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Fluid dynamics in

porous media
Giovanni Benvegna

Sommario
State of matter........................................................................................................... 1
PVT properties:......................................................................................................... 11
Gas........................................................................................................................ 12
Oil.......................................................................................................................... 18
Water..................................................................................................................... 22
Experimental test..................................................................................................... 23
Rock petrophysical properties..................................................................................27
Darcy law.............................................................................................................. 28
Darcy law for gas................................................................................................... 32
Production parameters............................................................................................. 34
Rock fluid interaction properties............................................................................... 35
Mobility ratio......................................................................................................... 38
The GOR................................................................................................................ 38
Surface tension and interfacial tension.................................................................39
Imbibition and drainage........................................................................................ 46
Production drive mechanism.................................................................................... 48
Pressure gradient..................................................................................................... 50
Diffusivity equation.................................................................................................. 52
Steady state solution............................................................................................. 58
Skin effect.......................................................................................................... 59
Productivity index and completion factor...........................................................60
Pseudo steady state solution.................................................................................61
Pressure behavior with different flow rate.............................................................62
Transient state solution......................................................................................... 64
Skin effect in transient....................................................................................... 67
Diffusivity equation for gasses.................................................................................68
Depletion.................................................................................................................. 74

State of matter
We define these state:

Liquid
Vapour
Gasses
Dew point
Bubble point
Vapour pressure

When we say standard point we mean: P = 1 atm and T = 15C. using m 3sc we are
talking standard condition if we use m3st we refer to stock condition.
In a single component system:

We define the line AO as the vapour pressure; OB as the sublimation pressure and
the line OC as the melting pressure, the slope of this last line is negative for water
and positive for hydrocarbons.
Pc represent the minimum pressure necessary for liquefaction of vapor at the
critical temperature. Tc is the critical temperature, above which a vapor cannot be
liquefied, regardless of the applied pressure. So at the end A represent the critical
point.
Suppose that the reservoir condition initial is in the terms of P and V at red dot.
During the production the pressure decrease and the volume increase until it reach
the bubble point. From bubble point until the complete vaporization at the dew point
the pressure remain constant and volume continue to increase. From the dew point
oil is in gasses phase, continuing the production pressure slightly decrease and
volume increase as well.

Collecting this behavior for different temperature condition it is possible to define a


curve which pass among all the bubble point and the dew point. Which represent
the region of the different states.
The fluid in a reservoir is not composed only by HC, we have also CO 2, N2, H2S and
so on. The composition of fluid oil define the fluid category.

In a multi component system:


The value of the bubble point pressure is different form dew point:

If we increase the temperature, B will be higher, C as well and the distance between
B and C decrease. So if we perform the experiment at different temperature and we
plot all the result and so we connect all dew and bubble point we obtain the phase
envelop.

In the phase envelop we find a point named Critical point, in which the phase
property of a fluid is the same, vapor, liquid and solid.
The general phase diagram for a multicomponent system we have this kind of
shape defined by own critical point, and line:

In this graph we can see:


Bubble point line; Dew point line; Critical point; Cricondetherm: the higher
temperature in which liquid can exist; So the fluid at the right side of this line is Dry
Gas; above the bubble point and to the left of critical vertical we have
unsaturated fluid: liquid. Among cricondetherm and vertical critical temperature
we have Gas condensate.
Into a real reservoir we can image that initial pressure is Pi (300 bar) and
temperature is Tr (100C). we assume that temperature in a reservoir doesnt
change due to the lower dimension respect the earth; so it is possible only to reduce
the pressure. Anyway, during the rising of the fluid the pressure decrease and
temperature as well. If the P-T transformation of the fluid during the rising, remain
at the right side of cricondetherm we talk about the Dry gas cos remain gas.

If we fall inside the envelop curve we talk about wet gas because there is gas in
the reservoir and liquid gas at surface:

If the pressure and temperature of a reservoir is in the gas condensate condition.


Production will give me only liquid and gas at surface and into the reservoir I will
have liquid in the reservoir if the pressure is lower dew point, I have at the end gas
condensate not strictly connected to the path

We prefer to produce oil, so it is better to maintain the pressure above the dew
point, because if the condition is inside the envelop line we have a lower volume of
oil compared to the gas condensate.

The shape of the envelop curves depends on the composition of HC. In the picture
below is shown 2 different condition of two reservoir: 1 is heavier compared to 2.

If we consider the thermodynamics transformation during the rising of the HC from


the reservoir (A) to the surface (B) we have different composition:

Another way to describe the multicomponent system is done using multi-diagrams:

Volatile oil: release a large amount of gas at pressure reference, we dont know if we
have gas with saturated oil or oil with saturated gas.
In case of a gas-condensate reservoir (A) the production path cross the dew line in
B, we can see that liquid start to increase and continuing the production after a
while it will return in a low level of liquid. This phenomena is called Retrograde
condensation.

This phenomena depends to the difference energy of attraction and repulsion of the
molecular gasses.

We make another differentiation of fluid inside the reservoir: volatile oil (to the left)
and black oil (to the right)

Lets consider:

Pbubble = 250 bar


P initial = 300 bar in the reservoir
T reference = 15C

We know that the P reference at surface is 1 bar


After the starting production Pi is in reduction direction. When it reach the Pb the
composition is still oil, but after this level oil start to release gas:

Density decrease during the line path.

10

PVT properties:
PVT properties are the properties of a fluid which depend to the pressure volume
and temperature value. The reference condition at which the value of the properties
are define are 2:

Normal condition: P = 1 atm = 14.69 psi; T = 0C


Standard condition (sc for gas or stock tank condition st for oil): P = 1 atm =
14.69 psi; T = 15C
Reservoir condition (r): P = 300 bar ; T = 100C

Sometimes happen to consider some properties not strictly connected to pressure


and temperature as a PVT, for example Viscosity.
Viscosity as an intensive propriety, not related to PVT property but it is function of
pressure and temperature, so in the reservoir engineering is considered in this way.
Viscosity is friction within a fluid that results from the strength of molecule to
molecule attractions. In other words it is a measure of the resistance of a fluid which
is being deformed by either shear stress or extensional stress.
The unit of measure is Pa s or cP. We refer to Newtonian viscosity, dynamic
viscosity, coefficient of viscosity as Viscosity

Water at surface reference condition is 1 cP which correspond 10 -3 Pa s. In the


reservoir condition is 0.5 0.9 cP. For an oil we have at reference condition more or
less ??, instead at reservoir condition is 0,5-50 cP (250 for very heavy oils).
The conversion factor among the different unit are:

1 P = 10-1 kgm1s1 = 10-1 Pas

We have to stay tuned to kinematic viscosity

, which is measured in m2/s or St

(stokes).

= /
Which the conversion factor is:

1 stokes = 100 centistokes = 1 cm2 s1 = 0.0001 m2 s1.

Lets consider the different fluid in physic: Gas, Oil, Volatile Oil and Water.

11

Gas
The PVT properties for a gas are:

Viscosity
Density or gas gravity
Compressibility factor
Gas formation volume factor
Compressibility

The real gas are considered when we have higher pressure and low temperature. In
order to consider the real behavior of a gas instead of a perfect gas we introduce
the compressibility factor z:

PV =nRT PV =z n RT
The compressibility factor born by the non-negligible molecular volume and the nonnegligible attractive force among the molecule.
We have to consider the unit used:

R = 8.314 kJ kgmol-1 K-1.


R=10.73 psia ft3 lbmol-1 R-1.

For the compressibility factor of a gas:

In the reservoir condition z is more or less 0.8 - 0.9


The z coefficient is not known previous, so we have to determine it (z = 1 at
standard condition because the ratio is 1 at standard condition for each gas), in a
purely theoretical way:

pn V n=n z n R T r

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psc V sc=n z sc R T sc

z n=

p n V n T sc
p sc V sc T r

The law of corresponding states:


All natural gasses, in the same pseudo reduced pressure and pseudo reduced
temperature condition shown the same volumetric behavior and so the same value
of z.
Lets consider two different gas C1 and C2.

Each component is characterized by different critical point: Pressure and


temperature.
The reduce pressure and temperature are determined as:

P r=

Pmeasured
T
; T r = measured
P criticalc
T criticalc
i

This quantity is dimensionless so if we plot z as function of Pr and Tr the different


curves overlapping together due to the same behavior.
For a given gas with different component inside we have to consider the different
behavior defining a pseudo-reduced pressure and temperature:

P pr=

Pmeasured
P pseudocritical

; T pr =

T measured
T pseudocritical

The definition of pseudo-critical pressure and temperature are:


n

P pc = Pc r y i ; T pc = T c r y i
i=1

ci

i=1

ci

13

Where y is the molar fraction.

y i=

Molei

Mole

For example: given 2 gas in a mixture C1: 75% and C2 25%:

P pc = y C Pcrc + yC Pcr c
1

In this graph the part below the white line is reported to the bottom where it was in
the upper part.

Unfortunately in a reservoir there is also H 2S gas, so we have to apply some


corrections; we use this graph:

14

The formation volume factor (FVF of Bg) is the ratio between the volume of free
gas, at reservoir condition. and the volume of the same gas at standard condition:

B g=

V ( p ,T )
V sc

Which is measured in bbl/m3.


Consider that: (sc is standard condition and r reservoir condition)

psc V sc=nRT sc
pr V r=z r nR T r

B g=z r

Where

Psc T r
Pr T sc
Psc , T r ,T sc

are constant, so qualitatively:

15

The range of the FVF is between 0.002-0.05 m 3/Sm3.


The compressibility in a real gas is

C g=

1 V 1
=
V P P

The minus disappear because an increasing of pressure correspond to and


increasing of density.
The compressibility of a gas could be determined approximately as:

1 1 z 1
C g=

P z P P
Just to remind some value

Cgas = 10-4 psi-1.


Coil = 10-5 psi-1.
Cwater = 10-6 psi-1.
Csoil = 10-6 psi-1.

The compressibility of the rock depend to the porosity and consolidation.


The gas density is

g =

MP
zRT

gasres con=

gasSC
Bg

So the Gas gravity is

16

G=

g
M
= g
air M air

Where Mair is 28.96 g/mol and

ga s =
rc

airSC

is 1.225 kg/m3.

G airSC
Bg

Viscosity in gas change the behavior according to pressure and temperature in this
way

Exercise 1 to 4

17

Oil
Compressibility is the slope of the lines obtained in liquid phase by a CCE
experiment (see the next chapter).

c o=

1 V
V p

Which it is in an isothermal process equal to

c o=

2 V 1V 2
V 1 +V 2 p 1p 2

Formation volume factor for oil is defined as: the volume of oil and dissolved gas
at reservoir condition that must be produced to obtain 1 cubic meter of stable oil at
stock tank conditions (standard condition)

B g=

V oi l
V oi l

st

The behavior of this factor is:

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According to our experience it has the range of 1 - 2.2 m 3/Sm3, maximum 2.8.
The initial increasing of the Bo in a reducing pressure until reach the bubble point is
increasing due to the slightly compressibility of the oil. Of course at left of the
bubble point a reduction of pressure cause a reduction of the Bo due to the
liberation of gas and the volume of oil at reservoir condition is reduced.
Volume of gas dissolved (Rs) is the volume of gas which is dissolved in the oil at
reservoir pressure and temperature, but it is measured at surface condition, referred
to 1 m3 of stable oil (which means no release of gas at stock tank condition).

Rs =

V g ( P r ,T r ) sc
V oilst

Assuming we have a unsaturated reservoir, up to the bubble curve and we start the
production, the pressure decrease and temperature remain the same, until to reach
the bubble curve the gas dissolved in the oil is still the same. After the bubble point
it start to be delivered into the reservoir, according to a non-necessarily linear law:

V o =V b S o
r

OOIP=N=

Vo
Bg

The range of this parameter is among 100-350 m3sc/m3st.


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The volume of residual oil is the volume of oil at stock tank condition at the end of
DLE experiment, corrected from the reservoir condition to the stock tank condition.
We use the API gravity

API =

141.5
131.5
o , rel @ st

Where
API
10
<20
25<API<30
30<API<40
40<API<50

oil ( p , T ) =

Description
Water
Heavy oil
Medium oil
Light oil
Volatile oil

oil, st + gas , sc R s ( p , T )
Bo ( p , T )

If I have the Gas Gravity (GG) and Bg, which is a curve function of pressure

ga s

rescond

ga s
Bg

stcon

To oil we have

oil ,res .cond =

oil , stock cond + gas, stand cond R s


Bo
mo

oil ,res .cond =

V ostock cond

V g ( Pr , T r ) @ sc
V g ,stand cond V o , stock cond
m + mg
= o
V o, r
V o, r
V o ,st
mg

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Viscosity is determined as
Decreasing the pressure the density decrease (?) So the viscosity decrease as well.
When the pressure reach the bubble point the oil start to liberate the gas and the
density of oil increase and the viscosity increase.

From the first graph we can see that the first behavior is due to the liquid phase, so
it is the viscosity of the oil versus the pressure. Up to the bubble point the behavior
is due to gas viscosity.

Exercise 5-6

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Water
Salinity: It affect to: density, compressibility, resistivity and so on.

Gas solubility: it is negligible

Water formation volume factor: it is the volume of water and its dissolved gas
at reservoir conditions that must be produced to obtain 1 m 3 of water at stock tank
condition.

B w=

V ( p ,T )
1
V st

22

Viscosity: 0.4 0.5 cP


Compressibility: Cw = 2 4 10-6 psi-1.

23

Experimental test
The constant composition oil expansion (CCE) experiment is used to determine
bubble point pressure, undersaturated oil density, isothermal oil compressibility for
oil it is a non-destructive test:
Procedure:

Initially: oil sample at reservoir pressure and temperature equal to reservoir


condition
isothermal fluid expansion by reducing pressure in steps
measurement of mixture volume @ equilibrium

We determine the bubble point pressure as the intersection of the 2 behavior of the
point fitting.
The differential liberation experiment (DLE) experiment is designed to
approximate the depletion process of an oil reservoir and thereby provide suitable
PVT data to calculate reservoir performance in terms of gas liberation. It is a
destructive test on a sample fluid (200 250 cm 3)
Procedure:

Initially: oil sample at reservoir pressure and temperature in the laboratory


PVT cell are the reservoir condition
isothermal fluid expansion by reducing pressure in steps
measurement of mixture volume @ equilibrium
removal of the liberated gas at each pressure step, maintaining the same oil
volume
Reach the atmospheric pressure
last step: flash expansion to reach atmospheric temperature (stock tank
conditions)

24

Rsd and Bod are relative to residual oil volume, Residual oil volume: is the oil
volume at the end of the DLE experiment, corrected from reservoir to standard
temperature

Ro=R oend DLE

We start with a PVT cell at bubble point which P 2 is equal to Psat. So we reduce the
pressure down to the saturation and we wait for the equilibrium. Maintaining the
same pressure we remove the gas until have only oil in the cell.
We can measure only the removed gas.
The final condition change if it is followed a different path. DLE is not the
transformation which oil do in the plant. DLE follow this transformation path.

25

At stock condition we want avoid the release of gas, this is the reason of the last
step.
Multistage separator test (MST) is performed on an oil sample primarily to
provide a basis for converting differential liberation data from a residual oil to a
stock tank oil basis. It is a destructive test on a sample fluid of 250 cm 3.

B od=

Vo
Vo

res

sSC

B o=

Vo
Vo

res

sto .con .

Procedure (in the laboratory PVT cell):

Initially: oil sample is at saturation conditions. (Measured parameter: oil


volume)
The sample is then brought to the pressure and temperature of the first stage
separator. All the gas is removed. (Measured parameters: oil volume, volume
and number of moles of removed gas are measured)
Oil remaining after gas removal is brought to the conditions of the next
separator stageetc
Last step: stock tank conditions are reached

We do it in order to: design the level of pressure and temperature which obtain the
maximum gas extraction from the oil and evaluate the real stable oil volume, which
is higher than residual oil obtained by DLE. The green line represent the Bo during
the MST experiment.

26

In the real life, when we are on the field, the volume of the oil that we have at
surface is the stock tank oil. Residual is obtained only in laboratory.
Converting from differential to stock tank basis is done using these relationship:

B o=Bod

B of
Bod

( )

pb

Rs =( Rsf ) p (( R sd ) p Rsd )
b

Bof
B od

( )

pb

The way to describe in thermodynamic graph the experiment is not possible


because, per each step we have a new composition of the oil so we changing the
envelop line. We can imagine that the thermodynamic path of the MST is a multy
DLE path which reach the same end point with a different composition with more oil.

27

Rock petrophysical properties


The rock analysis is done in order to obtain the permeability, porosity and water
saturation; they enter to the routine core analysis (RCAL). The properties which
define the interaction between fluid and rock is the special core analysis (SCAL) and
measure the wettability, capillary pressure and relative permeability.
The plug from the core is more little in order to reduce the time used to analyze.
The shape factor (length/diameter) must be higher than 1.
For reservoir engineering the porosity used is always the effective porosity, which is
the ratio of the interconnected void space in the rock to the bulk volume of the rock.

The fluid saturation, which is defined as the ratio of the volume of a fluid and the
volume of the pore.

Sf =

Vf
; S i=1
Vp

V f =V b S f =V b

V p Vo
Vb Vp

Rock compressibility which is about 4 10-6 psi-1, is higher in shallow and slightly in
consolidated formations.

Cr =

+1 V
V P

We have + because we considering the system from the pore point of view which is
trying to compress the rock from inside.

28

Darcy law
Applied only if:

steady state condition: same flow in and outlet


uncompressible fluid
single fluid
laminar flow
No interaction between rock and fluid

So the flow is constant. The time transient of the experiment depend on


permeability.

h h
q
v = =K 2 1
A
L

Where L is the length of the sample porous medium, h is the height of above
standard datum and K is the hydraulic conductivity [m/s].
If we want to change the fluid we move from

conductivity the intrinsic permeability defined as:

k=

K
w g

Generalizing the Darcy law we obtain

v=

k
( pg z )

29

to k: using instead of hydraulic

Using k as the absolute permeability (even if we are using small k for intrinsic
permeability), which is the permeability of the rock fully saturated by fluid.
In mono-direction (x) horizontal we can neglect gravity, and considering a
constant cross section, we obtain (L is the length of the sampling):

v=

k p
k P
=
x
L

In mono-direction (z) vertical we have this assumption

Pinlet =Poutlet

atmospheric environment modify the Darcy equation:

v=

k
( g 1 )

The z direction in an arrow directed in down-direction.


In a three dimension Cartesian system:

In reservoir engineering Darcy law is used in radial geometry:


Reservoir

Well

30

and

z =1

in

The hypothesis are:

negligible gravitational effect


constant producing thickness
well perforate across the entire producing thickness

The flow is positive when we produce and negative if we inject. Darcy law is:

q k dp
=
A dr
Integrating this equation we obtain the Muskat equation:

q=

2 hk

p
re
ln
rw

( )

So

pu= pe

r
q
ln e
2 hk r w

So the pressure outlet is function of geometrical terms and property of fluid, not
function of time. If we plot p versus radius we have a square scratch.

31

Pi

Pe

Rw

Re

This graph means that we have reach the steady state, where the pressure at the
external boundary give us a pressure constant equal to P e.
The true scratch is
P

Pi

Pe

Pw
Rw

Re

Pw change according to the flow rate and the slope of the depletion line change as
well.
If we plot in a semi-logarithmic scale we have a straight line where slope is

q
2 hk

the coefficient of the logarithm.


Permeability k has a tensor behavior, so the component of velocity has to take into
account the different value of k function of the direction. In most case we consider
that kx = ky and kz is lower.
We can consider different kind of material according to the value of K in different
direction:
32

Isotropy: the prop. Are independent by direction


Anisotropy: the prop. Are not independent by direction
Heterogeneous: value of k change with space
Homogeneous: value of k dont depend to the location

All the properties which are scalar (mass, density, etcetera) are homogeneous.

33

Darcy law for gas


Assuming that we have this porous element (plug) where we inject gas:

if q =q out unco mpressible


q q out compressible gas
So for gas we know that is compressible, so we have to correct the Darcy law. The
assumption are:

Negligible gravitational force


Constant cross section
Compressible fluid
Z=1
Laminar flow

The gas law say:

p V =p out V out
If we divide by time:

p q = pout q out

Remember that

pout qout =pA

q=A

k dp
dx

k dp
dx

Integrating it in the space we obtain


L

pout

k
pout qout dx= A p dp
p
0

So
34

2
2
k p p out
q out = A
2 p out L

According to the lower viscosity of gas compared to water or fluid, the laboratory
test are done with gas in order to have a little waste time used for transient
depleted.
The main difference between water and gas are:

Turbulences
Slip flow: permeability measured with gas is higher than liquids, so
permeability change with fluid, and permeability change also with different
inlet pressure: is higher when pressure is lower.

Assuming we have a flow injection in the pore: the molecule of the flow collide each
other in elastic way at the boundaries statistically more often compared to the
center of the flow, where they collide in an anaelastic way, this phenomena reduce
the friction inside the gas molecule and it is traduced in an increase of velocity.
Higher is the pressure lower it is this effect.

k g=k L 1+

b
pm

Where p is the pore pressure and b is a coefficient named Klinkemberg slip factor
which is function of temperature, mean free path and porous radius. If pressure
tends to infinity the permeability tends to k L. this is the reason to perform laboratory
analysis with gas.

Where

pm=

p + p out
2

35

We look for kL.

36

Production parameters
The production parameter for oil reservoir are (measured):
Flow rate

Qoil =Qo ; Qgas =Q g ; Q water =Q w


Gas oil ratio

GOR=

Q gsc
Qost

Water cut

WCT =

Qw
Qw
=
QL Qw +Qo

We measure pressure:

WBP: well bottom pressure


WBHP: well bottom hole pressure
SWBHP: static well bottom hole pressure (stop production)
FWBHP: flowing well bottom hole pressure (during production)
THP: Tubing head pressure
WHP: well head pressure

The minimum THP depend to the facilities of the plant, chosen to transport the oil to
all separators and reach the stock condition.
In case of gas reservoir we have

OGR: oil/gas ratio


Qg
Qw
Qo
WGR=Qw/Qg
Gravity

37

Rock fluid interaction properties


The rock fluid interaction properties are estimated with SCAR test, we would like to
maintain the Darcy law but we some assumption are not so performable, so we
must correct the formula with phenomena which are not considered in Darcy
kingdom.

Darcy equation for multiphase flow

The effective permeability keff which is the permeability for each phase at a specific
saturation. It provide to take the presence of movement of more than a single fluid
phase within the pore space.

0< S 1
||

0 k eff k

( k o , k g , k w ) ( k o +k g +k w ) <k
According to Darcy law applied for each phase

q oil= A

k oil dp
oil dr

q water= A

q gas =A

k water dp
water dr

k gas dp
gas dr

We call the ratio between the effective permeability and the viscosity of the fluid,
the mobility

w=

kw
k
; g= g
w
g

The mobility of a gas is ten time faster than water, this is the reason to start
production in oil phase.
38

k rw

is the permeability relative to the water. Which is

k||
kw
k rw =
We have

( k ro , k rg , k rw )( k ro + k rg + k rw ) < 1
Lets consider an oil-water system in the reservoir.
The Saturation of oil on oil zone is

1S w

ir

where

Sw

ir

is the saturation of the

irreducible water, which is the irreducible water due to: unmovable due to the
electrostatic forces; water in the isolated pore and water in the shale. This
saturation is related to a permeability value of 0.
If he ask to draw the relative permeability curve we must to write the limit, 0 to 1;
the name of the axis; the vertical limit Swi and Sor (the residual oil saturation for a
water-oil displacement due to capillary forces); Kro which start below 1 due to
irreducible water present in the oil layer (kro,iw) [think to the analogy between area
and permeability (m2 is the unit of measure)]; the oil is reducing during production
and water replace the void freedom, so ko reduce and kw increase. Relative
permeability of oil goes to 0 and water goes to the value below 1 due to the
irreducible oil which remain in the layer.

Sor is more or less 20-30%. In gas-water system we have the same effect:

39

Sgr is more or less 40-50%. Statistically the krw,gr is lower than krg,iw but it is not
compulsory.
A reservoir with gas cap shown below is a saturated oil reservoir in less word we
have a under-saturated oil reservoir.
Pb

gas
oil
Water

z
At GOC we have the bubble point at pressure of saturation.
If this reservoir is closed and we have in the oil layer the production line. The initial
saturation is

So=1S wir

so I have (kro,iw). When the production start the

pressure reduction goes below the bubble point and the oil start to liberate gas so
we have a three phase system. The Sgc is the critical gas saturation which means
the minimum saturation needed to the gas to start moving. From Sgc gas
permeability start to increase and oil continue to reduce. The limit is the oil

40

irreducible saturation plus the irreducible water saturation. Plotting this problem in
gas saturation vs relative permeability we have:

In case of a reservoir with gas which fall to dew point and start to condensate I have
the same behavior but different name (change the g with o).

41

Mobility ratio
It is

M=

w k w o k k r ,w o
=
=
o k o w k k r ,o w

The GOR
It is an indicator of the reservoir condition.

GOR=

Qg
Qo

sc

st

Value
0-50
50-200
200-350
350-600
700-800
>35000

GOR=

Q g ,sc ,free +Q g ,sc ,dissolved


Qo , st

Qg , sc, free

is the flow rate of gas at surface condition free in to the reservoir.

Qg , sc, dissolved

GOR=

Detail
Heavy
Medium
Light
Volatile
Gas condensate
Dry or wet gas

correspond to the residual.

Q g ,sc ,free
Q
+ Rs o , st
Qo , st
Qo , st

GOR=Rs+

Q g ,rc Bo
Q o ,rc Bg

GOR=R s +

k rg o B o
k ro g B g

The behavior of GOR is represented in the picture below

42

Where Np is cumulative oil production, N is the original oil in place, the ratio of
these two element give us the recovery factor RF.
At the beginning of life of unsaturated reservoir (only oil) we have gas only at
surface so initially GOR is equal to Rs. When we touch the bubble point (remember
the Rs function of P) we start to liberate gas and Rs decrease but we have to wait
the Sgcritical so GOR decrease too. After the overpass the Sgc, Rs continue to
decrease, but GOR increase due to second term of the equation. At the end of the
life of the reservoir we must remember the behavior of the Bg (the gas density
change slowly and Bg remain almost constant) so GOR decrease again.

Surface tension and interfacial tension


We have a fluid, the molecular at surface is not surrounded to all boundary by other
liquid molecular, so the sum of all force applied is named interfacial tension

The surface tension is

[ ]

F
N
= =
L m

43

The Interfacial tension (IFT) is the tension between two different liquids in a solid.
The fluid can be:

Immiscible
Miscible

Well talk ever about immiscible fluid. If in the interface between oil and water exist
a difference in density or pressure these fluid are miscible.
Wetting phase: when two immiscible fluids are placed in contact with a solid surface
one phase usually is attracted to the solid more strongly than the other.

If a drop of water fall to a surface, it is possible to have two shape of the drop on
this surface: the first to the left means that the plane is water wet, the last to the
right in case of non-water wet.

From the shape of contact is possible to define different elements:

44

ws =IFT solidwater
os=IFT solid oil
ow =IFT oilwater
=contact angle
os ws = ow cos
When

0 70 water wet
= 70 110 Neutral
110 180 Oil wet
The contact angle in a mixture is measured from the fluid with higher density.
Looking to a pipe the distribution of the fluid is:

Which distribution is governed by gravity. If we reduce the size of the pipe the fluid
will forget about the gravity and will be distributed according to the capillary force

If the system is:


Water wet

Oil wet
opposite

The shape depend to the interaction with the pipe.

45

If we put pressure sensor at the two boundary I measure the pressure of the oil at
the left and the pressure of the water at the right. If the system is in static
equilibrium the difference of these two pressure is 0.
So also the contact interface among the two fluid is to equilibrium:

F=0
po ( r 2 ) pw ( r 2 ) + ws ( 2 r ) os ( 2 r )=0

po p w =

2 ( os ws )
r

po p w =

2 ( ow cos )
r

The capillary pressure

( pc ,ow )

is determine as the difference between the pressure

of the non-wetting phase and the pressure of the wetting phase. As shown in the
equation above. The cosine is the absolute value.
If

os

and

ws

have the same length the

ow

will have a 90 contact angle, so

the interface is a straight line. The capillary pressure cant be negative because the
definition (it is given by the difference among fluid wetting and non-wetting
pressure, and non-wetting push the wetting). Some company fix the pressure of the
water as a reference value in oil industries and so they can have negative pressure.
The capillary pressure influence the:

Drainage of the rock


The fluid contact

If two fluids are miscible the capillary force tends to have a gradual changing on the
composition from one to the other in a certain area.
Lets consider a system in which we have a glass of water and oil, I put a capillary
tube in the middle. If the system is water wet will happens:
46

Blue line is outside the capillary tube


Red line in the capillary tube
In water rise:

p A p D =g w ( z A z B ) + g o (z Bz D )

p A p D =g w ( z A z C ) + g o ( z C z D )

2 r ow cos
r2

We have obtained the same formulation of the capillary pressure. Now we are
interested to calculate the capillary rise or capillary fringe:

g w ( z Bz C )g o ( z B z C )=

gh ( w o )=

h=

2 ow cos
r

2 ow cos
=p c ,ow
r

pc , ow
g ( w o )

Analyzing the capillary pressure and the capillary rise we can see that if we reduce
the dimension the pressure increase and so the height increase.
The behavior of the water saturation versus the capillary fringe is represented in the
graph below:

47

The capillary fringe give us the depth at which is better to work (up and far from the
fringe).
Lighter is the HC smaller will be the capillary fringe, cos smaller is the capillary
pressure. On other hand we can say that smaller is the radius of the medium higher
will be the capillary rise.

We can see also the variation of the irreducible water changing the medium, due to
the specific surface of the pore.
We can define as well a relations between capillary pressure and saturation of
water:

48

We use an interpolation from the reservoir close to the new field in order to forecast
the reservoir behavior:

J ( S w )=

pc
k
L cos L

49

Imbibition and drainage


Imbibition is a process in which a wetting fluid displaces the non-wetting fluid (water
displace oil). Drainage is a process in which a non-wetting fluid displace a wetting
fluid (oil displace water).
In a reservoir we have drainage during the migration. We have imbibition when we
have a strong aquifer or in water injection.
In the system we have two capillary tubes with different radius, fully saturated with
water (1). We inject the oil from the top, we denote that the system is water wet,
the oil distribution is this (2) and at the end (3).

If we inject water the oil will be displaced by water and we can see that the water
from the tube with smaller radius rise the tube and fall to the tube with larger
radius. Oil remain traps and make a bubble in the water.

The bubble of oil will be part of the residue oil in the medium.
The behavior of the saturation in the medium during the imbibition and drainage
curve is this:

50

Usually when we start the production the water table raise (not always).

51

Production drive mechanism


The drive mechanisms refer to primary production.
Improved oil recovery: it is the secondary recovery
Enhanced oil recovery: it is the tertiary recovery.
Drive mechanisms are: Depletion drive oil and gas, Gas Cap, and water drive
mechanism into primary production drive.

Depletion drive in gas reservoir: it is the mechanism of producing oil thanks


to the itself energy. In a CPVR (constant pore volume reservoir) pressure
decrease and volume is constant, Bg increase (this is the effect changing in
the equation of state) the difference in pressure give us a flow and we
produce. The recovery factor expected from literature from 80 to 90 % of
GOIP in case of gas reservoir.
Depletion drive in oil undersaturated: In case of an oil reservoir we denote
the depletion drive only for the production until the bubble point, the source
of energy is the compressibility of the gas dissolved into the oil, it is from 2 to
5 % of OIP.

When we touch the bubble point, according to economical evaluation we


chose to do something:
o

Inject water to maintain the pressure in the reservoir equal to the


bubble point or slightly up to the bubble point because we have the
lower viscosity value and the highest mobility
Dissolved gas drive: we go down the to bubble point so the gas is
starting to liberate and the expansion until reach the movable quantity
become a driver mechanism (GOR decreases, we are producing
slowly). The recovery factor is from 15 to 20 %.

52

Gas cap drive: when the under-pressure sync, near to the well, touch the gas
layer due to production, the gas will start to push the oil due to expansion.
This phenomena is controlled in horizontal well. Instead, if I use the vertical
well the under-pressure near to the well doesnt be sufficiently large in order
to have a drive gas cap mechanism. The energy source is the expansion of
the gas cap and solution gas. The rate of oil recovery is from 25 to 30% of
OOIP.
Water drive mechanism: water is connected with an aquifer which is huge;
due to production water table rise (1 bar per 10 meter in 10 years it is
nothing :D ). The behavior of GOR is constant and horizontal. The oil recovery
is 40% the best value. We have also depletion.

Residual gas saturation for water displacement is from 40 to 50%, it is very


high and if we have a gas reservoir with water table we can recover from 50 to 60%.
It is bad compared . The solution in this case is to produce faster than water rising
(the propagation of the pressure sync is function of the rocks and fluid) it mean
before the activation of the aquifer.

53

Pressure gradient
This is the pressure versus depth on a reservoir field

Geostatic gradient is 17 kPa/m; for water is 10,2 kPa/m. For gas we have 1,8 kPa/m
and oil is 7,5 kPa/m. We can consider different situations:

Hydraulic communication

54

Regional aquifer

Lenticular reservoir

Multilayer reservoir

55

Diffusivity equation
In fluid mechanics of porous media we use the mono-phase flow in order to solve
the diffusion and diffusivity equation, gas it is not movable in order to solve the
problem analytically.
From the real life I apply a theoretical model (make some hypothesis assumption
and simplifying behavior) than I apply the mathematical model combining the
system to some mathematical equation. The solution of a mathematical model
could be determined analytically or numerically, depending if the equation are
implicit or explicit.
The characteristic of the problem could be organized in this status:

Number of phase:
o Single phase
o Multiphase
Nature of fluids
o Compressible (liquid)
o Very compressible (gas)
Geometry
o Mono-dimensional
o Bi-dimensional (radial flow)
o Three-dimensional
Hydraulic regime:
o Steady state flow
o Pseudo-steady state flow
o Transient flow

We have first of all to remark some concept:

Mass continuity equation

( v )=

v=

( )
t

Flow equation

k
p

56

State equation

Considering a control volume:

We define the mass flow rate along x the quantity:

x=
m

m / A x kg
2
t
sm

Where

[ ]

A x = y z .

m= mxx A t
mout =m xx+x A t
So the balance of the mass is: mass in less mass out equal to accumulation term.

( mx x mxx + x ) A t= t ( V ) t
Where V is the bulk volume of the control volume.
consider only the pore volume. The terms

( V )

is the real volume which

is under the hypothesis of

mono-phase flow. In case of multiple phase I must to use a single equation per
each phase.
If we dividing by

V t

where

V=A x

mxx m xx+ x ( )
=
x
t
m
x ( )
=
x
t

57

we obtain:

We are assuming that medium is undeformable, so bulk volume is constant, the


geo-mechanical problem is separated to the fluid addressing problem. Crushproof
solid. The minus because is the opposite of the incremental ratio.
Knowing that

m
x= vx

v x ( )
=
x
t
Which in 3D form is

( v ) =

( )
t

That in radial coordinates is:

( )
1
r v r ) =
(
r r
t

Now we can substitute the v with the Darcy law

vr =

k p
r

in order to obtain the

diffusion equation.

( )
1
k p
r
=
r r
r
t

((

))

We can do these hypothesis: the medium is homogeneous and isotropic and


low gradient pressure, so Permeability constant, Viscosity in case of small
pressure gradient doesnt vary, so viscosity constant and it can leave the derivate.

1
p
( )
r
=
r r
r
k t

( ( ))

We have obtained the diffusivity equation, which is a partial differential equation:

1
p ( )
r
=
r r
r
k t

( )

The density is function of pressure and porosity change as well. So in order to solve
it we have to linearize this function:
58

p
p
( ) +
+
t
t
t
p t
p t
Remember the compressibility factor:

c r=

1 Vp
1 ( V b)
1
=
undeformable
V p p V p p
p

So

=c
p r
Considering the hypothesis of a slightly compressible fluid, given the definition
of compressibility of a fluid we have:

=c
p f
Hence the linearization of diffusion equation will be.

p
p
( )= c r + c f
t
t
t

p
( )= ( c r + c f )
t
t
We also go ahead saying that the sum of the two compressibility is the total
compressibility:

CT =c f +c r
That in case of more than one phase

CT =c w S w +c o S o +c r
Substituting linearization to the equation we obtain:

1
p C T p
r
=
r r
r
k
t

59

Focusing on the first member of the equation, on the derivate, we can write

p
p
p
r
=r
+
r
r
r
r r
r r

( )

p
2
p
r
=r c f
+
r
r
r
r
r r

( )

( )

Neglecting the derivative of second order:

p
p
r
=
r
r
r
r r

( )

At the end we can move the density out of the derivative and obtain:

p C T p
r
=
r r r
k
t

( )

We simplify density to the equation obtaining the final diffusivity equation:

1 p C T p
r
=
r r r
k t

( )

In Cartesian coordinate we have only x and we have a second derivative, where the

( grad ( p ) ) = p
2 p=

C T p
k t

Another way to write the equation is using the diffusivity constant or coefficient:

2 p=

1 p
t

k
Ct

The diffusivity equation for a mono-phase fluid of a slightly compressible fluid in


homogenous and isotropic porous medium and under the Darcy assumption, so the
other hypothesis of the diffusivity equation are:
60

No interaction between rock and fluid (no source of species)


Laminar flow
Negligible gravitational force
Constant producing layer thickness
Well perforated across the entire production layer

The diffusivity equation describe how the pressure disturbance evolves within the
reservoir.
If the system is homogeneous and isotropic, consider now a cylinder reservoir, the
pressure sync will move gradually to the boundaries and it will touch all the
boundaries of the system at the same time.
We enter in the topic of the Infinite acting radial flow (IARF) if these hypothesis are
satisfied:

Entire thickness is a productive layer


Fluid flow horizontal
All the hypothesis done before to reach this point

We can define an average radial pressure which will give us the reference value to
evaluate the parameter of the reservoir:

p=

1
pdV
V V

We consider mainly three flow regime:

Transient: when we start the production


Steady state: when we have an aquifer
Pseudo steady state: when we havent no aquifer

61

Starting from the point of view of production we have a initially a transient flow and
it will remain until reach the boundaries (red line):
The initial conditions is (blue line)

Pressure in the reservoir equal to the initial pressure p e.


p

Pe

rw

re

r
p

Pe

When I touch the boundary of the reservoir my flow change, we can have two
situation:
1. Something pushing and pressure remain constant (steady state phase);
2. No flow boundary where pressure decrease in all reservoir zone (pseudosteady state).

62

Steady state solution


The initial and continue condition are the end condition of the transient regime,
so we have:

p= pe at r=r e
p
=0 t
t

The flow regime in this state is:

2 p 1 p
+
=0
r 2 r r
Fixed this boundaries (re external radius and rw the internal radius) condition we
have this solution:

p ( r )= pw +

pw = pi

q
r
ln
2 kh r w

r
q
ln e
2 kh r w

63

Transient period

Pe

Pi

re

Stabilization time: Time at which we touch the boundary of p


the reserv
Pi

Constant flow is given by the effect of the aquifer which maintain a constant delta pressure eve

Start of ste

Skin effect
One of the problem which effect the pressure is the skin effect: some fine particles
of the mud remain in the pore of the invaded zone creating a damaged zone which
lead a loss of pressure near the wellbore environment.

64

k ' <k

We have

which cause an additional pressure drop, from

delta pressure is called

pw = p ( r ' )

'

'

pw = p ( r )

pw

to

'

pw . this

ps .

q
r'
ln
2 kh r w
q
r'
ln
'
2 k h rw

So

ps = pw p w '

ps =

q 1 1
r'
q k
r'

ln

1
ln
2 h k ' k
r w 2 kh k '
rw

( )

The dimensionless term in the above equation,

k
r'
1 ln
r w , it is called S as the
k'

( )

mechanical skin or skin parameter. It is characterized by well test. The skin


parameter could be positive (means damaged zone), negative (improving of the
wellbore properties due to fracturing, acidification), null (when nothing affected the
formation).

ps =

q
S
2 h

p'w = pe

r
q
ln e +s
2 kh
rw

The normal value goes from 1 to 10, if we have 15 there is something strange and
not only damaged zone. When it is from -1 to -5 means we have a fracture
Productivity index and completion factor
This is the rate of oil at stock tank condition divided by the difference of pressure
from the reservoir infinite pressure (Pi) and the pressure at borehole (Pw).

PI =

qo
p
st

65

p= p i pw

pw = pi

p=

re
q
ln + S
2 kh
rw

r
q
ln e + S
2 kh
rw

So

PI =

q o , st 2 kh
q

1
re
ln +S
rw

Which has to be correct by the volumetric factor:

PI =

2 kh
Bo

1
r
ln e +S
rw

The productivity index is one of the main parameter because it give us the
information about the magnitude of the amount of oil that we can produce from a
given delta pressure.
The tubing head pressure (THP, pressure at the surface in the well) has a minimum
which is defined by the pressure of the facilities applied. The difference between
this and the bottom hole pressure (BHP) is related by losses and other factor (ideally
the minimum THP is the same of BHP). If we have for example 300 bar into reservoir
and 220 bar of BHP we can impose 80 bar maximum.
Never use the PI for gas reservoir because it is valid only for oil. We use the gas well
liberability.
Completion factor is a ratio between thee real PI and the theoretical PI.

CF=

P I real
P I theoretical

CF=

ptheoretical p real pskin


ps
=
=1
p real
p real
preal

66

PI is estimated with well test, in order to improve the PI is performed a skin cleaning
or other kind of operation like reduce viscosity of the oil, but anyway it is a
parameter (characteristic) of the system not a variable.

Pseudo steady state solution


We consider a pseudo steady state when we have not an aquifer which sustain the
pressure in the reservoir, so the pressure is decreasing during this flow regime.
In PSS pseudo steady state, initial condition are the same of the end of the
transient period, so we have that:

t=0 pi =p r at r =r e
The boundary condition in this case is a no flow from the boundaries and a
constant flow rate, so:

p
=0 at r =r e
r
t> 0
p
=c r
t

67

Transient period

Pe

Pw

t
re

r
Pw

PSS regime:
Production after 1 h of steady state

Pi
SS
PSS

Flow rate remain constant because the delta pressure remain the same
t
Boundaries touched

In order to express the pressure variation, we have to consider the non linear
compressibility factor of the oil:

C o=

1 V
1 V
=
V p S o V b p

Due to a constant flow we can express

as the cumulative oil product, so

V =q t , than:
p=

q
t
So V b C o

is a linear function of time, so in PSS we have a line. For a given rate the

bigger is the reservoir the smaller will be


68

p .

The flow regime in this state is:

2 p 1 p CT p
+
=
2
k
t
r r r

Pressure behavior with different flow rate


Lets consider a period of time characterized by a constant rate (called flow period)
in transient regime, if the rate is positive and constant the pressure behavior is
called draw down. Lets suppose to close the well valve until reach the steady
state or pseudo steady state. The effect on the pressure at well is an increasing of
itself due to re-equilibrium of the pressure in the reservoir; the pressure rise is
called build up.
q

t
Draw down

pw

Build up

t
Grow down is only when flow rate is positive. Build up only if the flow rate is null.
When we have injection we have a negative flow rate, in this case the pressure at
well wall is increasing, this profile is called Injection; when I close the injection
phase the pressure at well wall start to reduce and stabilized at initial reservoir
pressure, this profile is called Fall off.

69

pw

Injection

Fall off

t
Lets consider a different flow rate by step; the effect on the well wall pressure is
represented below:

pw

pw

It is a Draw down not a build up due to positive flow r

70

Transient state solution


The initial condition of this state is the initial condition of the reservoir, so:

t=0 p= pi r
The boundaries condition are: pressure at external radius equal to external
pressure (initial pressure); constant flow rate at well wall:

p= pi at r =r e
t> 0 p
=c at r =r w
r
p
=c means q=const
r
This is called constant terminal rate (Noiman condition)
P
Pi
t

rw

re

The flow regime in this state is:

2 p 1 p CT p
+
=
k
t
r 2 r r
The solution of the equation is

p ( r , t ) = pi

q
r
P
,t
2 kh r w D

Where P is a function which convert the solution given for dimensionless radius and
time and apply to our case, where

tD

is the dimensionless time which is:


71

t
kt
t D= =
t c C T r 2w
Where tc is the characteristic time.
In some case

Ei=

r t
,
rw tc

is approximated by a function of exponential integral (Ei).

e
dx
x
2

( )

r t
1
r
, =
Ei
rw tc
2
4 t

So the last expression is:

pw (t )= pi

q
ln(2.25 t D )
4 kh

This equation is very similar to the steady state equation.


q

Different time curve

Pi

r
rw

re

Pw

Pi
Rd: drainage radius at a certain time, is the radius in which the pressure is still the initial (or i

72

According to the superposition of effect:


A transient phenomena can be approximated to a sequence of steady state
phenomena that are characterized by an external radius which change in time.
This means that, if we take a picture of the system at 1 h (just to put number) this
depletion point can be calculated by using the steady state equation using a radius
which is the proper to have a steady state condition:

pw = pi

r
q
ln d
2 kh r w

Comparing the two equation at a specific time we have to impose this condition to
have an equity:

ln

rd 1
= ln ( 2.25 t D )
rw 2

So we can calculate the dimension of drainage radius as:

rd
=2.25 t D
rw

r d =1.5 r w

kt
kt
1.5
2
C T
C T r w

Drainage radius doesnt depend to the dimension of the reservoir, and neither to
the flow rate, is a characteristic of the fluid and medium permeability and
compressibility. Assuming that rate of oil is 100 barrel per day and the flow rate
period is 10 h and the permeability of the formation is 100 mD.

73

Pw

100 bbl/day
200 bbl/day
rd
t
Drainage radius doesnt depends to flow rate!
If I have 2 different level of permeability
Pw

P
k

Skin effect in transient


Can I calculate the permeability from the pressure in transient?

pw (t )= pi

q
ln(2.25 t D )
4 hk

74

Pw

Pi

ln t

t
Can we take into account the skin effect on transient?

pw (t )= pi

q
ln ( 2.25 t D ) +2 S )
4 hk (

And in steady state?

pw ( t ) = pi

re
q
ln +S
2 hk
rw

Can I determine the skin effect having the P vs time curve?

pw =cost+ m( x +2 S )
The pressure sync change in space and time so we make steady state changing the
domain of the reservoir using

r d =1,5

kt
Ct

In terms of two fluid (oil and water) we use the relative permeability using the value
at infinite and:

CT =C o S o +C w Sw +C r
To summarize we determine:

Productivity index
Skin effect
Drainage radius
Permeability

75

Diffusivity equation for gasses


In case of gas we have:

Low viscosity: means very high velocity


High compressibility

These two consideration are in contrast with the previous assumption done to
obtain the diffusivity equation. So we need to correct the equation considering new
phenomena
The velocity is the ratio of flow rate and area, so when area is lower velocity is
higher, so we have the maximum velocity at borehole wall. High velocity means
turbulence which means pressure drop. We have to correct the darcy law. We use
the Forchheimer equation.

p
2
= v+ v
r k
Where v is the velocity which is determined by darcy law using the same
assumption.
dP/dr

Forchheimer behavior

Darcy behavior

The turbulence factor

( , k ass ) this coefficient is purely empirical and there are

different correlation to the physical parameters which lead a really different range of
magnitude.

give the turbulence.

Turbulence occurs only in gas reservoir with high probability close to the well, where
the area is little.
If I increase porosity velocity decrease and pressure drop decrease and the
turbulence.

76

To obtain the solution of the diffusivity equation for liquid we used the mass balance
equation, where we change the velocity on it with Darcy velocity. Now I cant do the
same cos the Forchheimer quadratic equation.
From literature we use this number to understand the velocity regime:

Sm
laminar
d
Qg
S m3
100000
Turbolent
d
50000

There are two approach:


1. Neglect Forchheimer equation and use only Darcy and use density of the fluid
as gas
We going to underestimate the delta-pressure so the method is not valid close to
the wellbore:

Mp
zRT

1 Mp k p
Mp
r
=
r r zRT r
t zRT

) (

After some algebraic application we obtain

1 p p CT p p
r
=
r r z r
k z t

The analytical solution is:

77

p
1
p CT P
=const i f p>3000 psi
r
=
z
r r r
k
t
1
p CT P 1 p2 1 p2
z=const if p<2000 psi
rp
=
p

r
=
r r
r
k
t
r r
t
m( p) 1 m ( p )
1
m ( p ) always valid
r
=
r r
r
t

( )

( )

The first solution is the same of the fluid. The second solution is obtained remember
that
2

p
p
=2 p
r
r
And the final step represent the Darcy equation for gas.

q out = A

2
2
k p p out
2 p out L

The third analytical solution is considered in case of gas the non-linearity is


achieved using the pseudo pressure function, in this case become
p

m ( p ) =2
p0

p
dp
z

We can take into account the variability of the compressibility and viscosity of the
gas variation (which were constant for fluid). It is a function of pressure temperature
and has composition.
Considering that

m ( p )
P P
=2
r
z r

we obtain the so called rigorous solution.

78

M(p)

We dont have turbulence.


2. Forchheimer equation solving
We integrate the Forchheimer equation using a steady state condition. As done
previously, we solve the steady state regime of Darcy (result the Muskat equation)
and using the same approach we will obtain an equation in radial flow. A transient
phenomena can be approximate, again, to a series of steady state, using the
drainage radius.
Because gas is a very compressible fluid, the volumetric rate q changes as a
function of pressure (q increase when the pressure decreases). On the opposite, the
mass rate

is constant.

Permeability and turbulence factor are constant in all the reservoir environment and
not close to wellbore. As we did previously, I can take into account the skin effect,
so for gas I apply the skin effect which take into account the turbulence phenomena
as well.

79

80

In steady state condition I have this solution

m ( p w )=m ( p i )

pw = pi

re
T P sc
qsc ln + S+ D qsc
kh T sc
rw

r
q
ln e + S '
2 kh
rw

D is called the non-Darcy flow coefficient, which describe the difference on the
behavior from Darcy law.

S ' =S+ D q sc

is called the appearance skin which is the

skin effect plus the turbulence skin. S is the only parameter that I can measure
during well test, but I cannot divide the two terms.
In transient condition the solution become:

m ( p w ( t ) )=m ( pi )

T P sc
q ( ln 2,25t D +2 S+ 2 D q sc )
2 kh T sc sc

The problem now is determine the S, and I do it in a well test following:

81

qsc
Gas well liberability is the index used in gas reservoir

t
Pwf

m(pw)

t D=

Ln t

kt
=carat . time t
C T r 2w

I cannot separate the 2 terms in the appearance skin effect. So what I can do?
S

Isochronal flow period


D

Qsc

And than

82

qsc

We try to have the same flow period in order to have the same radius of investigation we call it

t
Pwf

t
If we perform a stimulation on the formation we will have: (increasing of k -> beta
decrease) (increasing phi -> decrease the beta) (what is change is the velocity at
microscale)
S
D
Dnew
S
Snew
qsc

83

Depletion
Some time we can have the expression of PI as

PI =p pw
Reservoir

Reservoir
Pressure sync

Pressure sync
Pwf

Close well
ss

Pbar

Depletion effect

Pss

Build up
t

T stabilization

When I start the production pressure decrease, when I reach the boundary I can
have steady state (horizontal line blue) when I close the production pressure will
increase and tends to the initial pressure. If I fall in PSS the pressure will drop
linearly during time. When I close the production the pressure will increase to a
value which is not the same of the initial pressure (due to the pressure drop that we
have seen on the graph pressure versus radius in pss) so to determine the final
pressure I draw a line having the same inclination starting from stable time of pss
and when I reach the time of closing well I have the horizontal pressure which
represent the pressure

p .

84

This phenomena is called depletion effect. And the effect on the productivity index
is constant in steady state and pseudo steady state.
PI

transient

PSS or SS

T stabilization
Considering now this kind of structure
Early transient

boundaries

Late transient

Pressure sync

Time = t1

Time = t2 we touch 1 boundary


Pwf

PSS

ET

LT

PSS

Time = t3 we touch 4 boundary


t

85

The interaction between reservoir and aquifer are represented below:


SS

86

SS directly

PSS only