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PLANT ECOLOGY

Plant Community
By :
Group 4th
Member : Miko Satria Pratama
Neli Handa Yani
Nelti Hafrina

Mathematics and Science Faculty


State University of Padang
2015

PLANT COMMUNITY
A. Defenition of Community

Community is a collection of various populations living at a time and


certain areas that interact and influence each other. A community consists of many
kinds with various kinds of population fluctuations and interactions with each
other. Resosoedarmo, 1987 mentions that the plant community are plants of
various kinds that naturally live in one place to form a collection of individual
species in which each individual species find their own environment to establish a
life form togetherness tolerance and mutual relationships beneficial and establish
the degree of integration. a community can be characterized by existence of an
environmental unit that has a conditions main habitat are uniform. environment
unit is called biotope.
In ecological communities refers to the collection of the population
consisting of different species, which occupies a certain area (Ngurah Rai, et al.
1999). Each community must not occupy a large area, meaning that the
community can have any size. For example, in a aquarium which consists of fish,
snails, hydrilla as biotic components, as well as water, rocks as abiotic
components can be referred to as a community. Trophic plant communities in the
area are usually complicated and not easily named by one or two of the most
powerful species as common in temperate zones.
Irwan (2003), further describes the community as a collection of various
populations living at a time and certain areas that interact and influence each
other. Community has a degree of integration is more complex when compared
with individuals and populations. Community in principle formed from a variety
of results from interactions between existing populations (Arif, 2009). In nature
there are various communities. This community can be divided into two parts,
namely aquatic communities (oceans, lakes, rivers and ponds) and terrestrial
communities (forests, grasslands, deserts, and others.)
Zoer'aini in 1992, naming plant community can be determined by :
1. The main structure of the form or kinds dominant, form of life or other
people just as Pinu forest, forest agathis, teak forests, forest dipterocorpaceae.

2. based on physical habitat dar komnitas plant community such as


mudflats, community deserts, oceans community and so on
3. based on the properties or functional signs such as type metaboisme
community.
According to Odum, 1966 plant community groups generally occupy a
continent that has the structure and physiognomy same plant with properties
similar environment and have the same characteristics of the animal communities
as well, as this type of plant community called the formation or biome.
Various plant community that are on earth :
a. Tropical rain forest found in the wet tropics with high rainfall and
spread throughout the year, such as in United central and southern
b. Tropical seasonal forest there are areas of, tropical wet climate but
have a long dry season
c. Temperature rain forest being in the form of a giant forest located
along the Pacific coast in United northern
d. Tropical mountain forests
e. Temperate evergreen forests
f. Taiga consists of the types of conifer that grows in the coldest
place in the forest area
g. Mosses forest (elfind woodland) is tropical shade communities
have another structure of the taiga, there are at altitudes above
2500 m above sea level. usually stunted trees and overgrown with
lichens
h. Thorn forest and woodland namely tropical community consisting
i.

of dwarf trees that grow scattered among the grasses


Thorn scrub which is dominated by a large clump-clump dense

and grows in drier areas of the forest of thorns


j. Temperate woodland consists of shrub-shrub or small broadleaf
and evergreen
k. Savana tropical grasslands are also covered by trees scattered and
there are many in Africa is a habitat of animals grazing
B. The characteristic of plant community

1.
-

Fisiognom
Arsitek
Life form
Cover, leaf area index (LAI)
Fenologi

5.
-

2.
-

Komposisi spesies
Spesies karakteristik
Spesies umum dan kebetulan
Arti penting relatif (cover, densitas dll)

6.
-

3. Pola spesies
- Spatial/ ruang
- Luas niche dan tumpang tindih

4.
-

Daur nutrien
Kebutuhan nutrien
Kapasitas penyimpanan
Laju kembalinya nutrien ke tanah
Efisiensi penahanan nutrien pada daur
nutrien.

Perubahan atau perkembangan


Menurut waktu
Suksesi
Stabilitas
Tanggapan terhadap perubahan
klimatik
- Evolusi (?)
7.
-

Produktivitas
Biomassa
Produktivitas bersih tahunan
Efesiensi produktivitas bersih
Alokasi produksi bersih

Diversitas spesies
8. Kreasi dan pengendalian lingkungan
Kekayaan
mikro
Kerataan
Diversitas (dalam stand dan diantara stand)