ,0 0 0 .0 0

1 4 ,0 0 0 .0 0

1 2 ,0 0 0 .0 0

K
i

1 0 ,0 0 0 .0 0

K m a d d ed (1 0 k

K m a d d ed (0

o
m
e

p e n a lt y )

p e n a lt y )

K m a c c u m u la t e d ( 1 0 k

8 ,0 0 0 .0 0

K m a c c u m u la t e d ( 0

p e n a lt y )

p e n a lt y )

t
K m a d d e d ( R e a l p e n a lt y )

e
r

K m a c c u m u la t e d ( R e a l p e n a lt y )

6 ,0 0 0 .0 0

K m a d d e d ( B u sin e ss a s u su a l)
K m a c c u m u la t e d ( B u sin e s s a s u s u a l)
4 ,0 0 0 .0 0

2 ,0 0 0 .0 0

0 .0 0

2012

2014

2016

2018

2020

2022

2024

2026

2028

2030

2032

Year

Figure 9.10. Km of Circuits

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Up to 2023, results are not much different. In terms of kilometres of new network build the
0 Euro/MWh penalty factor is only some 15-20% less developed than 10000 Euro/MWh case.
This is interesting as it is when most of the proposed onshore generation is deployed, with
small infrastructure costs mainly onshore. However the onshore network increasingly needs
interconnections with Britain to fully delivered available renewable power. These needs interact
with the Generation Mix of Britain and Ireland. Results suggest that there are potential synergies
between the two systems anyway which may be exploited by further interconnection.
This is evident from the 2013 results, where for any penalty factor it is worth to introduce at
list 3000 km of new circuits.
The effect of the penalty factor is only to delay reinforcements between 2013 and 2023.
It is noteworthy that at this stage interconnecting Britain is relatively cheap for short
distances. Furthermore, the need for interconnection is coupled with the connection of offshore
windfarms.
It is possible to recognise a threefold synergy in this process:
Increase market competitiveness (exploitation of generation mix);
Avoid wind curtailment penalty factor ;
Reduce production costs.
From 2023 onwards the penalty factor has a bigger impact. In particular from this year the
offshore has been assumed to rapidly increase due to a full deployment of the supply chain.
Furthermore, Britains wind strategy has a major impact on the overall generation mix leaving
Irelands wind market resources with more competition.
Therefore, part of the energy produced by Irish renewables need a different path to be delivered,
that is to Europe through France. This requires large investments in extremely long HVDC links,
i.e. 300-400 km.
At this stage less synergies are present and the benefit of enhancing interconnections only
depends on the penalty factor related to the curtailment of wind and the improvement on the
production costs overall.
With a 0 Euro/MWh penalty factor, expansion to Britain effectively ceases with only a few
hundred kilometres built mainly on the British side.
At this stage for Ireland, no further interconnection with France is justified and the new offshore
wind basically uses the existing offshore infrastructure built up to 2023, supplanting onshore
wind which is curtailed instead.
It is noteworthy that wind curtailment occurs in the Western part of the country.

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The 0 Euro/MWh penalty factor is an extreme theoretical case which does not correspond to
market agreements. Wind is entitled to get at least the market price in the future that is the 60
Euro/MWh. For the time being, the REFIT of offshore, onshore is the reference. This is reflected
in the REAL case.
The REAL expansion remains very close to the 10000 Euro/MWh case. Interestingly, in the
preliminary phase up to 2023, an even larger expansion occurs in 2020. This is the computational
effect of the discretisation process in deciding reinforcements.
In particular, the REAL case expansion is different from 10000 Euro/MWh and for the 2020
intermediate steps the two cases have an initial different working point. The larger expansion
in the REAL case of 2020 is an attempt to rebalance the system assets of 2018. Longer term
(2030) as would be expected the REAL justifiable network expansion is only 85% of the 10000
Euro/MWh case.
The main effect of the penalty factor is a delay to network development. In fact, a similar circuit
expansion of the REAL case compared with 10000 Euro/MWh case is obtained but postponed
from 2028 to 2030.
It is not surprising that the most beneficial candidate reinforcements are consistently used
regardless of the scenario being examined. In the main for each scenario a core reinforcement
strategy is supplemented by an accumulation of beneficial offshore projects when the energy
not delivered and the improvement on the production costs exceed a certain threshold. The
scale of the scenario determines how many of these additional beneficial offshore projects are
justifiable.
Therefore in many scenarios a candidate reinforcement present in other scenarios would be
ultimately justifiable as time progresses.
The step change due to large cost and capacity of some candidate reinforcements, i.e.
interconnection with France as well as an Irish 400 kV backbone are driven only for the delivery
of renewables. Their scale limits the number required, and also provides a capacity surplus for
the long term, reducing major changes in network topography as generation increases.

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9.3.2.2 Wind Curtailments


Results are shown separately for Britain and All Island including NW Scotland Offshore (NWSCO).
The division of both Britain and Ireland into areas used in the graphs in this chapter is shown
in figure 9.11.

D
J

O
C

L
B
M

P
N

a) Great Britain

b) All Island and NW of Scotland

Figure 9.11. Areas used in wind curtailment analysis

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The analysis has showed no curtailment of wind with a 10000 Euro/MWh penalty.
In Figure 9.12a, b, c, and d Curtailments are shown for Britain in terms of yearly TWh not
delivered for 0 Euro/MWh and REAL scenarios respectively.
W in d C u r t a ilm e n t (Z e r o P e n a lt y C a s e )

W in d C u r t a ilm e n t (Z e r o P e n a lt y C a s e )

1 2 .0 0

1 .8 0

1 .6 0
1 0 .0 0
1 .4 0

8 .0 0

1 .2 0

1 .0 0

H (O ff sh o r e )
6 .0 0

O (IE )

K (O f fsh o re )

0
0 .8 0

M ( O ffs h o re )

N (O ff sh o r e )

O (G B )

4 .0 0

0 .6 0

0 .4 0
2 .0 0
0 .2 0

0 .0 0

0 .0 0
2013

20 15

2018

2020

20 23

2025

2028

2030

2013

2015

2018

2 020

Year

20 23

2025

2028

2030

Year

a) United Kingdom

b) Ireland and NW of Scotland

W in d C u r ta ilm e n t (R e a l P e n a lty C a s e )
W in d C u r t a ilm e n t (R e a l P e n a lt y C a s e )

1.8 0
1 .8 0

1.6 0
1 .6 0

1.4 0
1 .4 0

1.2 0
1 .2 0

1.0 0

H ( O ff sh o re )

1 .0 0

O (IE )

K (O ffsh o re )
0

0.8 0

M (O ffs ho r e)

0 .8 0

N ( O ff sh o re )

O (G B)

0.6 0

0 .6 0

0.4 0

0 .4 0

0.2 0

0 .2 0

0.0 0

0 .0 0

2013

2015

2018

2020

2023

2025

2 0 28

2 03 0

2013

2015

2018

2 020

20 23

2025

2028

2030

Year

Year

c) Britain

d) Ireland and NW of Scotland


Figure 9.12. Wind Curtailed (TWh)

For Britain, in the 0 Euro/MWh case, the major curtailment occurs in area K, which consist of
large amount of wind further Off the East Coast of England (i.e. Dogger Bank). This means that
the connection of generation and hence the network required:
is expensive;
cannot provide enough synergies with interconnectors;
does not sufficiently reduce energy costs to be justifiable;
However, this is an extreme case which does not constitute the present regulatory
arrangement.

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Moving to the REAL scenario, where a penalty is introduced if the wind is curtailed, the amount
of curtailment is reduced 7 fold.
For All Island and NWSCO generation in the 0 Euro/MWh case the behaviour is more complex.
In the early stages before 2020, the major curtailments occur in the Irish Sea and NWSCO.
However from 2020 onwards, a gradual increase of curtailment onshore in Ireland is seen, in
particular in the North (Area A and D). Minor curtailment is recorded by 2030 in NWSCO and the
Irish Sea.
Earlier, curtailments are due to the minor amount of offshore generation available, so that the
decision is to avoid network expansion until a major increase in generation drives network
expansion.
It should be noted that, compared to the Irish Sea Wind, NWSCO curtailments are prolonged
before 2020, because of their location which does not provide interconnection synergies.
From 2020, onshore generation is curtailed to accommodate the new offshore installations in
particular the NWSCO generation. This generation flows easily to Northern Ireland and Ireland
congesting the capacity of the network to the West of the country.
When moving to the REAL case, in particular for the North West of Ireland, the final results are
approximately the same with only some improvement in congestion in the intermediate step
years.
As previously discussed after 2020, the wind in Ireland is sufficient to require significant
additional export capability driving interconnections to France, as interconnection capacity to
Britain is saturated.
This extra renewables would require large investments onshore as well as offshore so that it is
preferable to curtail instead, starting from the most remote areas, which is NW ROI.
In the REAL Scenario, also the NI renewables suffers large curtailments. Despite the more
favourable position of this generation to make use of the network to the east, the renewables
are replaced by the NWSCO generation because of its higher penalty factor.

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In Figure 9.13, the same results discussed above are shown as a % of the Yearly Energy
available.

W in d C u r t a ilm e n t a s a P e r c e n t a ge o f t h e W in d E n e r gy A v a ila b le f o r e a c h a r e a
(R e a l P e n a lt y C a s e )
25

20

r
c

15

O (IE )

a
g

O (G B )

10

H (O f f sh o r e )
K (O f f sh o r e )

M (O f f sh o r e )
N (O f f sh o r e )

T O TA L

0
2013

2015

2018

2 020

202 3

2025

2028

2030

Ye ar

W in d C u r ta ilm e n t a s a P e r c e n t a g e o f t h e W in d E n e r g y A v a ila b le fo r e a c h a r e a
(Z e r o P e n a lt y C a s e )
1 00

90

80

P
e

70

r
c

60

n
t

50

O (IE )

a
g

O (G B )

40

H (O f fsh o r e )
K (O ff sh o r e )

30

M (O f fsh o r e )
N (O f fsh o r e )

20

TOTAL

10

0
20 13

20 15

2 0 18

2 0 20

2 0 23

2 0 25

20 28

20 30

Y ea r

Figure 9.13. Yearly Energy Wind Curtailment

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The 0 Euro/MWh penalty case shows the highest cost is the NWSCO generation
in the early years, with 57% in North East of Scotland (Area H) and the next highest at 47%
off the East Cost (Area K).
By the horizon year some of the renewable generation is accommodated with curtailment
decreasing within 30% (i.e. NESCO (H), NWSCO (0), NW ROI (A), and North Sea (K)). Overall the
Wind Energy curtailment is around 11%.
It is noteworthy that in the extreme case, the Irish Sea Offshore, both in Ireland and Britain
only suffers minor curtailments in 2030.
In the REAL scenario, curtailments are reduced. In the final stages only the curtailments in NW
and North of Ireland onshore exceed 20%.
Overall, the Wind Energy curtailment in the system is about 3%

9.3.2.3 Production and Market Costs


Both production and market costs have been analysed below to provide both prospective of
the energy costs and markets cost to ensure continuing proportionality for the changing time
periods and scenarios.
In order to account also for the Market Economic impact, costs are also estimated using the
Market Clearing Price in each scenario assuming an overall Regional Market arrangement without
cross-border surcharges.
REFIT and penalties, if any, are not taken into account in the cost estimation.
43000
41000
39000
37000
35000
33000
31000
29000
27000
25000
2010

2015

2020

0 Euro Production Costs MEuro/Year


Conventional Production Costs MEuro/Year
Real Penalty Production Costs MEuro/Year
10000 Euro Production Costs MEuro/Year

2025

2030

2035

0 Euro Market Costs MEuro/Year


Conventional Market Costs MEuro/Year
Real Penalty Market Costs MEuro/Year
10000 Euro Market Costs MEuro/Year

a) Whole system

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4 50 0 0

4 00 0 0

3 50 0 0

3 00 0 0

2 50 0 0
20 1 2

2014

2016

2018

2020

2 02 2

2 02 4

2026

2028

0 E u r o P ro d u c t io n C o s t s M E u ro / Y e a r

0 E u ro M a rk e t C o st s M E u r o /Y e a r

C o n v e n t io n a l P r o d u c t io n C o s t s M E u r o /Y e a r

C o n v e n t io n a l M a r k e t C o s t s M E u ro / Y e a r

R e a l P e n a lt y P r o d u c t io n C o st s M E u r o /Y e a r

R e a l P e n a lt y M a r k e t C o st s M E u r o /Y e a r

1 0 0 0 0 E u ro P r o d u c t io n C o st s M E u r o /Y e a r

1 0 0 0 0 E u r o M a r k e t C o s t s M E u ro / Y e a r

2030

2032

b) Britain
3500

3000

2500

2000

1500
2010

2015

2020

2025

0 Euro Production Costs MEuro/Year


Conventional Production Costs MEuro/Year
Real Penalty Production Costs MEuro/Year
10000 Euro Production Costs MEuro/Year

2030

2035

0 Euro Market Costs MEuro/Year


Conventional Market Costs MEuro/Year
Real Penalty Market Costs MEuro/Year
10000 Euro Market Costs MEuro/Year

c) All Ireland
Figure 9.14. Yearly Production and Market Costs

Production and Market Costs behaves similarly with a 20-30% difference.


The impact of the additional offshore renewable energy up to 2030 on the whole European
system gradually decreases energy cost by 5 to 7% despite increasing load demand, which is
2000-4000 MEuro/year.

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In Figure 9.15, the Costs are shown as percentage of the initial Costs.
W h o le S y s t e m
1 .0 4

1 .0 2

0 .9 8

0 .9 6

0 .9 4

0 .9 2

0 .9
2 01 2

2014

2 01 6

2018

2 02 0

2022

2 0 24

20 2 6

2 0 28

20 3 0

0 E u r o P r o d u c t io n C o s t s M E u ro / Y e a r

0 E u r o M a r k e t C o st s M E u ro /Y e a r

C o n v e n t io n a l P r o d u c t io n C o st s M E u ro / Y e a r

C o n v e n t io n a l M a rk e t C o s t s M E u r o / Y e a r

R e a l P e n a lt y P ro d u c t io n C o s t s M E u r o / Y e a r

R e a l P e n a lt y M a r k e t C o st s M E u ro /Y e a r

1 0 0 0 0 E u r o P r o d u c t io n C o s t s M E u r o / Y e a r

1 0 0 0 0 E u ro M a r k e t C o st s M E u ro /Y e a r

2032

a) Whole System
A ll Is la n d
1 .3

1 .2 5

1 .2

1 .1 5

1 .1

1 .0 5

0 .9 5

0 .9

0 .8 5

0 .8
2012

2014

2016

2018

2020

2022

2024

2026

2028

203 0

203 2

A x is T itle

0 E u ro P ro d u c tio n C o st s M E u r o /Y e a r

0 E u ro M a rk e t C o s ts M E u ro /Y e a r

C o n v e n t io n a l P r o d u c t io n C o s ts M E u ro / Y e a r

C o n v e n t io n a l M a rk e t C o sts M E u ro / Y e a r

R e a l P e n a lty P ro d u c t io n C o sts M E u ro / Y e a r

R e a l P e n a lty M a r k e t C o s ts M E u ro /Y e a r

1 0 0 0 0 E u ro P r o d u c t io n C o s t s M E u ro / Y e a r

1 0 0 0 0 E u r o M a rk e t C o sts M E u ro / Y e a r

b) All Ireland
1 .0 2

0 .9 8

0 .9 6

0 .9 4

0 .9 2

0 .9

0 .8 8
2012

2014

20 1 6

20 1 8

2020

2022

2 0 24

2 02 6

2028

2030

0 E u ro P ro d u c t ion C o st s M E u ro /Y e a r

0 Eu r o M a rk e t Co s t s M E u r o/ Y ea r

C o n v en t io n a l P ro d u c t io n C o st s M E u ro /Y e a r

C o n v e n t io n a l M a rk e t C o st s M E u ro /Y e a r

R e a l P e n a lt y P r od u c t io n C o st s M E u ro /Y e a r

R e a l P e n a lt y M a rk e t C o st s M E u ro / Ye a r

1 0 0 00 E u ro Pr o du c t io n C o st s M E u ro / Ye a r

1 0 0 0 0 E u ro M a rk e t C o st s M E u ro /Y e a r

2032

c) Britain and Europe

Figure 9.15. Yearly Production and Market Costs in %

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However differences can be appreciated in the break-down.


For Britain and Europe combined the costs decrease up to 11% by 2030.
For Ireland an overall increase in production costs is shown for any scenario. This is the effect of
the interconnection between Ireland with Britain and the rest of Europe. However, the amount
and the dynamics depend very much on the scenario.
The conventional scenario, with no offshore generation developed, sees a constant increase
in energy costs in Ireland ultimately increasing costs by 25% over the period up to 2030, in
particular, in 2013-2015; this is due to the available cheap imports from Britain not being able
to be supplied in later years as the offshore network has not been put in place. After 2020
the missing offshore network will cause the conventional generation to operate with a partial
further 10% increase from 2020 to 2025.
However the initial energy costs of 1.0 PU for both strategies are not identical and therefore
even a 25% rise in the conventional costs is still below the renewable energy strategy costs by
2030.
The 10000 Euro/MWh scenario shows the minimum increase in production costs at 10% in
2030. In this case the constant development of the interconnections, simultaneously with wind
development allows shared benefits to the neighbouring countries over the whole planning
period.
The 0 Euro/MWh scenario in the early stages suffers from a lack of network development with
an increase to costs, however the lack of interconnection in this scenario artificially distorts
the wider European market in the long term as Ireland cannot export to neighbouring countries.
From 2023 a gradual cost decrease is observed in Ireland and the scenario offers the lowest
production costs in 2030 with a 9% increase. Inversely however, the costs to Europe as a whole
are broadly comparable to the conventional scenario, economically showing no benefit from
much higher renewable fuel resources.
The REAL scenario behaves like the 0 Euro/MWh in the early stages of development. However,
from 2020 it evolves like 10000 Euro/MWh with a higher cost because of some wind curtailed.

9.3.2.4 Utilisation of the System


An important parameter of the study is the annual average system network assets loading.
Firstly, this can immediately provide a measure or quality of the suitability and efficiency of
the study methodology. A cost effective network development approach should provide a high
utilisation factor of the infrastructure.

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Secondly, the parameter allows comparison between different technology applications. As


discussed above, a smart device should in principle allow network asset to be adapted for many
scenarios without the need for wide spread reinforcements.
Finally, it provides an understanding of the interaction between networks and the synergies
between onshore, offshore and interconnectors.
The average yearly loading of the system is shown in Figure 9.16 for Rest of Europe, Ireland
Offshore, Ireland Onshore, and Ireland Interconnectors.
0.45
0.4
0.35
0.3
0.25
0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
2010

2015

0/M W hr Penalty

2020

2025

Real Penalty

2030

2035

10k/M W Hr Penalty

a) Rest of Europe
0.45
0.4
0.35
0.3
0.25
0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
2010

2015

2020

0/MWhr Penalty

2025

Real Penalty

2030

2035

10k/MWHr Penalty

b) Ireland Offshore

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0.3
0.25
0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
2010

2015

2020

0/M W hr Pe nalty

2025

Real Pe nalty

2030

2035

10k/M W Hr Pe nalty

c) Ireland Onshore
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
2010

2015

2020

0/M W hr Pe nalty

Real Pe nalty

2025

2030

2035

10k/M W Hr Pe nalty

d) Ireland Interconnectors

Figure 9.16. Annual average network loading (%)

For the Rest of Europe, Figure 9.16.a, results show an average loading between 25 and 40%. An
increase is observed over the planning period.
This is due to the gradual deployment of the wind strategy coupled with the computational
discretisation effect of introducing transmission infrastructure (on-off). In the early stages this
causes some infrastructure to be put in place for small amounts of wind, in particular for high
penalty Wind Curtailment coefficients.
By 2030 the grid offshore gets a meshed shape, with a better utilisation of the capacity for
multiple purposes.
However, the Irish context is more complex.

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9.3.2.4.1 Irish only Onshore Grid


The onshore grid loading, see Figure 9.16.c, show a stable increase in the 10000 Euro/MWh
scenario. This is probably due to the full deployment and utilisation of the wind energy and
export trends by 2030. Overall, the full onshore network is enhanced to accommodate this
generation including the resulting high power flows from NW Ireland and NWSCO.
In the other scenarios, NW Ireland and NWSCO are not fully utilised and therefore the
network loading is less. In particular for 0 Euro/MWh scenario, the impact of not enhancing
interconnection and hence export of energy resulting in the loading of the onshore network
levelling out with even a decrease by 2030 as offshore Irish Sea generation is more commonly
chosen to produce power.

9.3.2.4.2 Irish Only Offshore Grid


The offshore Irish Sea network, see Figure 9.16.c (interconnectors excluded), is strongly scenario
dependent. In early stages of development, few links are in place both in 0 and 10000 Euro/
MWh the difference in loading is due to the network structure with a mostly radial and meshed
network respectively.
As the structure evolves, i.e. by Year 2023, network loading converges to similar values. Towards
2030, the reverse is true, with much more loading for the 0 Euro/MWh, compared to 10000 Euro/
MWh scenario, which develops further interconnections with Europe (France).
The REAL case is a perfect compromise of the two strategies.

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9.3.2.4.3 Irish Only Interconnectors


The loading of the Interconnectors, see Figure 9.16.d, show differences present from an early
stage for 0 Euro/MWh scenario which is affected by the scarce number of interconnectors, i.e. 1
in 2015. By 2020, values stabilise around 30-35% for all scenarios.
Figure 9.17. shows the results for the different Scenarios
Lo a d ing Fa cto r o f E x pa nsion Link s (1 0k

/M W H r Pe na lty fo r W ind N o t D e liv e r e d)

0 .4

0 .3 5

0 .3

L
o
a

0 .2 5

R e st o f E u r o p e ( O f f sh o r e )

0 .2

Ir e la n d ( O f f sh o r e )

a
c
t

Ir e la n d ( O n sh o r e )
Ir e la n d ( In t e r c o n n e c t o r s)

0 .1 5

o
r

0 .1

0 .0 5

0
2 013

2 01 5

20 18

2 020

2 02 3

20 25

20 28

203 0

Year

L o a d F a c t o r o f E x p a n s io n L in k s ( R e a l P e n a l t y f o r W in d N o t D e liv e r e d )
0 .4

0 .3 5

0 .3

L
o
a

0 .2 5

R e st o f E u r o p e ( O f f sh o r e )

0 .2

Ir e la n d ( O f f sh o r e )

a
c
t

Ir e la n d ( O n sh o r e )
0 .1 5

Ir e la n d ( In t e r c o n n e c t o r s)

o
r

0 .1

0 .0 5

0
2 013

2 01 5

20 18

2 020

2 02 3

20 25

20 28

203 0

Ye a rs

L o a d F a c t o r o f E x p a n s io n L i n k s ( 0

/ M W H r P e n a l ty f o r W in d N o t D e li v e r e d )

0 .7

0 .6

0 .5
L
o
a
d

0 .4
R e st o f E u r o p e ( O f f sh o r e )

Ir e la n d ( O f f sh o r e )

a
c

0 .3

Ir e la n d ( O n sh o r e )

t
Ir e la n d ( In t e r c o n n e c t o r s)

o
r
0 .2

0 .1

0
20 13

2 01 5

20 18

2 020

20 23

2 02 5

20 28

203 0

Year

Figure 9.17. Yearly System Loading

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It can be noticed that, neglecting the early stages, the offshore grid has a much higher loaded
network 25-35%, compared to onshore at 20-25%. This is because of the loading of the existing
network which at around 20% disproportionately contributes to the average loading.
The Interconnectors are loaded around 35-40%. This does not appear high. However it is the
effect of the lack of power flow control device in the AC model; a much higher value is expected
with the use of smart technology devices.
The high value of Rest of Europe is simply due to the lack of N-1 contingency analysis on most
of this Grid.
A yearly average of 30 to 35% is obtained, with 50 to 60 % in periods of high to medium wind
in Ireland. However in low wind period values are still around 20%. This demonstrates that the
network is getting added benefit by using the interconnections driven by increased renewables.
A radial development approach by comparison would only load the offshore network 9-10%, at
minimum wind periods.
Focusing on interconnections, during high wind periods, are shown in Figure 9.18 and 9.19
0 .8

0 .7

0 .6

R O I/G B

0 .5

R O I/F R
G B /F R /R O I

0 .4

N I/S C O
N I/R O I

0 .3

G B /F R
0 .2

0 .1

0
2013

20 15

2018

2020

20 23

2025

2 028

20 30

Figure 9.18. Yearly Interconnection Loading (10000 Euro/MWh Case)


10000
9000
8000
7000

RO I/GB

6000

RO I/FR

5000

GB/FR/RO I

4000

NI/SCO

3000

NI/RO I

2000

GB/FR

1000
0
2013 2015 2018 2020 2023 2025 2028 2030

Figure 9.19. Expansion of Interconnection Capacity in MVA (10000 Euro/MWh Scenario)

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Before 2020, only interconnection between Ireland and Britain is enhanced. This is mainly
the consequence of using offshore generation stations as a lower cost interconnector method
between the two countries.
From 2020 onwards, Interconnection with France is also developed to 5.5 GW up to 2030.
Interconnection from Ireland to Britain rises to 7 GW over the same period.
Interconnection between the eastern side of Britain and France is stable at 7 GW since throughout
the analysis, whilst showing the need for a continuing expansion of interconnection from the
south of Britain to 9 GW up to 2030.
Part of this interconnection from the south of Britain is due to Ireland which transmits power
on candidate reinforcements through Cornwall and on to France.

9.3.2.5 Island of Ireland Focus


This chapter focuses on results related to Island of Ireland. Results are also broken-down for
Onshore, Offshore and Interconnections between the Island of Ireland (referred to as Ireland
subsequently) and neighbouring countries.

9.3.2.5.1 Grid Expansion


In Figure 9.20 the expansion of the network over the planning period is shown.
0 .8

0 .7

0 .6

R O I/G B

0 .5

R O I/F R
G B /F R /R O I

0 .4

N I/S C O
N I/R O I

0 .3

G B /F R
0 .2

0 .1

0
2013

20 15

2018

2020

20 23

2025

2 028

20 30

a)

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Onshore
0Euro

Offshore

REAL

10 Keuro

0Euro

2000
1800
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
2010

10 Keuro

600
400
200
0
2015

2020

2025

2030

2010

2035

2015

b)

0Euro

REAL

2020

2025

2030

2035

2030

2035

c)

IE/GB Interconnections

IE/SCO Interconnections

10 Keuro

0Euro

1500

REAL

10 Keuro

400
300
200

1000
500

100
0

0
2010

REAL

2015

2020

2025

2030

2010

2035

2015

d)

2020

2025

e)
IE/FR Interconnections
0Euro

REAL

10 Keuro

2000
1500
1000
500
0
2010

2015

2020

2025

2030

2035

f)

Figure 9.20. Grid Expansion: Ireland Focus

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From Figure 9.20.a, the total expansion is similar for any penalty cost until 2020. This is due
to the synergies in the Irish Sea between offshore connections and interconnections. In 2020
between 2200 and 2800 km of circuit have been selected even in the Low Wind Penalty case.
From 2020 to 2030, the Penalty factor becomes important due to increasing difficulties to
deploy wind resources in remote areas. In order to fulfil these requirements large investments
are required with high penalty factors (REAL and 10000 Euro/MWh). It is worth noting that no
interconnection with France is developed in the 0 Euro/MWh case.
In general the penalty factor has the effect of postponing grid investments.
Figure 9.20.(a-f) demonstrates the previously mentioned sequence of development of
interconnection with both connections to Britain (GB and SCO) developed first then levelling
out, whilst interconnection to France develops later and steadily out to 2030.

9.3.2.5.2 Wind Curtailments


Wind curtailments results are shown in terms of percentage (%) of the wind energy available,
see Figure 9.21.
The results show that the onshore wind, until 2020 (4) has no curtailment for any of the
scenarios. The only generation affected by curtailment is offshore for the extreme 0 Euro/MWh
case in the early
stages.
A readevelopment
A (no rth R O I)
A rea B (W est RO I)
GW h Conventional GW h Real Case GW h 10000 Euro GW h
GW h
GW h
Case GW h
10000 Euro GW h
After0Euro
2020,
when the onshore is fully deployed at c.70Euro
GW
in Conventional
Ireland,
theRealoffshore
generation
0.25
0.25
become more and more relevant.
0.2

0.2

As already
discussed economically, only the 100000.15Euro/MWh penalty make the network
0.15
%
%
0.1
0.1
expansion
cost effective to cater for full Onshore Offshore
deployment, shown as the blue bar
0.05
0.05
in the Figure 9.21.
0

In the REAL
case,
as
a 3substitution
2
4
5
6effect
7 occurs
8
1
2
3shown
4
5 the
6 violet
7
8bar in the Figure 1 9.21,
between extra offshore, and onshore in particular, remote area A and D onshore wind is replaced
by NW SCO Offshore Wind, shown in Figure 9.21 a, d and f .
A rea D (N I)

A rea C (East R O I)
0Euro GW h

Conventional GW h

Real Case GW h

0Euro GW h

10000 Euro GW h

0.2

0.2

0.15

0.15
%

0.1

0.1

0.05

0.05

a)

10000 Euro GW h

Real Case GW h

b)

A rea O (Irish Sea R O I)


0Euro GW h

A rea 0 (N W SC O O ff.)

10000 Euro GW h

0Euro GW h

124

Conventional GW h

Real Case GW h

10000 Euro GW h

0.25

0.2

0.2

0.15

0.15

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0.25

Conventional GW h

0.25

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EirGrid Offshore Grid Study


A rea A (no rth R O I)
0Euro GW h

Conventional GW h

A rea B (W est RO I)

Real Case GW h

10000 Euro GW h

0Euro GW h

0.25

Conventional GW h

0.2

0.2

0.15

0.15
%

0.1
0.05

10000 Euro GW h

0.1
0.05
0

0
1

Conventional GW h

A rea D (N I)

A rea C (East R O I)
0Euro GW h

Real Case GW h

0Euro GW h

10000 Euro GW h

0.25

0.25

0.2

0.2

Conventional GW h

Real Case GW h

10000 Euro GW h

0.15

0.15
%

Real Case GW h

0.25

0.1

0.1

0.05

0.05
0

0
1

c)

d)

A rea O (Irish Sea R O I)

A rea 0 (N W SC O O ff.)

0Euro GW h

Real Case GW h

10000 Euro GW h

0Euro GW h

Conventional GW h

Real Case GW h

10000 Euro GW h

0.25

0.25
0.2

0.2

0.15

0.15

0.1

0.1

0.05

0.05

0
1

e)

f)

Figure 9.21. Wind curtailments in Ireland

Comparing curtailment with the conventional scenario where no new offshore generation is
added confirms that the offshore Scottish wind is in competition with the Irish onshore wind.
In remote areas A and D, for the 0 Euro/MWh scenario appear better than REAL. This is because,
competition is equalised by applying the same penalty factor for all wind resources.
A key message can be extracted from Figure 9.21.e. for any of the investigated scenarios no
curtailment occurs for the Irish offshore generation. This indicates the relatively attractive
location of the Irish generation considered in the analysis.

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9.4 The MIXED AC/DC Transmission MOdel


As mentioned earlier, the model which has been discussed previously above has been a pure AC
model, with all candidate reinforcements AC technology. The DCLF approach prevents the issues
related to use of long length of AC cable; however this must be taken into account in the process
of building the list of candidates for the ESP analysis.
Although the previous results can be considered as preliminary indications of advantages and
challenges of the renewable generation deployment strategy on and offshore in the Irish Sea,
the model needs to be suitably enhanced and integrated to account for the wide range of
technology options that must be considered in the scenario.
For long distances, HVDC options has been using since the 50s with first connections in
Scandinavia. Several interconnections have been in operation for more than 30 years and make
HVDC a valuable and proven reliable alternative. Recent advancements provide the TSO with
further HVDC options that offer interesting features. These allow their use to not be limited to
long interconnections but also as a potential application in meshed HVDC networks.
Consequently, after considering the first preliminary results it has been identified as necessary
to develop a DC model to be integrated in the ESP tool. A model description can be found in
the Appendix 4.

9.4.1 Transmission Alternatives


A thorough description has been performed in chapter 6 with a description of the different
options available. In appendix 1 an analysis has been undertaken of the AC technology in order
to identify the technical limits in terms of maximum length.
How the AC model has been modified in order to incorporate the HVDC transmission technology
is summarised below.
Onshore, the future grid has been assumed to be overhead line primarily at 400 kV. Furthermore,
in parallel on some existing routes, a DC overhead based option has also been introduced
connected to major 400 kV existing substations. This is in order to provide a potential for
development of an Overlay DC Grid concept that may be suitable for high power transfer duties
as an alternative to the need to expand several AC circuit on existing line routes.
In order to restrict the number of technological changes to candidate reinforcements and
thereby computational combinations considered in ESPs, some economically and technically
based reductions in the potential choices have been made, as follows:


The Expansion Offshore with AC 400 kV XLPE only for distances < 80-90 km
HVDC LCC technology only for point to point onshore applications
HVDC VSC technology for other offshore connections for any distance.

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This approach has provided a large set of HVDC-VSC alternatives for the offshore connections in
the Irish Sea, within the distances in the range of AC application, which could also be economic
effective.
Figure 9.22. shows the candidate reinforcements for the technological study, with the DC
technological reinforcements (Purple for LCC and Yellow for VSC technology).
2855 Candidates
(ROW potential reinforcements)
NORV112

NO2VDC1-2
DOUH211-221

NORV111

MYBH211-221
NO3VDC1-2

MORH211-111

WS10211
WS40211

NO4VDC1-2

MOSH111-211

NO5VDC1-2

WS20211

PETH111-211

BRDH111
BEAH111-211
FAGH111
WS50211

FEDV111

NO6VDC1-2

WS30211
FWIH111
HANU111
DASH211-221

ARG0211

FORH113

FORH112

BELH111

INVH111

FORH111
COCH111 TORH111

ISL0211

NORTHERN
IRELAND

HUEH111-221

DSUU111

WKNW211

WJNW211

KASU111

KSSU111

DOGK113
DOGK112

KIN0211

TRIA111-411
COLD211
BUNBEG

BA1D211
KELD211
BAFD211

CACD211

MAGD211

STRD211

AV3W211

WGRW211

TARB111-211

OUGB211

CHARLEVILLE
GLENLARA
MALLOW

BVKB111
COOMACHEO

COOMAGEARLAHY
CROSS

THURLES

LODC211

KNOB111

CLASHA

TKNK111

YORK111

RCBK111

TKSK111

SHHK111

SIZM111

WF5O211

DISS111

WALM111

AGHB111

BRINNY
BANDON
DUNMANWAY

PEMM111

GRNZ111

GRGM111

BROZ111
LOAN111

MAVS111

BSUE111
GRAN111

BR1O211
BR2O211

LOVN111

DIES111

DODS111

GEES111

THAN111
CANN111

KEMN111

SELN111

BOLN111
NURN111
ALVN111

GERZ111

KUSZ111

GUFM111

SWAM111
COSN111

MESE111

GIEZ111

NINN111

EXTN111

BOSN211

WARF111

ABHN111
INDN111

NEHZ111
LIPZ111

HENS111

BRFM111

CASL111

CROB211

ZWOS111

NORM113

NORM111

CAML111

SU2O211

NSUS111

NOSM111

WLPM111

WF4O211

GLAO211

GREC111

GROZ111

NORM112

BICM111

LEGL111

BAIM111

DOON

LANZ111

MEES111

DUDK111

DOCK111

TREL111

TRAL111

CULLENAGH
DUNGARVAN

WAHZ111

WEHZ111

HNEZ111

DEEL111

PENL111

ARKO211

HORK112

HUGK111

DRSK111

DRXK111

WYLL111

WF3O211

ARKC111

KELC111

KILC111

TIPPERARY
CAHC111

KN1B111-411

CLAHANE
TRALEE
OUGHTRAGH
AF4W211

LAOC111
IKERRIN
WEMB111
BALLYRAGGET

HAMZ111

MEPZ111

WERK111

HORK111

THTK111

PEWL111
SU6O211

KISO211
CKMC111
CHARLESLAND
DUNC111
SU2O211
TURLOUGH
HILL
BALLYBEG
CODO211

OLDB111-411

KILB111-211
KILLONAN

QUEL111

WEDZ111

MESS111

THSK111

WALO211

WJ1O211 WJ2O211

BALC111

MAYC111

TYNAGH

NENAGH
ARDNACRUSHA

PROSPECT

BA1C211

WF2O211

SHAA111-411

CASA111-411

ENNIS
MONB111-211

WLAO211
WIAO211

SU5O211 WDUO211

GALWAY

MD1B111-211
AV2W211
AF3W211

HUTL111

MANQ211

WF1O211
HUNC111
WOOC111
KINNEGAD

DIEZ111

LACJ111

WNAO211

ORIO211

HILL
CAVA111-211

LANESBORO
MULLINGAR

CLOON

CAMUS

ARVA

GILRA

FLAA111-411
DALTON

BRBU111

GSUZ111

HAWJ111
HUSL211

SU4O211
SU8O211

LOUA211
BALA211

SHANKILL
-ONCASTLEBAR

AF1W211

TASB111-211

HARJ111

TAND211

ENND111-411
SRANANAGH
SRAA111-411

CUNGHILL

WESZ111

STEJ111

SOL0211

WIG0211

CASD211

OMAD111-211 TURD111-211

DOGK111

GRNH111

SU7O211

CATA111-411

SLIA111-411

AF2W211

AUCH211-221

*
HAND211

WIRW211

BELA111-211-411
WHRW211

AV1W211

STSJ111

COOD211

LETA111-411
TIEVEBRACK
GOLA111-411

LAGN111

MASN111
OBEZ111

MERE111

MANF111

HASO211

AVEF111

NETS111

WIWO211
SCIN211

COUE111 GRAE111

PENF111

LHVF111

CHEF111

PASF111

CHEF111

ARGF111
TOUF111

LAMF111

LONF111

MOUF111

ROUF111
TERF111
MEZF111

PLHF111

VIGF111

VLVF111MORF111

FRAF111

LREF111

DOMF111

HOUF111
MSEF111

LQUF111

LOUF111

DAMF111
GATF111 LCHF111

VERF111

CORF111

AVOF111

DISF111

a) General scheme for the study


2855 Candidates
(ROW potential reinforcements)
NO2VDC1-2

NORV112

DOUH211-221

NORV111

MYBH211-221
NO3VDC1-2

MORH211-111

WS10211
WS40211

NO4VDC1-2

MOSH111-211

NO5VDC1-2

WS20211

PETH111-211

BRDH111
BEAH111-211
FAGH111
WS50211

FEDV111

NO6VDC1-2

WS30211
FWIH111
HANU111
DASH211-221

ARG0211

FORH113

FORH112

BELH111

INVH111

FORH111
COCH111 TORH111

ISL0211

NORTHERN
IRELAND

KASU111

KSSU111

DOGK113

HUEH111-221

DSUU111

WKNW211

WJNW211

DOGK112

KIN0211

TRIA111-411
COLD211
BUNBEG

BA1D211
KELD211
BAFD211

CACD211

TIEVEBRACK
GOLA111-411

MAGD211

STRD211

CUNGHILL

MULLINGAR

WGRW211

OUGHTRAGH

OUGB211

KILB111-211
KILLONAN

CROSS

ARKC111
LODC211

GLENLARA
MALLOW

KNOB111

CLASHA

HNEZ111
TKNK111

WLPM111

TRAL111

CULLENAGH
DUNGARVAN

DISS111

BROZ111
LOAN111

MAVS111

BSUE111
GRAN111

BR1O211
BR2O211

LOVN111
EXTN111

DODS111

MESE111

GIEZ111

NINN111
BOSN211

WARF111

ABHN111
LAGN111

DIES111

GEES111

THAN111
CANN111

KEMN111

SELN111

BOLN111
NURN111
ALVN111

MERE111

MANF111

HASO211

MASN111
OBEZ111

AVEF111

NETS111

WIWO211
SCIN211

COUE111 GRAE111

PENF111

LHVF111

CHEF111

PASF111

CHEF111

ARGF111
TOUF111

LAMF111

GERZ111

KUSZ111
GRNZ111

GRGM111
GUFM111

SWAM111
COSN111

INDN111

NEHZ111
LIPZ111

HENS111

BRFM111
WALM111

PEMM111

ZWOS111

NORM113

SIZM111

CASL111
WF5O211

AGHB111

BRINNY
BANDON
DUNMANWAY

NSUS111

NOSM111
NORM111

CAML111

SU2O211

CROB211

GROZ111

NORM112

WF4O211

GLAO211

GREC111

LANZ111

SHHK111
BICM111

LEGL111

BAIM111

DOON

WAHZ111

WEHZ111

MEES111

DUDK111

DOCK111

TREL111

ARKO211

RCBK111

TKSK111

DEEL111

PENL111

KELC111

KILC111

TIPPERARY
CAHC111
CHARLEVILLE

BVKB111
COOMACHEO

COOMAGEARLAHY

THURLES

ARDNACRUSHA

PROSPECT

KN1B111-411

DRSK111

YORK111

WYLL111

WF3O211

HAMZ111

HORK112

HUGK111

DRXK111

SU6O211

WF2O211

WEDZ111

MEPZ111

WERK111

HORK111

THTK111

PEWL111

WJ1O211 WJ2O211

BALC111

KISO211
CKMC111
CHARLESLAND
DUNC111
SU2O211
TURLOUGH
HILL
BALLYBEG
CODO211

LAOC111
IKERRIN
WEMB111
BALLYRAGGET
NENAGH

TARB111-211

CLAHANE
TRALEE

BA1C211

MAYC111

OLDB111-411

ENNIS
MONB111-211
TASB111-211

AF4W211

HUNC111
WOOC111
KINNEGAD

TYNAGH

AF3W211

QUEL111

DIEZ111

MESS111

THSK111

WALO211

SU5O211 WDUO211

SHAA111-411

CASA111-411

HUTL111

WLAO211
WIAO211

WF1O211

GALWAY

MD1B111-211
AV2W211

LACJ111

HUSL211
WNAO211

MANQ211
ORIO211

HILL
CAVA111-211

LANESBORO

CLOON

CAMUS

ARVA

GILRA

FLAA111-411
DALTON

SU8O211

LOUA211
BALA211

SHANKILL
-ONCASTLEBAR

WESZ111
GSUZ111

HAWJ111

SU4O211

SRANANAGH
SRAA111-411

BELA111-211-411
WHRW211

BRBU111
DOGK111

STEJ111

SOL0211

TAND211

ENND111-411

AF1W211

AV3W211

WIG0211

CASD211

OMAD111-211 TURD111-211

GRNH111
HARJ111

SU7O211

CATA111-411

SLIA111-411

AF2W211

AUCH211-221

*
HAND211

WIRW211

AV1W211

STSJ111

COOD211

LETA111-411

LONF111

MOUF111

ROUF111
TERF111
MEZF111

PLHF111

b) Irish Sea Zoom

LOUF111

VLVF111MORF111

VIGF111

FRAF111

LREF111

DOMF111
LQUF111
DAMF111
VERF111

CORF111
DISF111

HOUF111
MSEF111

GATF111 LCHF111

AVOF111

Figure 9.22. Mixed AC/HVDC meshed candidate grid

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9.4.2 HVDC Advantage and Challenges


Compared to the AC model, HVDC technology can provide the network flexibility to control the
power flows through the DC links. The controllability may provide enhanced performance to the
network and it is of particular interest to verify performance potential at the expansion planning
stage.
Indeed with purely AC reinforcements the electrical parameters of the routes, existing and the
candidate reinforcements could provide a markedly over sized ESP.
For instance, a long link to France would represent a very high impedance path as an AC circuit
that would impede power transfer through it. Therefore, some extra reinforcements may be
decided in order to sufficiently lowered the impedance path and let the power to flow.
Furthermore, the variability of some generation resources create multiple power flow patterns,
which without power flow control devices may result in an overdesigned network.
The HVDC model, introduced with the ESPAUT Optimisation procedure, provides this further
ability to control power flow for different scenarios, being mostly independent from the physical
impedance path.
If it is optimum to do so, a circuit can be loaded to the maximum capacity for any scenario,
avoiding extra reinforcements. It is noteworthy that the circuit itself can be much more economic
than the corresponding AC model, see Appendix 1.
Compared to the pure AC model, the solution is expected more cost effective overall.
However, multiple HVDC units pose an issue related to coordination of their control, which is
out of the scope of this study but that are intrinsically assumed in the optimisation algorithm.

9.4.3 Scenarios and Subset


Given the previous results, the new Basecase is considered the REAL Scenario approach using the
new list of candidate reinforcements.
For any generation scenario a new subset is calculated. As MAX10 Interconnection is a particular
case of MAX10+Isles it is omitted.

9.4.4 MAX10 Interconnection+ISLES


9.4.4.1 Case A
Figure 9.23, shows the subset ESP for the same results. This case has been obtained using the
Isle Project assumptions and 7GWs in the Irish Sea at the previously discussed 10 sites. Penalty
factor for wind curtailment has been considered 10000 Euro/MWh.

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DOUH211-221

MYBH211-221
MYSH211

MORH211-111

WS10211
WS40211

MOSH111-211
WS20211

The ESP comprises a number of large HVDC


circuits as both LCC and VSC technologies.
It is particularly interesting that there are
some parallel DC and AC paths selected for
those distances where both technologies
are technically viable. This implies that
the ESP has selected the higher cost DC
technological solution because its power
flow capability minimises the need for
further network reinforcement (or better
use of lower cost generation).
Onshore, an HVDC line is selected on
the eastern side of Ireland from Cavan
to Great Island with an interface station
to the existing 400kV network in Laois,
central Ireland.
A DC backbone offshore in the Irish Sea
is also selected from NW SCO down to
Cornwall with a deviation to Holyhead.
The backbone is also heavily meshed with
a number of AC offshore links from the
eastern side of Ireland.

PETH

BRDH111
BEAH111-211
FAGH111
WS30211

WS50211

FWIH111

DASH211-221

ARG0211

FARH111

COCH111

ISL0211

NORTHERN
IRELAND

FORH113

BELH111

INVH111

FORH111
NEAH111

TORH111

HUEH111-221

WKNW211

WJNW211

KIN0211

TRIA111-411
COLD211
BUNBEG

STSJ111

COOD211

LEAD111-411

CACD211

TIEVEBRACK
GOLA111-411

-ONCASTLEBAR
DALTON

WOOC111

CKMC111
DUNC111
CHARLESLAND
TURLOUGH
HILL
BALLYBEG

AF3W211

MONB111-211
TASB111-211

AV3W211

LAOC111
IKERRIN
WEMB111
BALLYRAGGET
NENAGH

WGRW211

ARDNACRUSHA
KILB111-211
KILLONAN

PROSPECT

TARB111-211
CHARLEVILLE

GLENLARA
MALLOW
BVKB111 KNOB111
COOMACHEO

OUGHTRAGH

OUGB211

COOMAGEARLAHY CLASHA
CROSS

KIAC111

BRINNY
BANDON
DUNMANWAY

DOON

DRXK

SU1O211

PENL111

DEEL111

TREL111

WF3O211

LEGL111

TRAL111

WF4O211

GLAO211

GREC111

CAML111

SU2O211

CULLENAGH
DUNGARVAN

CASL211
WALM111

AGHB111
WF5O211

PEMM111

CROB211

SWAM111

PESM212

BR1O211

Two pure AC links are also selected to


interconnect from Dublin area, Ireland
to North Wales in Britain. These links
although selected as AC technology
undoubtedly because of their lower
capital cost may prove to be technically
challenging or undesirable.

PEWL111
SU6O211

CODO211

ARKO211

TIPPERARY
CAHC111

KN1B111-411

CLAHANE
TRALEE

LODC211

THTK1

HAML211

WYLL111

KISO211

KELC111

THURLES

QUEL111
SU5O211 WDUO211

ARKC111

HUTL111

WALO211

WJ1O211 WJ2O211

BALC111
WF2O211

OLDB111-411

ENNIS

WLAO211

MAYC111

TYNAGH
MD1B111-211

HUSL211

WNAO211
MANQ211

WF1O211

BA1C211

GALWAY

AV2W211

HA

SOL0211

WIAO211
HUNC111

KINNEGAD

SHAA111-411

CASA111-411

ORIO211

HILL
CAVA111-211

LANESBORO
MULLINGAR

CLOON

CAMUS

ARVA

GILRA

FLAA111-411

SU8O211

LOUA211
BALA211

SHANKILL

STEJ111

SU4O211

SRANANAGH
SRAA111-411
CUNGHILL

AF2W211

GRNH111
HARJ111

WIG0211
OMAD111-211 TURD111-211
TAND211
ENND111-411

SLIA111-411

AF4W211

CATA111-411

BELA111-211-411
WHRW211

AV1W211

AUCH211-221

SU7O211
HAND211

WIRW211

AF1W211

MAGD211

STRD211

KELD211
BAFD211

BR2O211

ALVN111

NURN111

EXTN111
CHIN111
INDN111

ABHN111
LAGN111

WIWO211
SCIN211

Figure 9.23. Max10+Isles scenario subset


CHEF111
LAMF111

An interesting mixed technological solution is found to connect Oriel and WF1 windfarms; an AC
circuit connects Oriel to the shore and to WF1, providing N-1 security. WF1 uses an HVDC circuit
to inject power into the DC Irish Sea backbone; however an AC cable is also selected from WF1
to connect to the Isle of Man, where a major LCC HVDC station transfers the power either to
North of England or to Deeside.

DOMF111

LOUF111

CORF111

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This is evidence that in a dynamic evolution of an Offshore Grid concept, a simple early stage
radial AC connection from the shore to Oriel windfarm may be at later stage part of a major
Interconnector allowing Oriel wind power to flow as well as power exchange between Ireland
and Britain for market trading.
On the British side of the Irish Sea most of the connections are AC except for some long
distances HVDC-VSC that are not only for the purpose of connecting this generation.
It is noteworthy that also the West Bootstrap conceived by NGC [14] has been selected with NO
intermediate connections, directly from Hunterstown to Deeside. It is a 2 GW connection aiming
at transferring part of NWSCO Offshore southwards.

DOUH211-221

MYBH211-221
MYSH211

MORH211-111

WS10211

WS40211
MOSH111-211
WS20211

9.4.4.2 Case B: Sensitivity on


Irish Onshore Transmission

PETH111-211

BRDH111
BEAH111-211
FAGH111
WS30211

WS50211

Case B differs from the previous case,


with additional candidate reinforcements
in the west of Ireland either double
circuit AC 400 kV or HVDC LCC technology.
Furthermore, HVDC VSC candidate
reinforcement from NWSCO extending to
Letterkenny has been added.

FWIH111

DASH211-221

ARG0211

FORH113
BELH111

INVH111

FARH111

ISL0211

NORTHERN
IRELAND

FORH112

COCH111

FORH111
NEAH111

TORH111

HUEH111-221

WKNW211

WJNW211

KIN0211

TRIA111-411
COLD211

STSJ111

BUNBEG
LETA111-411

COOD211 CACD211

TIEVEBRACK
MAGD211

STRD211

GOLA111-411

KELD211
BAFD211

AUCH211-221

SU7O211

HARJ111

HAND211

WIRW211

CATA111-411

STEJ111

GRNH111

WIG0211

TURD111-211

HAWJ111

SOL0211

OMAD111-211

The resulting ESP is shown in Figure 9.24.

CUNGHILL
SRAA111-411
-ONCASTLEBAR

AV1W211

DALTON

HUNC111

DUNC111

OLDB111-411

MD1B111-211

AF3W211

MONB111-211
TASB111-211

AV3W211

LAOC111
IKERRIN
WEMB111
BALLYRAGGET
NENAGH

ENNIS

WGRW211

ARDNACRUSHA
KILB111-211
KILLONAN

PROSPECT

TARB111-211
KN1B111-411

CLAHANE
TRALEE

CHARLEVILLE

COOMAGEARLAHY CLASHA
BRINNY
BANDON
CROSS
DUNMANWAY

WLAO211

WJ1O211 WJ2O211

BALC111

KISO211

CKMC111
CHARLESLAND
TURLOUGH
HILL
BALLYBEG

WDUO211

LODC211

THSK1

QUEL111

THTK111

HAML211

WALO211

PEWL111

SU5O211

DRXK111

YORK

WYLL111
SU1O211

PENL111

CODO211

ARKO211

DEEL111

TREL111

WF3O211

ARKC111

KIAC111

HUTL111

SU6O211

WF2O211

BI

LEGL111

KELC111

THURLES

TRAL111

WF4O211

BAIM1

TIPPERARY
DOON

GLAO211

CAHC111

GLENLARA
MALLOW
OUGHTRAGH
BVKB111 KNOB111
OUGB211
COOMACHEO

WF1O211

BA1C211

MAYC111

TYNAGH

AV2W211

AF4W211

WOOC111
KINNEGAD

GALWAY

AF2W211

HUSL212

MANQ211

WIAO211

SHAA111-411

CASA111-411

ORIO211

HILL
CAVA111-211

LANESBORO
MULLINGAR

CLOON

CAMUS

ARVA

GILRA

FLAA111-411

WNAO211

SU8O211

LOUA211
BALA211

SHANKILL

LACJ111

HUSL211

SU4O211

SRANANAGH

BELA111-211-411
WHRW211

AF1W211

TAND211

ENND111-411

SLIA111-411

GREC111

CAML111

SU2O211

CULLENAGH
DUNGARVAN

CASL211
WALM111

AGHB111
WF5O211

PEMM111

CROB211

SWAM111

PESM212

BR1O211

BR2O211

ALVN111

NURN111

LOVN111

EXTN111
CHIN111
ABHN111
INDN111

Figure 9.24.
Max10+Isles scenario subset

LAGN111

WIWO211
SCIN211

CHEF111
LAMF111

PLHF111
DOMF111

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CORF111
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The additional candidate reinforcements have been selected increasing transmission capacity in
the west of Ireland in the ESP. It is worth noting that the power transfer from the NWSCO has
now moved westwards; in particular:




A backbone HVDC-VSC is chosen to connect the NWSCO wind Offshore to Letterkenny;


to transfer power from Letterkenny in the north of Ireland to the export
node of Knockraha in the south, a western backbone onshore is created;
As a consequence the offshore HVDC-VSC backbone in the Irish Sea
has now been limited to the central and southern part;
The interconnection with Unterstown have been reduced
to single AC connections for N-1 purposes;
The British West Bootstrap is reduced to 1 GW.

9.4.5 MAX10 Interconnection+ISLES+Wave Energy

DOUH211-221

MYBH211-221
MYSH211

To examine the effect to the ESP of developing an offshore network for renewable generation off
the west coast of Ireland, 4GWs of offshore generation is included in this scenario. The resulting
ESP is shown in Figure 9.25.
MORH211-111

WS10211

WS40211

MOSH111-211

WS20211

PETH111-211

BRDH111
BEAH111-211
FAGH111

WS30211

WS50211

FWIH111

DASH211-221

ARG0211

FORH113

BELH111

INVH111

FARH111

FORH112
FORH111

ISL0211

NORTHERN
IRELAND

4GW

NEAH111

COCH111

TORH111

HUEH111-221

DOGK113

WKNW211

WJNW211

DSUU111

KIN0211

TRIA111-411
COLD211

STSJ111

BUNBEG
LETA111-411

COOD211 CACD211

TIEVEBRACK
MAGD211

STRD211

GOLA111-411

KELD211
BAFD211

AUCH211-221

SU7O211

CATA111-411

HARJ111
WIG0211

TURD111-211

DOGK112
DOGK111

STEJ111

GRNH111

HAND211

WIRW211

HAWJ111

SOL0211

GSUZ111

OMAD111-211

CUNGHILL
SRAA111-411

AF1W211

FLAA111-411
DALTON

TYNAGH

TASB111-211

AV3W211

WGRW211

NENAGH
ARDNACRUSHA
KILB111-211
KILLONAN

PROSPECT

TARB111-211
KN1B111-411

CLAHANE
TRALEE

AF4W211

LAOC111
IKERRIN
WEMB111
BALLYRAGGET

ENNIS
MONB111-211

CHARLEVILLE

CROSS

BRINNY
BANDON
DUNMANWAY

WJ2O211
WF2O211

SU1O211

THURLES

LODC211

KIAC111

QUEL111

ARKO211

DRSK111

HUGK111

MEES
TKNK111

YORK111

RCBK111

TKSK111

DUDK111

DEEL111

DOCK111

SHHK111

NSUS111

BICM111

LEGL111

WLPM111

TRAL111

WF4O211

HORK112

DRXK111

TREL111

WF3O211

WERK111

HO1K111

THTK111

PEWL111

SU6O211

PENL111

CODO211

ARKC111

MESS111

THSK111

WYLL111

KELC111

NORM111

NOSM111

NORM112
ENSS111

BAIM111

TIPPERARY
DOON

GREC111

SIZM111

CAML111

SU2O211

CULLENAGH
DUNGARVAN

DISS111

WALM111

WF5O211

PEMM111

HEN

BRFM111

CASL211

AGHB111

CROB211

ZWOS111

NORM113

GLAO211

CAHC111

GLENLARA
MALLOW
OUGHTRAGH
BVKB111 KNOB111
OUGB211
COOMACHEO
COOMAGEARLAHY CLASHA

KISO211

HUTL111

HAML211

SU5O211

WJ1O211

BALC111

CKMC111
CHARLESLAND
TURLOUGH
HILL
BALLYBEG

OLDB111-411

MD1B111-211
AV2W211
AF3W211

WDUO211
WALO211

BA1C211

MAYC111
DUNC111

HUSL212

WLAO211
WIAO211

HUNC111

KINNEGAD

SHAA111-411

CASA111-411
GALWAY

AF2W211

WOOC111

WNAO211
MANQ211

WF1O211

ORIO211

HILL
CAVA111-211

LANESBORO
MULLINGAR

CLOON

CAMUS

ARVA

GILRA

SU8O211

LOUA211
BALA211

SHANKILL

-ONCASTLEBAR

LACJ111

HUSL211

SU4O211

SRANANAGH

WHRW211

AV1W211

TAND211

ENND111-411

SLIA111-411
BELA111-211-411

GRGM111

BEVS111

GUFM111

SWAM111
COSN111

BR1O211

CANN111

NURN111

EXTN111

BOLN111
LOVN111

KRIS111

SELN111

MESE111

BOSN211

CHIN111

WARF111

ABHN111

LAGN111

MANF111

HASO211

DIES111
BLES111

THAN111

KEMN111

ALVN111

INDN111

BSUE111

GRAN111

BR2O211

Figure 9.25. Max10+Isles+Wave Subset

MAVS111

LOAN111

PESM212

DODS111

GEES111

MERE111

MASN11O

AVEF111

WIWO211
SCIN211

COUE111 GRAE111

PENF111

LCHF111
The inclusion of the additional offshore generation makes it more cost effective to add LHVF111
some
CHEF111
ARGF111
LONF111
MOUF111
more DC circuits offshore in the west, partially avoiding
the need for 400 kV circuitsTOUF111
and a DC
LAMF111
ROUF111
backbone inland.
TERF111
PLHF111

MEZF111

LOUF111

VLVF111MORF111

VIGF111

LREF111

DOMF111
LQUF111
DAMF111
VERF111

CORF111
DISF111

HOUF111
MSEF111

GATF111 LCHF111

AVOF111

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It is worth noting that this happens despite the assumption that onshore 400 kV and HVDC are
low cost overhead circuits.
A mixed AC/DC grid structure is proposed which can be considered split into two parts:

A North West offshore network finishing in Cashla station, using both AC and DC offshore
networks. Power flowing south at this point splits with part wheeling eastwards to Cavan.
The remaining is transfer from Cashla to Cork.
A South West Offshore Grid, starting from Cashla using both AC and DC offshore networks
to both the south west of Ireland but mainly using DC technology for large transfer from
the offshore network directly to France.

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10 Conclusions
The results show that the more cost-effective way to deliver the wind is by a meshed network
not by radial connections. A meshed network provides higher reliability and a much better
utilisation of the infrastructure.
The topology of the offshore grid looks very similar for the majority of scenarios analysed.
Changes from one solution to the other are in the number of circuits between nodes, which
translates into different transfer capacities between points and/or areas.
The offshore grid can be developed gradually striving to optimise both the long and medium
term perspective whilst satisfying the requirements for the intermediate years. The offshore
transmission stations should be designed with the potential for future expansion.
The offshore grid can even be optimised further by using smart grid devices. This would enhance
its flexibility and reduce its scale. For part B (further interconnection with Europe), a mixed
solution with both AC and DC circuits proves to be the more profitable. Due to the large distances
and the length needed, it also makes a lot of sense that a part of the offshore grid would be
better in the form of DC links.
The topology is quite interesting, as it shows the HVDC links used as main roads whereas
the AC links are used as secondary roads. This reduces the amount of offshore infrastructure by
several kilometres compared to the just AC links solutions.
The offshore grid and the onshore network are symbiotic, as the optimisation process finds ways
to connect a huge amount of generation offshore without allowing major constraints onshore.
In fact, the circuits offshore also help to relieve loaded onshore links. This is not surprising,
because scenarios of very low energy wind input were considered and weighted properly in the
optimisation process.
Many reinforcements onshore suggested by the optimisation process for the medium/long term
perspective were already identified and proposed by the EirGrid planning department in previous
studies, and included in Grid 25. This shows the robustness of the onshore strategy planned by
EirGrid, showing that plans are robust to substantial changes in the generation portfolio and the
intrinsic change of dispatches this causes.
The sensitivity performed by changing the value of the penalty for wind energy not delivered
(cost of wind curtailment) revealed that the impact was not as big as intuition suggests. The
costs for the new infrastructure with the 10k/MWh was twice as high as with the 0k/MWh.
Using the real value for the penalty, the cost of the investment was in the vicinity of 80% of the
infrastructure chosen for the 10k/MWh.
The topologies of the networks found in those three cases are very similar. A noticeable effect
is the rate of delivery of the new infrastructure offshore. For instance a link that was chosen for
the year 2020 in the case of the 10k/MWh may be postponed until 2030 in the 0/MWh case.
In this same sensitivity, the energy not delivered due to wind curtailment with the real penalty
was more than three times higher than in the zero penalty case.

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11 REFERENCES
[1] EWEA: Pure Power: Wind Energy Scenarios up to 2030
[2] EWEA Annual Report December 2007: Delivering Offshore Wind Power in Europe
[3] Regulatory discount rate for infrastructure
[4] Offshore Guide A. Mansoldo, C. Mc Gee, Internal Report, EirGrid 2008.
[5] Assessment of Technical Issues Relating to significant amount of EHV Underground Cables
in the All Island Electricity Transmission Grid. November 2009. TEPCO.
[6] EU White Paper Energy for the future: Renewable Sources of Energy. COM(97)599.
[7] O. Bertoldi, R. Cicoria Brief Description of LODEN program. Enel DSR March 81.
[8] O. Bertoldi, A. Invernizzi, C. Tagliabue Expansion of a transmission system over
a period of 20 years. - (CIGRE WG 31-02 exercise n4) ENEL/ CREl Internal report
440.070/6, February 1982.
[9] P.Baioni, A. Mansoldo, M. Abougarad, A. Bachir, H. Haddoud.
Transmission Planning Studies on Lybian Network: technical / economical results.
Regional Cigre Conference, Dubai 99.
[10] Reliability of Transmission Grid Devices ESBI 1997.
[11] HTLS technology for the Irish Trans
[12] Guide on underground cables. EirGrid Internal Report.2008
[13] ENTSO-E/Europacable Joint Report.dec-2010.
[14] Offshore Development Information System (ODIS).Dec.2010.
[15] The Isles Project. http://www.islesproject.eu/
[16] Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) of the Offshore Renewable Energy
Development Plan (OREDP) in the Republic of Ireland.Oct.2010.
[17] Offshore Development Information System (ODIS).Dec.2009.
[18] East West Interconnector (EWIC) Design. HVDC units. EWIC Internal document.
[19] 400 kV 700 MW FLUID FILLED SUBMARINE CABLES FOR THE SPAIN-MOROCCO
INTERCONNECTION. Granadino,Dulchain,Girotto. CIGRE Session 2000.

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12 Appendix 1:
Maximum length of ac cables
The electrical parameters of transmission equipment affect their use in transmission systems.
In case of AC cables, electromagnetic phenomena must be thoroughly investigated as they can
limit the maximum length.
There are many criteria that a project must fulfil, which also affect the maximum length that an
AC cable project can be before technical issues arise.
Aside from the technical driven problems other development issues can arise which must also
be resolved.
A description can be found in [16].
Three significant technical issues that impact on the critical length of a cable can be
singled-out:


Steady state stability


Charging Currents
Voltage difference

12.1 ElectricaL Parameters


In Table A.1.1, power frequency direct sequence electrical parameters are shown for alternative
types of transmission cable used in the study.
T y pe
T hre e c ore 220 k V 1000 m m 2 C u
S ingle c ore 220 k V 1200 m m 2 C u
S ingle c ore 400 k V 1400 m m 2 C u
B uried c able 380 k V 2500 m m 2 F lat 700 m m
B uried C able 220 k V 1600 m m 2 F lat 350 m m
O verhead 380 k V

R
X
O hm /k m (O hm /k m )
0.057
0.11
0.046
0.07
0.043
0.07
0.0105
0.223
0.025
0.152
0.03
0.28

T gd
(p.u.)
1.00E -04
1.00E -04
1.00E -04
1.00E -05
1.00E -05
0

C
(nF /k m )
200
198
216
240
240
13

S nom
MVA
311
460
930
1500
600
1500

Table A.1.1 Electrical parameters of Transmission Alternatives


With reference to Figure A.1.1, critical length calculation has been performed with some cables
and OHL, used in the study.
O

V gen

Z eqT

B
V out

V in

P,Q

Figure A1.1 Reference for critical length calculation

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For operational steady state stability, an angle difference of 10 degrees is considered acceptable
by EirGrid, based on the existing constraint of 450 MW on Dunstown-Moneypoint line, which is
208.5 km long.
The potential size of reactors used for compensation is based on allowing for an N-1 of one of
these reactors in No load conditions and maintaining voltages within compliant limits.
For calculation in Normal operation, the compensation ratio has been assumed to be the optimal
level to provide the longest length of cable that can accepted. It is assumed that the link is
compensated split, with 50% of the required compensation at each end.
The maximum permissible voltage difference between the reference voltage and highest variation
along the cable is assumed to be 5%.
In this study both criteria, charging current and the voltage difference, are taken into account
and the most constraining element will define the maximum length that can be accepted.

12.2 Three-core 220 kV


T h r e e -c o r e -2 20 k V 100 0 m m 2 C u
(3 11 M V A )
N o r m a l O p e r a tion

N O -LO A D + N -1 (5 0 M V A R )

S t e a d y S t a t e S t a b ilit y

500
450
400
350
300
km

250
200
150
100
50
0
40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Active Pow er (% to the rating)

Figure A1.2. Critical Lengths

As can be seen in Figure A1.2, the steady state stability (shown in green) is never a constraint
for the cable. The charging current in NO-load (in red) or operation (in blue) is limitations that
define the feasible length of cable to be no more than 140 km.
However to make efficient use of the transmission capacity of the cable the maximum length
must be restricted to 80-90 km.

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12.3 Single-core 220 kV


Single core 220 kV 1200 m m 2 Cu
(460 M VA )
Normal O peration

NO -LO AD+N-1 (150 M VAR)

Steady State Stability

600
500
400
Km

300
200
100
0
40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Active Pow er (% of the rating)

Figure A1.3. Critical Lengths

As can be seen in Figure A1.3, the steady state stability (shown in green) is never a constraint
for the cable. The charging current in NO-load (in red) or operation (in blue) are limitations that
define the feasible length of cable to be no more than 100-150 km allowing for efficient use of
the transmission capacity of the cable.

12.4 Single-core 400 kV


Single core 400 kV 1400 m m 2 Cu
(930 M VA )
Normal O peration
900

NO -LO AD+N-1 (150 M VAR)

Steady State Stability

800
700
600
Km

500
400
300
200
100
0
40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Active Pow er (% of the rating)

Figure A1.4. Critical Lengths

As can be seen in Figure A1.4, again the steady state stability (shown in green) is never a
constraint for the cable. However the higher reactive compensation that is needed at 400kV
restricts the cable length to c.90km to permit efficient use of transmission capacity (i.e. active
power at c.90%) when in normal operation (in blue).

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12.5 Buried 400 kV 2500 mm2


B urie d cable 380 kV 2500 m m 2 Flat 700 m m
(1500 M VA )
Normal O peration

NO -LO AD+N-1 (150 M VAR)

40

60

Steady State Stability

180
160
140
120
100
80
60
50

70

80

90

100

Figure A1.5. Critical Lengths

As can be seen in Figure A1.5, the relationship between steady state stability, NO-load and
operational limitations are markedly different.
The underground cable has some differences in direct sequence parameter compared to the
submarine. In particular the longitudinal reactance is at least 2-2.5 times greater, which makes
the steady state stability, drop proportionately.
It should be noted that this cable parameters are directly relates to the installation of the cable
to match OHL line capacity, which is with a very large interaxial distance between phases.
In this case the steady state stability (shown in green) is the most important constraint limiting
the cable length to c.80km allowing for efficient use of the transmission capacity of the cable
(c.90% active power).
Due to stability limit, such an alternative is constraint to around 80 km for 90% transmission
efficiency.

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12.6 Buried 220 kV 1600 mm2


Buried Cable 220 kV 1600 m m 2 Flat 350 m m
(600 M VA )
Normal O peration

NO -LO AD+N-1 (100 M VAR)

Steady State Stability

230
210
190
170
Km

150
130
110
90
70
50
40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Active Pow er (% of the rating)

Figure A1.6 Critical Lengths

As can be seen in Figure A1.6, a similar behaviour between the limiting factors is found for the
equivalent 220 kV cable.
Once again the steady state stability of the cable constrains to maximum length to c.100 km to
permit an efficient transmission capacity. In this case however normal operation of the cable
is almost as restrictive approaching c.95% transmission cable capacity efficiency for the same
length.

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13 Appendix 2:
Calculation of AC/DC Break-even
points for offshore infrastructure
The offshore grid candidate reinforcements options allow for a mixed use of AC or DC technology
in the network Expansion Strategic Plans (ESPs).
Selection of a mixed AC/DC ESP is mainly due to the geographic distance that a circuit is to
cover which prevents AC technology to be used. However, areas where either technology could
and has been selected have also been found. The main reason why DC technology has been
selected regardless of its assumed higher capital cost is because of the potential advantages of
controlling power flows to minimise further network reinforcement elsewhere on the network.
Furthermore, in a meshed structure, an ESP may share HVDC units for several purposes therefore
reducing the actual break-even distance between AC and DC technologies.
If we considered a lifetime cost AC technology is the more economic for relative short length.
When considering DC two factors affect the economic comparison with AC:
The large investments in HVDC units and the operation costs
The reducing number of cables, 2 instead of three, for the same power and the reduced
longitudinal losses.
When the cable length is increased the latter factor will help compensate for the first and a
break-even distance can be calculated, where the overall lifetime costs are equivalent.
In this chapter, a break-even distance between AC and both DC technologies is considered,
taking into account a Power Transfer of 1 GW between two points, as shown in figure A2.1.

Length L

1000 MW

Figure A2.1. 1GW point to point connection

Cost references have been taken from [14], for both conventional LCC and VSC type HVDC convertor
units, and for DC cables. For AC cables, a reference three-core cable has been considered from
[14] and [17]; other alternatives have been calculated using alternatively sourced information
to provide a cost ratio to the three-core reference cable.

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13.1 dc converter losses


When calculating break-even distances, it is of particular importance to include converter losses
in detail. This is because they are a source of heavy power losses, in particular at present for the
VSC type and greatly influence the solution.
Furthermore, it has to be underlined that converter losses may be divided into two parts:

Voltage dependant losses


Current dependant losses

With reference to figure A2.2, an example is considered based on the HVDC-VSC units designed
for the EWIC Project [18].
MW

Full load loses


(one converter)

Valves de-blocked

House load

<=1

Stand-by

500 M W

Power Transmitted (end to end)

Figure A2.2. Converter Losses in EWIC

In Table A2.1, the assumptions used for the calculation of Converters losses are shown.
It worthy of note that conventional LCC Converters are much more efficient that the VSC types.
However, recent advancements in the technology by manufacturers are leading their future
predictions for VSC technology to become close to 1% in the near future.

T otal
N o-L oa d+ D e bloc k
C urre nt D e pe ndant

VSC
1.60%
0.60%
1.00%

LC C
0.70%
0.20%
0.50%

Table A2.1. Assumptions for Converters Losses Calculation

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13.2 ac and DC cable losses


D C c a b le s
T y pe
XL P E 1800 m m 2 C u 320 k V
P P L 2000 m m 2 C u 500 k V

R
X
O hm /k m (O hm /km )
0.0101
na
0.009
na

T gd
(p.u.)
na
na

C
(nF /k m )
na
na

S nom
MW
1000
1000

Table A2.2. DC cable parameters used for Losses Calculation

In Table A2.2 and Table A1.2, DC and AC cable resistance are shown respectively, for the
calculation of losses.
It should be noted at present that to construct a 1GW DC cable circuit requires a dual cable
circuit bundled. Therefore the DC Resistance is lower than the equivalent AC resistance, due to
the number of cables, the lack of skin effect and the induced current in the sheath.
These advantages however are partially reduced by the high losses in the DC converter units, in
particular for VSC type.
For an AC cable, shunt and longitudinal losses have been considered as well as the losses
associated in the compensation devices. An 80% compensation ratio has been assumed.

13.3 Investments, operating costs


For the break-even calculation, a life-cycle cost is considered for the five alternatives. Table
A2.3, shows the economic parameters which have been used to distribute investments costs on
a yearly basis[4]. For AC cables investments the compensation devices are also included based
on 33% variable and 66% shunt.
Operating costs, i.e. losses are calculated assuming a 40% load factor for AC and an 80%
for DC.
c os t of loss es

70

E uro/M W h

y ears
dis c ount rate
annuity

50
5.63
0.0647

anni
%
%

Table A2.3. Economic Parameters from CER

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13.4 Results
In figure A2.3, the results are considered in terms of yearly costs of a cable circuit with a rating
of 1GW.
Break-Even distances 1 GW transfer
1xSC400 kV

3Three220 kV

2xSC220 kV

1HVDC-VSC Bipole

1HVDC-LCC- Monopole

70000
60000
50000

C : 116km

D : 126km

B : 83km

40000

A : 62km

30000
F : 75km

20000

E : 88km

10000
0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90 100 110 120 130 140 150

km

Figure A2.3. Break-Even distances

As previously discussed the losses have been calculated using a 40% yearly load factor for AC and
an 80% for HVDC. Therefore, the comparison is not consistent with HVDC, but the assumption is
justified by the HVDC control capabilities that allow a better use of infrastructures in any of the
considered Load/Generation scenarios.
From figure A2.3, AC technology demonstrates its cost effectiveness for distances within 60-90
km. In particular, for a 1 GW power transfer, the 400 kV benefits from lower installation costs.
However this is the realistic maximum distance for this technology, as for longer distances,
transmission power transfer efficiency decreases, see figure A1.4.
Conventional HVDC is the best for longer distances, having a break-even point with 400 kV AC,
at about 88 km in this test case. From this distance onwards, it is the most cost effective for
point-to-point connections.
A multiple circuit three-core cable is also an AC effective solution, with 75 km break-even
with DC-LCC; it can be used for longer lengths, i.e. 100 km with an acceptable transmission
efficiency.

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Single core 220 kV does not offer great performance for this test scenario. It suffers from an
overall high investment cost. However it might be of interest in the case of upgrading AC to DC
scenarios as the 220 kV voltage, may be possible to be converted to support 320 kV DC.
VSC technology appears the least attractive. Indeed many alternatives, may offer better
performance, covering the whole range of point-to-point application.
VSC suffers from high operation costs, losses, both for the HVDC convertor units and for power
transmission, due to a lower operating voltage compared to LCC.
However, VSC technology is not yet at a mature stage and improvements will be available in the
near future. In particular HVDC losses are expected to reduce further to less than 1% overall.
Furthermore, not all technical considerations are considered in this analysis. VSC for instance
has been selected in many cases because of its ability to connect between weak systems, which
prevent LCC technology being selected. For this reason it is the most suitable technology for an
HVDC offshore meshed grid concept.
VSC also has a smaller footprint due to reduced filtering requirements.

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14 Appendix 3:
Examples of Smart planning
The concept of Smart Planning is developed in the framework of the Expansion Strategy Plan
as a technological aid to the development of the network to reduce the intrinsic Discretisation
Effect in the decision making process of the new infrastructure. This has some advantage in
long term as it allows the risk associated with making large capital investments to be reduced,
by postponed part of it, allowing the overall transmission system to make best use of the
existing network over the period of dynamic evolution of the network, until such time that a
need for further reinforcement becomes clearer. In particular, the concept addresses the issue of
infrastructure utilisation over a long period, i.e. 20 years, in the Offshore Grid space.
At this time a decision as to whether to recycle AC infrastructure into DC can be made.
This is of major importance as a move to a full DC solution has associated high investment costs
which may not be justified in the early stages of network development.
Initial investigation with cable manufacturers, has confirmed that this may be technically
possible provided the connection is planned for this purpose from its inception.

14.1 AC to DC advantages
In terms of advantages, the upgrading of AC infrastructure to DC has been already identified
for the Spain-Morocco Interconnection Project [19]. In the first phase, a 700 MW AC Oil fluid
filled cable has been installed with a vision for a total of four phases of development. The cable
circuit design has been performed to allow for it to be ultimately used DC, in a quadrupole HVDC
configuration. The final stage will have upgraded the transfer to 2000 MW.
When transforming an AC cable to DC, the increase in transmission performance is due to:


1) An increasing operating voltage, DC can be close to the AC peak, that is 1.41 time the
AC operating voltage
1) An increasing in ampacity, DC avoids induced currents in the sheath and therefore
reduces losses and increases ampacity.
2) A reduced number of conductors, from three to two for one circuit.

Overall, if we considered a single three-phase AC circuit, the gain would be:




i. 40% because of 1 above


ii. 50% because of 2 above
iii. 50% reliability on the cable

In the case of two AC circuits, the 50% reliability, can be substituted with an extra circuit
(i.e. 3 single poles DC circuits) giving a further 50% gain to the transmission capacity.

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14.2 Submarine Cable and AC/HVDC technology


The aforementioned advantages can be exploited using Oil filled and XLPE cable. MI PPL cable is
not suitable for this multipurpose use.
Therefore, in this report, the Smart Planning, concept is addressed to Submarine Cable scenarios
which involve XLPE cables.
The transformation from an AC to DC circuit should therefore be considered as HVDC-VSC
technology.

14.3 Example of application


This example of an application is demonstrated from a portion of the subset solution shown in
figure A3.1, where a Mixed AC/DC grid has been proposed as solution of the ESP optimisation
process.

Kish

Codling
WF30
ARKLOW

EXP
GB

ARKO

Figure A3.1. Irish Sea Mixed AC/DC

The focus of the discussion is the ARKLOW-ARKO-WF3-EXP_GB pathway, a network development


synergy between connecting to Wind farm, ARKO and a Future WF3 and Interconnecting Ireland
and Britain.
We assume there are 4 stages of wind offshore expansion, and corresponding potential solution
for their connection in a dynamic evolving grid. This is shown in Figure A3.2.

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Three solutions are proposed in order to reach the following objectives in the final year:

1) Connection of Offshore Wind Farms


2) A final Interconnection capacity of 3000 MW
Site A

460 MW

Site B

300 MW

160 MW

Site A

920 MW

Site B

600 MW

AI
Site A

3000 MW

= VSC HVDC
550 MW

Year 1

Year 2

320 MW

GB

Site B

2000 MW

Year 3

900 MW

Site A

413 MW
3000 MW

Site B

3000 MW

Year 4

1100 MW

413 MW

a) AC to DC-VSC scenario

920 MW

Site A
300 MW

920 MW

Site B

= VSC HVDC
550 MW

Year 1

160 MW

Site A
600 MW

Site B

Year 2

320 MW

AI

GB
2000 MW

Year 3

900 MW

413 MW

3000 MW

Year 4

1100 MW

413 MW

a) AC 400 kV and DC-VSC Off to GB

920 MW

Site A
300 MW

920 MW

Site B

= LCC HVDC
1000 MW

Year 1

160 MW

Site A
600 MW

Site B

Year 2

320 MW

AI

GB
2000 MW

1840 MW

900 MW

Year 3
413 MW

3000 MW
1840 MW

1100 MW

Year 4
413 MW

c) AC 400 kV and DC-LCC AI to GB

Figure A3.2. Dynamic Expansion Alternatives

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In the estimation of the total costs, capital costs as well as losses are considered according to
data described in the report for any type of technology. Load factor has been assumed 80% in
this case for simplicity, and not the typical AC technology load factor due to the use of power
control to make better use of the capacity and still maintain the network within acceptable
limits post contingency.
In Figure A3.2 Scenario a), the flexibility of conversion to DC-VSC network is assumed. It is
considered at year 3 (stage), where from a double AC a triple DC is obtained with a 3.2 times
capacity gain. Initial AC is 220 kV.
In Figure A3.2 Scenario b), AC technology is retained over the 4 stages as 400 kV. DC technology
is implemented at year 3 (stage) directly from the last offshore wind farm to Britain.
In Figure A3.2 Scenario c), a more traditional approach is selected, considering a radial
connection to Ireland for offshore generation and an onshore point-to-point link from AI to GB
interconnector. 2 GW are assumed by year 3 and an extra 1 GW by year 4.
In the base case, geographic distances are as shown in fig.A.3.3

Site A
18 km

Site B
33 km

112 km

Figure A3.3. Geographical Distances

Sensitivity analysis has been performed, by changing the distance of Site A from the shore; from
18 to 72 km. the other intermediate distances remain unchanged.

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Cash flow base case is shown in table A3.1

y e a rs
0

2013

A C to D C - V S C

AC 400 kV +V S C

A C 400 kV + L C C

in v e s t

o p e r a tio n

in v e s t

in v e s t

(k e u r o )

k e u r o /y

165240

1 3 7 7 .2 3 1

o p e r a tio n

2 5 6 0 6 2 .2

1 6 3 2 .9 2 7

o p e r a tio n

1 9 7 2 9 4 .9

1 6 3 2 .9 2 6 5 2

1 3 7 7 .2 3 1

1 6 3 2 .9 2 7

1 6 3 2 .9 2 6 5 2

1 3 7 7 .2 3 1

1 6 3 2 .9 2 7

1 6 3 2 .9 2 6 5 2

1 3 7 7 .2 3 1

1 6 3 2 .9 2 7

2017

58320

1 8 6 3 .3 1 2

1 6 3 2 .9 2 6 5 2

1 6 3 2 .9 2 7

1 6 3 2 .9 2 6 5 2

1 8 6 3 .3 1 2

1 6 3 2 .9 2 7

1 6 3 2 .9 2 6 5 2

1 8 6 3 .3 1 2

1 6 3 2 .9 2 7

1 6 3 2 .9 2 6 5 2

1 8 6 3 .3 1 2

1 6 3 2 .9 2 7

2021

1307165

2 3 3 4 1 .7 5

1320586

1 6 3 2 .9 2 6 5 2

2 7 0 6 6 .6 4

1041229

1 6 0 3 4 .5 3 2

2 3 3 4 1 .7 5

2 7 0 6 6 .6 4

1 6 0 3 4 .5 3 2

10

2 3 3 4 1 .7 5

2 7 0 6 6 .6 4

1 6 0 3 4 .5 3 2

11

2 3 3 4 1 .7 5

2 7 0 6 6 .6 4

12

2025

447552

3 0 3 7 5 .7 8

7 8 8 3 2 4 .2

1 6 0 3 4 .5 3 2

4 0 5 9 9 .9 6

5 2 0 6 1 4 .3

2 2 4 1 8 .8 7 1 5

13

3 0 3 7 5 .7 8

4 0 5 9 9 .9 6

2 2 4 1 8 .8 7 1 5

14

3 0 3 7 5 .7 8

4 0 5 9 9 .9 6

2 2 4 1 8 .8 7 1 5

15

3 0 3 7 5 .7 8

4 0 5 9 9 .9 6

2 2 4 1 8 .8 7 1 5

Table A3.1. Basecase Cash Flow.

For evaluation of the alternatives the Net Present Value Method is assumed with a discount rate
of 5.63% (in line with regulated rate of return in Ireland).
A C to D C -V S C

A C 4 00 kV + V S C

A C 4 00 kV + L C C

in v e s t

o p e r a tio n

in v e s t

o p e r a tio n

in v e s t

o p e r a tio n

(k e u r o )

k e u r o /y

(k e u r o )

k e u r o /y

(k e u r o )

k e u r o /y

165240

1377

256062

1633

197295

1304

1546

1633
1546

1234

1463

1463
1385

1169

1385

46846

1497

1312

1312

1417

1242

1242
1176

1341

1176

1270

1113

1113

843397

15060

852057

17464

671812

10346

14258

16533

9794

13498

15652

9272

12778

14817

8778

231951

15743

408562

21042

269817

11619

14904

19920

11000

14109

18858

10413

13357

17853

9858

153009

1138924

0
1287434
G r a n d T o ta ls P W V

0
124316

1516681

1 4 1 1 7 4 9 .6 5 7

1 6 6 9 6 8 9 .1 9 5

91950
1 2 3 0 8 7 3 .7 2 2

Table A3.2. Net Present Value: Basecase

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From Table A3.2, it can be seen the strategy C, is the most economic viable over the planning
period. The benefit of LCC technology and the relative long distances of the overall point to
point interconnection at 160 km make this technology the most efficient.
The AC to DC strategy shows, a 13% cost increase and strategy B a 30%. The phased introduction
from AC and DC and hence cost are not sufficient in this case to mitigate the disadvantages of
investing in a VSC solution and the associated losses.
Economic sensitivity analysis has been performed, aimed at verifying the effect of strategic
offshore development options. HVDC units are source of large losses, especially VSC; however,
when transmitting power this is partially mitigated by the greater efficiency of a DC link
compared to AC.
By increasing the distance of site A from the Irish shore, it is expected the difference in NPV
cost between the alternatives will be reduced, particularly for LCC (alternative C) which is much
more affected by the radial AC connections of wind farm Offshore over the whole planning
period.

Site A
18 km

Site B
33 km

112 km

Table A3.3. Net Present Value: Sensitivity analysis of position of site A


P resent Wo rth Value (d r=5.63%)
AC to DC

AC 400kV+VSC

AC 400 kV+LCC

2600
2400
2200
2000
1800
1600
1400
1200
1000
0

20

40

60

80

100

Figure A3.4. NPV sensitivity

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From figure A3.4, a break-even distance is obtained for site A, at about 48 km, where alternative
A and C are economical equivalent.
It is interesting to note that the NPV cost of DC-VSC becomes a lower cost alternative at a much
shorter cable length than the distances calculated in 14.3, based on the same 15 year period
to progress through the four stages of development. This is because there are more synergies
exploited in these scenarios with a more complex system which allows the costs a single solution
to resolve more than the one problem.
The use of LCC (alternative C), is less likely to be able to provide network development synergies
as the connection of the windfarms and interconnection are not provided by shared assets but
are split into two distinct network assets.
In comparison, a conversion from AC to DC (alternative A) provides flexible and can be further
developed from either site A or B or both in future, creating a meshed DC topology, unlike LCC
(alternative C) has a more rigid structure which oblige to reinforce from the AI and GB shores.
The use of an AC and VSC (alternative B), is the more expensive for any length. Indeed in this
simple comparison of a combined DC and AC technology in interconnected offshore networks,
it is the worst performer over all stages of development. This is because the drawbacks of both
technologies are combined in this mixed solution both in term of economical efficiency, ability
to perform multiple network duties and the efficiency of transmission.
In the evaluation, reliability of the network plus losses is not accurately modelled. An examination
using a more detailed system modelling approach would be needed.
However, with reference to figure A3.2, it can be seen that in LCC (alternative C), the offshore
network power flow, is compelled to flow back to AI for the whole planning period, whatever the
market conditions between AI and GB. Alternatively alternative A and C, from this perspective,
are more flexible, allowing the power to be transfer to AI and GB from half a way. This can
provide further efficiency to the operating costs.

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15 Appendix 4: HVDC Models for


Expansion Planning in MIXED AC/DC
meshed Transmission Systems
15.1 Introduction
The increasing complexity and scale of the transmission network, the market driven interest in
transferring power over long distances, and need for power flow control as a consequence of the
increasing penetration variable generation sources, has been a driver factor for the need of DC
circuits not just as point to point connections but also in a more complex meshed, multi-terminal
structure. These must somehow be integrated with the existing and/or future AC network.
Therefore it is of paramount importance to develop tools able to manage this mixed AC/DC
nature which is part of the concept of the future Smart Transmission system.
The new HVDC model used as part of this analysis inside an AC grid using the DCLF approach
is discussed below. The model was also conceived in order to benefit from Mixed Integer
Programming (MIP) procedure for expansion planning (ESP) studies.

15.2 HVDC systems in the ESP Studies


15.2.1 Nodal Current Injection Approach for DC Grids
The DC equation is written assuming:


Nd node numbers,
Md branches,
Ri, j line, cable, transformers, HVDC, etc.., (the resistance of the branch connecting node
i-th, with node j-th).

The following equation can be found:

I i, j =

Vi V j
Ri , j

Where Vi and Vj are DC voltage at nodes I and j respectively.


The balance at each node is the following:

j i

Vi V j
Ri , j

= 0 i = {1,2, K , N d }(1)

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Where

is the subset of nodes connected to the i-th

In case of some known flows on branches, imposed for instance by a suitable control or system
requirement, the equation becomes:

Vi V j
Ri , j

j i

= 0 i = {1,2, K , N d }(1)

The solution of such a system of equations describes the full DC grid in steady state conditions
with no approximation.

15.2.2 The linear DCLF Approach for AC Grids


In this case, similar equations can be written for the AC grid, assuming however that no losses
are present and that voltage is similar to the nominal value in each node
Assuming:

N number of AC nodes

M number of AC branches,

Xi,j the longitudinal reactance between node i-th and j-th

Ti, j the active power flow on this branch from I to j, is given by::

Ti , j =

ViV j K i , j (i j )
X i, j

Where, are the absolute value of Voltages, the phase angles, at node I and j and the transformer
ratio between node I and j respectively.
For any node a balance equation of active power can be written as follows:

ViV j K i , j (i j )

j i

X i, j

= 0 i = {1,2, K , N } (2)

In case some of the flows are known in some branches:

j i

ViV j K i , j (i j )
X i, j

= J0

i = {1,2,K , N }

Therefore the formula above will give the active power flow (Jo) in any AC grid asset for steady
state conditions.

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15.2.3 AC/DC Similarities


When comparing (1) with (2), the DC solution has some similarities with AC, in particular with
the following assumptions.

K i, j will be considered equal to 1 for

1) Voltage level is unique in DC, U nom , therefore,


all the branches

2) It is assigned the nominal voltage in DC as Vi =

3) The longitudinal reactance are substituted by corresponding resistances

4) The power injection in the nodes is replaced by current injections.

Therefore by using four assumptions above, a tool able to solve an AC grid can also solve a DC
grid.
Due to these assumptions, results must also be considered accordingly:

1) Flows on DC links are currents


2) Phase angles in DC nodes are the Voltages in p.u.

15.2.4 Linear Approximation of AC/DC Interface Constraint


A mixed AC/DC system can be represented as two different subsystems, suitable interfaced
through HVDC units in some nodes. The equations (outlined below), link the AC and DC circuit
parameters.
c)AC/DC interface
The AC/DC system are interfaced somewhere with HVDC devices. As AC is described with only
active power flow equations, it is a simple assumption to use active power flows to define
constraints between AC and DC equipment. In particular, considering for the moment an ideal
HVDC, it is assumed there that AC and DC active power will be equal.
For any i, j index associated with AC/DC interface, the following can be written:
Where

Pi = U j j

(3)

Pi = Active Power on the AC grid injected into the i-th converter;

U j = DC Voltage
j = DC Currents
As

U j , j are DC variables, they are related with a non-linear equation, see (3).

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Therefore, the mixed AC/DC system can be fully described in the interrelated parameters by
introducing some NON linear constraints into the model, in particular due to the premise of
equality of active power transfer through the AC/DC interfaces.
Using equation (3) for sake of simplicity with the index subscripts removed:

P =U I
Where P , U , I are, the AC Active Power, the DC nodal Voltage and Current respectively, the
equation can be written, as first order approximation as follows around a (U 0 , I 0 ) solution:

P = U I U 0 I 0 + U 0 (I I 0 ) + I 0 (U U 0 )
With reference to figure A4.1, dividing the DC voltage and DC current in small intervals k-th:

Pi = U i I i U 0i I 0i + U 0i (I i I 0i ) + I 0i (U i U 0i );

i = {1,2, K , k }

Where:

U i , I i DC variables defined in the i-th interval with ends


U 0i , I 0i the coordinates of a suitable working point internal to the i-th interval.
I

Umin

Umax
Imax

Ii
U0i3I0i
Ii
Ui

Ui

Figure A4.1. HVDC linearisation

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By assigning a value to P, on the AC side, an i-th interval must be chosen for the HVDC, which
guarantee the fulfilment of the equation 3. The solution can be found, by evaluated P on the
DC side for every subset of intervals, identified by the binary variable subset APi i ={1,2,K,k } ,
of the continuous variables (Pi , Fi , IFi ,UFi i = {1,2, K, k }) and writing constraints where
and interfacing AC/DC unit is located, as follows:

a) Fi = U 0i I 0i + U 0i (IFi I 0i ) + I 0i (UFi U 0i );

b) Pi = U 0i I 0i + U 0i (I i I 0i ) + I 0i (U i U 0i ) ;

i =1

i =1

i =1

i = {1,2, K , k }
i = {1,2, K , k }

c) Pac Pi + Fi + (U 0i I 0i APi ) = 0;

d) Only one linearization must be considered the feasible solution:


k

AP

i =1

=1

15.3 Phase Shifter Transformer (PST)


15.3.1 Simplified PST Model
A simple way to model a PST in a DCLF is to introduce a new independent variable which is able
to modify the nodal phase angle.
As a consequence the active power through a link can be written in a more general format as
(Variable definition same as 15.1 and 15.2 above):

Ti , j =

ViV j K i , j (i j + )
X i, j

Where the represents the PST regulating angle capability.


The effect of the PST is like a modification of the physical reactance of the branch, see (4), so
that in principal a desired power flow through the branch can be obtained by suitably adjusting
the angle

X i*, j = X i , j

( )
i

(
i

+ )

( 4)

The criteria for the set up of the control angle may be introduced in a formula for general OPF
problems.

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15.3.2 Candidate PSTs in a ESP tool for HVDC approximation


The HVDC model described in 15.2.4 is a detailed approach which overcomes the non-linearity by
a suitable discretisation of the HVDC working characteristics. This discretisation then is solved
by applying the MIP type of problem for the selection of the most profitable infrastructure.
However, a single HVDC introduces many binary variables, i.e. 30-50 for reliable modelling,
which may not be viable for large problems.
Therefore, in the chapter it is shown how a suitable PST could in principle fulfil the job. In
particular the PST can account for the power flow controlling feature that may have important
consequences in the implementation of a reinforcement infrastructure strategy.
The idea is therefore to represent the AC/DC interface with an AC PST device whose power flows
may be controlled by the PST device itself.
With reference to figure A4.3, an example is described where the two systems, AC and DC are
connected through a device which makes the phase angles independent on both sides.

DC Grid
Expansion
ESPANSIONE
RETEDC

AC Grid
Expansion
RETEAC

Figure A4.2. HVDC-PST

This model is an approximation which neglects losses in line with the approximation of the AC
grid.

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15.4 The MIXED AC/DC model for ESPAUT


To summarise the aforementioned model developments, a MIXED AC/DC grid model can be
represented in the ESPAUT tools, by using a fully equivalent AC linearised model where for the
DC system the following equivalences have been account for:

Longitudinal 50 Hz reactances are replaced by DC resistances


The nominal DC voltage in kV is replaced by its square root value

Finally the results of the DC side have the following correspondences:



For DC nodes, phase angles are the DC voltages in p.u. of the nominal.
For the DC branches, the power flows represent the currents in kA

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16 Appendix 5: Pure AC Model


Senstivity Results
5 GW
Basecase
2013

DOUH211-221

MYBH211-221
MYSH211

MORH211-111

WS10211
WS40211

MOSH111-211
WS20211

FWIH111

HANU111

DASH211-221

ARG0211

FORH113

BELH111

INVH111

FARH111

FORH112

COCH111

ISL0211

NORTHERN
IRELAND

FORH111
NEAH111

KSSU111

TORH111

HUEH111-221
KIN0211

TRIA111-411

DOGK113

COLD211
BUNBEG

STSJ111

COOD211

LEAD111-411

CACD211

TIEVEBRACK
GOLA111-411

STRD211

ORIO211

HILL
CAVA111-211

HUNC111 BA1C211
WOOC111

MULLINGAR

CKMC111
DUNC111
CHARLESLAND
TURLOUGH
HILL
BALLYBEG

OLDB111-411

LAOC111
IKERRIN
WEMB111
BALLYRAGGET
NENAGH

MONB111-211

WGRW211

TARB111-211

COOMAGEARLAHY CLASHA
CROSS

DRXK111

MEES111

YORK111

LANZ111

GROZ111

SHHK111

NSUS111
WLPM111

TRAL111
WF4O211

NORM111

NORM112

NOSM111

ZWOS111

BAIM111

CULLENAGH
DUNGARVAN

PEMM111

BR1O211

BSUE111

NURN111

SELN111

LOVN111

EXTN111

GEES111

CANN111

KEMN111
BOLN111

ALVN111

CHIN111

WARF111

ABHN111

GIEZ111

MERE111

MANF111

HASO211

DODS111

MESE111

BOSN211

LAGN111

DIES111

THAN111

GRAN111

BR2O211

INDN111

BROZ111

MAVS111

LOAN111
COSN111

MASN111
OBEZ111

AVEF111

WIWO211

NETS111

SCIN211

COUE111 GRAE111

PENF111

LHVF111
CHEF111

CHEF111

ARGF111
TOUF111

LAMF111

GERZ111

KUSZ111

GRNZ111

GRGM111
GUFM111

SWAM111

PESM212

0Euro
2013

DISS111

WALM111

WF5O211

LIPZ111

HENS111

BRFM111

CASL211

AGHB111

BRINNY
BANDON
DUNMANWAY

CROB211

NEHZ111

NORM113
SIZM111

CAML111

SU2O211

WAHZ111

WEHZ111

DUDK111

DOCK111

GLAO211

GREC111

HNEZ111

TKNK111
RCBK111

TKSK111

BICM111

LEGL111

HAMZ111

HORK112

HUGK111

DEEL111

TREL111

ARKO211

DOON

CHARLEVILLE

GLENLARA
MALLOW
OUGHTRAGH
BVKB111 KNOB111
OUGB211
COOMACHEO

AF4W211

LODC211

KIAC111

TIPPERARY
CAHC111

KN1B111-411

CLAHANE
TRALEE

DRSK111

PEWL111

PENL111

WF3O211

KELC111

THURLES

ARDNACRUSHA
KILB111-211
KILLONAN

PROSPECT

TASB111-211

SU1O211
CODO211

WEDZ111

MEPZ111

WERK111

HORK111

THTK111

WYLL111

KISO211

ARKC111

DIEZ111
MESS111

THSK111

QUEL111
HAML211

SU6O211

WF2O211
MAYC111

TYNAGH

ENNIS

HUTL111

WALO211

WJ1O211 WJ2O211

BALC111

KINNEGAD

SHAA111-411

CASA111-411

MD1B111-211
AV2W211

GSUZ111

LACJ111

HUSL212

WLAO211
WIAO211
SU5O211

GALWAY

AF2W211

WNAO211
MANQ211

WF1O211

WDUO211

LANESBORO

CLOON

CAMUS

ARVA

GILRA

SU8O211

LOUA211
BALA211

SHANKILL
-ON-

FLAA111-411

BRBU111
WESZ111

HAWJ111

HUSL211

SU4O211

SRANANAGH
SRAA111-411
CUNGHILL

CASTLEBAR
DALTON

AV3W211

HARJ111
SOL0211

WIG0211

DOGK112
DOGK111

STEJ111

GRNH111

OMAD111-211 TURD111-211
TAND211

ENND111-411

BELA111-211-411
WHRW211

AF3W211

AUCH211-221

SU7O211

CATA111-411

SLIA111-411

AV1W211

KELD211
BAFD211

*
HAND211

WIRW211

AF1W211

MAGD211

KASU111

DSUU111

WKNW211

WJNW211

PETH111-211

BRDH111
BEAH111-211
FAGH111
WS30211

WS50211

LONF111

MOUF111

ROUF111
TERF111
MEZF111

DAMF111
GATF111 LCHF111

VERF111

CORF111
DISF111

FRAF111

HOUF111
MSEF111

LQUF111

LOUF111

5 GW
Basecase
2015

VIGF111

VLVF111MORF111
LREF111

PLHF111

DOMF111

AVOF111

DOUH211-221

MYBH211-221
MYSH211

MORH211-111

WS10211
WS40211

MOSH111-211
WS20211

FWIH111

HANU111

DASH211-221

ARG0211

FORH113

BELH111

INVH111

FARH111

FORH112

COCH111

ISL0211

NORTHERN
IRELAND

FORH111
NEAH111

KSSU111

TORH111

HUEH111-221
KIN0211

TRIA111-411

DOGK113

COLD211
BUNBEG

STSJ111

COOD211

LEAD111-411

CACD211

TIEVEBRACK
GOLA111-411

STRD211

HUNC111 BA1C211
WOOC111

AF3W211

MONB111-211
TASB111-211

AV3W211

WGRW211

CKMC111

LAOC111
IKERRIN
WEMB111
BALLYRAGGET
NENAGH

ARDNACRUSHA
KILB111-211
KILLONAN

PROSPECT

BALLYBEG

CHARLEVILLE

GLENLARA
MALLOW
OUGHTRAGH
BVKB111 KNOB111
OUGB211
COOMACHEO

LODC211

KIAC111

COOMAGEARLAHY CLASHA
BRINNY
BANDON
DUNMANWAY

DRSK111

DRXK111

SU6O211

WLPM111

NORM111

GROZ111

CULLENAGH
DUNGARVAN

DISS111

COSN111

BROZ111

MAVS111

BSUE111

LOVN111

GEES111

CANN111

KEMN111
BOLN111
NURN111

EXTN111

SELN111

CHIN111

WARF111

ABHN111

GIEZ111

MERE111

MANF111

HASO211

DODS111

MESE111

BOSN211

LAGN111

DIES111

THAN111

GRAN111

BR2O211

MASN111
OBEZ111

AVEF111

WIWO211

NETS111

SCIN211

LHVF111

COUE111 GRAE111

PENF111

CHEF111

CHEF111

ARGF111
TOUF111

LAMF111

GERZ111

KUSZ111

GRNZ111

GRGM111

LOAN111

ALVN111

INDN111

LIPZ111

GUFM111

SWAM111

PESM212

BR1O211

NEHZ111

HENS111

BRFM111
WALM111

PEMM111

ZWOS111
NORM113

SIZM111

CASL211

WF5O211

NORM112

NOSM111

BAIM111

CAML111

AGHB111

CROB211

0Euro
2015

LANZ111

NSUS111

TRAL111
WF4O211

SU2O211

WAHZ111

WEHZ111

DUDK111
SHHK111

GLAO211

GREC111

HNEZ111

TKNK111
RCBK111
DOCK111

BICM111

LEGL111

ARKO211

DOON

MEES111

YORK111

DEEL111

TREL111

HAMZ111

HORK112

HUGK111

TKSK111

PENL111

WF3O211

WEDZ111

MEPZ111

WERK111

HORK111

THTK111

PEWL111

WJ2O211

SU1O211
CODO211

KELC111

THURLES

TIPPERARY
CAHC111

KN1B111-411

CROSS

CHARLESLAND

ARKC111

DIEZ111
MESS111

THSK111

QUEL111
HAML211

WYLL111

KISO211
DUNC111
TURLOUGH
HILL

OLDB111-411

TARB111-211

CLAHANE
TRALEE

WJ1O211

WF2O211
MAYC111

TYNAGH

ENNIS

HUTL111

WALO211

SU5O211

BALC111

KINNEGAD

SHAA111-411

CASA111-411
GALWAY

MD1B111-211

HUSL212

WLAO211
WIAO211

GSUZ111

LACJ111

HUSL211
WNAO211

MANQ211

WF1O211

WDUO211

MULLINGAR

CLOON

ORIO211

HILL
CAVA111-211

LANESBORO

AV2W211

AF4W211

ARVA

SU8O211

LOUA211
BALA211

SHANKILL
GILRA

BRBU111
WESZ111

HAWJ111

SOL0211

SU4O211

SRANANAGH
SRAA111-411

-ON-

FLAA111-411
DALTON

DOGK112
DOGK111

STEJ111

HARJ111
WIG0211

CUNGHILL

CASTLEBAR

CAMUS

GRNH111

OMAD111-211 TURD111-211
TAND211

ENND111-411

BELA111-211-411
WHRW211

AF2W211

AUCH211-221

SU7O211

CATA111-411

SLIA111-411

AV1W211

KELD211
BAFD211

*
HAND211

WIRW211

AF1W211

MAGD211

KASU111

DSUU111

WKNW211

WJNW211

PETH111-211

BRDH111
BEAH111-211
FAGH111
WS30211

WS50211

LONF111

MOUF111

ROUF111
TERF111
MEZF111

DOMF111

PLHF111

LOUF111

VLVF111MORF111

VIGF111

LREF111
LQUF111
DAMF111
VERF111

CORF111
DISF111

FRAF111

HOUF111
MSEF111

GATF111 LCHF111

AVOF111

159
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EirGrid Offshore Grid Study

5 GW
Basecase
2018

DOUH211-221

MYBH211-221
MYSH211

MORH211-111

WS10211
WS40211

MOSH111-211
WS20211

FWIH111

HANU111

DASH211-221

ARG0211

FORH113

BELH111

INVH111

FARH111

FORH112

COCH111

ISL0211

NORTHERN
IRELAND

FORH111
NEAH111

KSSU111

TORH111

HUEH111-221
KIN0211

TRIA111-411

DOGK113

COLD211
BUNBEG

STSJ111

COOD211

LEAD111-411

CACD211

TIEVEBRACK
GOLA111-411

SLIA111-411
CUNGHILL

ARVA

GILRA

FLAA111-411
DALTON

ORIO211

HILL
CAVA111-211

LANESBORO

MONB111-211

TARB111-211

WGRW211

GLENLARA
MALLOW
BVKB111 KNOB111
COOMACHEO

OUGB211

COOMAGEARLAHY CLASHA
CROSS

DRXK111

LANZ111

GROZ111

SHHK111

NSUS111
WLPM111

CULLENAGH
DUNGARVAN

COSN111

SELN111

LOVN111

WARF111

GIEZ111

MERE111

MANF111

HASO211

DODS111

MESE111

BOSN211

CHIN111
ABHN111
LAGN111

DIES111

GEES111

CANN111

KEMN111
BOLN111
NURN111

EXTN111

INDN111

MAVS111

BSUE111
THAN111

GRAN111

BR2O211

MASN111
OBEZ111

AVEF111

WIWO211

NETS111

SCIN211

COUE111 GRAE111

PENF111

LHVF111
CHEF111

CHEF111

ARGF111
TOUF111

LAMF111

GERZ111

KUSZ111

GRNZ111
BROZ111

LOAN111

ALVN111

0Euro
2018

DISS111
GRGM111
GUFM111

SWAM111

PESM212

BR1O211

NEHZ111
LIPZ111

HENS111

BRFM111
WALM111

PEMM111

ZWOS111
NORM113

SIZM111

CASL211

WF5O211

NORM112

NOSM111

NORM111

BAIM111

CAML111

AGHB111

BRINNY
BANDON
DUNMANWAY

CROB211

WAHZ111

WEHZ111

DUDK111

DOCK111

WF4O211

SU2O211

HNEZ111

TKNK111
RCBK111

TKSK111

BICM111

TRAL111

ARKO211

MEES111

YORK111

GLAO211

GREC111

OUGHTRAGH
AF4W211

ARKC111
LODC211

KIAC111

DOON

CHARLEVILLE

DRSK111

PEWL111

LEGL111

HAMZ111

HORK112

HUGK111

DEEL111

TREL111

WEDZ111

MEPZ111

WERK111

HORK111

THTK111

SU6O211

PENL111

CODO211
WF3O211

TIPPERARY
CAHC111

KN1B111-411

CLAHANE
TRALEE

SU5O211

SU1O211

BALLYBEG

KELC111

THURLES

ARDNACRUSHA
KILB111-211
KILLONAN

PROSPECT

TASB111-211

AV3W211

CHARLESLAND

DIEZ111
MESS111

THSK111

QUEL111
HAML211

WYLL111

KISO211

LAOC111
IKERRIN
WEMB111
BALLYRAGGET
NENAGH

HUTL111

WALO211

WJ2O211

WF2O211
CKMC111

DUNC111
TURLOUGH
HILL

OLDB111-411

ENNIS

AF3W211

WJ1O211

BALC111

MAYC111

TYNAGH

GSUZ111

LACJ111

HUSL212

WLAO211
WIAO211

HUNC111 BA1C211
WOOC111
KINNEGAD

SHAA111-411

CASA111-411
GALWAY

MD1B111-211
AV2W211

WNAO211
MANQ211

WF1O211

WDUO211

MULLINGAR

CLOON

CAMUS

AF2W211

SU8O211

LOUA211
BALA211

SHANKILL
-ONCASTLEBAR

HUSL211

SU4O211

SRANANAGH
SRAA111-411

BELA111-211-411

AV1W211

BRBU111
WESZ111

HAWJ111

SOL0211

WIG0211
OMAD111-211 TURD111-211
TAND211
ENND111-411

DOGK112
DOGK111

STEJ111

GRNH111
HARJ111

CATA111-411

WHRW211

AF1W211

AUCH211-221

SU7O211

MAGD211

STRD211

KELD211
BAFD211

HAND211

WIRW211

KASU111

DSUU111

WKNW211

WJNW211

PETH111-211

BRDH111
BEAH111-211
FAGH111
WS30211

WS50211

LONF111

MOUF111

ROUF111
TERF111
MEZF111

DOMF111

DAMF111
GATF111 LCHF111

VERF111
DISF111

FRAF111

HOUF111
MSEF111

LQUF111

CORF111

5 GW
Basecase
2020

VIGF111

VLVF111MORF111
LREF111

PLHF111

LOUF111

AVOF111

DOUH211-221

MYBH211-221
MYSH211

MORH211-111

WS10211
WS40211

MOSH111-211
WS20211

WS30211

WS50211

FWIH111

HANU111

DASH211-221

ARG0211

FORH113

BELH111

INVH111

FARH111

FORH112

COCH111

ISL0211

NORTHERN
IRELAND

FORH111
NEAH111

KSSU111

TORH111

HUEH111-221
KIN0211

TRIA111-411

DOGK113

COLD211
BUNBEG

STSJ111

COOD211

LEAD111-411

CACD211

TIEVEBRACK
GOLA111-411

STRD211

MULLINGAR

MONB111-211
TASB111-211

AV3W211

WGRW211

AF4W211

ARDNACRUSHA
KILB111-211
KILLONAN

PROSPECT

TARB111-211
CHARLEVILLE

GLENLARA
MALLOW
OUGHTRAGH
BVKB111 KNOB111
OUGB211
COOMACHEO
COOMAGEARLAHY CLASHA
CROSS

BALLYBEG

BRINNY
BANDON
DUNMANWAY

SU1O211

LODC211

KIAC111

DRXK111

WLPM111

NORM111

GROZ111

CULLENAGH
DUNGARVAN

BRFM111

DISS111

BROZ111

MAVS111

BSUE111

LOVN111

GEES111

CANN111

KEMN111
BOLN111
NURN111

EXTN111

SELN111

CHIN111

WARF111

ABHN111

GIEZ111

MERE111

MANF111

HASO211

DODS111

MESE111

BOSN211

LAGN111

DIES111

THAN111

GRAN111

BR2O211

MASN111
OBEZ111

AVEF111

WIWO211

NETS111

SCIN211

LHVF111

PENF111

CHEF111

COUE111 GRAE111
CHEF111

ARGF111
TOUF111

LAMF111

GERZ111

KUSZ111

GRNZ111

GRGM111

LOAN111
COSN111

ALVN111

INDN111

LIPZ111

GUFM111

SWAM111

PESM212

BR1O211

NEHZ111

HENS111

WALM111
PEMM111

ZWOS111
NORM113

SIZM111

CASL211

WF5O211

NORM112

NOSM111

BAIM111

CAML111

AGHB111

CROB211

0Euro
2020

LANZ111

NSUS111

TRAL111
WF4O211

SU2O211

WAHZ111

WEHZ111

DUDK111
SHHK111

GLAO211

GREC111

HNEZ111

TKNK111
RCBK111
DOCK111

BICM111

LEGL111

ARKO211

DOON

MEES111

YORK111

DEEL111

TREL111

WF3O211

HAMZ111

HORK112

HUGK111

TKSK111

PENL111

CODO211

KELC111

THURLES

TIPPERARY
CAHC111

KN1B111-411

CLAHANE
TRALEE

CHARLESLAND

ARKC111

DRSK111

WYLL111

KISO211

LAOC111
IKERRIN
WEMB111
BALLYRAGGET
NENAGH

WEDZ111

MEPZ111

WERK111

HORK111

THTK111

SU6O211

WF2O211
CKMC111

DUNC111
TURLOUGH
HILL

OLDB111-411

DIEZ111
MESS111

THSK111

QUEL111
HAML211

PEWL111

WJ1O211 WJ2O211

BALC111

MAYC111

TYNAGH

ENNIS

HUTL111

WALO211

SU5O211

BA1C211

WOOC111
KINNEGAD

GALWAY

MD1B111-211
AV2W211

HUSL212

WLAO211
WIAO211

GSUZ111

LACJ111

HUSL211

WNAO211
MANQ211

WF1O211

WDUO211
HUNC111

SHAA111-411

CASA111-411

ORIO211

HILL
CAVA111-211

LANESBORO

CLOON

CAMUS

ARVA

GILRA

SU8O211

LOUA211
BALA211

SHANKILL
-ON-

FLAA111-411

BRBU111
WESZ111

HAWJ111

SOL0211

SU4O211

SRANANAGH
SRAA111-411
CUNGHILL

CASTLEBAR

DOGK112
DOGK111

STEJ111

HARJ111
WIG0211

DALTON

AF3W211

GRNH111

OMAD111-211 TURD111-211
TAND211

ENND111-411

BELA111-211-411
WHRW211

AF2W211

AUCH211-221

SU7O211

CATA111-411

SLIA111-411

AV1W211

KELD211
BAFD211

*
HAND211

WIRW211

AF1W211

MAGD211

KASU111

DSUU111

WKNW211

WJNW211

PETH111-211

BRDH111
BEAH111-211
FAGH111

LONF111

MOUF111

ROUF111
TERF111
MEZF111

DOMF111

VLVF111MORF111
LREF111

PLHF111

LOUF111

LQUF111
DAMF111
VERF111

CORF111
DISF111

VIGF111

FRAF111

HOUF111
MSEF111

GATF111 LCHF111

AVOF111

160
2257 Offshore Grid Study FA.indd 160

24/08/2011 16:26

EirGrid Offshore Grid Study

5 GW
Basecase
2023

DOUH211-221

MYBH211-221
MYSH211

MORH211-111

WS10211
WS40211

MOSH111-211
WS20211

FWIH111

HANU111

DASH211-221

ARG0211

FORH113

BELH111

INVH111

FARH111

FORH112

COCH111

ISL0211

NORTHERN
IRELAND

FORH111
NEAH111

KSSU111

TORH111

HUEH111-221
KIN0211

TRIA111-411

DOGK113

COLD211
BUNBEG

STSJ111

COOD211

LEAD111-411

CACD211

TIEVEBRACK
GOLA111-411

SLIA111-411

ORIO211

HILL
CAVA111-211

LANESBORO

HUNC111

ENNIS

AF3W211

MONB111-211
TASB111-211

AV3W211

WGRW211

COOMAGEARLAHY CLASHA
CROSS

ARKC111
LODC211

KIAC111

DRSK111

PEWL111
DRXK111

MEES111

YORK111

LANZ111

GROZ111

SHHK111

NSUS111
WLPM111

TRAL111
WF4O211

NORM111

NORM112

NOSM111

ZWOS111

BAIM111

SIZM111

CAML111

SU2O211

CULLENAGH
DUNGARVAN

PEMM111

MAVS111

BSUE111

NURN111

SELN111

LOVN111

EXTN111

GEES111

CANN111

KEMN111
BOLN111

ALVN111

CHIN111

WARF111

ABHN111

GIEZ111

MERE111

MANF111

HASO211

DODS111

MESE111

BOSN211

LAGN111

DIES111

THAN111

GRAN111

BR2O211

INDN111

BROZ111

LOAN111
COSN111

BR1O211

MASN111
OBEZ111

AVEF111

WIWO211

NETS111

SCIN211

COUE111 GRAE111

PENF111

LHVF111
CHEF111

CHEF111

ARGF111
TOUF111

LAMF111

GERZ111

KUSZ111

GRNZ111

GRGM111
GUFM111

SWAM111

PESM212

0Euro
2023

DISS111

WALM111

WF5O211

LIPZ111

HENS111

BRFM111

CASL211

AGHB111

BRINNY
BANDON
DUNMANWAY

CROB211

NEHZ111

NORM113

GLAO211

GREC111

WAHZ111

WEHZ111

DUDK111

DOCK111
BICM111

LEGL111

HNEZ111

TKNK111
RCBK111

DEEL111

TREL111

HAMZ111

HORK112

HUGK111

TKSK111

PENL111

ARKO211

DOON

CHARLEVILLE

GLENLARA
MALLOW
OUGHTRAGH
BVKB111 KNOB111
OUGB211
COOMACHEO

SU1O211
CODO211
WF3O211

TIPPERARY
CAHC111

KN1B111-411

CLAHANE
TRALEE

AF4W211

BALLYBEG

KELC111

THURLES

ARDNACRUSHA
KILB111-211
KILLONAN

PROSPECT

TARB111-211

CHARLESLAND

WEDZ111

MEPZ111

WERK111

HORK111

THTK111

WYLL111

KISO211

LAOC111
IKERRIN
WEMB111
BALLYRAGGET
NENAGH

DIEZ111
MESS111

THSK111

QUEL111
HAML211

SU6O211

WF2O211
CKMC111

DUNC111
TURLOUGH
HILL

OLDB111-411

HUTL111

WALO211

SU5O211
WJ1O211 WJ2O211

BALC111

MAYC111

TYNAGH
MD1B111-211
AV2W211

BA1C211

WOOC111
KINNEGAD

SHAA111-411

CASA111-411
GALWAY

AF2W211

HUSL212

WLAO211
WIAO211

GSUZ111

LACJ111

HUSL211

WNAO211
MANQ211

WF1O211

WDUO211

MULLINGAR

CLOON

CAMUS

ARVA

GILRA

SU8O211

LOUA211
BALA211

SHANKILL
-ON-

FLAA111-411
DALTON

BRBU111
WESZ111

HAWJ111

SOL0211

SU4O211

SRANANAGH
SRAA111-411
CUNGHILL

CASTLEBAR

DOGK112
DOGK111

STEJ111

GRNH111
HARJ111

WIG0211
OMAD111-211 TURD111-211
TAND211
ENND111-411

BELA111-211-411

AV1W211

AUCH211-221

SU7O211

CATA111-411

WHRW211

AF1W211

MAGD211

STRD211

KELD211
BAFD211

HAND211

WIRW211

KASU111

DSUU111

WKNW211

WJNW211

PETH111-211

BRDH111
BEAH111-211
FAGH111
WS30211

WS50211

LONF111

MOUF111

ROUF111
TERF111
MEZF111

DOMF111

PLHF111

FRAF111

HOUF111
MSEF111

DAMF111
GATF111 LCHF111

VERF111

CORF111
DISF111

5 GW
Basecase
2025

VIGF111

VLVF111MORF111

LREF111
LQUF111

LOUF111

AVOF111

DOUH211-221

MYBH211-221
MYSH211

MORH211-111

WS10211
WS40211

MOSH111-211
WS20211

WS30211

WS50211

FWIH111

HANU111

DASH211-221

ARG0211

FORH113

BELH111

INVH111

FARH111

FORH112

COCH111

ISL0211

NORTHERN
IRELAND

FORH111
NEAH111

HUEH111-221

DSUU111

KIN0211

TRIA111-411

DOGK113

COLD211
BUNBEG

STSJ111

COOD211

LEAD111-411

CACD211

TIEVEBRACK
GOLA111-411

STRD211

HUNC111

AF3W211

MONB111-211
TASB111-211

AV3W211

WGRW211

ARDNACRUSHA
KILB111-211
KILLONAN

PROSPECT

TARB111-211
CHARLEVILLE

GLENLARA
MALLOW
OUGHTRAGH
BVKB111 KNOB111
OUGB211
COOMACHEO
COOMAGEARLAHY CLASHA
CROSS

BALLYBEG

BRINNY
BANDON
DUNMANWAY

SU1O211

LODC211

KIAC111

DRXK111

WLPM111

NORM111

GROZ111

CULLENAGH
DUNGARVAN

BRFM111

DISS111

BROZ111

MAVS111

BSUE111

LOVN111

GEES111

CANN111

KEMN111
BOLN111
NURN111

EXTN111

SELN111

CHIN111

WARF111

ABHN111

GIEZ111

MERE111

MANF111

HASO211

DODS111

MESE111

BOSN211

LAGN111

DIES111

THAN111

GRAN111

BR2O211

MASN111
OBEZ111

AVEF111

WIWO211

NETS111

SCIN211

LHVF111

COUE111 GRAE111

PENF111

CHEF111

CHEF111

ARGF111
TOUF111

LAMF111

GERZ111

KUSZ111

GRNZ111

GRGM111

LOAN111
COSN111

ALVN111

INDN111

LIPZ111

GUFM111

SWAM111

PESM212

BR1O211

NEHZ111

HENS111

WALM111
PEMM111

ZWOS111
NORM113

SIZM111

CASL211

WF5O211

NORM112

NOSM111

BAIM111

CAML111

AGHB111

CROB211

0Euro
2025

LANZ111

NSUS111

TRAL111
WF4O211

SU2O211

WAHZ111

WEHZ111

DUDK111
SHHK111

GLAO211

GREC111

HNEZ111

TKNK111
RCBK111
DOCK111

BICM111

LEGL111

ARKO211

DOON

MEES111

YORK111

DEEL111

TREL111

WF3O211

HAMZ111

HORK112

HUGK111

TKSK111

PENL111

CODO211

KELC111

THURLES

TIPPERARY
CAHC111

KN1B111-411

CLAHANE
TRALEE

CHARLESLAND

ARKC111

DRSK111

WYLL111

KISO211

LAOC111
IKERRIN
WEMB111
BALLYRAGGET
NENAGH

WEDZ111

MEPZ111

WERK111

HORK111

THTK111

SU6O211

WF2O211
CKMC111

DUNC111
TURLOUGH
HILL

OLDB111-411

DIEZ111
MESS111

THSK111

QUEL111
HAML211

PEWL111

WJ1O211 WJ2O211

BALC111

MAYC111

TYNAGH

ENNIS

HUTL111

WALO211

SU5O211

BA1C211

WOOC111
KINNEGAD

SHAA111-411

CASA111-411
GALWAY

MD1B111-211

HUSL212

WLAO211
WIAO211

GSUZ111

LACJ111

HUSL211

WNAO211
MANQ211

WF1O211

WDUO211

MULLINGAR

CLOON

ORIO211

HILL
CAVA111-211

LANESBORO

AV2W211

AF4W211

ARVA

SU8O211

LOUA211
BALA211

SHANKILL
GILRA

BRBU111
WESZ111

HAWJ111

SOL0211

SU4O211

SRANANAGH
SRAA111-411

-ON-

FLAA111-411
DALTON

DOGK112
DOGK111

STEJ111

HARJ111
WIG0211

CUNGHILL

CASTLEBAR

CAMUS

GRNH111

OMAD111-211 TURD111-211
TAND211

ENND111-411

BELA111-211-411
WHRW211

AF2W211

AUCH211-221

SU7O211

CATA111-411

SLIA111-411

AV1W211

KELD211
BAFD211

*
HAND211

WIRW211

AF1W211

MAGD211

KASU111

KSSU111

TORH111

WKNW211

WJNW211

PETH111-211

BRDH111
BEAH111-211
FAGH111

LONF111

MOUF111

ROUF111
TERF111
MEZF111

DOMF111

PLHF111

LOUF111

VLVF111MORF111

VIGF111

LREF111
DAMF111
VERF111

CORF111
DISF111

GATF111

FRAF111

HOUF111
MSEF111

LQUF111
LCHF111

AVOF111

161
2257 Offshore Grid Study FA.indd 161

24/08/2011 16:26

EirGrid Offshore Grid Study

5 GW
Basecase
2028

DOUH211-221

MYBH211-221
MYSH211

MORH211-111

WS10211
WS40211

MOSH111-211
WS20211

FWIH111

HANU111

DASH211-221

ARG0211

FORH113

BELH111

INVH111

FARH111

FORH112

COCH111

ISL0211

NORTHERN
IRELAND

FORH111
NEAH111

KSSU111

TORH111

HUEH111-221
KIN0211

TRIA111-411

DOGK113

COLD211
BUNBEG

STSJ111

COOD211

LEAD111-411

CACD211

TIEVEBRACK
GOLA111-411

SLIA111-411

LANESBORO

HUNC111

ENNIS
MONB111-211
TASB111-211

GLENLARA
MALLOW
BVKB111 KNOB111
COOMACHEO

OUGB211

COOMAGEARLAHY CLASHA

DRSK111

PEWL111
DRXK111

LANZ111

GROZ111

SHHK111

NSUS111
WLPM111

TRAL111
WF4O211

CULLENAGH
DUNGARVAN

MAVS111

BSUE111

NURN111

SELN111

LOVN111

EXTN111

GEES111

CANN111

KEMN111
BOLN111

ALVN111

WARF111

GIEZ111

MERE111

MANF111

HASO211

DODS111

MESE111

BOSN211

CHIN111
ABHN111
LAGN111

DIES111

THAN111

GRAN111

BR2O211

INDN111

BROZ111

LOAN111
COSN111

BR1O211

MASN111
OBEZ111

AVEF111

WIWO211

NETS111

SCIN211

COUE111 GRAE111

PENF111

LHVF111
CHEF111

CHEF111

ARGF111
TOUF111

LAMF111

GERZ111

KUSZ111

GRNZ111

GRGM111
GUFM111

SWAM111

PESM212

0Euro
2028

DISS111

WALM111
PEMM111

NEHZ111
LIPZ111

HENS111

BRFM111

CASL211

WF5O211

ZWOS111
NORM113

SIZM111

AGHB111

BRINNY
BANDON
DUNMANWAY

CROB211

NORM112

NOSM111

NORM111

BAIM111

CAML111

SU2O211

WAHZ111

WEHZ111

DUDK111

DOCK111
BICM111

LEGL111

HNEZ111

TKNK111
RCBK111

DEEL111

TREL111

ARKO211

MEES111

YORK111
TKSK111

PENL111

HAMZ111

HORK112

HUGK111

GLAO211

GREC111

OUGHTRAGH

CROSS

ARKC111
LODC211

KIAC111

DOON

CHARLEVILLE

SU1O211
CODO211
WF3O211

TIPPERARY
CAHC111

KN1B111-411

CLAHANE
TRALEE

AF4W211

BALLYBEG

KELC111

THURLES

ARDNACRUSHA
KILB111-211
KILLONAN

PROSPECT

TARB111-211

WGRW211

AV3W211

CHARLESLAND

WEDZ111

MEPZ111

WERK111

HORK111

THTK111

WYLL111

KISO211

LAOC111
IKERRIN
WEMB111
BALLYRAGGET
NENAGH

DIEZ111
MESS111

THSK111

QUEL111
HAML211

SU6O211

WF2O211
CKMC111

DUNC111
TURLOUGH
HILL

OLDB111-411

HUTL111

WALO211

SU5O211
WJ1O211 WJ2O211

BALC111

MAYC111

TYNAGH

AF3W211

WLAO211
WIAO211

BA1C211

WOOC111
KINNEGAD

SHAA111-411

CASA111-411
GALWAY

MD1B111-211
AV2W211

HUSL212

WNAO211
MANQ211

WF1O211

GSUZ111

LACJ111

HUSL211

SU4O211

ORIO211

HILL
CAVA111-211

BRBU111
WESZ111

HAWJ111

WDUO211

MULLINGAR

CLOON

CAMUS

ARVA

GILRA

SU8O211

LOUA211
BALA211

SHANKILL
-ON-

FLAA111-411
DALTON

AF2W211

HARJ111

SRANANAGH
SRAA111-411
CUNGHILL

CASTLEBAR

DOGK112
DOGK111

STEJ111

GRNH111

SOL0211

WIG0211
OMAD111-211 TURD111-211
TAND211
ENND111-411

BELA111-211-411

AV1W211

AUCH211-221

SU7O211

CATA111-411

WHRW211

AF1W211

MAGD211

STRD211

KELD211
BAFD211

HAND211

WIRW211

KASU111

DSUU111

WKNW211

WJNW211

PETH111-211

BRDH111
BEAH111-211
FAGH111
WS30211

WS50211

LONF111

MOUF111

ROUF111
TERF111
MEZF111

DOMF111

DAMF111
VERF111
DISF111

FRAF111

HOUF111
MSEF111

LQUF111

CORF111

5 GW
Basecase
2013

VIGF111

VLVF111MORF111
LREF111

PLHF111

LOUF111

GATF111 LCHF111

AVOF111

DOUH211-221

MYBH211-221
MYSH211

MORH211-111

WS10211
WS40211

MOSH111-211
WS20211

WS30211

WS50211

FWIH111

HANU111

DASH211-221

ARG0211

FORH113

BELH111

INVH111

FARH111

FORH112

COCH111

ISL0211

NORTHERN
IRELAND

FORH111
NEAH111

KSSU111

TORH111

HUEH111-221
KIN0211

TRIA111-411

DOGK113

COLD211
BUNBEG

STSJ111

COOD211

LEAD111-411

CACD211

TIEVEBRACK
GOLA111-411

STRD211

MULLINGAR

CLOON

HUNC111

AF3W211

MONB111-211
TASB111-211

AV3W211

LAOC111
IKERRIN
WEMB111
BALLYRAGGET
NENAGH

WGRW211

ARDNACRUSHA
KILB111-211
KILLONAN

PROSPECT

TARB111-211
CHARLEVILLE

GLENLARA
MALLOW
OUGHTRAGH
BVKB111 KNOB111
OUGB211
COOMACHEO
COOMAGEARLAHY CLASHA
CROSS

LODC211

KIAC111

BRINNY
BANDON
DUNMANWAY

DRXK111

WLPM111

NORM111

GROZ111

CULLENAGH
DUNGARVAN

BRFM111

DISS111

BROZ111

MAVS111

BSUE111

LOVN111

GEES111

CANN111

KEMN111
BOLN111
NURN111

EXTN111

SELN111

CHIN111

WARF111

ABHN111

GIEZ111

MERE111

MANF111

HASO211

DODS111

MESE111

BOSN211

LAGN111

DIES111

THAN111

GRAN111

BR2O211

MASN111
OBEZ111

AVEF111

WIWO211

NETS111

SCIN211

LHVF111

COUE111 GRAE111

PENF111

CHEF111

CHEF111

ARGF111
TOUF111

LAMF111

GERZ111

KUSZ111

GRNZ111

GRGM111

LOAN111
COSN111

ALVN111

INDN111

LIPZ111

GUFM111

SWAM111

PESM212

BR1O211

NEHZ111

HENS111

WALM111
PEMM111

ZWOS111
NORM113

SIZM111

CASL211

WF5O211

NORM112

NOSM111

BAIM111

CAML111

AGHB111

CROB211

Conv
2013

LANZ111

NSUS111

TRAL111
WF4O211

SU2O211

WAHZ111

WEHZ111

DUDK111
SHHK111

GLAO211

GREC111

HNEZ111

TKNK111
RCBK111
DOCK111

BICM111

LEGL111

ARKO211

DOON

MEES111

YORK111

DEEL111

TREL111

HAMZ111

HORK112

HORK111
HUGK111

TKSK111

PENL111

WF3O211

KELC111

THURLES

TIPPERARY
CAHC111

KN1B111-411

CLAHANE
TRALEE

SU1O211
CODO211

WEDZ111

MEPZ111

WERK111

DRSK111

WYLL111

KISO211

ARKC111

DIEZ111
MESS111

THSK111
THTK111

SU6O211

WF2O211

OLDB111-411

HUTL111
QUEL111

HAML211

PEWL111

WJ1O211 WJ2O211

BALC111

CKMC111
DUNC111
CHARLESLAND
TURLOUGH
HILL
BALLYBEG

TYNAGH

ENNIS

SU5O211

MAYC111

GALWAY

MD1B111-211

HUSL212

WLAO211 WALO211
WIAO211
WDUO211

GSUZ111

LACJ111

HUSL211
WNAO211

MANQ211

WF1O211

BA1C211

WOOC111
KINNEGAD

SHAA111-411

CASA111-411

ORIO211

HILL
CAVA111-211

LANESBORO

AV2W211

AF4W211

ARVA

SU8O211

LOUA211
BALA211

SHANKILL
GILRA

BRBU111
WESZ111

HAWJ111

SOL0211

SU4O211

SRANANAGH
SRAA111-411

-ON-

FLAA111-411
DALTON

DOGK112
DOGK111

STEJ111

HARJ111
WIG0211

CUNGHILL

CASTLEBAR

CAMUS

GRNH111

OMAD111-211 TURD111-211
TAND211

ENND111-411

BELA111-211-411
WHRW211

AF2W211

AUCH211-221

SU7O211

CATA111-411

SLIA111-411

AV1W211

KELD211
BAFD211

*
HAND211

WIRW211

AF1W211

MAGD211

KASU111

DSUU111

WKNW211

WJNW211

PETH111-211

BRDH111
BEAH111-211
FAGH111

LONF111

MOUF111

ROUF111
TERF111
MEZF111

DOMF111

PLHF111

LOUF111

VLVF111MORF111

VIGF111

LREF111
DAMF111
VERF111

CORF111
DISF111

GATF111

FRAF111

HOUF111
MSEF111

LQUF111
LCHF111

AVOF111

162
2257 Offshore Grid Study FA.indd 162

24/08/2011 16:26

EirGrid Offshore Grid Study

5 GW
Basecase
2015

DOUH211-221

MYBH211-221
MYSH211

MORH211-111

WS10211
WS40211

MOSH111-211
WS20211

FWIH111

HANU111

DASH211-221

ARG0211

FORH113

BELH111

INVH111

FARH111

FORH112

COCH111

ISL0211

NORTHERN
IRELAND

FORH111
NEAH111

KSSU111

TORH111

HUEH111-221
KIN0211

TRIA111-411

DOGK113

COLD211
BUNBEG

STSJ111

COOD211

LEAD111-411

CACD211

TIEVEBRACK
GOLA111-411

SLIA111-411

ORIO211

HILL
CAVA111-211

LANESBORO
MULLINGAR

CLOON

CAMUS

ARVA

GILRA

HUNC111

OLDB111-411

LAOC111
IKERRIN
WEMB111
BALLYRAGGET
NENAGH

ENNIS

AF3W211

MONB111-211
TASB111-211

AV3W211

WGRW211

GLENLARA
MALLOW
BVKB111 KNOB111
COOMACHEO

CROSS

HUGK111

MEES111

YORK111

LANZ111

GROZ111

SHHK111

NSUS111
WLPM111

TRAL111

CULLENAGH
DUNGARVAN

COSN111

NURN111

SELN111

LOVN111

EXTN111

WARF111

ABHN111
LAGN111

GIEZ111

MERE111

MANF111

HASO211

DODS111

MESE111

BOSN211

CHIN111

DIES111

GEES111

CANN111

KEMN111

ALVN111

INDN111

MAVS111

BSUE111
THAN111

GRAN111

BR2O211

MASN111
OBEZ111

AVEF111

WIWO211

NETS111

SCIN211

COUE111 GRAE111

PENF111

LHVF111
CHEF111

CHEF111

ARGF111
TOUF111

LAMF111

GERZ111

KUSZ111

GRNZ111
BROZ111

LOAN111

BOLN111

Conv
2015

DISS111
GRGM111
GUFM111

SWAM111

PESM212

BR1O211

NEHZ111
LIPZ111

HENS111

BRFM111
WALM111

PEMM111

ZWOS111
NORM113

SIZM111

CASL211

WF5O211

NORM112

NOSM111

NORM111

BAIM111

CAML111

AGHB111

BRINNY
BANDON
DUNMANWAY

CROB211

WAHZ111

WEHZ111

DUDK111

DOCK111

LEGL111

HNEZ111

TKNK111
RCBK111

TKSK111

BICM111

WF4O211

SU2O211

HAMZ111

HORK112

GLAO211

GREC111

OUGB211

COOMAGEARLAHY CLASHA

DRXK111

DEEL111

TREL111

ARKO211

DOON

CHARLEVILLE

OUGHTRAGH
AF4W211

ARKC111
LODC211

KIAC111

TIPPERARY
CAHC111

KN1B111-411

DRSK111

PEWL111

PENL111

WF3O211

KELC111

THURLES

ARDNACRUSHA
KILB111-211
KILLONAN

PROSPECT

TARB111-211

CLAHANE
TRALEE

SU5O211

SU1O211
CODO211

WEDZ111

MEPZ111

WERK111

HORK111

WYLL111

KISO211

DIEZ111
MESS111

THSK111
THTK111

SU6O211

WF2O211

CKMC111
DUNC111
CHARLESLAND
TURLOUGH
HILL
BALLYBEG

TYNAGH
MD1B111-211
AV2W211

HUTL111
QUEL111

HAML211

WJ1O211 WJ2O211

BALC111

MAYC111

GALWAY

AF2W211

HUSL212

WLAO211 WALO211
WIAO211
WDUO211

GSUZ111

LACJ111

HUSL211
WNAO211

MANQ211

WF1O211

BA1C211

WOOC111
KINNEGAD

SHAA111-411

CASA111-411

SU8O211

LOUA211
BALA211

SHANKILL
-ON-

FLAA111-411
DALTON

BRBU111
WESZ111

HAWJ111

SOL0211

SU4O211

SRANANAGH
SRAA111-411
CUNGHILL

CASTLEBAR

DOGK112
DOGK111

STEJ111

GRNH111
HARJ111

WIG0211
OMAD111-211 TURD111-211
TAND211
ENND111-411

BELA111-211-411

AV1W211

AUCH211-221

SU7O211

CATA111-411

WHRW211

AF1W211

MAGD211

STRD211

KELD211
BAFD211

HAND211

WIRW211

KASU111

DSUU111

WKNW211

WJNW211

PETH111-211

BRDH111
BEAH111-211
FAGH111
WS30211

WS50211

LONF111

MOUF111

ROUF111
TERF111
MEZF111

DOMF111

PLHF111

FRAF111

HOUF111
MSEF111

DAMF111
VERF111

CORF111
DISF111

5 GW
Basecase
2018

VIGF111

VLVF111MORF111

LREF111
LQUF111

LOUF111

GATF111 LCHF111

AVOF111

DOUH211-221

MYBH211-221
MYSH211

MORH211-111

WS10211
WS40211

MOSH111-211
WS20211

WS30211

WS50211

FWIH111

HANU111

DASH211-221

ARG0211

FORH113

BELH111

INVH111

FARH111

FORH112

COCH111

ISL0211

NORTHERN
IRELAND

FORH111
NEAH111

KSSU111

TORH111

HUEH111-221
KIN0211

TRIA111-411

DOGK113

COLD211
BUNBEG

STSJ111

COOD211

LEAD111-411

CACD211

TIEVEBRACK
GOLA111-411

STRD211

MULLINGAR

MONB111-211
TASB111-211

AV3W211

WGRW211

ARDNACRUSHA
KILB111-211
KILLONAN

PROSPECT

CHARLEVILLE

GLENLARA
MALLOW
OUGHTRAGH
BVKB111 KNOB111
OUGB211
COOMACHEO
COOMAGEARLAHY CLASHA
CROSS

LODC211

KIAC111

BRINNY
BANDON
DUNMANWAY

DRXK111

WLPM111

NORM111

GROZ111

CULLENAGH
DUNGARVAN

BRFM111

DISS111

BROZ111

MAVS111

BSUE111

LOVN111

GEES111

CANN111

KEMN111
BOLN111
NURN111

EXTN111

SELN111

CHIN111

WARF111

ABHN111

GIEZ111

MERE111

MANF111

HASO211

DODS111

MESE111

BOSN211

LAGN111

DIES111

THAN111

GRAN111

BR2O211

MASN111
OBEZ111

AVEF111

WIWO211

NETS111

SCIN211

LHVF111

COUE111 GRAE111

PENF111

CHEF111

CHEF111

ARGF111
TOUF111

LAMF111

GERZ111

KUSZ111

GRNZ111

GRGM111

LOAN111
COSN111

ALVN111

INDN111

LIPZ111

GUFM111

SWAM111

PESM212

BR1O211

NEHZ111

HENS111

WALM111
PEMM111

ZWOS111
NORM113

SIZM111

CASL211

WF5O211

NORM112

NOSM111

BAIM111

CAML111

AGHB111

CROB211

Conv
2018

LANZ111

NSUS111

TRAL111
WF4O211

SU2O211

WAHZ111

WEHZ111

DUDK111
SHHK111

GLAO211

GREC111

HNEZ111

TKNK111
RCBK111
DOCK111

BICM111

LEGL111

ARKO211

DOON

MEES111

YORK111

DEEL111

TREL111

HAMZ111

HORK112

HORK111
HUGK111

TKSK111

PENL111

WF3O211

KELC111

THURLES

TIPPERARY
CAHC111

KN1B111-411

SU1O211
CODO211

WEDZ111

MEPZ111

WERK111

DRSK111

WYLL111

KISO211

ARKC111

DIEZ111
MESS111

THSK111
THTK111

SU6O211

WF2O211

LAOC111
IKERRIN
WEMB111
BALLYRAGGET
NENAGH

HUTL111
QUEL111

HAML211

PEWL111

WJ1O211 WJ2O211

BALC111

CKMC111
DUNC111
CHARLESLAND
TURLOUGH
HILL
BALLYBEG

OLDB111-411

TARB111-211

CLAHANE
TRALEE

SU5O211

MAYC111

TYNAGH

ENNIS

HUSL212

WLAO211 WALO211
WIAO211
WDUO211

GSUZ111

LACJ111

HUSL211
WNAO211

MANQ211

WF1O211

BA1C211

WOOC111
KINNEGAD

GALWAY

MD1B111-211
AV2W211

AF4W211

HUNC111

SHAA111-411

CASA111-411

ORIO211

HILL
CAVA111-211

LANESBORO

CLOON

CAMUS

ARVA

GILRA

SU8O211

LOUA211
BALA211

SHANKILL
-ON-

FLAA111-411

BRBU111
WESZ111

HAWJ111

SOL0211

SU4O211

SRANANAGH
SRAA111-411
CUNGHILL

CASTLEBAR

DOGK112
DOGK111

STEJ111

HARJ111
WIG0211

DALTON

AF3W211

GRNH111

OMAD111-211 TURD111-211
TAND211

ENND111-411

BELA111-211-411
WHRW211

AF2W211

AUCH211-221

SU7O211

CATA111-411

SLIA111-411

AV1W211

KELD211
BAFD211

*
HAND211

WIRW211

AF1W211

MAGD211

KASU111

DSUU111

WKNW211

WJNW211

PETH111-211

BRDH111
BEAH111-211
FAGH111

LONF111

MOUF111

ROUF111
TERF111
MEZF111

DOMF111

PLHF111

LOUF111

VLVF111MORF111

VIGF111

LREF111
LQUF111
DAMF111
VERF111

CORF111
DISF111

FRAF111

HOUF111
MSEF111

GATF111 LCHF111

AVOF111

163
2257 Offshore Grid Study FA.indd 163

24/08/2011 16:26

EirGrid Offshore Grid Study

5 GW
Basecase
2020

DOUH211-221

MYBH211-221
MYSH211

MORH211-111

WS10211
WS40211

MOSH111-211
WS20211

FWIH111

HANU111

DASH211-221

ARG0211

FORH113

BELH111

INVH111

FARH111

FORH112

COCH111

ISL0211

NORTHERN
IRELAND

FORH111
NEAH111

KSSU111

TORH111

HUEH111-221
KIN0211

TRIA111-411

DOGK113

COLD211
BUNBEG

STSJ111

COOD211

LEAD111-411

CACD211

TIEVEBRACK
GOLA111-411

SLIA111-411

HUNC111

OLDB111-411

LAOC111
IKERRIN
WEMB111
BALLYRAGGET
NENAGH

ENNIS

AF3W211

MONB111-211
TASB111-211

AV3W211

WGRW211

GLENLARA
MALLOW
BVKB111 KNOB111
COOMACHEO

CROSS

HUGK111

MEES111

YORK111

LANZ111

GROZ111

SHHK111

NSUS111
WLPM111

TRAL111

CULLENAGH
DUNGARVAN

COSN111

SELN111

LOVN111

WARF111

GIEZ111

MERE111

MANF111

HASO211

DODS111

MESE111

BOSN211

CHIN111
ABHN111
LAGN111

DIES111

GEES111

CANN111

KEMN111
BOLN111
NURN111

EXTN111

INDN111

MAVS111

BSUE111
THAN111

GRAN111

BR2O211

MASN111
OBEZ111

AVEF111

WIWO211

NETS111

SCIN211

COUE111 GRAE111

PENF111

LHVF111
CHEF111

CHEF111

ARGF111
TOUF111

LAMF111

GERZ111

KUSZ111

GRNZ111
BROZ111

LOAN111

ALVN111

Conv
2020

DISS111
GRGM111
GUFM111

SWAM111

PESM212

BR1O211

NEHZ111
LIPZ111

HENS111

BRFM111
WALM111

PEMM111

ZWOS111
NORM113

SIZM111

CASL211

WF5O211

NORM112

NOSM111

NORM111

BAIM111

CAML111

AGHB111

BRINNY
BANDON
DUNMANWAY

CROB211

WAHZ111

WEHZ111

DUDK111

DOCK111

LEGL111

HNEZ111

TKNK111
RCBK111

TKSK111

BICM111

WF4O211

SU2O211

HAMZ111

HORK112

GLAO211

GREC111

OUGB211

COOMAGEARLAHY CLASHA

DRXK111

DEEL111

TREL111

ARKO211

DOON

CHARLEVILLE

OUGHTRAGH
AF4W211

ARKC111
LODC211

KIAC111

TIPPERARY
CAHC111

KN1B111-411

DRSK111

PEWL111

PENL111

WF3O211

KELC111

THURLES

ARDNACRUSHA
KILB111-211
KILLONAN

PROSPECT

TARB111-211

CLAHANE
TRALEE

SU5O211

SU1O211
CODO211

WEDZ111

MEPZ111

WERK111

HORK111

WYLL111

KISO211

DIEZ111
MESS111

THSK111
THTK111

SU6O211

WF2O211

CKMC111
DUNC111
CHARLESLAND
TURLOUGH
HILL
BALLYBEG

TYNAGH
MD1B111-211
AV2W211

HUTL111
QUEL111

HAML211

WJ1O211 WJ2O211

BALC111

MAYC111

GALWAY

AF2W211

HUSL212

WLAO211 WALO211
WIAO211
WDUO211

GSUZ111

LACJ111

HUSL211
WNAO211

MANQ211

WF1O211

BA1C211

WOOC111
KINNEGAD

SHAA111-411

CASA111-411

ORIO211

HILL
CAVA111-211

LANESBORO
MULLINGAR

CLOON

CAMUS

ARVA

GILRA

SU8O211

LOUA211
BALA211

SHANKILL
-ON-

FLAA111-411
DALTON

BRBU111
WESZ111

HAWJ111

SOL0211

SU4O211

SRANANAGH
SRAA111-411
CUNGHILL

CASTLEBAR

DOGK112
DOGK111

STEJ111

GRNH111
HARJ111

WIG0211
OMAD111-211 TURD111-211
TAND211
ENND111-411

BELA111-211-411

AV1W211

AUCH211-221

SU7O211

CATA111-411

WHRW211

AF1W211

MAGD211

STRD211

KELD211
BAFD211

HAND211

WIRW211

KASU111

DSUU111

WKNW211

WJNW211

PETH111-211

BRDH111
BEAH111-211
FAGH111
WS30211

WS50211

LONF111

MOUF111

ROUF111
TERF111
MEZF111

DOMF111

PLHF111

FRAF111

HOUF111
MSEF111

DAMF111
VERF111

CORF111
DISF111

5 GW
Basecase
2023

VIGF111

VLVF111MORF111

LREF111
LQUF111

LOUF111

GATF111

LCHF111

AVOF111

DOUH211-221

MYBH211-221
MYSH211

MORH211-111

WS10211
WS40211

MOSH111-211
WS20211

FWIH111

HANU111

DASH211-221

ARG0211

FORH113

BELH111

INVH111

FARH111

FORH112

COCH111

ISL0211

NORTHERN
IRELAND

FORH111
NEAH111

KSSU111

TORH111

HUEH111-221
KIN0211

TRIA111-411

DOGK113

COLD211
BUNBEG

STSJ111

COOD211

LEAD111-411

CACD211

TIEVEBRACK
GOLA111-411

STRD211

MULLINGAR

CLOON

HUNC111

AF3W211

MONB111-211
TASB111-211

AV3W211

WGRW211

LAOC111
IKERRIN
WEMB111
BALLYRAGGET
NENAGH

ARDNACRUSHA
KILB111-211
KILLONAN

PROSPECT

CHARLEVILLE

GLENLARA
MALLOW
OUGHTRAGH
BVKB111 KNOB111
OUGB211
COOMACHEO
COOMAGEARLAHY CLASHA
CROSS

LODC211

KIAC111

BRINNY
BANDON
DUNMANWAY

WLPM111

WF4O211

NORM111

GROZ111

CULLENAGH
DUNGARVAN

PEMM111

BRFM111

DISS111

COSN111

BROZ111

MAVS111

BSUE111

LOVN111

GEES111

CANN111

KEMN111
BOLN111
NURN111

EXTN111

SELN111

CHIN111

WARF111

ABHN111

GIEZ111

MERE111

MANF111

HASO211

DODS111

MESE111

BOSN211

LAGN111

DIES111

THAN111

GRAN111

BR2O211

MASN111
OBEZ111

AVEF111

WIWO211

NETS111

SCIN211

LHVF111

COUE111 GRAE111

PENF111

CHEF111

CHEF111

ARGF111
TOUF111

LAMF111

GERZ111

KUSZ111

GRNZ111

GRGM111

LOAN111

ALVN111

INDN111

LIPZ111

GUFM111

SWAM111

PESM212

BR1O211

NEHZ111

HENS111

WALM111

WF5O211

ZWOS111
NORM113

SIZM111

CASL211

AGHB111

NORM112

NOSM111

BAIM111

CAML111

SU2O211

CROB211

Conv
2023

LANZ111

GLAO211

GREC111

WAHZ111

WEHZ111

DUDK111
SHHK111

NSUS111

TRAL111

ARKO211

DOON

HNEZ111

TKNK111
RCBK111
DOCK111

BICM111

LEGL111

KELC111

THURLES

TIPPERARY
CAHC111

KN1B111-411

MEES111

YORK111

DEEL111

TREL111

HAMZ111

HORK112

HORK111
HUGK111

TKSK111

PENL111

WF3O211

WEDZ111

MEPZ111

WERK111

DRSK111

DRXK111

SU6O211

SU1O211
CODO211

DIEZ111
MESS111

THSK111
THTK111

WYLL111

KISO211

ARKC111

HUTL111
QUEL111

HAML211

PEWL111

WJ2O211

WF2O211

OLDB111-411

TARB111-211

CLAHANE
TRALEE

WJ1O211

BALC111

CKMC111
DUNC111
CHARLESLAND
TURLOUGH
HILL
BALLYBEG

TYNAGH

ENNIS

SU5O211

MAYC111

GALWAY

MD1B111-211

HUSL212

WLAO211 WALO211
WIAO211
WDUO211

GSUZ111

LACJ111

HUSL211
WNAO211

MANQ211

WF1O211

BA1C211

WOOC111
KINNEGAD

SHAA111-411

CASA111-411

ORIO211

HILL
CAVA111-211

LANESBORO

AV2W211

AF4W211

ARVA

SU8O211

LOUA211
BALA211

SHANKILL
GILRA

BRBU111
WESZ111

HAWJ111

SOL0211

SU4O211

SRANANAGH
SRAA111-411

-ON-

FLAA111-411
DALTON

DOGK112
DOGK111

STEJ111

HARJ111
WIG0211

CUNGHILL

CASTLEBAR

CAMUS

GRNH111

OMAD111-211 TURD111-211
TAND211

ENND111-411

BELA111-211-411
WHRW211

AF2W211

AUCH211-221

SU7O211

CATA111-411

SLIA111-411

AV1W211

KELD211
BAFD211

*
HAND211

WIRW211

AF1W211

MAGD211

KASU111

DSUU111

WKNW211

WJNW211

PETH111-211

BRDH111
BEAH111-211
FAGH111
WS30211

WS50211

LONF111

MOUF111

ROUF111
TERF111
MEZF111

DOMF111

VLVF111MORF111
LREF111

PLHF111

LOUF111

DAMF111
VERF111

CORF111
DISF111

GATF111

VIGF111

FRAF111

HOUF111
MSEF111

LQUF111
LCHF111

AVOF111

164
2257 Offshore Grid Study FA.indd 164

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EirGrid Offshore Grid Study

5 GW
Basecase
2025

DOUH211-221

MYBH211-221
MYSH211

MORH211-111

WS10211
WS40211

MOSH111-211
WS20211

FWIH111

HANU111

DASH211-221

ARG0211

FORH113

BELH111

INVH111

FARH111

FORH112

COCH111

ISL0211

NORTHERN
IRELAND

FORH111
NEAH111

KSSU111

TORH111

HUEH111-221
KIN0211

TRIA111-411

DOGK113

COLD211
BUNBEG

STSJ111

COOD211

LEAD111-411

CACD211

TIEVEBRACK
GOLA111-411

SLIA111-411

ARVA

GILRA

LANESBORO

HUNC111

CKMC111
DUNC111
CHARLESLAND
TURLOUGH
HILL
BALLYBEG

OLDB111-411

LAOC111
IKERRIN
WEMB111
BALLYRAGGET
NENAGH

ENNIS

AF3W211

MONB111-211
TASB111-211
WGRW211

AV3W211

GLENLARA
MALLOW
BVKB111 KNOB111
COOMACHEO

CROSS

LANZ111

WLPM111

NORM111

GROZ111
NORM112

NOSM111

ZWOS111

BAIM111

CULLENAGH
DUNGARVAN

PEMM111

MAVS111

BSUE111

NURN111

SELN111

LOVN111

EXTN111

GEES111

CANN111

KEMN111
BOLN111

ALVN111

WARF111

GIEZ111

MERE111

MANF111

HASO211

DODS111

MESE111

BOSN211

CHIN111
ABHN111
LAGN111

DIES111

THAN111

GRAN111

BR2O211

INDN111

BROZ111

LOAN111
COSN111

BR1O211

MASN111
OBEZ111

AVEF111

WIWO211

NETS111

SCIN211

COUE111 GRAE111

PENF111

LHVF111
CHEF111

CHEF111

ARGF111
TOUF111

LAMF111

GERZ111

KUSZ111

GRNZ111

GRGM111
GUFM111

SWAM111

PESM212

Conv
2025

DISS111

WALM111

WF5O211

LIPZ111

HENS111

BRFM111

CASL211

AGHB111

BRINNY
BANDON
DUNMANWAY

NEHZ111

NORM113
SIZM111

CAML111

CROB211

WAHZ111

WEHZ111

SHHK111

NSUS111

TRAL111
WF4O211

SU2O211

HNEZ111

DUDK111

DOCK111
BICM111

LEGL111

GLAO211

GREC111

OUGB211

COOMAGEARLAHY CLASHA

MEES111
TKNK111
RCBK111

DEEL111

TREL111

ARKO211

DOON

CHARLEVILLE

OUGHTRAGH
AF4W211

ARKC111
LODC211

KIAC111

TIPPERARY
CAHC111

KN1B111-411

DRSK111

TKSK111

PENL111

WF3O211

KELC111

THURLES

ARDNACRUSHA
KILB111-211
KILLONAN

PROSPECT

TARB111-211

CLAHANE
TRALEE

SU1O211
CODO211

HAMZ111

HORK112

HUGK111

YORK111

WYLL111

KISO211

WEDZ111

MEPZ111

WERK111

HORK111

DRXK111

SU6O211

WF2O211
MAYC111

TYNAGH

DIEZ111
MESS111

THSK111
THTK111

PEWL111

WJ1O211 WJ2O211

BALC111

KINNEGAD

SHAA111-411

CASA111-411

MD1B111-211
AV2W211

HUTL111
QUEL111

HAML211

SU5O211

GALWAY

AF2W211

HUSL212

WLAO211 WALO211
WIAO211
WDUO211

GSUZ111

LACJ111

HUSL211

MANQ211

WF1O211

BA1C211

WOOC111

MULLINGAR

CLOON

CAMUS

ORIO211

HILL
CAVA111-211

WNAO211

SU8O211

LOUA211
BALA211

SHANKILL
-ON-

FLAA111-411
DALTON

BRBU111
WESZ111

HAWJ111

SOL0211

SU4O211

SRANANAGH
SRAA111-411
CUNGHILL

CASTLEBAR

DOGK112
DOGK111

STEJ111

GRNH111
HARJ111

WIG0211
OMAD111-211 TURD111-211
TAND211
ENND111-411

BELA111-211-411

AV1W211

AUCH211-221

SU7O211

CATA111-411

WHRW211

AF1W211

MAGD211

STRD211

KELD211
BAFD211

HAND211

WIRW211

KASU111

DSUU111

WKNW211

WJNW211

PETH111-211

BRDH111
BEAH111-211
FAGH111
WS30211

WS50211

LONF111

MOUF111

ROUF111
TERF111
MEZF111

DOMF111

DAMF111
GATF111 LCHF111

VERF111
DISF111

FRAF111

HOUF111
MSEF111

LQUF111

CORF111

5 GW
Basecase
2028

VIGF111

VLVF111MORF111
LREF111

PLHF111

LOUF111

AVOF111

DOUH211-221

MYBH211-221
MYSH211

MORH211-111

WS10211
WS40211

MOSH111-211
WS20211

FWIH111

HANU111

DASH211-221

ARG0211

FORH113

BELH111

INVH111

FARH111

FORH112

COCH111

ISL0211

NORTHERN
IRELAND

FORH111
NEAH111

KSSU111

TORH111

HUEH111-221
KIN0211

TRIA111-411

DOGK113

COLD211
BUNBEG

STSJ111

COOD211

LEAD111-411

CACD211

TIEVEBRACK
GOLA111-411

STRD211

MULLINGAR

CLOON

HUNC111

AF3W211

MONB111-211
TASB111-211

AV3W211

LAOC111
IKERRIN
WEMB111
BALLYRAGGET
NENAGH

WGRW211

ARDNACRUSHA
KILB111-211
KILLONAN

PROSPECT

TARB111-211
CHARLEVILLE

GLENLARA
MALLOW
OUGHTRAGH
BVKB111 KNOB111
OUGB211
COOMACHEO
COOMAGEARLAHY CLASHA
CROSS

LODC211

KIAC111

BRINNY
BANDON
DUNMANWAY

DRXK111

WLPM111

NORM111

GROZ111

CULLENAGH
DUNGARVAN

BRFM111

DISS111

BROZ111

MAVS111

BSUE111

LOVN111

GEES111

CANN111

KEMN111
BOLN111
NURN111

EXTN111

SELN111

CHIN111

WARF111

ABHN111

GIEZ111

MERE111

MANF111

HASO211

DODS111

MESE111

BOSN211

LAGN111

DIES111

THAN111

GRAN111

BR2O211

MASN111
OBEZ111

AVEF111

WIWO211

NETS111

SCIN211

LHVF111

PENF111

CHEF111

COUE111 GRAE111
CHEF111

ARGF111
TOUF111

LAMF111

GERZ111

KUSZ111

GRNZ111

GRGM111

LOAN111
COSN111

ALVN111

INDN111

LIPZ111

GUFM111

SWAM111

PESM212

BR1O211

NEHZ111

HENS111

WALM111
PEMM111

ZWOS111
NORM113

SIZM111

CASL211

WF5O211

NORM112

NOSM111

BAIM111

CAML111

AGHB111

CROB211

Conv
2028

LANZ111

NSUS111

TRAL111
WF4O211

SU2O211

WAHZ111

WEHZ111

DUDK111
SHHK111

GLAO211

GREC111

HNEZ111

TKNK111
RCBK111
DOCK111

BICM111

LEGL111

ARKO211

DOON

MEES111

YORK111

DEEL111

TREL111

HAMZ111

HORK112

HORK111
HUGK111

TKSK111

PENL111

WF3O211

KELC111

THURLES

TIPPERARY
CAHC111

KN1B111-411

CLAHANE
TRALEE

SU1O211
CODO211

WEDZ111

MEPZ111

WERK111

DRSK111

WYLL111

KISO211

ARKC111

DIEZ111
MESS111

THSK111
THTK111

SU6O211

WF2O211

OLDB111-411

HUTL111
QUEL111

HAML211

PEWL111

WJ1O211 WJ2O211

BALC111

CKMC111
DUNC111
CHARLESLAND
TURLOUGH
HILL
BALLYBEG

TYNAGH

ENNIS

SU5O211

MAYC111

GALWAY

MD1B111-211

HUSL212

WLAO211 WALO211
WIAO211
WDUO211

GSUZ111

LACJ111

HUSL211
WNAO211

MANQ211

WF1O211

BA1C211

WOOC111
KINNEGAD

SHAA111-411

CASA111-411

ORIO211

HILL
CAVA111-211

LANESBORO

AV2W211

AF4W211

ARVA

SU8O211

LOUA211
BALA211

SHANKILL
GILRA

BRBU111
WESZ111

HAWJ111

SOL0211

SU4O211

SRANANAGH
SRAA111-411

-ON-

FLAA111-411
DALTON

DOGK112
DOGK111

STEJ111

HARJ111
WIG0211

CUNGHILL

CASTLEBAR

CAMUS

GRNH111

OMAD111-211 TURD111-211
TAND211

ENND111-411

BELA111-211-411
WHRW211

AF2W211

AUCH211-221

SU7O211

CATA111-411

SLIA111-411

AV1W211

KELD211
BAFD211

*
HAND211

WIRW211

AF1W211

MAGD211

KASU111

DSUU111

WKNW211

WJNW211

PETH111-211

BRDH111
BEAH111-211
FAGH111
WS30211

WS50211

LONF111

MOUF111

ROUF111
TERF111
MEZF111

DOMF111

VLVF111MORF111
LREF111

PLHF111

LOUF111

LQUF111
DAMF111
VERF111

CORF111
DISF111

VIGF111

FRAF111

HOUF111
MSEF111

GATF111 LCHF111

AVOF111

165
2257 Offshore Grid Study FA.indd 165

24/08/2011 16:26

EirGrid Offshore Grid Study

5 GW
Basecase
2030

DOUH211-221

MYBH211-221
MYSH211

MORH211-111

WS10211
WS40211

MOSH111-211
WS20211

FWIH111

HANU111

DASH211-221

ARG0211

FORH113

BELH111

INVH111

FARH111

FORH112

COCH111

ISL0211

NORTHERN
IRELAND

FORH111
NEAH111

KSSU111

TORH111

HUEH111-221
KIN0211

TRIA111-411

DOGK113

COLD211
BUNBEG

STSJ111

COOD211

LEAD111-411

CACD211

TIEVEBRACK
GOLA111-411

SLIA111-411

HUNC111

LAOC111
IKERRIN
WEMB111
BALLYRAGGET
NENAGH

ENNIS

AF3W211

MONB111-211
TASB111-211
WGRW211

AV3W211

GLENLARA
MALLOW
BVKB111 KNOB111
COOMACHEO

CROSS

LANZ111

WLPM111

GROZ111

CULLENAGH
DUNGARVAN

COSN111

SELN111

LOVN111

WARF111

GIEZ111

MERE111

MANF111

HASO211

DODS111

MESE111

BOSN211

CHIN111
ABHN111
LAGN111

DIES111

GEES111

CANN111

KEMN111
BOLN111
NURN111

EXTN111

INDN111

MAVS111

BSUE111
THAN111

GRAN111

BR2O211

MASN111
OBEZ111

AVEF111

WIWO211

NETS111

SCIN211

COUE111 GRAE111

PENF111

LHVF111
CHEF111

CHEF111

ARGF111
TOUF111

LAMF111

GERZ111

KUSZ111

GRNZ111
BROZ111

LOAN111

ALVN111

Conv
2030

DISS111
GRGM111
GUFM111

SWAM111

PESM212

BR1O211

NEHZ111
LIPZ111

HENS111

BRFM111
WALM111

PEMM111

ZWOS111
NORM113

SIZM111

CASL211

WF5O211

NORM112

NOSM111

NORM111

BAIM111

CAML111

AGHB111

BRINNY
BANDON
DUNMANWAY

CROB211

WAHZ111

WEHZ111

SHHK111

NSUS111

TRAL111
WF4O211

SU2O211

HNEZ111

DUDK111

DOCK111
BICM111

LEGL111

GLAO211

GREC111

OUGB211

COOMAGEARLAHY CLASHA

MEES111
TKNK111
RCBK111

DEEL111

TREL111

ARKO211

DOON

CHARLEVILLE

OUGHTRAGH
AF4W211

ARKC111
LODC211

KIAC111

TIPPERARY
CAHC111

KN1B111-411

DRSK111

TKSK111

PENL111

WF3O211

KELC111

THURLES

ARDNACRUSHA
KILB111-211
KILLONAN

PROSPECT

TARB111-211

CLAHANE
TRALEE

SU1O211
CODO211

HAMZ111

HORK112

HUGK111

YORK111

WYLL111

KISO211

WEDZ111

MEPZ111

WERK111

HORK111

DRXK111

SU6O211

WF2O211

CKMC111
DUNC111
CHARLESLAND
TURLOUGH
HILL
BALLYBEG

OLDB111-411

DIEZ111
MESS111

THSK111
THTK111

PEWL111

WJ1O211 WJ2O211

BALC111

MAYC111

TYNAGH

HUTL111
QUEL111

HAML211

SU5O211

GSUZ111

LACJ111

HUSL212

WLAO211 WALO211
WIAO211
WDUO211

BA1C211

WOOC111
KINNEGAD

SHAA111-411

CASA111-411
GALWAY

MD1B111-211
AV2W211

WNAO211
MANQ211

WF1O211

BRBU111
WESZ111

HAWJ111

HUSL211

SU4O211

ORIO211

HILL
CAVA111-211

LANESBORO
MULLINGAR

CLOON

CAMUS

ARVA

GILRA

SU8O211

LOUA211
BALA211

SHANKILL
-ON-

FLAA111-411
DALTON

AF2W211

HARJ111

SRANANAGH
SRAA111-411
CUNGHILL

CASTLEBAR

DOGK112
DOGK111

STEJ111

GRNH111

SOL0211

WIG0211
OMAD111-211 TURD111-211
TAND211
ENND111-411

BELA111-211-411

AV1W211

AUCH211-221

SU7O211

CATA111-411

WHRW211

AF1W211

MAGD211

STRD211

KELD211
BAFD211

HAND211

WIRW211

KASU111

DSUU111

WKNW211

WJNW211

PETH111-211

BRDH111
BEAH111-211
FAGH111
WS30211

WS50211

LONF111

MOUF111

ROUF111
TERF111
MEZF111

DOMF111

DAMF111
VERF111
DISF111

FRAF111

HOUF111
MSEF111

LQUF111

CORF111

5 GW
Basecase
2013

VIGF111

VLVF111MORF111
LREF111

PLHF111

LOUF111

GATF111 LCHF111

AVOF111

DOUH211-221

MYBH211-221
MYSH211

MORH211-111

WS10211
WS40211

MOSH111-211
WS20211

FWIH111

HANU111

DASH211-221

ARG0211

FORH113

BELH111

INVH111

FARH111

FORH112

COCH111

ISL0211

NORTHERN
IRELAND

FORH111
NEAH111

HUEH111-221

DSUU111

KIN0211

TRIA111-411

DOGK113

COLD211
BUNBEG

STSJ111

COOD211

LEAD111-411

CACD211

TIEVEBRACK
GOLA111-411

STRD211

MULLINGAR

CLOON

AF3W211

MONB111-211
TASB111-211

AV3W211

LAOC111
IKERRIN
WEMB111
BALLYRAGGET
NENAGH

WGRW211

ARDNACRUSHA
KILB111-211
KILLONAN

PROSPECT

TARB111-211
CHARLEVILLE

GLENLARA
MALLOW
OUGHTRAGH
BVKB111 KNOB111
OUGB211
COOMACHEO
COOMAGEARLAHY CLASHA
CROSS

LODC211

KIAC111

BRINNY
BANDON
DUNMANWAY

DRXK111

WLPM111

NORM111

GROZ111

CULLENAGH
DUNGARVAN

DISS111

COSN111

BROZ111

MAVS111

BSUE111

LOVN111

GEES111

CANN111

KEMN111
BOLN111
NURN111

EXTN111

SELN111

CHIN111

WARF111

ABHN111

GIEZ111

MERE111

MANF111

HASO211

DODS111

MESE111

BOSN211

LAGN111

DIES111

THAN111

GRAN111

BR2O211

MASN111
OBEZ111

AVEF111

WIWO211

NETS111

SCIN211

LHVF111

COUE111 GRAE111

PENF111

CHEF111

CHEF111

ARGF111
TOUF111

LAMF111

GERZ111

KUSZ111

GRNZ111

GRGM111

LOAN111

ALVN111

INDN111

LIPZ111

GUFM111

SWAM111

PESM212

BR1O211

NEHZ111

HENS111

BRFM111
WALM111

PEMM111

ZWOS111
NORM113

SIZM111

CASL211

WF5O211

NORM112

NOSM111

BAIM111

CAML111

AGHB111

CROB211

10kEU
2013

LANZ111

NSUS111

TRAL111
WF4O211

SU2O211

WAHZ111

WEHZ111

DUDK111
SHHK111

GLAO211

GREC111

HNEZ111

TKNK111
RCBK111
DOCK111

BICM111

LEGL111

ARKO211

DOON

MEES111

YORK111

DEEL111

TREL111

HAMZ111

HORK112

HORK111
HUGK111

TKSK111

PENL111

WF3O211

KELC111

THURLES

TIPPERARY
CAHC111

KN1B111-411

CLAHANE
TRALEE

SU1O211
CODO211

WEDZ111

MEPZ111

WERK111

DRSK111

WYLL111

KISO211

ARKC111

DIEZ111
MESS111

THSK111
THTK111

SU6O211

WF2O211

OLDB111-411

HUTL111
QUEL111

HAML211

PEWL111

WJ1O211 WJ2O211

BALC111

CKMC111
DUNC111
CHARLESLAND
TURLOUGH
HILL
BALLYBEG

TYNAGH

ENNIS

SU5O211

MAYC111

GALWAY

MD1B111-211

HUSL212

WLAO211 WALO211
WIAO211
WDUO211

GSUZ111

LACJ111

HUSL211
WNAO211

MANQ211

WF1O211

HUNC111 BA1C211
WOOC111
KINNEGAD

SHAA111-411

CASA111-411

ORIO211

HILL
CAVA111-211

LANESBORO

AV2W211

AF4W211

ARVA

SU8O211

LOUA211
BALA211

SHANKILL
GILRA

BRBU111
WESZ111

HAWJ111

SOL0211

SU4O211

SRANANAGH
SRAA111-411

-ON-

FLAA111-411
DALTON

DOGK112
DOGK111

STEJ111

HARJ111
WIG0211

CUNGHILL

CASTLEBAR

CAMUS

GRNH111

OMAD111-211 TURD111-211
TAND211

ENND111-411

BELA111-211-411
WHRW211

AF2W211

AUCH211-221

SU7O211

CATA111-411

SLIA111-411

AV1W211

KELD211
BAFD211

*
HAND211

WIRW211

AF1W211

MAGD211

KASU111

KSSU111

TORH111

WKNW211

WJNW211

PETH111-211

BRDH111
BEAH111-211
FAGH111
WS30211

WS50211

LONF111

MOUF111

ROUF111
TERF111
MEZF111

DOMF111

PLHF111

LOUF111

VLVF111MORF111

VIGF111

LREF111
DAMF111
VERF111

CORF111
DISF111

GATF111

FRAF111

HOUF111
MSEF111

LQUF111
LCHF111

AVOF111

166
2257 Offshore Grid Study FA.indd 166

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EirGrid Offshore Grid Study

5 GW
Basecase
2015

DOUH211-221

MYBH211-221
MYSH211

MORH211-111

WS10211
WS40211

MOSH111-211
WS20211

FWIH111

HANU111

DASH211-221

ARG0211

FORH113

BELH111

INVH111

FARH111

FORH112

COCH111

ISL0211

NORTHERN
IRELAND

FORH111
NEAH111

KSSU111

TORH111

HUEH111-221
KIN0211

TRIA111-411

DOGK113

COLD211
BUNBEG

STSJ111

COOD211

LEAD111-411

CACD211

TIEVEBRACK
GOLA111-411

SLIA111-411

ARVA

GILRA

ORIO211

HILL
CAVA111-211

LANESBORO

CARC111
DUNC111
CHARLESLAND
TURLOUGH
HILL
BALLYBEG

OLDB111-411

LAOC111
IKERRIN
WEMB111
BALLYRAGGET
NENAGH

ENNIS

AF3W211

MONB111-211
TASB111-211

AV3W211

WGRW211

COOMAGEARLAHY CLASHA
CROSS

MEES111

LANZ111

GROZ111

SHHK111

NSUS111
WLPM111

TRAL111
WF4O211

NORM111

NORM112

NOSM111

ZWOS111

BAIM111

SIZM111

CAML111

SU2O211

CULLENAGH
DUNGARVAN

PEMM111

MAVS111

BSUE111

NURN111

SELN111

LOVN111

EXTN111

GEES111

CANN111

KEMN111
BOLN111

ALVN111

CHIN111

WARF111

ABHN111

GIEZ111

MERE111

MANF111

HASO211

DODS111

MESE111

BOSN211

LAGN111

DIES111

THAN111

GRAN111

BR2O211

INDN111

BROZ111

LOAN111
COSN111

BR1O211

MASN111
OBEZ111

AVEF111

WIWO211

NETS111

SCIN211

COUE111 GRAE111

PENF111

LHVF111
CHEF111

CHEF111

ARGF111
TOUF111

LAMF111

GERZ111

KUSZ111

GRNZ111

GRGM111
GUFM111

SWAM111

PESM212

10kEU
2015

DISS111

WALM111

WF5O211

LIPZ111

HENS111

BRFM111

CASL211

AGHB111

BRINNY
BANDON
DUNMANWAY

CROB211

NEHZ111

NORM113

GLAO211

GREC111

WAHZ111

WEHZ111

DUDK111

DOCK111
BICM111

LEGL111

HNEZ111

TKNK111
RCBK111

DEEL111

TREL111

ARKO211

DOON

CHARLEVILLE

GLENLARA
MALLOW
OUGHTRAGH
BVKB111 KNOB111
OUGB211
COOMACHEO

AF4W211

LODC211

KIAC111

TIPPERARY
CAHC111

KN1B111-411

DRSK111

TKSK111

PENL111

WF3O211

KELC111

THURLES

ARDNACRUSHA
KILB111-211
KILLONAN

PROSPECT

TARB111-211

CLAHANE
TRALEE

SU1O211
CODO211

HAMZ111

HORK112

HUGK111

YORK111

WYLL111

KISO211

ARKC111

WEDZ111

MEPZ111

WERK111

HORK111

DRXK111

SU6O211

WF2O211
MAYC111

TYNAGH

DIEZ111
MESS111

THSK111
THTK111

PEWL111

WJ1O211 WJ2O211

BALC111

KINNEGAD

SHAA111-411

CASA111-411

MD1B111-211
AV2W211

HUTL111
QUEL111

HAML211

SU5O211

GALWAY

AF2W211

HUSL212

WLAO211 WALO211
WIAO211
WDUO211

GSUZ111

LACJ111

HUSL211
WNAO211

MANQ211

WF1O211

HUNC111 BA1C211
WOOC111

MULLINGAR

CLOON

CAMUS

SU8O211

LOUA211
BALA211

SHANKILL
-ON-

FLAA111-411
DALTON

BRBU111
WESZ111

HAWJ111

SOL0211

SU4O211

SRANANAGH
SRAA111-411
CUNGHILL

CASTLEBAR

DOGK112
DOGK111

STEJ111

GRNH111
HARJ111

WIG0211
OMAD111-211 TURD111-211
TAND211
ENND111-411

BELA111-211-411

AV1W211

AUCH211-221

SU7O211

CATA111-411

WHRW211

AF1W211

MAGD211

STRD211

KELD211
BAFD211

HAND211

WIRW211

KASU111

DSUU111

WKNW211

WJNW211

PETH111-211

BRDH111
BEAH111-211
FAGH111
WS30211

WS50211

LONF111

MOUF111

ROUF111
TERF111
MEZF111

DOMF111

PLHF111

FRAF111

HOUF111
MSEF111

DAMF111
GATF111

VERF111

CORF111
DISF111

5 GW
Basecase
2018

VIGF111

VLVF111MORF111

LREF111
LQUF111

LOUF111

LCHF111

AVOF111

DOUH211-221

MYBH211-221
MYSH211

MORH211-111

WS10211
WS40211

MOSH111-211
WS20211

FWIH111

HANU111

DASH211-221

ARG0211

FORH113

BELH111

INVH111

FARH111

FORH112

COCH111

ISL0211

NORTHERN
IRELAND

FORH111
NEAH111

KSSU111

TORH111

HUEH111-221
KIN0211

TRIA111-411

DOGK113

COLD211
BUNBEG

STSJ111

COOD211

LEAD111-411

CACD211

TIEVEBRACK
GOLA111-411

STRD211

MULLINGAR

CLOON

AF3W211

MNYB111-211
TASB111-211

AV3W211

WGRW211

LAOC111
IKERRIN
WEMB111
BALLYRAGGET
NENAGH

ARDNACRUSHA
KILB111-211
KILLONAN

PROSPECT

CHARLEVILLE

GLENLARA
MALLOW
OUGHTRAGH
BVKB111 KNOB111
OUGB211
COOMACHEO
COOMAGEARLAHY CLASHA
CROSS

LODC211

KIAC111

BRINNY
BANDON
DUNMANWAY

WLPM111

WF4O211

NORM111

GROZ111

CULLENAGH
DUNGARVAN

PEMM111

BRFM111

DISS111

BROZ111

MAVS111

BSUE111

LOVN111

GEES111

CANN111

KEMN111
BOLN111
NURN111

EXTN111

SELN111

CHIN111

WARF111

ABHN111

GIEZ111

MERE111

MANF111

HASO211

DODS111

MESE111

BOSN211

LAGN111

DIES111

THAN111

GRAN111

BR2O211

MASN111
OBEZ111

AVEF111

WIWO211

NETS111

SCIN211

LHVF111

COUE111 GRAE111

PENF111

CHEF111

CHEF111

ARGF111
TOUF111

LAMF111

GERZ111

KUSZ111

GRNZ111

GRGM111

LOAN111
COSN111

ALVN111

INDN111

LIPZ111

GUFM111

SWAM111

PESM212

BR1O211

NEHZ111

HENS111

WALM111

WF5O211

ZWOS111
NORM113

SIZM111

CASL211

AGHB111

NORM112

NOSM111

BAIM111

CAML111

SU2O211

CROB211

10kEU
2018

LANZ111

GLAO211

GREC111

WAHZ111

WEHZ111

DUDK111
SHHK111

NSUS111

TRAL111

ARKO211

DOON

HNEZ111

TKNK111
RCBK111
DOCK111

BICM111

LEGL111

KELC111

THURLES

TIPPERARY
CAHC111

KN1B111-411

MEES111

YORK111

DEEL111

TREL111

HAMZ111

HORK112

HORK111
HUGK111

TKSK111

PENL111

WF3O211

WEDZ111

MEPZ111

WERK111

DRSK111

DRXK111

SU6O211

SU1O211
CODO211

DIEZ111
MESS111

THSK111
THTK111

WYLL111

KISO211

ARKC111

HUTL111
QUEL111

HAML211

PEWL111

WJ2O211

WF2O211

OLDB111-411

TARB111-211

CLAHANE
TRALEE

WJ1O211

BALC111

CARC111
DUNC111
CHARLESLAND
TURLOUGH
HILL
BALLYBEG

TYNAGH

ENNIS

SU5O211

MAYC111

GALWAY

MD1B111-211

HUSL212

WLAO211 WALO211
WIAO211
WDUO211

GSUZ111

LACJ111

HUSL211
WNAO211

MANQ211

WF1O211

HUNC111 BA1C211
WOOC111
KINNEGAD

SHAA111-411

CASA111-411

ORIO211

HILL
CAVA111-211

LANESBORO

AV2W211

AF4W211

ARVA

SU8O211

LOUA211
BALA211

SHANKILL
GILRA

BRBU111
WESZ111

HAWJ111

SOL0211

SU4O211

SRANANAGH
SRAA111-411

-ON-

FLAA111-411
DALTON

DOGK112
DOGK111

STEJ111

HARJ111
WIG0211

CUNGHILL

CASTLEBAR

CAMUS

GRNH111

OMAD111-211 TURD111-211
TAND211

ENND111-411

BELA111-211-411
WHRW211

AF2W211

AUCH211-221

SU7O211

CATA111-411

SLIA111-411

AV1W211

KELD211
BAFD211

*
HAND211

WIRW211

AF1W211

MAGD211

KASU111

DSUU111

WKNW211

WJNW211

PETH111-211

BRDH111
BEAH111-211
FAGH111
WS30211

WS50211

LONF111

MOUF111

ROUF111
TERF111
MEZF111

DOMF111

PLHF111

LOUF111

VLVF111MORF111

VIGF111

LREF111
DAMF111
VERF111

CORF111
DISF111

GATF111

FRAF111

HOUF111
MSEF111

LQUF111
LCHF111

AVOF111

167
2257 Offshore Grid Study FA.indd 167

24/08/2011 16:26

EirGrid Offshore Grid Study

5 GW
Basecase
2020

DOUH211-221

MYBH211-221
MYSH211

MORH211-111

WS10211
WS40211

MOSH111-211
WS20211

FWIH111

HANU111

DASH211-221

ARG0211

FORH113

BELH111

INVH111

FARH111

FORH112

COCH111

ISL0211

NORTHERN
IRELAND

FORH111
NEAH111

KSSU111

TORH111

HUEH111-221
KIN0211

TRIA111-411

DOGK113

COLD211
BUNBEG

STSJ111

COOD211

LEAD111-411

CACD211

TIEVEBRACK
GOLA111-411

SLIA111-411

DALTON

ORIO211

HILL
CAVA111-211

LANESBORO
MULLINGAR

CLOON

CAMUS

ARVA

GILRA

OLDB111-411

LAOC111
IKERRIN
WEMB111
BALLYRAGGET
NENAGH

ENNIS

AF3W211

MNYB111-211

WGRW211

TARB111-211

GLENLARA
MALLOW
BVKB111 KNOB111
COOMACHEO

CROSS

HUGK111

MEES111

YORK111

LEGL111

LANZ111

GROZ111

SHHK111

NSUS111
WLPM111

COSN111

NURN111

SELN111

LOVN111

EXTN111

WARF111

ABHN111
LAGN111

GIEZ111

MERE111

MANF111

HASO211

DODS111

MESE111

BOSN211

CHIN111

DIES111

GEES111

CANN111

KEMN111
BOLN111

ALVN111

INDN111

MAVS111

BSUE111
THAN111

GRAN111

BR2O211

MASN111
OBEZ111

AVEF111

WIWO211

NETS111

SCIN211

COUE111 GRAE111

PENF111

LHVF111
CHEF111

CHEF111

ARGF111
TOUF111

LAMF111

GERZ111

KUSZ111

GRNZ111
BROZ111

LOAN111

PESM212

10kEU
2020

DISS111
GRGM111
GUFM111

SWAM111

BR1O211

NEHZ111
LIPZ111

HENS111

BRFM111
WALM111

PEMM111

ZWOS111
NORM113

SIZM111

CASL211

WF5O211

NORM112

NOSM111

NORM111

BAIM111

CAML111

AGHB111

BRINNY
BANDON
DUNMANWAY

CROB211

WAHZ111

WEHZ111

DUDK111

DOCK111

TRAL111

SU2O211

HNEZ111

TKNK111
RCBK111

TKSK111

BICM111

WF4O211

GREC111

HAMZ111

HORK112

GLAO211

CULLENAGH
DUNGARVAN

OUGB211

COOMAGEARLAHY CLASHA

DRXK111

DEEL111

TREL111

ARKO211

DOON

CHARLEVILLE

OUGHTRAGH
AF4W211

ARKC111

LODC211

KIAC111

TIPPERARY
CAHC111

KN1B111-411

CLAHANE
TRALEE

DRSK111

PEWL111

PENL111

WF3O211

KELC111

THURLES

ARDNACRUSHA
KILB111-211
KILLONAN

PROSPECT

TASB111-211

AV3W211

SU5O211

SU1O211
CODO211

WEDZ111

MEPZ111

WERK111

HORK111

WYLL111

KISO211

DIEZ111
MESS111

THSK111
THTK111

SU6O211

WF2O211

CARC111
DUNC111
CHARLESLAND
TURLOUGH
HILL
BALLYBEG

TYNAGH
MD1B111-211
AV2W211

HUTL111
QUEL111

HAML211

WJ1O211 WJ2O211

BALC111

MAYC111

GALWAY

AF2W211

HUSL212

WLAO211 WALO211
WIAO211
WDUO211

GSUZ111

LACJ111

HUSL211
WNAO211

MANQ211

WF1O211

HUNC111 BA1C211
WOOC111
KINNEGAD

SHAA111-411

CASA111-411

SU8O211

LOUA211
BALA211

SHANKILL
-ON-

FLAA111-411

BRBU111
WESZ111

HAWJ111

SOL0211

SU4O211

SRANANAGH
SRAA111-411
CUNGHILL

CASTLEBAR

DOGK112
DOGK111

STEJ111

GRNH111
HARJ111

WIG0211
OMAD111-211 TURD111-211
TAND211
ENND111-411

BELA111-211-411

AV1W211

AUCH211-221

SU7O211

CATA111-411

WHRW211

AF1W211

MAGD211

STRD211

KELD211
BAFD211

HAND211

WIRW211

KASU111

DSUU111

WKNW211

WJNW211

PETH111-211

BRDH111
BEAH111-211
FAGH111
WS30211

WS50211

LONF111

MOUF111

ROUF111
TERF111
MEZF111

DOMF111

DAMF111
VERF111
DISF111

FRAF111

HOUF111
MSEF111

LQUF111

CORF111

5 GW
Basecase
2023

VIGF111

VLVF111MORF111
LREF111

PLHF111

LOUF111

GATF111

LCHF111

AVOF111

DOUH211-221

MYBH211-221
MYSH211

MORH211-111

WS10211
WS40211

MOSH111-211
WS20211

FWIH111

HANU111

DASH211-221

ARG0211

FORH113

BELH111

INVH111

FARH111

FORH112

COCH111

ISL0211

NORTHERN
IRELAND

FORH111
NEAH111

KSSU111

TORH111

HUEH111-221
KIN0211

TRIA111-411

DOGK113

COLD211
BUNBEG

STSJ111

COOD211

LEAD111-411

CACD211

TIEVEBRACK
GOLA111-411

STRD211

MULLINGAR

CLOON

AF3W211

MNYB111-211
TASB111-211

AV3W211

WGRW211

LAOC111
IKERRIN
WEMB111
BALLYRAGGET
NENAGH

ARDNACRUSHA
KILB111-211
KILLONAN

PROSPECT

CHARLEVILLE

GLENLARA
MALLOW
OUGHTRAGH
BVKB111 KNOB111
OUGB211
COOMACHEO
COOMAGEARLAHY CLASHA
CROSS

LODC211

KIAC111

BRINNY
BANDON
DUNMANWAY

WLPM111

WF4O211

NORM111

GROZ111

CULLENAGH
DUNGARVAN

PEMM111

BRFM111

DISS111

COSN111

BROZ111

MAVS111

BSUE111

LOVN111

GEES111

CANN111

KEMN111
BOLN111
NURN111

EXTN111

SELN111

CHIN111

WARF111

ABHN111

GIEZ111

MERE111

MANF111

HASO211

DODS111

MESE111

BOSN211

LAGN111

DIES111

THAN111

GRAN111

BR2O211

MASN111
OBEZ111

AVEF111

WIWO211

NETS111

SCIN211

LHVF111

COUE111 GRAE111

PENF111

CHEF111

CHEF111

ARGF111
TOUF111

LAMF111

GERZ111

KUSZ111

GRNZ111

GRGM111

LOAN111

ALVN111

INDN111

LIPZ111

GUFM111

SWAM111

PESM212

BR1O211

NEHZ111

HENS111

WALM111

WF5O211

ZWOS111
NORM113

SIZM111

CASL211

AGHB111

NORM112

NOSM111

BAIM111

CAML111

SU2O211

CROB211

10kEU
2023

LANZ111

GLAO211

GREC111

WAHZ111

WEHZ111

DUDK111
SHHK111

NSUS111

TRAL111

ARKO211

DOON

HNEZ111

TKNK111
RCBK111
DOCK111

BICM111

LEGL111

KELC111

THURLES

TIPPERARY
CAHC111

KN1B111-411

MEES111

YORK111

DEEL111

TREL111

HAMZ111

HORK112

HORK111
HUGK111

TKSK111

PENL111

WF3O211

WEDZ111

MEPZ111

WERK111

DRSK111

DRXK111

SU6O211

SU1O211
CODO211

DIEZ111
MESS111

THSK111
THTK111

WYLL111

KISO211

ARKC111

HUTL111
QUEL111

HAML211

PEWL111

WJ2O211

WF2O211

OLDB111-411

TARB111-211

CLAHANE
TRALEE

WJ1O211

BALC111

CARC111
DUNC111
CHARLESLAND
TURLOUGH
HILL
BALLYBEG

TYNAGH

ENNIS

SU5O211

MAYC111

GALWAY

MD1B111-211

HUSL212

WLAO211 WALO211
WIAO211
WDUO211

GSUZ111

LACJ111

HUSL211
WNAO211

MANQ211

WF1O211

HUNC111 BA1C211
WOOC111
KINNEGAD

SHAA111-411

CASA111-411

ORIO211

HILL
CAVA111-211

LANESBORO

AV2W211

AF4W211

ARVA

SU8O211

LOUA211
BALA211

SHANKILL
GILRA

BRBU111
WESZ111

HAWJ111

SOL0211

SU4O211

SRANANAGH
SRAA111-411

-ON-

FLAA111-411
DALTON

DOGK112
DOGK111

STEJ111

HARJ111
WIG0211

CUNGHILL

CASTLEBAR

CAMUS

GRNH111

OMAD111-211 TURD111-211
TAND211

ENND111-411

BELA111-211-411
WHRW211

AF2W211

AUCH211-221

SU7O211

CATA111-411

SLIA111-411

AV1W211

KELD211
BAFD211

*
HAND211

WIRW211

AF1W211

MAGD211

KASU111

DSUU111

WKNW211

WJNW211

PETH111-211

BRDH111
BEAH111-211
FAGH111
WS30211

WS50211

LONF111

MOUF111

ROUF111
TERF111
MEZF111

DOMF111

PLHF111

LOUF111

VLVF111MORF111

VIGF111

LREF111
DAMF111
VERF111

CORF111
DISF111

GATF111

FRAF111

HOUF111
MSEF111

LQUF111
LCHF111

AVOF111

168
2257 Offshore Grid Study FA.indd 168

24/08/2011 16:26

EirGrid Offshore Grid Study

5 GW
Basecase
2025

DOUH211-221

MYBH211-221
MYSH211

MORH211-111

WS10211
WS40211

MOSH111-211
WS20211

FWIH111

HANU111

DASH211-221

ARG0211

FORH113

BELH111

INVH111

FARH111

FORH112

COCH111

ISL0211

NORTHERN
IRELAND

FORH111
NEAH111

KSSU111

TORH111

HUEH111-221
KIN0211

TRIA111-411

DOGK113

COLD211
BUNBEG

STSJ111

COOD211

LEAD111-411

CACD211

TIEVEBRACK
GOLA111-411

SLIA111-411
CUNGHILL

ORIO211

HILL
CAVA111-211

LANESBORO

LAOC111
IKERRIN
WEMB111
BALLYRAGGET
NENAGH

ENNIS

AF3W211

MNYB111-211

TARB111-211

WGRW211

GLENLARA
MALLOW
BVKB111 KNOB111
COOMACHEO

CROSS

LANZ111

GROZ111

SHHK111

NSUS111
WLPM111

TRAL111

DUNGARVAN

COSN111

SELN111

LOVN111

WARF111

GIEZ111

MERE111

MANF111

HASO211

DODS111

MESE111

BOSN211

CHIN111
ABHN111
LAGN111

DIES111

GEES111

CANN111

KEMN111
BOLN111
NURN111

EXTN111

INDN111

MAVS111

BSUE111
THAN111

GRAN111

BR2O211

MASN111
OBEZ111

AVEF111

WIWO211

NETS111

SCIN211

COUE111 GRAE111

PENF111

LHVF111
CHEF111

CHEF111

ARGF111
TOUF111

LAMF111

GERZ111

KUSZ111

GRNZ111
BROZ111

LOAN111

ALVN111

10kEU
2025

DISS111
GRGM111
GUFM111

SWAM111

PESM212

BR1O211

NEHZ111
LIPZ111

HENS111

BRFM111
WALM111

PEMM111

ZWOS111
NORM113

SIZM111

CASL211

WF5O211

NORM112

NOSM111

NORM111

BAIM111

CAML111

AGHB111

BRINNY
BANDON
DUNMANWAY

CROB211

WAHZ111

WEHZ111

DUDK111

DOCK111

WF4O211

SU2O211

HNEZ111

TKNK111
RCBK111

TKSK111

BICM111

GLAO211

GREC111

CULLENAGH

OUGB211

COOMAGEARLAHY CLASHA

MEES111

YORK111

LEGL111

ARKO211

DOON

CHARLEVILLE

OUGHTRAGH
AF4W211

LODC211

KIAC111

TIPPERARY
CAHC111

KN1B111-411

CLAHANE
TRALEE

DRSK111

DRXK111

HUGK111

DEEL111

TREL111

HAMZ111

HORK112

HORK111

PEWL111

PENL111

WF3O211

KELC111

THURLES

ARDNACRUSHA
KILB111-211
KILLONAN

PROSPECT

TASB111-211

AV3W211

SU1O211
CODO211

ARKC111

WEDZ111

MEPZ111

WERK111

WYLL111

KISO211

CARC111
DUNC111
CHARLESLAND
TURLOUGH
HILL
BALLYBEG

OLDB111-411

DIEZ111
MESS111

THSK111
THTK111

SU6O211

WF2O211
MAYC111

TYNAGH

HUTL111
QUEL111

HAML211

WJ1O211 WJ2O211

BALC111

KINNEGAD

SHAA111-411

CASA111-411

MD1B111-211
AV2W211

GSUZ111

LACJ111

HUSL212

WLAO211 WALO211
WIAO211
WDUO211
SU5O211

GALWAY

AF2W211

WNAO211
MANQ211

WF1O211

HUNC111 BA1C211
WOOC111

MULLINGAR

CLOON

CAMUS

ARVA

GILRA

FLAA111-411
DALTON

SU8O211

LOUA211
BALA211

SHANKILL
-ONCASTLEBAR

HUSL211

SU4O211

SRANANAGH
SRAA111-411

BELA111-211-411

AV1W211

BRBU111
WESZ111

HAWJ111

SOL0211

WIG0211
OMAD111-211 TURD111-211
TAND211
ENND111-411

DOGK112
DOGK111

STEJ111

GRNH111
HARJ111

CATA111-411

WHRW211

AF1W211

AUCH211-221

SU7O211

MAGD211

STRD211

KELD211
BAFD211

HAND211

WIRW211

KASU111

DSUU111

WKNW211

WJNW211

PETH111-211

BRDH111
BEAH111-211
FAGH111
WS30211

WS50211

LONF111

MOUF111

ROUF111
TERF111
MEZF111

DOMF111

PLHF111

FRAF111

HOUF111
MSEF111

DAMF111
GATF111 LCHF111

VERF111

CORF111
DISF111

5 GW
Basecase
2028

VIGF111

VLVF111MORF111

LREF111
LQUF111

LOUF111

AVOF111

DOUH211-221

MYBH211-221
MYSH211

MORH211-111

WS10211
WS40211

MOSH111-211
WS20211

FWIH111

HANU111

DASH211-221

ARG0211

FORH113

BELH111

INVH111

FARH111

FORH112

COCH111

ISL0211

NORTHERN
IRELAND

FORH111
NEAH111

KSSU111

TORH111

HUEH111-221
KIN0211

TRIA111-411

DOGK113

COLD211
BUNBEG

STSJ111

COOD211

LEAD111-411

CACD211

TIEVEBRACK
GOLA111-411

STRD211

MULLINGAR

CLOON

AF3W211

MNYB111-211
TASB111-211

AV3W211

LAOC111
IKERRIN
WEMB111
BALLYRAGGET
NENAGH

WGRW211

ARDNACRUSHA
KILB111-211
KILLONAN

PROSPECT

TARB111-211
CHARLEVILLE

GLENLARA
MALLOW
OUGHTRAGH
BVKB111 KNOB111
OUGB211
COOMACHEO
COOMAGEARLAHY CLASHA
CROSS

LODC211

KIAC111

BRINNY
BANDON
DUNMANWAY

NORM111

GROZ111

DUNGARVAN

BRFM111

DISS111

BROZ111

MAVS111

BSUE111

LOVN111

GEES111

CANN111

KEMN111
BOLN111
NURN111

EXTN111

SELN111

CHIN111

WARF111

ABHN111

GIEZ111

MERE111

MANF111

HASO211

DODS111

MESE111

BOSN211

LAGN111

DIES111

THAN111

GRAN111

BR2O211

MASN111
OBEZ111

AVEF111

WIWO211

NETS111

SCIN211

LHVF111

PENF111

CHEF111

COUE111 GRAE111
CHEF111

ARGF111
TOUF111

LAMF111

GERZ111

KUSZ111

GRNZ111

GRGM111

LOAN111
COSN111

ALVN111

INDN111

LIPZ111

GUFM111

SWAM111

PESM212

BR1O211

NEHZ111

HENS111

WALM111
PEMM111

ZWOS111
NORM113

SIZM111

CASL211

WF5O211

NORM112

NOSM111

BAIM111

CAML111

AGHB111

CROB211

10kEU
2028

LANZ111

NSUS111
WLPM111

WF4O211

SU2O211

WAHZ111

WEHZ111

DUDK111
SHHK111

GLAO211

GREC111

CULLENAGH

HNEZ111

TKNK111
RCBK111
DOCK111

BICM111

TRAL111

ARKO211

DOON

MEES111

YORK111

LEGL111

KELC111

THURLES

DRXK111

DEEL111

TREL111

HAMZ111

HORK112

HORK111
HUGK111

TKSK111

PENL111

WF3O211

TIPPERARY
CAHC111

KN1B111-411

CLAHANE
TRALEE

SU1O211
CODO211

WEDZ111

MEPZ111

WERK111

DRSK111

WYLL111

KISO211

ARKC111

DIEZ111
MESS111

THSK111
THTK111

SU6O211

WF2O211

OLDB111-411

HUTL111
QUEL111

HAML211

PEWL111

WJ1O211 WJ2O211

BALC111

CARC111
DUNC111
CHARLESLAND
TURLOUGH
HILL
BALLYBEG

TYNAGH

ENNIS

SU5O211

MAYC111

GALWAY

MD1B111-211

HUSL212

WLAO211 WALO211
WIAO211
WDUO211

GSUZ111

LACJ111

HUSL211
WNAO211

MANQ211

WF1O211

HUNC111 BA1C211
WOOC111
KINNEGAD

SHAA111-411

CASA111-411

ORIO211

HILL
CAVA111-211

LANESBORO

AV2W211

AF4W211

ARVA

SU8O211

LOUA211
BALA211

SHANKILL
GILRA

BRBU111
WESZ111

HAWJ111

SOL0211

SU4O211

SRANANAGH
SRAA111-411

-ON-

FLAA111-411
DALTON

DOGK112
DOGK111

STEJ111

HARJ111
WIG0211

CUNGHILL

CASTLEBAR

CAMUS

GRNH111

OMAD111-211 TURD111-211
TAND211

ENND111-411

BELA111-211-411
WHRW211

AF2W211

AUCH211-221

SU7O211

CATA111-411

SLIA111-411

AV1W211

KELD211
BAFD211

*
HAND211

WIRW211

AF1W211

MAGD211

KASU111

DSUU111

WKNW211

WJNW211

PETH111-211

BRDH111
BEAH111-211
FAGH111
WS30211

WS50211

LONF111

MOUF111

ROUF111
TERF111
MEZF111

DOMF111

VLVF111MORF111
LREF111

PLHF111

LOUF111

LQUF111
DAMF111
VERF111

CORF111
DISF111

VIGF111

FRAF111

HOUF111
MSEF111

GATF111 LCHF111

AVOF111

169
2257 Offshore Grid Study FA.indd 169

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EirGrid Offshore Grid Study

5 GW
Basecase
2030

DOUH211-221

MYBH211-221
MYSH211

MORH211-111

WS10211
WS40211

MOSH111-211
WS20211

FWIH111

HANU111

DASH211-221

ARG0211

FORH113

BELH111

INVH111

FARH111

FORH112

COCH111

ISL0211

NORTHERN
IRELAND

FORH111
NEAH111

KSSU111

TORH111

HUEH111-221
KIN0211

TRIA111-411

DOGK113

COLD211
BUNBEG

STSJ111

COOD211

LEAD111-411

CACD211

TIEVEBRACK
GOLA111-411

STRD211

AF3W211

ENNIS
MNYB111-211
TASB111-211

AV3W211

LAOC111
IKERRIN
WEMB111
BALLYRAGGET
NENAGH

WGRW211

ARDNACRUSHA
KILB111-211
KILLONAN

PROSPECT

TARB111-211
CHARLEVILLE

GLENLARA
MALLOW
OUGHTRAGH
BVKB111 KNOB111
OUGB211
COOMACHEO
COOMAGEARLAHY CLASHA
CROSS

LODC211

KIAC111

BRINNY
BANDON
DUNMANWAY

WLPM111

NORM111

GROZ111

CULLENAGH
DUNGARVAN

DISS111

COSN111

BROZ111

MAVS111

BSUE111

LOVN111

GEES111

CANN111

KEMN111
BOLN111
NURN111

EXTN111

SELN111

CHIN111

WARF111

ABHN111

GIEZ111

MERE111

MANF111

HASO211

DODS111

MESE111

BOSN211

LAGN111

DIES111

THAN111

GRAN111

BR2O211

MASN111
OBEZ111

AVEF111

WIWO211

NETS111

SCIN211

LHVF111

PENF111

CHEF111
LAMF111

COUE111 GRAE111
CHEF111

ARGF111
TOUF111

GERZ111

KUSZ111

GRNZ111

GRGM111

LOAN111

ALVN111

INDN111

LIPZ111

GUFM111

SWAM111

PESM212

BR1O211

NEHZ111

HENS111

BRFM111
WALM111

PEMM111

ZWOS111
NORM113

SIZM111

CASL211

WF5O211

NORM112

NOSM111

BAIM111

CAML111

AGHB111

CROB211

10kEU
2030

LANZ111

NSUS111

TRAL111
WF4O211

SU2O211

WAHZ111

WEHZ111

SHHK111

GLAO211

GREC111

HNEZ111

DUDK111

DOCK111
BICM111

LEGL111

ARKO211

DOON

MEES111
TKNK111
RCBK111

DEEL111

TREL111

KELC111

THURLES

DRSK111

TKSK111

PENL111

WF3O211

TIPPERARY
CAHC111

KN1B111-411

CLAHANE
TRALEE

SU1O211
CODO211

HAMZ111

HORK112

HUGK111

YORK111

WYLL111

KISO211

ARKC111

WEDZ111

MEPZ111

WERK111

HORK111

DRXK111

SU6O211

WF2O211

OLDB111-411

DIEZ111
MESS111

THSK111
THTK111

PEWL111

WJ1O211 WJ2O211

BALC111

CARC111
DUNC111
CHARLESLAND
TURLOUGH
HILL
BALLYBEG

TYNAGH

HUTL111
QUEL111

HAML211

SU5O211

MAYC111

GALWAY

MD1B111-211
AV2W211

HUSL212

WLAO211 WALO211
WIAO211
WDUO211

GSUZ111

LACJ111

HUSL211
WNAO211

BRBU111
WESZ111

HAWJ111

MANQ211

WF1O211

HUNC111 BA1C211
WOOC111
KINNEGAD

SHAA111-411

CASA111-411

ORIO211

HILL
CAVA111-211

LANESBORO
MULLINGAR

CLOON

CAMUS

ARVA

SU8O211

LOUA211
BALA211

SHANKILL
GILRA

DOGK112
DOGK111

STEJ111

SOL0211

SU4O211

SRANANAGH
SRAA111-411

FLAA111-411
DALTON

AF2W211

GRNH111
HARJ111

WIG0211

CUNGHILL
-ON-

AF4W211

OMAD111-211 TURD111-211
TAND211
ENND111-411

SLIA111-411

CASTLEBAR

AV1W211

AUCH211-221

SU7O211

CATA111-411

BELA111-211-411
WHRW211

AF1W211

MAGD211

KELD211
BAFD211

HAND211

WIRW211

KASU111

DSUU111

WKNW211

WJNW211

PETH111-211

BRDH111
BEAH111-211
FAGH111
WS30211

WS50211

LONF111

MOUF111

ROUF111

PLHF111

TERF111
MEZF111

VLVF111MORF111
LREF111

DOMF111
LOUF111

LQUF111
DAMF111
VERF111

CORF111
DISF111

VIGF111

FRAF111

HOUF111
MSEF111

GATF111 LCHF111

AVOF111

170
2257 Offshore Grid Study FA.indd 170

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EirGrid Offshore Grid Study

5 GW
Basecase
2013

DOUH211-221

MYBH211-221
MYSH211

MORH211-111

WS10211
WS40211

MOSH111-211
WS20211

FWIH111

HANU111

DASH211-221

ARG0211

FORH113

BELH111

INVH111

FARH111

FORH112

COCH111

ISL0211

NORTHERN
IRELAND

FORH111
NEAH111

KSSU111

TORH111

HUEH111-221
KIN0211

TRIA111-411

DOGK113

COLD211
BUNBEG

STSJ111

COOD211

LEAD111-411

CACD211

TIEVEBRACK
GOLA111-411

SLIA111-411
CUNGHILL

ORIO211

HILL
CAVA111-211

LANESBORO
MULLINGAR

CLOON

CAMUS

ARVA

GILRA

FLAA111-411
DALTON

LAOC111
IKERRIN
WEMB111
BALLYRAGGET
NENAGH

ENNIS

AF3W211

MONB111-211

TARB111-211

WGRW211

COOMAGEARLAHY CLASHA
CROSS

DRXK111

MEES111

YORK111

LANZ111

GROZ111

SHHK111

NSUS111
WLPM111

TRAL111
WF4O211

CULLENAGH
DUNGARVAN

BSUE111

NURN111

SELN111

LOVN111

EXTN111

GEES111

CANN111

KEMN111
BOLN111

ALVN111

CHIN111

WARF111

ABHN111

GIEZ111

MERE111

MANF111

HASO211

DODS111

MESE111

BOSN211

LAGN111

DIES111

THAN111

GRAN111

BR2O211

INDN111

BROZ111

MAVS111

LOAN111
COSN111

BR1O211

MASN111
OBEZ111

AVEF111

WIWO211

NETS111

SCIN211

COUE111 GRAE111

PENF111

LHVF111
CHEF111

CHEF111

ARGF111
TOUF111

LAMF111

GERZ111

KUSZ111

GRNZ111

GRGM111
GUFM111

SWAM111

PESM212

REAL
2013

DISS111

WALM111
PEMM111

NEHZ111
LIPZ111

HENS111

BRFM111

CASL211

WF5O211

ZWOS111
NORM113

SIZM111

AGHB111

BRINNY
BANDON
DUNMANWAY

CROB211

NORM112

NOSM111

NORM111

BAIM111

CAML111

SU2O211

WAHZ111

WEHZ111

DUDK111

DOCK111

GLAO211

GREC111

HNEZ111

TKNK111
RCBK111

TKSK111

BICM111

LEGL111

HAMZ111

HORK112

HUGK111

DEEL111

TREL111

ARKO211

DOON

CHARLEVILLE

GLENLARA
MALLOW
OUGHTRAGH
BVKB111 KNOB111
OUGB211
COOMACHEO

AF4W211

ARKC111
LODC211

KIAC111

TIPPERARY
CAHC111

KN1B111-411

CLAHANE
TRALEE

DRSK111

PEWL111

PENL111

WF3O211

KELC111

THURLES

ARDNACRUSHA
KILB111-211
KILLONAN

PROSPECT

TASB111-211

AV3W211

SU1O211
CODO211

WEDZ111

MEPZ111

WERK111

HORK111

WYLL111

KISO211

DIEZ111
MESS111

THSK111
THTK111

SU6O211

WF2O211

CKMC111
DUNC111
CHARLESLAND
TURLOUGH
HILL
BALLYBEG

OLDB111-411

HUTL111
QUEL111

HAML211

WJ1O211 WJ2O211

BALC111

MAYC111

TYNAGH
MD1B111-211
AV2W211

GSUZ111

LACJ111

HUSL212

WLAO211 WALO211
WIAO211
WDUO211
SU5O211

GALWAY

AF2W211

WNAO211
MANQ211

WF1O211

HUNC111 BA1C211
WOOC111
KINNEGAD

SHAA111-411

CASA111-411

SU8O211

LOUA211
BALA211

SHANKILL
-ONCASTLEBAR

HUSL211

SU4O211

SRANANAGH
SRAA111-411

BELA111-211-411

AV1W211

BRBU111
WESZ111

HAWJ111

SOL0211

WIG0211
OMAD111-211 TURD111-211
TAND211
ENND111-411

DOGK112
DOGK111

STEJ111

GRNH111
HARJ111

CATA111-411

WHRW211

AF1W211

AUCH211-221

SU7O211

MAGD211

STRD211

KELD211
BAFD211

HAND211

WIRW211

KASU111

DSUU111

WKNW211

WJNW211

PETH111-211

BRDH111
BEAH111-211
FAGH111
WS30211

WS50211

LONF111

MOUF111

ROUF111
TERF111
MEZF111

DOMF111

DAMF111
VERF111
DISF111

FRAF111

HOUF111
MSEF111

LQUF111

CORF111

5 GW
Basecase
2015

VIGF111

VLVF111MORF111
LREF111

PLHF111

LOUF111

GATF111 LCHF111

AVOF111

DOUH211-221

MYBH211-221
MYSH211

MORH211-111

WS10211
WS40211

MOSH111-211
WS20211

FWIH111

HANU111

DASH211-221

ARG0211

FORH113

BELH111

INVH111

FARH111

FORH112

COCH111

ISL0211

NORTHERN
IRELAND

FORH111
NEAH111

KSSU111

TORH111

HUEH111-221
KIN0211

TRIA111-411

DOGK113

COLD211
BUNBEG

STSJ111

COOD211

LEAD111-411

CACD211

TIEVEBRACK
GOLA111-411

STRD211

MULLINGAR

MONB111-211
TASB111-211
WGRW211

ARDNACRUSHA
KILB111-211
KILLONAN

PROSPECT

TARB111-211
CHARLEVILLE

GLENLARA
MALLOW
BVKB111 KNOB111
OUGB211
COOMACHEO

COOMAGEARLAHY CLASHA
CROSS

LODC211

KIAC111

BRINNY
BANDON
DUNMANWAY

DRXK111

WLPM111

NORM111

GROZ111

CULLENAGH
DUNGARVAN

BRFM111

DISS111

BROZ111

MAVS111

BSUE111

LOVN111

GEES111

CANN111

KEMN111
BOLN111
NURN111

EXTN111

SELN111

WARF111

ABHN111
LAGN111

GIEZ111

MERE111

MANF111

HASO211

DODS111

MESE111

BOSN211

CHIN111

DIES111

THAN111

GRAN111

BR2O211

MASN111
OBEZ111

AVEF111

WIWO211

NETS111

SCIN211

LHVF111

COUE111 GRAE111

PENF111

CHEF111

CHEF111

ARGF111
TOUF111

LAMF111

GERZ111

KUSZ111

GRNZ111

GRGM111

LOAN111
COSN111

ALVN111

INDN111

LIPZ111

GUFM111

SWAM111

PESM212

BR1O211

NEHZ111

HENS111

WALM111
PEMM111

ZWOS111
NORM113

SIZM111

CASL211

WF5O211

NORM112

NOSM111

BAIM111

CAML111

AGHB111

CROB211

REAL
2015

LANZ111

NSUS111

TRAL111
WF4O211

SU2O211

WAHZ111

WEHZ111

DUDK111
SHHK111

GLAO211

GREC111

HNEZ111

TKNK111
RCBK111
DOCK111

BICM111

LEGL111

ARKO211

DOON

MEES111

YORK111

DEEL111

TREL111

HAMZ111

HORK112

HORK111
HUGK111

TKSK111

PENL111

WF3O211

KELC111

THURLES

TIPPERARY
CAHC111

KN1B111-411

CLAHANE
TRALEE
OUGHTRAGH

SU1O211
CODO211

WEDZ111

MEPZ111

WERK111

DRSK111

WYLL111

KISO211

ARKC111

DIEZ111
MESS111

THSK111
THTK111

SU6O211

WF2O211

LAOC111
IKERRIN
WEMB111
BALLYRAGGET
NENAGH

HUTL111
QUEL111

HAML211

PEWL111

WJ1O211 WJ2O211

BALC111

CKMC111
DUNC111
CHARLESLAND
TURLOUGH
HILL
BALLYBEG

OLDB111-411

ENNIS

SU5O211

MAYC111

TYNAGH

AV3W211

AF4W211

WOOC111
KINNEGAD

GALWAY

MD1B111-211
AV2W211

HUSL212

WLAO211 WALO211
WIAO211
WDUO211

GSUZ111

LACJ111

HUSL211
WNAO211

MANQ211

WF1O211

HUNC111 BA1C211

SHAA111-411

CASA111-411

ORIO211

HILL
CAVA111-211

LANESBORO

CLOON

CAMUS

ARVA

GILRA

SU8O211

LOUA211
BALA211

SHANKILL
-ON-

FLAA111-411

BRBU111
WESZ111

HAWJ111

SOL0211

SU4O211

SRANANAGH
SRAA111-411
CUNGHILL

CASTLEBAR

DOGK112
DOGK111

STEJ111

HARJ111
WIG0211

DALTON

AF3W211

GRNH111

OMAD111-211 TURD111-211
TAND211

ENND111-411

BELA111-211-411
WHRW211

AF2W211

AUCH211-221

SU7O211

CATA111-411

SLIA111-411

AV1W211

KELD211
BAFD211

*
HAND211

WIRW211

AF1W211

MAGD211

KASU111

DSUU111

WKNW211

WJNW211

PETH111-211

BRDH111
BEAH111-211
FAGH111
WS30211

WS50211

LONF111

MOUF111

ROUF111
TERF111
MEZF111

DOMF111

VLVF111MORF111
LREF111

PLHF111

LOUF111

DAMF111
VERF111

CORF111
DISF111

GATF111

VIGF111

FRAF111

HOUF111
MSEF111

LQUF111
LCHF111

AVOF111

171
2257 Offshore Grid Study FA.indd 171

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EirGrid Offshore Grid Study

5 GW
Basecase
2018

DOUH211-221

MYBH211-221
MYSH211

MORH211-111

WS10211
WS40211

MOSH111-211
WS20211
KEIH221-211

BRDH111
BEAH111-211
FAGH111
WS30211

WS50211

FORH113

BELH111

INVH111

FARH111

FORH112

COCH111

ISL0211

FORH111
NEAH111

DSUU111

KIN0211

TRIA111-411

DOGK113

COLD211
BUNBEG

STSJ111

COOD211

LEAD111-411

CACD211

TIEVEBRACK
GOLA111-411

SLIA111-411

ORIO211

HILL
CAVA111-211

LANESBORO

CKMC111
DUNC111
CHARLESLAND
TURLOUGH
HILL
BALLYBEG

OLDB111-411

LAOC111
IKERRIN
WEMB111
BALLYRAGGET
NENAGH

ENNIS
MONB111-211

WGRW211

TARB111-211

COOMAGEARLAHY CLASHA
CROSS

MEES111

YORK111

LANZ111

GROZ111

SHHK111

NSUS111
WLPM111

TRAL111
WF4O211

NORM111

NORM112

NOSM111

ZWOS111

BAIM111

CULLENAGH
DUNGARVAN

PEMM111

BSUE111

NURN111

SELN111

LOVN111

EXTN111

GEES111

CANN111

KEMN111
BOLN111

ALVN111

CHIN111

WARF111

ABHN111

GIEZ111

MERE111

MANF111

HASO211

DODS111

MESE111

BOSN211

LAGN111

DIES111

THAN111

GRAN111

BR2O211

INDN111

BROZ111

MAVS111

LOAN111
COSN111

BR1O211

MASN111
OBEZ111

AVEF111

WIWO211

NETS111

SCIN211

COUE111 GRAE111

PENF111

LHVF111
CHEF111

CHEF111

ARGF111
TOUF111

LAMF111

GERZ111

KUSZ111

GRNZ111

GRGM111
GUFM111

SWAM111

PESM212

REAL
2018

DISS111

WALM111

WF5O211

LIPZ111

HENS111

BRFM111

CASL211

AGHB111

BRINNY
BANDON
DUNMANWAY

CROB211

NEHZ111

NORM113
SIZM111

CAML111

SU2O211

WAHZ111

WEHZ111

DUDK111

DOCK111

GLAO211

GREC111

HNEZ111

TKNK111
RCBK111

TKSK111

BICM111

LEGL111

ARKO211

DOON

CHARLEVILLE

GLENLARA
MALLOW
OUGHTRAGH
BVKB111 KNOB111
OUGB211
COOMACHEO

AF4W211

ARKC111
LODC211

KIAC111

TIPPERARY
CAHC111

KN1B111-411

CLAHANE
TRALEE

DRSK111

DRXK111

HUGK111

DEEL111

TREL111

HAMZ111

HORK112

HORK111

PEWL111

PENL111

WF3O211

KELC111

THURLES

ARDNACRUSHA
KILB111-211
KILLONAN

PROSPECT

TASB111-211

AV3W211

SU1O211
CODO211

WEDZ111

MEPZ111

WERK111

WYLL111

KISO211

DIEZ111
MESS111

THSK111
THTK111

SU6O211

WF2O211
MAYC111

TYNAGH

HUTL111
QUEL111

HAML211

WJ1O211 WJ2O211

BALC111

KINNEGAD

SHAA111-411

CASA111-411

MD1B111-211
AV2W211

GSUZ111

LACJ111

HUSL212

WLAO211 WALO211
WIAO211
WDUO211
SU5O211

GALWAY

AF2W211

WNAO211
MANQ211

WF1O211

HUNC111 BA1C211
WOOC111

MULLINGAR

CLOON

CAMUS

ARVA

GILRA

SU8O211

LOUA211
BALA211

SHANKILL
-ON-

FLAA111-411

BRBU111
WESZ111

HAWJ111

HUSL211

SU4O211

SRANANAGH
SRAA111-411
CUNGHILL

CASTLEBAR
DALTON

AF3W211

HARJ111
SOL0211

WIG0211

DOGK112
DOGK111

STEJ111

GRNH111

OMAD111-211 TURD111-211
TAND211

ENND111-411

BELA111-211-411

AV1W211

AUCH211-221

SU7O211

CATA111-411

WHRW211

AF1W211

MAGD211

STRD211

KELD211
BAFD211

HAND211

WIRW211

KASU111

KSSU111

TORH111

HUEH111-221

WKNW211

WJNW211

HANU111

DASH211-221

ARG0211

NORTHERN
IRELAND

PETH111-211

FWIH111

LONF111

MOUF111

ROUF111
TERF111
MEZF111

DOMF111

PLHF111

FRAF111

HOUF111
MSEF111

DAMF111

DISF111

LCHF111

GATF111

VERF111

CORF111

5 GW
Basecase
2020

VIGF111

VLVF111MORF111

LREF111
LQUF111

LOUF111

AVOF111

DOUH211-221

MYBH211-221
MYSH211

MORH211-111

WS10211
WS40211

MOSH111-211
WS20211
KEIH221-211

BRDH111
BEAH111-211
FAGH111
WS30211

WS50211

FORH113

BELH111

INVH111

FARH111

FORH112

COCH111

ISL0211

FORH111
NEAH111

KSSU111

TORH111

HUEH111-221
KIN0211

TRIA111-411

DOGK113

COLD211
BUNBEG

STSJ111

COOD211

LEAD111-411

CACD211

TIEVEBRACK
GOLA111-411

STRD211

MULLINGAR

MONB111-211
TASB111-211

AV3W211

WGRW211

ARDNACRUSHA
KILB111-211
KILLONAN

PROSPECT

TARB111-211
CHARLEVILLE

CROSS

LODC211

KIAC111

BRINNY
BANDON
DUNMANWAY

DRXK111

WLPM111

NORM111

GROZ111

BRFM111

DISS111

BROZ111

MAVS111

BSUE111

LOVN111

GEES111

CANN111

KEMN111
BOLN111
NURN111

EXTN111

SELN111

WARF111

ABHN111
LAGN111

GIEZ111

MERE111

MANF111

HASO211

DODS111

MESE111

BOSN211

CHIN111

DIES111

THAN111

GRAN111

BR2O211

MASN111
OBEZ111

AVEF111

WIWO211

NETS111

SCIN211

LHVF111

COUE111 GRAE111

PENF111

CHEF111

CHEF111

ARGF111
TOUF111

LAMF111

GERZ111

KUSZ111

GRNZ111

GRGM111

LOAN111
COSN111

ALVN111

INDN111

LIPZ111

GUFM111

SWAM111

PESM212

BR1O211

NEHZ111

HENS111

WALM111
PEMM111

ZWOS111
NORM113

SIZM111

CASL211

WF5O211

NORM112

NOSM111

BAIM111

CAML111

AGHB111

CROB211

REAL
2020

LANZ111

NSUS111

TRAL111
WF4O211

SU2O211

WAHZ111

WEHZ111

DUDK111
SHHK111

GLAO211

GREC111

HNEZ111

TKNK111
RCBK111
DOCK111

BICM111

LEGL111

ARKO211

DOON

MEES111

YORK111

DEEL111

TREL111

HAMZ111

HORK112

HORK111
HUGK111

TKSK111

PENL111

KELC111

THURLES

GLENLARA
CULLENAGH
MALLOW
OUGHTRAGH
DUNGARVAN
BVKB111 KNOB111
OUGB211
COOMACHEO
COOMAGEARLAHY CLASHA

SU1O211

WF3O211

WEDZ111

MEPZ111

WERK111

DRSK111

WYLL111

KISO211

CODO211

ARKC111

TIPPERARY
CAHC111

KN1B111-411

CLAHANE
TRALEE

AF4W211

LAOC111
IKERRIN
WEMB111
BALLYRAGGET
NENAGH

DIEZ111
MESS111

THSK111
THTK111

SU6O211

WF2O211

OLDB111-411

HUTL111
QUEL111

HAML211

PEWL111

WJ1O211 WJ2O211

BALC111

CKMC111
DUNC111
CHARLESLAND
TURLOUGH
HILL
BALLYBEG

TYNAGH

ENNIS

SU5O211

MAYC111

GALWAY

MD1B111-211
AV2W211

HUSL212

WLAO211 WALO211
WIAO211
WDUO211

GSUZ111

LACJ111

HUSL211
WNAO211

MANQ211

WF1O211

HUNC111 BA1C211
WOOC111
KINNEGAD

SHAA111-411

CASA111-411

ORIO211

HILL
CAVA111-211

LANESBORO

CLOON

CAMUS

ARVA

GILRA

SU8O211

LOUA211
BALA211

SHANKILL
-ON-

FLAA111-411

BRBU111
WESZ111

HAWJ111

SOL0211

SU4O211

SRANANAGH
SRAA111-411
CUNGHILL

CASTLEBAR

DOGK112
DOGK111

STEJ111

HARJ111
WIG0211

DALTON

AF3W211

GRNH111

OMAD111-211 TURD111-211
TAND211

ENND111-411

BELA111-211-411
WHRW211

AF2W211

AUCH211-221

SU7O211

CATA111-411

SLIA111-411

AV1W211

KELD211
BAFD211

*
HAND211

WIRW211

AF1W211

MAGD211

KASU111

DSUU111

WKNW211

WJNW211

HANU111

DASH211-221

ARG0211

NORTHERN
IRELAND

PETH111-211

FWIH111

LONF111

MOUF111

ROUF111
TERF111
MEZF111

DOMF111

VLVF111MORF111
LREF111

PLHF111

LOUF111

DAMF111
VERF111

CORF111
DISF111

GATF111

VIGF111

FRAF111

HOUF111
MSEF111

LQUF111
LCHF111

AVOF111

172
2257 Offshore Grid Study FA.indd 172

24/08/2011 16:27

EirGrid Offshore Grid Study

5 GW
Basecase
2023

DOUH211-221

MYBH211-221
MYSH211

MORH211-111

WS10211
WS40211

MOSH111-211
WS20211
KEIH221-211

BRDH111
BEAH111-211
FAGH111
WS30211

WS50211

FORH113

BELH111

INVH111

FARH111

FORH112

COCH111

ISL0211

FORH111
NEAH111

DSUU111

KIN0211

TRIA111-411

DOGK113

COLD211
BUNBEG

STSJ111

COOD211

LEAD111-411

CACD211

TIEVEBRACK
GOLA111-411

SLIA111-411

ORIO211

HILL
CAVA111-211

LANESBORO
MULLINGAR

CLOON

CAMUS

ARVA

GILRA

LAOC111
IKERRIN
WEMB111
BALLYRAGGET
NENAGH

ENNIS

AF3W211

MONB111-211
TASB111-211

AV3W211

WGRW211

CHARLEVILLE

COOMAGEARLAHY CLASHA
CROSS

LANZ111

GROZ111
NSUS111

WLPM111

TRAL111
WF4O211

COSN111

BSUE111

SELN111

LOVN111

CHIN111

LAGN111

WARF111

GIEZ111

MERE111

MANF111

HASO211

DODS111

MESE111

BOSN211

ABHN111

INDN111

GEES111

CANN111

KEMN111
BOLN111
NURN111

EXTN111

DIES111

THAN111

GRAN111

BR2O211

MASN111
OBEZ111

AVEF111

WIWO211

NETS111

SCIN211

COUE111 GRAE111

PENF111

LHVF111
CHEF111

CHEF111

ARGF111
TOUF111

LAMF111

GERZ111

KUSZ111

GRNZ111
BROZ111

MAVS111

LOAN111

ALVN111

REAL
2023

DISS111
GRGM111
GUFM111

SWAM111

PESM212

BR1O211

NEHZ111
LIPZ111

HENS111

BRFM111
WALM111

PEMM111

ZWOS111
NORM113

SIZM111

CASL211

WF5O211

NORM112

NOSM111

NORM111

BAIM111

CAML111

AGHB111

BRINNY
BANDON
DUNMANWAY

CROB211

WAHZ111

WEHZ111

SHHK111

GLAO211
SU2O211

HNEZ111

DUDK111

DOCK111
BICM111

LEGL111

ARKO211

GREC111

GLENLARA
CULLENAGH
MALLOW
OUGHTRAGH
DUNGARVAN
BVKB111 KNOB111
OUGB211
COOMACHEO

AF4W211

ARKC111

CAHC111
DOON

MEES111
TKNK111
RCBK111

DEEL111

TREL111

LODC211

KIAC111

TIPPERARY

KN1B111-411

CLAHANE
TRALEE

DRSK111

TKSK111

PENL111

WF3O211

KELC111

THURLES

ARDNACRUSHA
KILB111-211
KILLONAN

PROSPECT

TARB111-211

SU1O211
CODO211

HAMZ111

HORK112

HUGK111

YORK111

WYLL111

KISO211

WEDZ111

MEPZ111

WERK111

HORK111

DRXK111

SU6O211

WF2O211

OLDB111-411

DIEZ111
MESS111

THSK111
THTK111

PEWL111

WJ1O211 WJ2O211

BALC111

CKMC111
DUNC111
CHARLESLAND
TURLOUGH
HILL
BALLYBEG

TYNAGH

HUTL111
QUEL111

HAML211

SU5O211

MAYC111

GALWAY

MD1B111-211
AV2W211

HUSL212

WLAO211 WALO211
WIAO211
WDUO211

GSUZ111

LACJ111

HUSL211
WNAO211

MANQ211

WF1O211

HUNC111 BA1C211
WOOC111
KINNEGAD

SHAA111-411

CASA111-411

SU8O211

LOUA211
BALA211

SHANKILL
-ON-

FLAA111-411
DALTON

BRBU111
WESZ111

HAWJ111

SOL0211

SU4O211

SRANANAGH
SRAA111-411
CUNGHILL

CASTLEBAR

AF2W211

HARJ111
WIG0211

DOGK112
DOGK111

STEJ111

GRNH111

OMAD111-211 TURD111-211
TAND211

ENND111-411

BELA111-211-411

AV1W211

AUCH211-221

SU7O211

CATA111-411

WHRW211

AF1W211

MAGD211

STRD211

KELD211
BAFD211

HAND211

WIRW211

KASU111

KSSU111

TORH111

HUEH111-221

WKNW211

WJNW211

HANU111

DASH211-221

ARG0211

NORTHERN
IRELAND

PETH111-211

FWIH111

LONF111

MOUF111

ROUF111
TERF111
MEZF111

DOMF111

PLHF111

FRAF111

HOUF111
MSEF111

DAMF111
VERF111

CORF111
DISF111

5 GW
Basecase
2025

VIGF111

VLVF111MORF111

LREF111
LQUF111

LOUF111

GATF111

LCHF111

AVOF111

DOUH211-221

MYBH211-221
MYSH211

MORH211-111

WS10211
WS40211

MOSH111-211
WS20211
KEIH221-211

BRDH111
BEAH111-211
FAGH111
WS30211

WS50211

FORH113

BELH111

INVH111

FARH111

FORH112

COCH111

ISL0211

FORH111
NEAH111

KSSU111

TORH111

HUEH111-221
KIN0211

TRIA111-411

DOGK113

COLD211
BUNBEG

STSJ111

COOD211

LEAD111-411

CACD211

TIEVEBRACK
GOLA111-411

STRD211

MULLINGAR

CLOON

AF3W211

MONB111-211
TASB111-211

AV3W211

WGRW211

LAOC111
IKERRIN
WEMB111
BALLYRAGGET
NENAGH

ARDNACRUSHA
KILB111-211
KILLONAN

PROSPECT

CHARLEVILLE

COOMAGEARLAHY CLASHA
CROSS

LODC211

KIAC111

BRINNY
BANDON
DUNMANWAY

RY

WLPM111

WF4O211

NORM111

GROZ111

PEMM111

BRFM111

DISS111

BROZ111

MAVS111

BSUE111

LOVN111

GEES111

CANN111

KEMN111
BOLN111
NURN111

EXTN111

SELN111

CHIN111

WARF111

ABHN111

GIEZ111

MERE111

MANF111

HASO211

DODS111

MESE111

BOSN211

LAGN111

DIES111

THAN111

GRAN111

BR2O211

MASN111
OBEZ111

AVEF111

WIWO211

NETS111

SCIN211

LHVF111

COUE111 GRAE111

PENF111

CHEF111

CHEF111

ARGF111
TOUF111

LAMF111

GERZ111

KUSZ111

GRNZ111

GRGM111

LOAN111
COSN111

ALVN111

INDN111

LIPZ111

GUFM111

SWAM111

PESM212

BR1O211

NEHZ111

HENS111

WALM111

WF5O211

ZWOS111
NORM113

SIZM111

CASL211

AGHB111

NORM112

NOSM111

BAIM111

CAML111

SU2O211

CROB211

REAL
2025

LANZ111

GLAO211

GREC111

WAHZ111

WEHZ111

DUDK111
SHHK111

NSUS111

TRAL111

ARKO211

DOON

GLENLARA
CULLENAGH
MALLOW
OUGHTRAGH
DUNGARVAN
BVKB111 KNOB111
OUGB211
COOMACHEO

HNEZ111

TKNK111
RCBK111
DOCK111

BICM111

LEGL111

KELC111

THURLES

TIPPERARY
CAHC111

KN1B111-411

MEES111

YORK111

DEEL111

TREL111

HAMZ111

HORK112

HORK111
HUGK111

TKSK111

PENL111

WF3O211

WEDZ111

MEPZ111

WERK111

DRSK111

DRXK111

SU6O211

SU1O211
CODO211

DIEZ111
MESS111

THSK111
THTK111

WYLL111

KISO211

ARKC111

HUTL111
QUEL111

HAML211

PEWL111

WJ2O211

WF2O211

OLDB111-411

TARB111-211

CLAHANE
TRALEE

WJ1O211

BALC111

CKMC111
DUNC111
CHARLESLAND
TURLOUGH
HILL
BALLYBEG

TYNAGH

ENNIS

SU5O211

MAYC111

GALWAY

MD1B111-211

HUSL212

WLAO211 WALO211
WIAO211
WDUO211

GSUZ111

LACJ111

HUSL211
WNAO211

MANQ211

WF1O211

HUNC111 BA1C211
WOOC111
KINNEGAD

SHAA111-411

CASA111-411

ORIO211

HILL
CAVA111-211

LANESBORO

AV2W211

AF4W211

ARVA

SU8O211

LOUA211
BALA211

SHANKILL
GILRA

BRBU111
WESZ111

HAWJ111

SOL0211

SU4O211

SRANANAGH
SRAA111-411

-ON-

FLAA111-411
DALTON

DOGK112
DOGK111

STEJ111

HARJ111
WIG0211

CUNGHILL

CASTLEBAR

CAMUS

GRNH111

OMAD111-211 TURD111-211
TAND211

ENND111-411

BELA111-211-411
WHRW211

AF2W211

AUCH211-221

SU7O211

CATA111-411

SLIA111-411

AV1W211

KELD211
BAFD211

*
HAND211

WIRW211

AF1W211

MAGD211

KASU111

DSUU111

WKNW211

WJNW211

HANU111

DASH211-221

ARG0211

NORTHERN
IRELAND

PETH111-211

FWIH111

LONF111

MOUF111

ROUF111
TERF111
MEZF111

DOMF111

PLHF111

LOUF111

VLVF111MORF111

VIGF111

LREF111
DAMF111
VERF111

CORF111
DISF111

GATF111

FRAF111

HOUF111
MSEF111

LQUF111
LCHF111

AVOF111

173
2257 Offshore Grid Study FA.indd 173

24/08/2011 16:27

EirGrid Offshore Grid Study

5 GW
Basecase
2028

DOUH211-221

MYBH211-221
MYSH211

MORH211-111

WS10211
WS40211

MOSH111-211
WS20211
KEIH221-211

BRDH111
BEAH111-211
FAGH111
WS30211

WS50211

FORH113

BELH111

INVH111

FARH111

FORH112

COCH111

ISL0211

FORH111
NEAH111

KSSU111

TORH111

HUEH111-221
KIN0211

TRIA111-411

DOGK113

COLD211
BUNBEG

STSJ111

COOD211

LEAD111-411

CACD211

TIEVEBRACK
GOLA111-411

SLIA111-411

ORIO211

HILL
CAVA111-211

LANESBORO

OLDB111-411

LAOC111
IKERRIN
WEMB111
BALLYRAGGET
NENAGH

ENNIS

AF3W211

MONB111-211
TASB111-211

AV3W211

WGRW211

COOMAGEARLAHY CLASHA
CROSS

MEES111

LANZ111

GROZ111

SHHK111

NSUS111
WLPM111

TRAL111
WF4O211

NORM111

NORM112

NOSM111

ZWOS111

BAIM111

SIZM111

CAML111

SU2O211

PEMM111

BSUE111

NURN111

SELN111

LOVN111

EXTN111

GEES111

CANN111

KEMN111
BOLN111

ALVN111

CHIN111

WARF111

ABHN111

GIEZ111

MERE111

MANF111

HASO211

DODS111

MESE111

BOSN211

LAGN111

DIES111

THAN111

GRAN111

BR2O211

INDN111

BROZ111

MAVS111

LOAN111
COSN111

BR1O211

MASN111
OBEZ111

AVEF111

WIWO211

NETS111

SCIN211

COUE111 GRAE111

PENF111

LHVF111
CHEF111

CHEF111

ARGF111
TOUF111

LAMF111

GERZ111

KUSZ111

GRNZ111

GRGM111
GUFM111

SWAM111

PESM212

REAL
2028

DISS111

WALM111

WF5O211

LIPZ111

HENS111

BRFM111

CASL211

AGHB111

BRINNY
BANDON
DUNMANWAY

CROB211

NEHZ111

NORM113

GLAO211

GREC111

WAHZ111

WEHZ111

DUDK111

DOCK111
BICM111

LEGL111

HNEZ111

TKNK111
RCBK111

DEEL111

TREL111

ARKO211

DOON

CHARLEVILLE

GLENLARA
CULLENAGH
MALLOW
OUGHTRAGH
DUNGARVAN
BVKB111 KNOB111
OUGB211
COOMACHEO

AF4W211

ARKC111
LODC211

KIAC111

TIPPERARY
CAHC111

KN1B111-411

DRSK111

TKSK111

PENL111

WF3O211

KELC111

THURLES

ARDNACRUSHA
KILB111-211
KILLONAN

PROSPECT

TARB111-211

CLAHANE
TRALEE

SU1O211
CODO211

HAMZ111

HORK112

HUGK111

YORK111

WYLL111

KISO211

WEDZ111

MEPZ111

WERK111

HORK111

DRXK111

SU6O211

WF2O211
MAYC111
CKMC111
DUNC111
CHARLESLAND
TURLOUGH
HILL
BALLYBEG

TYNAGH

DIEZ111
MESS111

THSK111
THTK111

PEWL111

WJ1O211 WJ2O211

BALC111

KINNEGAD

SHAA111-411

CASA111-411

MD1B111-211
AV2W211

HUTL111
QUEL111

HAML211

SU5O211

GALWAY

AF2W211

HUSL212

WLAO211 WALO211
WIAO211
WDUO211

GSUZ111

LACJ111

HUSL211
WNAO211

MANQ211

WF1O211

HUNC111 BA1C211
WOOC111

MULLINGAR

CLOON

CAMUS

ARVA

GILRA

SU8O211

LOUA211
BALA211

SHANKILL
-ON-

FLAA111-411
DALTON

BRBU111
WESZ111

HAWJ111

SOL0211

SU4O211

SRANANAGH
SRAA111-411
CUNGHILL

CASTLEBAR

DOGK112
DOGK111

STEJ111

GRNH111
HARJ111

WIG0211
OMAD111-211 TURD111-211
TAND211
ENND111-411

BELA111-211-411

AV1W211

AUCH211-221

SU7O211

CATA111-411

WHRW211

AF1W211

MAGD211

STRD211

KELD211
BAFD211

HAND211

WIRW211

KASU111

DSUU111

WKNW211

WJNW211

HANU111

DASH211-221

ARG0211

NORTHERN
IRELAND

PETH111-211

FWIH111

LONF111

MOUF111

ROUF111
TERF111
MEZF111

DOMF111

DAMF111
GATF111

VERF111
DISF111

FRAF111

HOUF111
MSEF111

LQUF111

CORF111

5 GW
Basecase
2030

VIGF111

VLVF111MORF111
LREF111

PLHF111

LOUF111

LCHF111

AVOF111

DOUH211-221

MYBH211-221
MYSH211

MORH211-111

WS10211
WS40211

MOSH111-211
WS20211
KEIH221-211

BRDH111
BEAH111-211
FAGH111
WS30211

WS50211

FORH113

BELH111

INVH111

FARH111

FORH112

COCH111

ISL0211

FORH111
NEAH111

KSSU111

TORH111

HUEH111-221
KIN0211

TRIA111-411

DOGK113

COLD211
BUNBEG

STSJ111

COOD211

LEAD111-411

CACD211

TIEVEBRACK
GOLA111-411

STRD211

MULLINGAR

WOOC111

CKMC111
DUNC111
CHARLESLAND
TURLOUGH
HILL
BALLYBEG

OLDB111-411

MONB111-211
TASB111-211

AV3W211

LAOC111
IKERRIN
WEMB111
BALLYRAGGET
NENAGH

WGRW211

ARDNACRUSHA
KILB111-211
KILLONAN

PROSPECT

TARB111-211
CHARLEVILLE

LODC211

KIAC111

LANZ111

WLPM111

WF4O211

NORM111

GROZ111

ZWOS111
HENS111

OUGHTRAGH
AF4W211

COOMAGEARLAHY CLASHA
CROSS

BRINNY
BANDON
DUNMANWAY

BRFM111

CASL211

WF5O211

PEMM111

BROZ111

MAVS111

BSUE111

LOVN111

GEES111

CANN111

KEMN111
BOLN111
NURN111

EXTN111

SELN111

WARF111

ABHN111
LAGN111

GIEZ111

MERE111

MANF111

HASO211

DODS111

MESE111

BOSN211

CHIN111

DIES111

THAN111

GRAN111

BR2O211

MASN111
OBEZ111

AVEF111

WIWO211

NETS111

SCIN211

LHVF111

COUE111 GRAE111

PENF111

CHEF111

CHEF111

ARGF111
TOUF111

LAMF111

GERZ111

KUSZ111

GRNZ111

GRGM111

LOAN111
COSN111

ALVN111

INDN111

LIPZ111

GUFM111

SWAM111

PESM212

BR1O211

REAL
2030

DISS111

WALM111

AGHB111

CROB211

NEHZ111

NORM113
SIZM111

CAML111

SU2O211

NORM112

NOSM111

BAIM111

GLAO211

GREC111

WAHZ111

WEHZ111

DUDK111
SHHK111

NSUS111

TRAL111

ARKO211

DOON

GLENLARA
CULLENAGH
MALLOW
DUNGARVAN
BVKB111 KNOB111
OUGB211
COOMACHEO

HNEZ111

TKNK111
RCBK111
DOCK111

BICM111

LEGL111

KELC111

THURLES

TIPPERARY
CAHC111

KN1B111-411

CLAHANE
TRALEE

MEES111

YORK111

DEEL111

TREL111

HAMZ111

HORK112

HORK111
HUGK111

TKSK111

PENL111

WF3O211

WEDZ111

MEPZ111

WERK111

DRSK111

DRXK111

SU6O211

SU1O211
CODO211

DIEZ111
MESS111

THSK111
THTK111

WYLL111

KISO211

ARKC111

HUTL111
QUEL111

HAML211

PEWL111

WJ1O211 WJ2O211
WF2O211

MAYC111

TYNAGH

ENNIS

SU5O211

BALC111

KINNEGAD

GALWAY

MD1B111-211
AV2W211

HUSL212

WLAO211 WALO211
WIAO211
WDUO211

GSUZ111

LACJ111

HUSL211
WNAO211

MANQ211

WF1O211

HUNC111 BA1C211

SHAA111-411

CASA111-411

ORIO211

HILL
CAVA111-211

LANESBORO

CLOON

CAMUS

ARVA

GILRA

SU8O211

LOUA211
BALA211

SHANKILL
-ON-

FLAA111-411

BRBU111
WESZ111

HAWJ111

SOL0211

SU4O211

SRANANAGH
SRAA111-411
CUNGHILL

CASTLEBAR

DOGK112
DOGK111

STEJ111

HARJ111
WIG0211

DALTON

AF3W211

GRNH111

OMAD111-211 TURD111-211
TAND211

ENND111-411

BELA111-211-411
WHRW211

AF2W211

AUCH211-221

SU7O211

CATA111-411

SLIA111-411

AV1W211

KELD211
BAFD211

*
HAND211

WIRW211

AF1W211

MAGD211

KASU111

DSUU111

WKNW211

WJNW211

HANU111

DASH211-221

ARG0211

NORTHERN
IRELAND

PETH111-211

FWIH111

LONF111

MOUF111

ROUF111
TERF111
MEZF111

DOMF111

VLVF111MORF111
LREF111

PLHF111

LOUF111

DAMF111
VERF111

CORF111
DISF111

GATF111

VIGF111

FRAF111

HOUF111
MSEF111

LQUF111
LCHF111

AVOF111

174
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EirGrid Offshore Grid Study

175
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EirGrid Offshore Grid Study

EirGrid Plc
The Oval, 160 Shelbourne Road, Ballsbridge, Dublin 4
Telephone: +353 (0)1 702 6642
Fax: +353 (0)1 661 5375
Email: info@eirgrid.com

www.eirgrid.com

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