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An evaporative cooler produces effective cooling by combining a natural process - water
evaporation with a simple, reliable air-moving system Evaporative cooling is the most
economical and effective means of refrigeration and air cooling since its inception
particularly in the areas where climatic conditions are hot and dry. In Rajasthan (India),
during summer Dry Bulb Temperature (DBT) of air may reach up to 48 C while relative
humidity stays below 50%. During present study efforts were made to make evaporative
cooling system more versatile. In the process of study a cooler cum refrigerator has been
developed which can be utilized for the purpose of air cooling, drinking water cooling viz. a
viz. storing the vegetables and medicines without altering the performance of desert cooler.
The energy saving by doing so is saved more than 30 W. A small size desert cooler can cool
more than 24 liter water per day up to the Wet Bulb Temperature (WBT) of outside air as well
as could store vegetables for more than five days.
In the North Western part of India, the humidity of air is quite low during summer season
whereas dry bulb temperatures are very high. This climate is most suitable for evaporative
cooling Fresh outside air is sucked through moist pads where it is cooled by evaporation of
water and this cooled air circulated in a room or building by a small fan or blower. Due to
vaporisation of water, the temperature may decrease upto the wet bulb temperature of air i.e.
around 22 C2. A simple scientific arrangement for cooling unlimited quantity of safe
drinking water - naturally - with the little use of external energy source such as electricity or
ice working on the principle of 'cooling by evaporation', the natural water cooler is developed
by a local artisan and is made up of indigenous materials only. The water cooler is fabricated
using mainly copper Prajapati, Mansukhbhai from Rajkot in India, developed a water cooler
made with clay and can be operated without electricity. The upper portion of the refrigerator
can store about 20 liters of water, while the bottom cabinet has separate space for storing
fruits, vegetables and milk. The natural cooling process inside the refrigerator can keep
vegetables and fruits fresh for around 5 days, while milk can be preserved for 3 days.
The developed water cooler during present investigations was fabricated using mainly copper
tubes and galvanized iron / stainless sheet. The water cooler is fitted with a standard make
micro-filter for filtering solid particulate and contaminants. The water cooler can be
connected to overhead water source and is very simple to operate and maintain.

During present study efforts have been made to utilize the cold water which is available in the
cooler tank at WBT for indirect cooling of drinking water as well as vegetables and various
other eatables. The major advantage of this arrangement is to eliminate the possibility of
contamination of the stored items, which are to be cooled. With practically no operation &
maintenance cost, this type of coolers are ideal for use in public places such as hospitals,
hotels, hostels, industries, offices, institutions etc. for providing cool & hygienically drinking
water as well as eatables.


Solar energy, radiant light and heat from the sun, has been harnessed by humans since
ancient times using a range of ever-evolving technologies. Solar energy technologies include
solar heating, solar photovoltaics, solar thermal electricity, solar architecture and artificial
photosynthesis, which can make considerable contributions to solving some of the most
urgent energy problems the world now faces
Solar technologies are broadly characterized as either passive solar or active solar depending
on the way they capture, convert and distribute solar energy. Active solar techniques include
the use of photovoltaic panels and solar thermal collectors to harness the energy. Passive solar
techniques include orienting a building to the Sun, selecting materials with favorable thermal
mass or light dispersing properties, and designing spaces that naturally circulate air
In 2011, the International Energy Agency said that "the development of affordable,
inexhaustible and clean solar energy technologies will have huge longer-term benefits. It will
increase countries energy security through reliance on an indigenous, inexhaustible and
mostly import-independent resource, enhance sustainability, reduce pollution, lower the costs
of mitigating climate change, and keep fossil fuel prices lower than otherwise. These
advantages are global. Hence the additional costs of the incentives for early deployment
should be considered learning investments; they must be wisely spent and need to be widely
India is well-known for its power problems. According to the Central Electricity Authority
(CEA), Indias energy shortage was 8.5% and its peak shortfall was 9.8% in the fiscal year
2010-2011. This situation is expected to deteriorate further. With industrial and urban
expansion, growth in household consumption and electrification of rural areas, power
requirements are continuously rising. But new electricity generation capacity is not coming
online as fast because of the delays related to permissions, acquiring land and funding, and
construction. Environmental concerns, too, have started impacting the progress of upcoming
power projects. One example: bidding for the 4,000-megawatt power project at Surguja in

Chhattisgarh has been held up for over a year. The Fukushima nuclear power plant meltdown
in Japan in the aftermath of the earthquake and tsunami earlier this year has increased the
concerns around the proposed 9,900-megawatt nuclear plant in Jaitapur in Maharashtra.
More recently, doubts over the availability of cheap coal (coal accounts for over half of
Indias electricity generation) are also posing as an obstacle for new power plants. Coalexporting countries like Indonesia (India imports about 50% of its imported coal from
Indonesia) have made amendments in conditions related to exports of coal from their shores,
causing a spurt in imported coal prices. Many private utilities have won projects via
competitive tariff-bidding route and the imported coal supply was based on bilateral
agreements with fuel suppliers, mainly from Indonesia. However, contractual framework
does not protect power companies from coal price changes triggered by any 'change in law'
event in the coal exporting country. Hence private power producers like Reliance and Tata
have sought the government intervention to tackle this issue, which could possibly lead to an
increase in power tariff for consumers. According to a study by McKinsey, the power deficit
in India could be as high as 25% by 2017.
Cooling and air conditioning is one of most energy intensive processes amongst the various
energy consuming applications. Some estimates suggest that HVAC (Heating, Ventilation,
and Air Conditioning) networks are to blame for over 30% of a building energy usage. When
you consider the potentially millions of Indian homes and businesses installing air
conditioning every year, the electricity consumption is enormous. The drastic increase in
electricity demand on hot summer days not only causes a large increase in the use of fossil
and nuclear energy, but also threatens the stability of electricity grids. According to a study by
World Bank, one-third of Indian businesses cite expensive and unreliable power as one of
their main business constraints.
Thus, any technology that can help to save energy in the cooling and air-conditioning
applications can help to reduce Indias power shortage burden to a great extent.


Here a simple design of desert cooler with automatic pump control by moisture detector
circuit this cooler operates by 12V DC supply. Which provided by a 12V battery and battery
charged by a solar panel.
The working of this project depends on a moisture detector circuit which controls our
cooler pump.
Here we have an app 15 volt solar panel which changed our 12V battery. Battery connected
with a DC motor by an on/off switch. When we on this switch DC motor start. A DC water
pump connected with this battery by a relay which control by a moisture circuit. The sensor
prob of moisture in connected with moisture sensing pad which filleted in front of the cooler.
When sensing pad sensor the moisture the pump in of and pad sense no moisture the pump in
on and continue the water flow.
The working of the circuit is depending upon a biasing principle of a simple transistor
because moisture is a good conductor of electricity. The circuit of the project depend upon the
quantity of the moisture in indicated by 2 LED when green LED is glow these in no moisture
and red LED is glow these in quantity of a moisture in moisture pad.
The DC supply of 6V in required to run the circuit of this project. Than two transistors BC
158 are used in circuit. These are NPN and PNP respectively. In normal position both sensor
probs in connected with moisture sensing pad in open position because there is no moisture
and green LED is highly glow in this time circuit is not in operation and relay is off position
and our water pump is on but as soon as the moisture is spread in air by DC fan and pump.
The moisture pad detected the moisture and red LED is glow which incited the pad has
moisture this pad happed due to conduction of transistor. When red LED is on the relay is
connected with this LED is on and pump is off because relay is the pump supply but our DC
fan is on as soon as the air dry the moisture pad the red LED is off and green LED is on and
relay is remain off and pump is on the water flow is goes on the activity is goes on and on.