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Performance Bounds and Impact of

System Parameters

Gerhard Wunder, Member, IEEE, Thomas Michel, Student Member, IEEE,

and Chan Zhou, Student Member, IEEE

Abstract—Delay matters in future wireless communication. An failure of the provided service? An answer to this question

appropriate limit for rates achievable under delay constraints provides not only an appropriate performance limit for delay

is the delay limited capacity (DLC). In this work, the DLC of sensitive services such as e.g. streaming services in LTE

OFDM systems is investigated. Despite its complicated correla-

tion structure the OFDM DLC is fully characterized for low systems (Long Term Evolution of 3GPP UMTS system). It

and high SNR. It is shown that (under weak assumptions) the also gives structural insights into the general system behavior

OFDM DLC is almost independent of the fading distribution in yielding guidelines for engineering wireless communication

the low SNR region but strongly depends on the delay spread systems.

thereby achieving a capacity gain over AWGN capacity. In the

high SNR region the roles are exchanged. Here, the impact It is known that in general multiple degrees of freedom in

of delay spread is negligible while the impact of the fading fading channels allow reliable communication in each fading

distribution becomes dominant. The relevant quantities and their state under a long term power constraint. This is due to

asymptotic behaviour are derived without employing simplifying the possibility of recovering the information from several

assumptions on the OFDM correlation structure. Using a general

independently faded copies of the transmitted signal. The rate

convergence framework the analysis further shows that if the

delay spread becomes large even the predominant impact of the achievable in each fading state is called zero outage capacity

fading distribution vanishes and DLC capacity loss compared or alternatively delay limited capacity (DLC) [1]. Not only

to AWGN capacity approaches 0.58[nats/s/Hz]. The convergence multiple input multiple output (MIMO) channels but also

speed, the loss due to non-uniform power delay profile, and the frequency selective multi-path channels offer multiple degrees

relation to ergodic capacity is also analyzed and underlined with

of freedom. This is in contrast to single antenna Rayleigh flat

simulations and application examples. The main conclusion here

is that OFDM fully takes advantage of the degrees of freedom of the fading channels, where a DLC does not exist.

underlying fading channel in terms of delay spread and, regardless This work investigates the DLC of frequency selective

of the fading distribution, delay sensitive capacity measures such as multi-path channels using orthogonal frequency division

the DLC converge to the ergodic capacity. Finally, since universal

bounds are obtained which apply to any fading distribution the multiplexing (OFDM) to mitigate inter-symbol interference.

results can also be used for other classes of parallel channels OFDM can be considered as a special case of parallel fading

extending the range of applicability. channels with correlated fading process. Pioneering work on

Index Terms—Delay limited capacity, orthogonal frequency this topic was carried out in [2][3][4][5][6][7][8]. Unfortu-

division multiplexing (OFDM), power control, rate allocation, nately, these results do not carry over to the OFDM case: since

parallel Gaussian channels. the subcarriers are highly correlated due to oversampling of

the channel in the frequency domain the fading distribution

is commonly degenerated which significantly complicates the

I. I NTRODUCTION analysis. This particularly affects the critical impact of the

and require a certain rate to be provided in each time

slot. This sensitivity can be translated directly to the central

delay spread and the number of subcarriers. Hence, even

though the information-theoretic foundations are established,

the characterization of the OFDM DLC remains an open

question motivating our work: What is the maximum data rate question.

achievable under delay limitations? Assuming a block fading Our main contributions are as follows: We derive the OFDM

process and capacity achieving codes, this question can be DLC in a general setting and analyze the impact of system

made more precise: What is the maximum data rate achievable parameters such as delay spread, power delay profile (or the

in each fading state under a long term power constraint, so that multi-path intensity profile) and fading distribution along with

the temporal structure of the fading process can not cause a the study of suboptimal resource allocation strategies. We

focus on two cases in particular: the behaviour at low and

Manuscript received July 28, 2008; revised February 6, 2009 and February

27, 2009; accepted March 5, 2009. The associate editor coordinating the high signal to noise ratio (SNR). The OFDM DLC in the

review of this paper and approving it for publication was S. Hanly. low SNR regime is characterized by its first and second order

The authors are with the Fraunhofer German-Sino Mobile Communications Taylor expansion, which are explicitly calculated in terms of

Lab, Heinrich-Hertz-Institut, Einstein-Ufer 37, D-10587 Berlin, Germany (e-

mail: {wunder, michel, zhou}@hhi.fhg.de). (large) delay spread for OFDM. It is shown that so-called rate

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TWC.2009.080991 waterfilling using solely order statistics of subcarrier gains

1536-1276/09$25.00

c 2009 IEEE

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3748 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 8, NO. 7, JULY 2009

p1 (h) h̃1 n1

is the optimal resource allocation strategy. Similar analysis

x1 y1

is carried out in the high SNR regime where it is shown

that simple channel inversion achieves close-to-optimal per- p2 (h) h̃2 n2

formance also in the (degenerated) OFDM case where this x2 y2

time the DLC depends on the fading distribution; the analysis

culminates in a general convergence theorem again in terms of

(large) delay spread for OFDM where even the impact of the

fading distribution vanishes showing a universal capacity loss pK (h) h̃K nK

of 0.58[nats/s/Hz] compared to AWGN capacity. This shows xK yK

that OFDM fully takes advantage of the degrees of freedom

of the underlying fading channel in terms of delay spread

and, regardless of the fading distribution, short term capacity Fig. 1. General system model: data of K streams xk is sent over parallel

fading channels with arbitrary fading distribution hk generated by eqn. (1)

measures such as the DLC converge to the ergodic capacity. and received under AWGN with iid nk ∼ CN (0, 1).

The remainder of this paper is organized as follows: Section

II presents the OFDM system model. In Section III the OFDM

DLC is introduced and suboptimal power allocation strategies some vector quantizer is covered in our analysis provided that

are discussed. In Section IV-A the behavior at low SNR is the rates defined below are achievable. The general model is

studied while Section IV-B focuses on the high SNR regime. summarized in Fig.1.

We conclude with some final remarks in Section VII. Given the channel gains h = [h1 , ..., hK ]T the rate achiev-

able over all K parallel Gaussian channels with a certain

A. Notations power allocation p = [p1 , ..., pK ]T reads as

All terms will be arranged in boldface vectors. Common 1

K

1

K

vector norms (such as ·1 for the l1 -norm) will be employed. R(h, p) = rk (hk , pk ) = log (1 + pk hk ) , (2)

K K

The expression z ∼ CN (0, 1) means that the complex-valued k=1 k=1

random variable z = x + jy is circular symmetric Gaussian where rk (hk , pk ) denotes the rate achievable on subcarrier

distributed, i.e. the real and imaginary parts are indepen- k. We further introduced the factor 1/K so that all rates

dently Gaussian distributed with zero mean and variance 1/2: are normalized to spectral efficiency and given in [nats/s/Hz].

x, y ∼ N (0, 1/2). A sequence of random variables is called The small impact of the OFDM guard interval on the spectral

iid if 1.) any subset is an independent set and 2.) all random efficiency shall be neglected here.

variables are circular symmetric. The expectation operator Now, assume that the system is subjected to a long term

(e.g. with respect to the fading process) will be denoted as power constraint, i.e.

E (respectively Eh or Eh̃ ). Pr(A) denotes the probability of K

an event A. All logarithms are to the base e unless explicitly

Eh pk (h) ≤ P ∗ , (3)

defined in a different manner.

k=1

II. OFDM C OMMUNICATION M ODEL where we use pk (h) to denote that the power allocation may

depend on the current fading realization. This means that while

Assuming familiarity with the general model consider a there is no peak power constraint per fading state, in average

standard OFDM communication system where a single user the power constraint P ∗ has to be met. Please note that due to

uses K subcarriers for information transmission. The complex non-linear components in the transmitter path such ideal power

channel gain on subcarrier k is by means of Fast Fourier control scheme is difficult to implement in practice. Therefore,

Transform (FFT) given by the results should be seen as a limit for any practical power

L

2πj(l−1) · (k−1)

control scheme.

h̃k = c̃l e− K , k = 1, ..., K, (1)

l=1 III. A P ERFORMANCE M EASURE FOR D ELAY L IMITED

where L ≤ K is the delay spread, and c̃l are the complex T RANSMISSION

path gains that are modeled as independent, zero mean random A. Optimal rate allocation

variables with variance σl > 0 for all l. The vector of variances

σ = [σ1 , ..., σL ]T is called the power delay profile (PDP) We introduce the DLC Cd (P ∗ ) for an OFDM system,

and the channel energy is normalized, i.e. ||σ||1 = 1. We which is a special case of parallel fading channels.

say that the channel has a uniform PDP if σ1 = . . . = σL Definition 1: The delay limited capacity Cd (P ∗ ) of an

and a non-uniform PDP otherwise. Note that in practice the OFDM system under a long term power constraint P ∗ is given

PDP is typically non-uniform. The channel (path) gains are by

defined as hk := |h̃k |2 (respectively cl := |c̃l |2 ) and the Cd (P ∗ ) = sup inf R (h, pk (h)) (4)

p∈P ∗ h∈H

distribution of the channel gains is called the (joint) fading

distribution. It is worth pointing out that we do not make where H ⊆ RK + is the set of possible channel gains and

any assumptions on the fading distribution. Even the case of P ∗ comprises all power allocation policies advising a power

point masses (i.e. discrete fading distributions) induced e.g. by allocation pk (h) ∀k to every h ∈ H such that (3) holds.

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WUNDER et al.: DELAY-LIMITED TRANSMISSION IN OFDM SYSTEMS: PERFORMANCE BOUNDS AND IMPACT OF SYSTEM PARAMETERS 3749

In other words, Cd (P ∗ ) is the maximum rate which can be gains. In order to avoid this complexity we introduce the

achieved for all possible channel gains without violating the notion of rate waterfilling for expected ordered channel gains,

average power constraint P ∗ . or so-called statistical rate waterfilling (SRW) as follows:

Definition 1 implies that in order to achieve Cd (P ∗ ) we for a given vector h of real elements let us introduce the

need to find the power allocation pk (h) ∀k that supports a total ordering hk[K] ≥ hk[K−1] ≥ . . . ≥ hk[1] , i.e. hk[1] is

given rate Cd with minimum power. For any h ∈ H this the minimum value and hk[K] is the maximum value; the

optimization problem is equivalent to: distribution of hk[p] is known to be the p-th order statistics of

a sample h. Based on the order information we can deduce a

K

fixed rate allocation on the subcarriers, avoiding optimal RW.

min pk

p∈RK The key idea is to allocate a fixed rate budget to the p-th

k=1 (5) ordered subcarrier. Defining the terms

1

K

subj. to rk (hk , pk ) ≥ Cd

+∞

K 1

k=1

ζp := dFhk[p] (h)

Using the relation between power and rate on subcarrier k in h

0

eqn. (2) the problem can be easily solved and the resulting

optimal rate allocation is given by where Fhk[p] is the marginal distribution of the p-th ordered

rk − ⎫ channel gain and using these factors in the optimization

e ⎪ problem (5) the SRW rate allocation is given by:

− λ = 0, k = 1, ..., K ⎪ ⎪

⎪

hk ⎪

⎬ rk[p] − ⎫

K e

− = 0, = 1, ⎪

⎪

1 (Rate Waterfilling) λ k ..., K ⎪

⎪

rk = Cd ⎪

⎪

⎪ ζp−1 ⎪

⎬

K ⎪

⎪ K

k=1 ⎭ 1

λ>0 rk[p] = Cd ⎪ ⎪

K p=1 ⎪

⎪

− ⎪

⎭

where [·] := min {·, 0} and λ ∈ R is a Lagrange multiplier. λ>0

The rate allocation is called rate waterfilling (RW) because (Statistical Rate Waterfilling)

substituting λ = log(λ̃) and hk = log(1/h̃k ) yields the The performance of SRW is illustrated in Fig.2 and it can be

classical waterfilling rule. Solving for λ and after some algebra observed that it does particularly well in the low SNR region.

we obtain the single user OFDM delay limited capacity Cd This will be exploited in the low SNR analysis where it is

with power constraint P ∗ (corresponds to Theorem 3.2 in [7]) shown that it becomes optimal as SNR goes to zero.

⎛
⎞ There is an interesting second rate allocation termed chan-

|D (Cd , h)| exp |D(CCd K

,h)| nel inversion (CI) introduced in [3] where the powers asserted

P ∗ =Eh ⎝ ⎠

d

K k∈D(Cd ,h) hk

1/|D(Cd ,h)| to the subcarriers are all the same. It is easy to see then that

⎛ ⎞ the CI rate allocation according to

1 1

− Eh ⎝ ⎠ (6) e C d hk

K hk rk = log 1 + K 1/K

, k = 1, ..., K,

k∈D(Cd ,h)

k=1 hk

where the random variable D (Cd , h) ⊆ {1, ..., K} denotes (Channel inversion)

the set of active subcarriers and |D (Cd , h)| its cardinality. always leads to a rate higher than the requested rate at

Since the numerator in (6) can be bounded by a constant and the expense of power consumption. Hence, this is also a

by applying arithmetic-geometric mean inequality to the last suboptimal solution. CI is illustrated in Fig.2. In contrast to

term, the delay limited capacity Cd is greater than zero if and SRW it performs well in the high SNR region. This will be

only if exploited in the high SNR analysis where it is shown that it

becomes optimal as SNR goes to infinity.

1 The relevant performance measures for SRW and CI play a

1/|D(Cd ,h)|

dFh (h) < ∞. (7)

k∈D(Cd ,h) hk significant role in the forthcoming analysis. Next, we analyze

K R+

existence of DLC in OFDM systems.

Here, Fh denotes the joint fading distribution function. The

class of fading distributions for which (7) holds is called C. Existence of DLC

regular in [3]. It will become apparent in the following that

the correlation structure of the channel gains in OFDM pro- Denote the guaranteed rates achievable under SRW by

vides the main challenge in proving and analyzing regularity CdSRW (P ∗ ). By the suboptimality of SRW the DLC is clearly

−1

according to (7). non-zero if ζK = Eh (h∞ ) < ∞, i.e.

Let us now introduce two important suboptimal power

1

allocation strategies. dFh (h) < ∞. (8)

h∞

RK

+

B. Suboptimal rate allocation and it is therefore of general interest when eqn. (8) holds. The

It is evident from the expression for the DLC that the following theorem states a strikingly weak sufficient condition

major difficulty is the rate waterfilling operation for all channel on the existence of the DLC.

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3750 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 8, NO. 7, JULY 2009

15

IV. T HE I MPACT OF S YSTEM PARAMETERS

equal power strategy It is now of great interest to understand the impact of

equal rate strategy

rate water−filling strategy

the ergodic fading process and its parameters. So the delay

OFDM DLC spread L and the power delay profile σ as well as the fading

10 distribution itself obviously affect the OFDM delay limited

capacity. Since the expression in (6) is still very complicated,

Cd [bps/Hz]

we focus on the behavior in the low and the high SNR regime

and carry out a detailed analysis.

5

1) Low SNR rate control: In the following theorem we

characterize the first and second term in the Taylor expansion

0

−30 −20 −10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 of Cd (P ∗ ) for small P ∗ ; both order terms were shown by

SNR [dB]

S. Verdu in [9] to characterize the system at very low SNR

(i.e. low spectral efficiency). The theorem tells us that, albeit

Fig. 2. RW, SRW, and CI allocation policies for L = K = 16 generally suboptimal, SRW rate control becomes optimal at

independent subcarriers. In addition, the suboptimal strategy of equal rate low SNR. Note that the results can neither be obtained from

budget assertion is also depicted which is suboptimal independent of the SNR

regime. Summarizing, simple suboptimal schemes approximate very well the the approach in [9] since the capacity formula in eqn. (6) has

delay limited capacity curve over a large SNR range and thus yield useful no simple differentiation expressions. For the ease of notation

insights in the general behaviour of the OFDM delay limited capacity. we define h∞ := h∞ .

Theorem

2 (Low SNR optimality of SWF): Suppose that

Eh h−1 ∞ < ∞.

Theorem 1 (Non-zero DLC): Suppose there is a pair of i.) The first order limit is given by:

path gains that have a joint distribution with bounded den-

sity in some open neighborhood of zero. Then, Cd (P ∗ ) ≥ Cd (P ∗ ) 1

Cd (0) := lim = (10)

CdSRW (P ∗ ) > 0 for any P ∗ > 0. P∗ →0 P∗ Eh h−1

∞

Proof: We examine under which conditions

−1 Hence, SRW rate control is first order optimal in the low

Eh (h∞ )< ∞ holds. Applying the standard inequality

∞ SNR regime.

E (X) ≤ i=0 Pr (X ≥ i) for some non-negative random ii.) Define the sub-linear term as Δd (P ∗ ) := Cd (0) P ∗ −

variable X and using the inequality c1 = h1 /K ≤

Cd (P ∗ ). Then, the second order limit is given by:

h∞ , and c∞ ≤ c1 the expectation can be written as:

Δd (P ∗ ) KEh χ−1 h h∞

−1

+∞

L

lim = (11)

1 1 P ∗ →0 (P ∗ )2 2E3h h−1∞

Eh ≤1+ Pr cl ≤ (9)

h∞ i

i=1 l=1 Here, χh is the (random) multiplicity of subcarriers with

maximum channel gain.

By assumption there are two channel gains say ci1 , ci2 with

iii.) Suppose that the joint fading distribution is absolute

joint distribution with bounded density (by some real constant

continuous. Then, the following limit holds:

0 ≤ cde < ∞) in some open neighborhood of the zero say

[1/i0 ] × [1/i0]. Hence, we have for i ≥ i0 Δd (P ∗ ) K

lim = 2

P →0 (P ∗ )2

∗

Eh h−1

L

∞

1

Pr cl ≤ ≤ dF (ci1 , ci2 ) Hence, SRW rate control is first order and second order

i

l=1 [1/i]×[1/i] optimal in the low SNR regime.

Proof: The proof is deferred to Appendix VIII-A.

≤ cde dci1 dci2 Consequently, by concavity of the capacity and some fixed

[1/i]×[1/i] multiplicity χ ≥ 1 of subcarriers with maximum channel gain,

cde

≤ 2 we have for any P ∗ :

i 2

P∗ K (P ∗ ) ∗ P∗

rendering the sum in (9) and hence the DLC finite which −1 − −1 2 ≤ Cd (P ) ≤ (12)

Eh h∞ 2χ Eh h∞ Eh h−1

∞

proves the claim.

Theorem 1 connects time and frequency domain in OFDM The behaviour of the DLC and the first and second order

and shows that under mild assumptions two independent paths, approximations from Theorem 2 for different numbers of taps

L = 2, are sufficient for Cd (P ∗ ) > 0. The theorem indeed is illustrated in Fig.3; here, we depict Cd over Eb /N0 (Eb :

fails to hold for L = 1: even though a single path gain has energy per bit, N0 : noise spectral density) which itself is

two real independent components (real and imaginary part), related to the capacity expression via Cd N0 Eb = P ∗ , and

each component is chi-square distributed with one degree of letting P ∗ → 0 then yields the minimum transmitted energy

freedom of which the density is unbounded. per bit. It can be observed that the approximations are very

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WUNDER et al.: DELAY-LIMITED TRANSMISSION IN OFDM SYSTEMS: PERFORMANCE BOUNDS AND IMPACT OF SYSTEM PARAMETERS 3751

−3 −3

x 10

even for moderate L, K ≥ L when the complex path gains are

x 10

5 5

4.5 4.5

4 4 iid; moreover, the upper bound also holds when the PDP is

non-uniform [10]. We can apply this result to the DLC where

3.5 3.5

C [bps/Hz]

3

C [bps/Hz]

2.5

C

2.5

we have to show that from the convergence in probability

d

d

d

2 2

1.5

1st order

2nd order 1.5

C

d

1st order

given in eqn. (13) it follows convergence of the expected

1

0.5

1

0.5

2nd order

maximum of the channel gains as well. Leaving out technical

0

−3.475 −3.47 −3.465 −3.46 −3.455 −3.45 −3.445 −3.44 −3.435 −3.43

0

−6.5 −6.45 −6.4 −6.35

details we can show the following:

E /N [dB] Eb/N0 [dB]

Theorem 3: Suppose that the complex path gains are in-

b 0

−3

x 10

0.01

4 0.009

C

d

1st order

2nd order

dependent. Moreover, assume that the path gain distribu-

tion allows for some bounded Lipschitz constant in an -

0.008

3.5

C 0.007

3 d

1st order 0.006

neighborhood of zero uniformly. Then the following result

C [bps/Hz]

C d [bps/Hz]

2.5 2nd order

0.005

2

holds:

d

0.004

Cd (P ∗ )

1.5

0.003

1

0.002

lim sup lim ∗

≤1 (14)

L→∞ P →0 log (L) P

0.5 0.001 ∗

0 0

−8.2 −8 −7.8 −7.6 −7.4 −7.2 −10 −9 −8 −7 −6 −5

E /N [dB] Eb/N0 [dB]

b 0

Proof: The theorem is a direct consequence

Fig. 3. OFDM DLC, 1st and 2nd order behaviour over Eb /N0 for L = K

and L = 4 (upper left) L = 16 (upper right), L = 64 (lower left) and of the uniform integrability property proved

L = 512 (lower right). in [11, Lemma 1][10] showing essentially that

−1

Eh h−1∞ = (log (L) + O (log [log (L)])) for large L.

h2

Note that the DLC compares favorably by the factor log (L)

p=1/3 p=1/3 with the capacity of AWGN in the low SNR regime.

1 X X

A B In order to make the theorem useful in practice we can write

Cd (P ∗ ) cLo g (L)

lim ≤1+ =: ψ (L) , any L (large),

P ∗ →0 log (L) P ∗ log L

C p=1/3 (15)

X

1 h1 where g (L) := log [log (L)] and cLo > 0 is a constant

independent of K (≥ L); consequently, the limit in eqn. (14)

Fig. 4. Three fading states with equal probability.

regarding L is independent of how K, L scale. On the other

hand for small but non-zero P ∗ we have by Theorem 2 and

eqn. (12)

tight for practical values of L while the range where the

Cd (P ∗ ) cLo g (L) + Kχ−1 P ∗ log (L)

approximation is useful degrades for very large L. ≥1− (16)

Rather interesting, the multiplicity of the maximum subcar- log (L) P ∗ log (L)

rier gain occur in the expressions; a scenario where this mat- which now indeed depends on K. Hence, for fixed L and

ters is discussed in the example in Fig.IV-A1 for one subcarrier growing K the lower bound (16) becomes arbitrarily small.

with three fading states occurring with equal probability. This This effect can be typically alleviated by the fact that for K

mimicks e.g. a mobile

at the cell border employing handover. L the number of subcarriers having approximately the same

Here, clearly Eh h−1 ∞ = 1 but in fact according to Theorem 2 maximum channel gain h∞ is also increasing. A very good

the DLC growth over energy per bit indicated by the sublinear estimate is hk ≥ hk∗ cos πL ∗

K with hk = h∞ and |k − k | <

∗

P ∗ →0

term will be Δd (P ∗ )/P ∗ → 4/3. K/(2L) [12] so that Kχ −1

= O (L) and the lower bound

2) An explicit formula for OFDM: Appealing to Theorem 2 becomes independent of K. Note that there is also an impact

the forthcoming analysis reduces to the study of the expected of the PDP which is treated in Sec.VI.

maximum of the channel gains. However, the expressions do The unknown small constant cLo > 0 can be found numeri-

not show how the DLC depends on the system parameters cally. The approach is demonstrated in Fig.5 where we depict

which we investigate by means of an asymptotic analysis, i.e. Cd (P ∗ ) over Eb /N0 (in dB scale) and the approximations for

for large L, K. This analysis turns out to be quite accurate different L. It is seen that the minimum energy per bit, at

even for very small L. which reliable transmission is possible, goes to minus infinity

We make use of the following result [10][11, Theorem with order − log[log(L)] as indicated by Theorem 3.

1]: under very mild assumptions on the fading distribution

we have that h∞ equals approximately log (L) with large

probability (recall that we set ||σ||1 = 1), i.e. B. The high SNR regime

Pr (log (L) − 4 log [log (L)] ≤ h∞ After the treatment of the low SNR regime we turn towards

≤ log (L) + 4 log [log (L)]) high SNR. In contrast, here not only the delay spread but also

the fading distribution is important. Furthermore CI instead of

= 1 − O log−4 (L) (13) SRW becomes the asymptotically optimal rate allocation.

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3752 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 8, NO. 7, JULY 2009

−3

x 10

10 14

9

12

8

7

10 log(P*)−0.58

[nats]

6

Cd [bps/Hz]

C [bps/Hz]

5 8

L=2,...,1024

d

6 PDP

3

Increasing

L=2,4,32

2

4 uniform PDP

2

−12 −10 −8 −6 −4 −2 0 2 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45

E /N [dB] SNR [dB]

b 0

Fig. 5. The solid curves depict the DLC over Eb /N0 in an OFDM channel Fig. 6. Scaling in the high SNR region: The black line indicates the scaling

with L = 2...1024 taps for Rayleigh fading and uniform PDP. The upper at high SNR given by log (P ∗ ) − 0.58 (for Rayleigh fading). The dashed

bound on the minimum energy per bit marked by the crosses is given by lines give the OFDM DLC for L = K = {2, 4 (non-uniform), 4 (uniform),

eqn. (15) with cLo ≈ 1.2; the constant is found by simple linefitting for the 32}.

smaller L’s while by virtue of Theorem 3 the formula will hold also for the

larger L’s. The gain over of the AWGN channel (−1.59[dB]) is marked by

the dashed curve.

matters for small L the impact quickly vanishes in the limit

for large L. The more independent channel gains that can

1) High SNR rate control: Defining the quantity h := be obtained, the faster will be the convergence, as stated in

K −1/K

k=1 hk we have by using the suboptimal CI rate

control the following theorem. Here, avoiding technicalities in the

law Cd (P ∗ ) ≥ log P ∗ /Eh h provided that Eh h < ∞, proofs (such as L, K being prime numbers) L, K are generally

i.e. for regular fading distributions [3]. We can extend this assumed to be dyadic numbers (or just divisible); this is not too

result to an upper bound without using any simplifying as- restrictive since K is dyadic in practice. Please note that the

sumptions on the fading distribution; it is also remarkable following convergence holds for any performance measure that

that it is tight for large K and large P ∗ regardless whether fulfills the conditions stated in the proof, i.e. monotonicity and

the distribution

is continuous or not. Further, note that the uniform integrability (such as peak-to-average power ratio).

quantity Eh h is not at all always meaningful; a simple The proof technique improves on the approach taken by [13]

counterexample is given in the already discussed three fading where weak convergence of the joint distribution of any finite

state example

in Sec. IV-A where the DLC is non-zero but subset of subcarriers to a joint Gaussian distribution is

shown,

Eh h = ∞. which excludes performance measures such as Eh h defined

Theorem

4 (High SNR optimality of CI): Suppose that on all subcarriers.

Eh h < ∞. Theorem 5: Suppose that complex path gains c̃1 , ..., c̃L are

i.) The following upper limit holds: iid; further suppose that their marginals are circular symmetric

1 and have uniformly bounded and sufficiently smooth densities

lim sup [Cd (P ∗ ) − log (P ∗ )] ≤ log Eh h + . with exponential tails for all L. Then, the following upper

∗

P →∞ K

(17) limit holds:

ii.) The following lower limit holds: ∞

∗ ∗

lim inf [C d (P ∗

) − log (P ∗

)] ≥ log Eh h . (18) lim sup [Cd (P ) − log (P )] ≤ log (h) exp (h) dh (19)

∗ P →∞ L,P ∗ →∞

0

Both bounds coincide for large K (or the distribution is

:=HF ≈−0.58

continuous [3]) and, hence, CI rate control is optimal in

the high SNR regime then. Equality in (19) holds for uniform PDP.

Proof: The proof is given in Appendix

VIII-B. The upper bound becomes tight in the presence of Ko -th

−1/3

Theorem 4 states that as long as Eh h < ∞ the DLC order diversity with convergence rate Ko (for constants see

lies in some target corridor determined by E h h . Hence, it eqn. (34)) where Ko is the number of independent subcarriers.

suffices to evaluate the term Eh h in (17) in the high SNR Proof: see Appendix VIII-C.

regime which characterizes the fixed capacity gap compared Interestingly, there is always a loss in capacity compared to

to the log(P )-scaling of AWGN depending on the fading AWGN under the assumptions of the theorem (e.g. Rayleigh-

distribution. A simple explicit asympotic expression for this , Nakagami-fading etc.). The capacity loss equals that of

gap is now provided. AWGN capacity to ergodic capacity as we will show in the

2) An explicit formula for OFDM: In order to get some next subsection. An illustration is shown in Fig.6 where also

insight let us carry out again an asymptotic analysis. The the non-uniform case is exemplarily incorporated showing

following theorem shows that while the fading distribution almost no impact of the PDP.

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WUNDER et al.: DELAY-LIMITED TRANSMISSION IN OFDM SYSTEMS: PERFORMANCE BOUNDS AND IMPACT OF SYSTEM PARAMETERS 3753

E[1/(·)2 ] yields a strict upper bound1. The bound can be

The results can be related to ergodic capacity. The ergodic

improved by observing that the phases will be close to

capacity is given by [3] (γ )

independent. Since Eh (h∞i ) ≤ ψ(L) log(iγi i ) using eqn.

Ce = Eh (max {log (ξh1 ) , 0}) (20) (15) we obtain the formula:

L

where ξ is chosen such that Cd (P ∗ ) P ∗ ψ (L) log iγi i (22)

! "

P ∗ = Eh max ξ − h−1

i=1

1 ,0 . (21)

Note that this approach is tight only for uniform PDPs but

Note that the first order term of the DLC is not bounded with it constitutes 1.) a rigorous upper bound and 2.) captures the

respect to L. The same is true for the ergodic capacity [9] so right behaviour, i.e. a more spread out PDP will have a higher

that we can say that DLC reflects the behavior of the ergodic DLC (so-called Schur-concavity). In the following we discuss

capacity in the low SNR regime. A similar statement can be an application example which is related to LTE performance

shown for the high SNR case. evaluation.

Corollary 6: Under the assumptions of Theorem 5 with

uniform PDP the DLC converges to the ergodic capacity as A. Bandwidth request for delay-sensitive services

K → ∞.

Proof: We only have to show that Ce scales as log (P ∗ )+ Using formula (22) we can estimate the number of users

HF as P ∗ → ∞. A rigorous proof of this fact can be found that can be supported at the cell border which request a

in [11, Lemma 1]. fixed rate. We consider an OFDM system with the system

The preceding results have some interesting implications. parameters given in [14]. The system has 1024 subcarriers

They indicate that the DLC approaches the ergodic capacity and the bandwidth is 5 MHz. The multi-path fading channel

even if the channel gains are not independent. In the asymp- is modelled as Pedestrian A/B [15] with 4 and 29 taps non-

totic regime coding over spectral degrees of freedom could uniformly. Suppose the receive SNR at the cell border is -10

substitute the coding over fading blocks in case of ergodic dB, the maximal number of users that can be supported with

capacity. different service requirement is given in Tab. I. It can be seen

that the capacity for high data rate services (e.g. Videophone)

is scarce if several users are at the cell border in the same

VI. A PPLICATIONS TO LTE S YSTEMS time. Hence, an increase of the bandwidth from 5 MHz to 20

In order to apply the results to practical scenarios we need MHz as discussed in 3GPP LTE is advisable.

to find a way to tackle also non-uniform PDPs. The impact of

the PDP has been touched already in Theorem 3 proving the VII. C ONCLUSION

”order-optimality” of uniform PDP. Using essentially Theorem In this work, we studied the delay limited capacity of

3, we can even incorporate non-uniform PDP σ1 ≥, ..., ≥ σL OFDM systems. It was shown that explicit expressions can

(at least one inequality is strict) as follows: instead of directly be found for the low and high SNR regime even for the

representing channel gains cl , ∀l, in (1) consider the following challenging correlation structure of OFDM. The presented

triangular structure results are not restricted to OFDM but can be carried over

√ (L) other classes of parallel channels such as e.g. MIMO. Still

c̃L = γL c̃L an open problem is the complete characterization of the

√ (L−1) √ (L−1)

c̃L−1 = γL c̃L + γL−1 c̃L−1 DLC for arbitrary SNR and arbitrary power delay profile.

.. Here, universal bounds seem very difficult to derive. It is an

.

√ (1) √ (1) √ (1) interesting but unproven conjecture that the DLC is in general

c̃1 = γL c̃L + γL−1 c̃L−1 + ... + γ1 c̃1

Schur-concave with respect to the power delay profile which

where γl := σl −σl+1 and σL+1 := 0 for some appropriate iid implies that a uniform profile maximizes the DLC in all cases.

(l)

sequence of random variables c̃i , l = 1, ..., L, i = l, ...., L;

L √ (l)

hence, we can write c̃l = i=l γi c̃i . Note that the actual VIII. P ROOFS OF THE T HEOREMS

distribution of these random quantities which might be difficult A. Proof of Theorem 2

to calculate will not be needed in the subsequent analysis.

Note that the proof of i.) can be easily devised using

Clearly, there are random phases ejϕi (h) , i = 1, ..., L, such

the same technique as in ii.) and the proof of iii.) is then

that:

# L i # straightforward so they are both omitted.

# √ # ii.) Our starting point is eqn. (6) where we use the expansion

# (l) − 2πj(l−1)(k−1) #

# γi c̃i e K , k = 1, ..., K # of the exponential function up to the quadratic term, i.e.

# #

i=1 l=1

# ∞

# exp (x) = 1 + x + 0.5x2 + o x2 . Fix > 0 and set the

L # i

√ # ”virtual” channel gain of any subcarrier k with hk ≥ h∞ −

jϕi (h) # (l) − 2πj(l−1)(k−1) #

= e # γi c̃i e K , k = 1, ..., K #

# # 1 −1

∞ Eh (h∞ )#

is bounded by

i=1 l=1

L # i √ (l) − 2πj(l−1)(k−1)

#

#

−2

(γ ) E # γ c̃ e , k = 1, ..., K #

:=h∞i i=1 h # l=1 i i

K

#

∞

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3754 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 8, NO. 7, JULY 2009

TABLE I

M AXIMUM NUMBER OF SUPPORTABLE USERS AT THE CELL BORDER FOR 3GPP P EDESTRIAN A/B CHANNEL , 3 KM / H . T HE VALUES IN ROW 3,4 IS

OBTAINED BY THE SIMULATED DLC AND IN R OW 5,6 IS THE OBTAINED BY UPPER BOUND IN (22).

Real-time Streaming Services Conversational voice High quality streaming audio Videophone

Rate Requirement 13 kb/s 128 kb/s 384 kb/s

Nr. of users (Ped. A, DLC simulated) ≤ 34 ≤3 ≤1

Nr. of users (Ped. B, DLC simulated) ≤ 67 ≤6 ≤2

Nr. of users (Ped. A, bound) ≤ 34 ≤3 ≤1

Nr. of users (Ped. B, bound) ≤ 77 ≤7 ≤2

subcarriers that are assigned the maximum channel gain by We can use the following strategy for an upper bound Cd :

this strategy for any channel realization h. Then, we obtain fix > 0 and suppose that for any fading state h we set the

for sufficiently small P ∗ values that are below to . In other words we do not allow

”virtual” channel gains below .

∗ Cd + 0.5Cd2 Kχ−1

h ()

P ≥ Eh . (23) Now, define hk := max {hk , }. Then, using (6) we have

h∞

for sufficiently large P ∗

The equation is an upward open parabola in Cd where one zero

%K

1

K

1

is negative and one is positive where the latter is increasing ∗

P ≥Eh e Cd −K

(hk )

1

− Eh (27)

in P ∗ . Solving this equation for Cd yields the inequality k=1

K

k=1

hk

∗ Eh h−1 ∞ %K

1 1

Cd (P ) ≤ − −K

= Eh e Cd

(hk ) − Eh .

KEh χ−1 h () h∞

−1

h1

$ k=1

E2h h−1∞ 2P ∗ Obviously, the second term grows without bound as → 0

+ +

−1 .

K 2 E2h χ−1 −1

KEh χ−1 for many fading distributions such as Rayleigh fading. Fur-

h () h∞ h () h∞

thermore the growth depends on P ∗ . Let us bound this term

Expanding the square root function yields as follows: we have

∞

1 KEh χ−1 −1

h () h∞

1 1

∗

Cd (P ) ≤ ∗

P − (P ∗ )2 . (24) Eh = dFh (h1 )

Eh h−1 3 h−1 h1

∞ 2 (1 + ) Eh ∞

h1 0

≤ −1 .

Subtracting the first order expression (10) from (24) we arrive

for some > 0 at Clearly, the term is related to P ∗ . Since the underlying

optimal rate control law is waterfilling and the minimum

KEh χ−1 h () h∞

−1

∗

Δd (P ) ≥ 3

−1 (P ∗ )2 channel gain is at least we have D(h ) ≡ {1, ..., K} if

2 (1 + ) Eh h∞ λ ≥ −1 . Thus the above equation (27) is certainly true if

KEh χ−1 −1

h h∞ −

K +

≥ (P ∗ )2 (25) 1 K

2 (1 + ) E3h h−1∞ P∗ = pk = λ− ≥

hk

k∈D(h ) k=1

and thus have established a lower bound on Δd (P ∗ ) for any

, > 0. The last inequality (25) follows from the following which is a rough estimate. Hence, we obtain

argument: observe that χh () ≥ 1 and, almost surely with 1 P∗

respect to the fading distribution, for any realization h we Eh ≤

h1 K

have and finally for any > 0

χ−1 −1 −1 −1

h () h∞ → χh h∞ , → 0, ⎛ ⎞

−1 −1 −1 P∗ 1 + K 1

and provided that Eh χh h∞ ≤ Eh h∞ < ∞ we obtain Cd ≤ log ⎝ 1

⎠.

Eh K

(h )− K

by dominated convergence [16]: k=1 k

−1 −1 K

lim Eh χ−1 −1

h () h∞ = Eh χh h∞ Now observe that

1

−K

(hk ) ≤ h, and, hence, almost

→0 k=1

surely we have

Furthermore, it is easily established that

%

K

(1 + ) KEh χ−1 −1 1

∗ h h∞ 2 lim (hk )− K = h. (28)

Δd (P ) ≤ 3

−1 (P ∗ ) . (26) →0

2Eh h∞ k=1

Using (28) we can once again invoke the dominated conver-

Combining (25) and (26) leads to the desired result (11).

gence theorem and obtain

Since SRW will assert rates only to the subcarrier with the K

best channel gain in the low SNR region this will generate the % 1

−K

same optimal first and second order terms provided that the Eh (hk ) → Eh h

probability of multiple subcarrier allocation for the optimal

k=1

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WUNDER et al.: DELAY-LIMITED TRANSMISSION IN OFDM SYSTEMS: PERFORMANCE BOUNDS AND IMPACT OF SYSTEM PARAMETERS 3755

2

Suppose that L , K are dyadic numbers where for any

n n

Eh̃Em

n (ξ (αi , βi ))

index n ≥ 1, h̃n1 , ...., h̃nK n is a family of complex-valued G

Ln

random variables (so-called triangular array) generated by

M

M

1 2π (l − 1) (ki1 − ki2 )

= αi1 αi2 n cos

the sequence c̃1 , ...., c̃Ln via the DFT operation (1). Let i1 =1 i2 =1

2L Kn

l=1

Emn

be a finite subset of {1, ..., K n} for some m ≥ 1 and Ln

M M

1 2π (l − 1) (ki1 − ki2 )

2 ≤ Ln ≤ K n defined by

m

+ βi1 βi2 n cos

i1 =1 i2 =1

2L Kn

(i − 1) K n l=1

Em := k : k =

n

+ 1, i = 1, ..., 2 m

; M Ln

1

M

2m 2π (l − 1) (ki1 − ki2 )

+ αi1 βi2 n sin

i =1 i =1

L Kn

denote the corresponding subset of random variables by h̃Em

n 1 2 l=1

generating a subfamily of complex-valued random variables and by applying central limit theorem for triangular arrays

with cardinality |Em

n

|. Furthermore, we superimpose a natural to the random variable ξ (αi , βi ) (which is the sum of inde-

order on the elements of Em n

such that k1 < k2 < ... < k2m pendent random variables by the iid assumption) proves (30)

for ki ∈ Em . In order to establish convergence we need to

n for any set ki ∈ Emn

, i = 1, ..., M . Note that by the assumed

prove the following steps. exponential decay of the marginals, Lindeberg’s condition for

i.) (Monotonicity): We can frequently use the following triangular arrays will be clearly satisfied and convergence of

n D

well-known inequality [17] for some a, b > 0 dividing K: h̃Em → h̃m G follows (see also [13] where a somewhat similar

convergence is proved).

& ' a1 iii.) (Uniform integrability): The following condition

%

K

1

−K

%

a %

b

− 1b

Eh hk ≤ hk1 +(k2 −1)a dFh (h) holds: ! "

k=1 k1 =1 RK

+ k2 =1 lim sup Ehn hI h ≥ α = 0 (31)

(29) α→∞ n≥1

By using the lower bound in (18) and the integral inequality The proof is sketched: Using (29) and properties of the FFT

in (29) it is straightforward to see that (by the structure of in (1) the expectation can be upperbounded as:

the DFT) if the fading distribution is generated by a complex ( ( ( (−1

( ( −1 ( (

path gain distribution of which the marginal densities can be Ehn h ≤ Ehn (h̃1 ( (h̃K/2 (

written as fc̃i (c̃i ) , c̃i ∈ C, where fc̃i is circular symmetric,

⎛(⎛ ⎞2 ⎛ ⎞2 ((−1 ⎞

i.e. it is invariant under complex phase factors then the fading ( L/2

(

L/2 (

distribution is invariant regarding k1 in (29); hence we arrive ⎜( ( ⎟

= Ehn ⎝(⎝ c̃2l−1 ⎠ − ⎝ c̃2l ⎠ ( ⎠

at ( (

( l=1 l=1 (

Kn (

% ( 2

( (− K n Both sums are independent and converge in distribution to

(h̃k ( dFh̃n h̃

a circular symmetric Gaussian distribution. By assumption

n k=1

R2K

+ on the smoothness on the marginals this implies pointwise

% (( ((− E n2
convergence of densities and by Scheffé’s theorem [18] the

≤

n

(h̃k ( | m1 | Fh̃n h̃ convergence of the expectations. Since the limit expectation

R2K

is finite for two independent circular symmetric Gaussian

+ n

k∈Em 1

% (( ((− E n2
distributed complex path gains (refer to Theorem 1) this in

≤

n

(h̃k ( | m2 | Fh̃n h̃ turn implies eqn. (31).

R2K

iv.) (Lower bound): Using (17) we set Ehn (h) =

+ n

k∈Em 2

uniformly in n for fixed m2 ≤ m1 and 2m1 ≤ K n .

vexity of exp(·) we arrive at

ii.) (Convergence): Suppose convergence in distribution

Ehn elog(h) ≥ eEhn [log(h)]

D

themrandom vector h̃Em to a Gaussian

n

(denoted as → [18]) of

random vector h̃m

2 ∞

G ∼ n=1 CN (0, 1) for fixed m ≥ 1 is

required. By means of the Cramer-Wold device convergence = exp − log (h) dFhn1 (h)

is equivalent to convergence of 0 ∞

= exp − log (h) exp (−h) dh − (n)

ξ (αi , βi ) 0

r (32)

M

:= αi h̃nki where (n) → 0 as n → ∞. The first equality follows from

i=1

the assumption that the marginal distribution of the complex

i M 2

2

D α βi path gains is circular symmetric and the second equality is

+ βi h̃nki → N 0, i

+ (30) due to the central limit theorem and uniform integrability.

n→∞

i=1

2 2

D

Monotonicity, convergence of h̃Em → h̃m

n

G , and uniform

for arbitrary real numbers αi , βi , and indices ki ∈ Em n

,i = integrability now ensures that Eh̃Em

n (h) converges to E m (h)

h̃G

1, ..., M, M ≤ 2 . Evaluating the variance of ξ (αi , βi ) yields

m

for any m ≥ 1 and uniform PDP. Finally it suffices to show

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3756 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 8, NO. 7, JULY 2009

sufficiently

slowly converging zero se-

G

1/3

measure of convergence speed for independent subcarriers; quence Ko = O 1/Ko the third term can be upper-

note that by the assumed smoothness of the marginals the bounded by:

lower bound convergence in eqn. (32) will happen much (Ko ) / 0

faster (or it is even exact for Rayleigh fading) and we focus Eh eh I h(Ko ) > co

on the convergence of Eh̃m (h) with Ko = 2m independent / 0

= h I h(Ko ) > co dFh (h)

G

subcarriers.

RK o

We need the following technical result for Ko > 1 indepen- +

12

dent channel gains (not even necessarily OFDM subcarriers). 2

Proposition 1: Suppose that Ko > 1 channel gains are iid ≤ h dFh (h)

RK o

with marginal density f . Then, the following upper bound

+

12

holds: / 02

(Ko )

I h > co dFh (h)

RK o

h dFh (h) +

RK o K2o
/ 0 12

+

⎛⎡ ⎤ Ko

Ko ≤ Pr h(Ko ) > co

Ko − 1

≤

Ko

× ⎝⎣ f a− − f b− ⎦ 1

Ko − 1 i i

Ko The first inequality follows from Cauchy’s inequality and the

i≥1

⎞ Ko bound for the first integral follows from the independence

Ko −1 + of hk , k ∈ {1, ..., Ko} in combination with Prop. 1 with

− ai Ko f b i − f a+ ⎠

i monotonously decreasing density f . The probability can be

i≥1

again tackled with Tschebyscheff’s inequality. It follows

−/+ −/+

/ 0 σo

Here, 0 ≤ ai < bi ≤ ∞ are interval boundaries

+ +such Pr h(Ko ) > co ≤ 2

that f (h) ≤ 0, h ∈ a− , b −

and f

(h) ≥ 0, h ∈ ai , b i . Ko (co + HF )

i i

Proof: This lemma is proved in [11, Proposition 8]. and putting terms together

Now define the following random variable (i.e. partial

sums): C (P ∗ )

co σo

1

Ko ∗

≥ log (P ) + HF + log 1 + 2Ko + −HF

h(Ko ) := − log (hk ) e Ko 2Ko

Ko

k=1 √

eσo

+ −H √

By independence, we have h(Ko ) → (−HF ) in probability and e F Ko (co + HF )

we now show Eh(Ko ) (exp(h(Ko ) )) → exp(−HF ). Defining Ko large 2 co σo

some real co HF and splitting up the events in sets ≥ log (P ∗ ) + HF + √ 3

+ −H √

Ko e F 3 Ko

{h(Ko ) ≤ co } and {h(Ko ) > co } we obtain in the first case √

eσo

the inequality +√ (34)

Ko (co + HF )

(Ko ) / 0
/ (Ko ) 0

Eh eh I h(Ko ) ≤ co ≤ Eh min eh , eco concludes the proof.

(33)

using

( the set function

( I{·}. Defining further the event set A := R EFERENCES

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WUNDER et al.: DELAY-LIMITED TRANSMISSION IN OFDM SYSTEMS: PERFORMANCE BOUNDS AND IMPACT OF SYSTEM PARAMETERS 3757

[9] S. Verdu, “Spectral efficiency in the wideband regime," IEEE Trans. Gerhard Wunder received his graduate degree

Inform. Theory, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 1319-1343, June 2002. of electrical engineering (Dipl.-Ing.) in 1999 and

[10] G. Wunder and S. Litsyn, “Generalized bounds on the cf distribution of the Ph.d degree (on the peak-to-aver power ratio

OFDM signals with application to code design," IEEE Trans. Inform. problem in OFDM) in electrical engineering in 2003

Theory, revised July 2005. from Technische Universität (TU) Berlin, Germany.

[11] G. Wunder and T. Michel, “The delay-limited capacity region of OFDM He is now with the Fraunhofer German-Sino

broadcast channels," arXiv:cs/0610061, Dec. 2006. Lab for Mobile Communications, Heinrich-Hertz-

[12] G. Wunder and H. Boche, “Peak value estimation of band-limited signals Institut, leading several industry and research

from its samples, noise enhancement and and a local characterisation projects in the field of wireless communication sys-

in the neighborhood of an extremum," IEEE Trans. Signal Processing, tems. He is also a lecturer for detection/ estimation

vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 771-780, Mar. 2003. theory, stochastic processes and information theory

[13] S. Wei, D. L. Goeckel, and P. A. Kelly, “The OFDM signal converge at the TU Berlin, department for mobile communications. Recently, he also

weakly to a Gaussian random process: proof and application," in Proc. received the habilitation and Privatdozent degree from the TU Berlin in

39th Annual Allerton Conf. Commun., Control, Computing, Oct. 2001. communication engineering. His general research interests include estimation

[14] 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), “Feasiblity study for OFDM and information theory as well as crosslayer design problems.

for UTRAN enhancement," 3GPP, Tech. Rep. TR-25.892, v.6.3.0, rel.

6, May 2004. Thomas Michel received his graduate degree in

[15] 3GPP, “Technical specification group radio access network; user equip- Business Administration and Engineering (Dipl.-

ment, radio transmission and reception (FDD)," 3GPP, Technical Spec- Wirtsch.-Ing.) from TU Dresden, Germany in 2003

ification TS-25.101, Dec. 2004, v. 6.3.0, rel. 6. and his Ph.D. degree in Electrical Engineering from

[16] A. Kolmogorov and S. Fomin, Introductory Real Analysis. New York: TU Berlin, Germany in 2008.

Dover Publications, Inc., 1975.

[17] E. Lieb and M. Loss, Analysis. American Mathematical Society, 1997.

[18] P. Billingsley, Convergence of Probability Measures. New York: Wiley,

1968.

Ing) in technical computing engineering from Tech-

nische Universität (TU) Berlin , Germany in 2004.

He is currently pursuing the Ph.D. degree at TU

Berlin. His research interests include radio resource

management and scheduling, wireless propagation

and channel modeling, feedback and control channel

design.

Authorized licensed use limited to: VELLORE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY. Downloaded on July 28, 2009 at 06:19 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

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